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Midterm- Notes in Anatomy&Physiology:

Prepared By Jonel Lynn P. Medina, RMT

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

The blood vessels of the body form a network more complex than an interstate highway system;
carry blood to within two or three cell diameters of nearly all the trillions of cells that make up the
body.
The heart provides the major force that causes blood to circulate

FUNCTIONS OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM


1. Carries blood. Blood vessels carry blood from the heart to all the tissues of the body and back to the
heart.
2. Exchanges nutrients, waste products, and gases with tissues.
3. Transports substances. Blood transports hormones, components of the immune system, molecules
required for coagulation, enzymes, nutrients, gases, waste products, and other substances to all areas of
the body.
4. Helps regulate blood pressure.
5. Directs blood flow to the tissues.
Pulmonary Circulation Blood pumped from the right ventricle of the heart travels to and through the
lungs before returning to the left atrium
Systemic Circulation Blood pumped from the left ventricle travels to and through the other organs and
tissues of the body

BLOOD VESSELS
Blood vessels remain functional, in most cases, in excess of 70 years, and when they are damaged, they
repair themselves.
Blood vessels outside the heart are divided into two classes:
(1) the pulmonary vessels, which transport blood from the right ventricle of the heart through the lungs
and back to the left atrium,
(2) the systemic vessels, which transport blood through all parts of the body, from the left ventricle of
the heart and back to the right atrium
Together, the pulmonary vessels and the systemic vessels constitute the circulatory system.
ARTERIES
Blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart and toward the tissues
In the pulmonary circulation: pulmonary arteries conduct deoxygenated blood to the lungs
In the systemic circulation: aorta and its branches conduct oxygenated blood toward the systemic
tissues
Arterioles small arteries; these conduct blood into a network of even smaller vessesls, or
capillaries
A.Portions of Aorta
Ascending aorta
Aortic arch
Descending aorta
Thoracic aorta
Abdominal aorta
B. Arteries of the Head
and Neck
Brachiocephalic
Right
common
carotid
Right subclavian
Left common carotid

1|Circulatory System

Left subclavian
Internal carotid
External carotid
Basilar
Circle of Willis
C.Arteries of the Upper
Limb
Axillary artery
Brachial
Ulnar
Radial

D.Branches
of
the
Descending Aorta
Intercostal
Phrenic
Celiac
Superior mesenteric
Inferior mesenteric
Renal
Suprarenal
Testicular, Ovarian
Common Iliac

Midterm- Notes in Anatomy&Physiology:

Prepared By Jonel Lynn P. Medina, RMT

E.Arteries of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs


Internal Iliac
External Iliac
Femoral
Popliteal
Anterior tibial
Posterior tibial
*Circle of Willis Circular system of arteries around the brains base, formed by branches of the basilar
artery and the internal carotids
VEINS
Blood vessels that conduct blood toward the heart
In the pulmonary circulation: pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood from the lungs
In the systemic circulation: superior vena cava returns deoxygenated blood from the head, neck,
thorax, and arms; the inferior vena cava returns deoxygenated blood from the rest of the systemic
loop
Venules small veins
A.Veins of the Head and Neck
C.Tributaries of the Inferior Vena Cava
Brachiocephalic
Hepatic
Subclavian
Renal
Internal jugular
Testicular, Ovarian
External jugular
Common Iliac
B.Veins of the Upper Limb and Thorax
Internal Iliac
Axillary
D.Veins of the Lower Limbs
Basilic vein
External Iliac
Brachial
Femoral
Cephalic
Great saphenous
Azygos
Popliteal
Hemiazygos, Accessory hemiazygos
Small saphenous
Intercostal
Anterior tibial
Posterior tibial
E. Portal Circulation set of vessels that begins and ends with capillary networks. Blood is returned
to a second set of capillaries before being returned to the heart.
Hepatic Portal system an important part of the venous systemic circulation. It returns blood from
digestive organs to the liver, rather than directly to the heart
Hepatic portal vessels are:
Hepatic portal from the veins of abdominal organs to the liver
Superior mesenteric from the small intestine to the hepatic portal veins
Inferior mesenteric from the large intestine, joining the splenic vein to the hepatic portal vein
Splenic from the spleen to the hepatic portal vein
Gastroepiploic from the stomach, joining the splenic vein to the hepatic portal vein

THE HEART
The heart is a four-chambered, hollow organ primarily composed of cardiac muscle tissue. It contracts
rhythmically, pumping blood into the arteries. After passing through tissues, blood returns to the heart by
way of the veins and is pumped again.
Structures on the External aspect, Ventral surface:
Interventricular sulcus This diagonal groove is located between the walls of the two lower
heart chambers (ventricles). Along this groove lie the anterior interventricular artery and the
great cardiac vein.

2|Circulatory System

Midterm- Notes in Anatomy&Physiology:


Prepared By Jonel Lynn P. Medina, RMT
Auricles flap-like outpouchings of the left and right atria (upper heart chambers)
Atrioventricular sulcus grooves between the walls of the atria above and the ventricles below
Aorta largest artery of the body; it forms the aortic arch above the heart
Pulmonary Artery somewhat smaller than the aorta; this vessel leaves the heart as a single
trunk but soon branches to become the left and right pulmonary arteries
Superior and Inferior Vena Cava These two large veins communicate with the right atrium
Apex lower point of the heart
Structures on the External aspect, Dorsal surface:
Atria These are the upper left and right chambers. They have relatively thin walls.
Ventricles These are the lower left and right chambers. They have relatively thick walls
Interventricular sulcus It is similar to that on the ventral surface
Pulmonary veins These veins communicate with the atria
Structures visible on the Internal aspect
Interventricular septum This heart wall separates the left and right ventricles from each other
Cuspid valves Also called Atrioventricular valves, these valves ensure one-way flow of blood
from the atria into the ventricles
The left AV valve, mitral (bicuspid) valve, is composed of two cusps (flaps).
The right AV valve, tricuspid valve, has three cusps.
Each cusp is attached to the wall of the ventricle below by means of fibrous chordae tendinae
connected to fingerlike projections of the ventricular myocardium called papillary muscles
Semilunar valves:
The right SL valve or pulmonary semilunar valve, ensures one-way flow from the right
ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
The left SL valve, or aortic semilunar valve, is at the entrance of the aorta.
Semilunar valves are each composed of thin-walled bags that hang from the walls of the
vessels
Myocardium the muscular layer of the heart wall
Endocardium the thin endothelial lining of the heart chambers; it covers the beamlike
trabeculae on the inner surface of the myocardium

3|Circulatory System

Midterm- Notes in Anatomy&Physiology:

4|Circulatory System

Prepared By Jonel Lynn P. Medina, RMT

Midterm- Notes in Anatomy&Physiology:

5|Circulatory System

Prepared By Jonel Lynn P. Medina, RMT

Midterm- Notes in Anatomy&Physiology:

Prepared By Jonel Lynn P. Medina, RMT

PULSE and BLOOD PRESSURE


Pulse a pressure wave that travels rapidly along the arteries when blood is ejected from the left
ventricle into the aorta
Pulse rate counting the number of waves per minute
Pulse pressure The difference between systolic and diastolic pressures
Blood pressure force exerted by the blood against the walls of the vessels
Sphygmomanometer a manometer with an aircuff attached to the reservoir; used to indirectly
measure the changing blood pressures associated with the pulse
Korotkoff sounds sounds one will observed when pressure is decreased; these are caused by the
pulsing of blood pressure against the wall of the artery when the pressure in the cuff equals the pressure
in the artery
Systolic pressure point at which the sounds are first heard; pressure of the pulse waves crest; occurs
during ventricular contraction
Diastolic pressure sounds disappear when this pressure between pulse waves is reached; occurs
during relaxation of the ventricles
Average pressure 120 over 80 or 120mmHg/ 80mmHg

ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE HEART


Around the beginning of the twentieth century, a German scientist named Einthoven was one of the first
to use a recording voltmeter to measure this electrical activity of the heart and to describe the changes
found in typical cardiac cycle.
Electrocardiography the procedure to determine the electrical events that occur in the heart
Electrocardiogram the record generated by the machine after determining the electrical events. This
can be used to detect abnormal heart rates or rhythms, conduction pathways, hypertrophy or atrophy of
the heart, and the approximate location of damaged cardiac muscle.

P wave represents depolarization of the atrial walls, which precedes atrial systole
QRS complex set of waves resulting from the more or less concurrent ventricular depolarization
(preceding ventricular systole) and atrial repolarization (signaling the onset of atrial diastole)
T wave represents ventricular repolarization , which precedes ventricular diastole

The length of time during waves and between waves indicates the efficiency of conduction through the
myocardium
Lengthened ECG portions are often evidence of blocked conduction
Conduction System:
Sinoatrial Node (SA Node) specialized section of cardiac muscle in the upper lateral wall of the
right atrium which generates its own action potentials at a faster rate than surrounding muscle, so
it acts as a pacemaker of the heart
Atrioventricular Node (AV Node) pacemaker in the lower right atrium subordinate to the SA
node; it normally generates action potentials that travel to it through the atrial walls from the SA
node.
AV Bundle (of His) bundle of cardiac muscles in the interventricular septum specialized to
conduct action potentials rapidly. The left and right AV bundle branches out as Purkinje fibers
through the lateral ventricular walls

*Action potentials generated by the SA node travel across the atrial myocardium, triggering atrial
systole. The AV node then picks up the signal and generates action potentials that travel rapidly
through the AV bundle and its branches to stimulate ventricular myocardium, resulting in ventricular
systole

6|Circulatory System

Midterm- Notes in Anatomy&Physiology:

Prepared By Jonel Lynn P. Medina, RMT

PQ interval (sometimes termed PR interval) time required for a signal to pass from the SA node
thorugh the atrial myocardium (depolarizing it) to the AV node and through its branches
QT interval represents the time needed for complete depolarization and recovery of the ventricular
myocardium

Einthoven proposed three basic arrangements, or leads, of the ECG electrodes. Each lead is a set of one
positive voltmeter electrode and one negative voltmeter electrode
STANDARD LEADS or APPENDICULAR LEADS
Lead I one electrode of left arm, one on the right arm (LA-RA)
Lead II one electrode on the right arm, one on the left leg (RA-LL)
Lead III one electrode on the left arm, one on the left leg (LA-LL)
AUGMENTED LEADS
These are not bipolar leads or electrode placements but are the result of combining two negative
electrodes and measuring it against one positive electrode. Three more leads are as follows:
aVR - the LA and LL are combined to form the negative electrode
RA is the positive electrode
aVL the RA and LL electrodes form the negative electrode
LA is the positive electrode
aVF the RA and LA electrodes form the negative pole
LL is the positive pole
PRECORDIAL LEADS
These utilize unipolar recording. The exploring electrode is placed on specific areas of the chest wall and
the indifferent electrode is formed by a Wilsons central terminal
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6

4th intercostal space right sternal border


4th intercostal space left sternal border
midway between V2 and V4
5th intercostal space left midclavicular line
5th intercostal space left anterior axillary line
5th intercostal space left midaxillary line

7|Circulatory System