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Dr. Hemalatha Bhat
(Assistant Professor in Sociology)
Vasishtan Prabhu
I, B.A., LL.B. (Hons.)
Tamil Nadu National Law School
Registration Number: BA0150049
Cell: +91 94877 44520















NADU submitted to Tamil Nadu National law school in partial fulfillment of

requirement of award of degree in undergraduate in law is a record of original
work done by me under the supervision and guidance of Professor Dr. Hemalatha
Bhat, department of Sociology, Tamil Nadu National law school and has not
formed basis for award of any degree or diploma or fellowship or any other title to
any other candidate of any university.

DATE: 19/03/2015




At the outset, I take this opportunity to thank my Professor Dr.Hemalatha

Bhat from the bottom of my heart who has been of immense help during moments
of anxiety and torpidity while the project was taking its crucial shape.

Secondly, I convey my deepest regards to the Vice Chancellor Mr.Arun Roy

and the administrative staff of Tamil Nadu National Law School who held the
project in high esteem by providing reliable information in the form of library
infrastructure and database connections in times of need.

Thirdly, the contribution made by my parents and friends by foregoing their

precious time is unforgettable and highly solicited. Their valuable advice and
timely supervision paved the way for the successful completion of this project.

Finally, I thank the Almighty who gave me the courage and stamina to
confront all hurdles during the making of this project. Words arent sufficient to
acknowledge the tremendous contributions of various people involved in this
project, as I know Words are Poor Comforters. I once again wholeheartedly and
earnestly thank all the people who were involved directly or indirectly during this
project making which helped me to come out with flying colours.


The research methodology used in this project is analytical and descriptive. Data
has been collected from various books, materials, papers and web sources.
This project is based on Non-Doctrinal method of research. This project has been
done after thorough research based on intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of project.



In todays world, we do a lot of commercial business and trade to support our living and
thats where how we earn our bread. But not all trade and commerce go into one category.

Somewhere between these trading processes and crave to earn more, we lost a thought to think
why do we even trade. Our situations we run at have pushed us to a delusion, that all these trade
and commerce we do are in the sole aim for the purpose to earn money. Definitely not. Some
people still do exist who trade products so that they can possess originality on that product and to
not let the force of todays rush to eliminate from this society and make it extinct and to protect
the traditionalism over the product.
These products that gets restricted to one geographical location or its traditionalism is
subjected to be more worthier to that one specific location to others often are marked with a
Geographical Indication tag. Products with the aforesaid tag carry a sense of indigenousness and
a status of pride apportioned just for that product alone.
To carry a gratification over the product, and show the world that a product belongs to us
and take immense pleasure and pride from it, we often tend to register a Geographical Indication
tag to the products we really deserve to possess.
This research piece will widely, if not all, but to some extent, will discuss about the
Geographical Indication Tags, that Tamil Nadu, a state in India possess on its products, and do
give a glimpse about what really a Geographical Indication in general is, and how the process of
it is done chronologically.


A geographical indication (GI) is a sign used on products that have a specific

geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin. In order to
function as a GI, a sign must identify a product as originating in a given place. In addition, the
qualities, characteristics or reputation of the product should be essentially due to the place of
origin. Since the qualities depend on the geographical place of production, there is a clear link
between the product and its original place of production.1
In a Layman language, the use of a geographical indication may act as a certification or an
accreditation that the product possesses explicit features and qualities, is made according to the
traditional methods, or enjoys a certain position, rank or status due to its geographical origin to
which it really belongs to.
According to what The World Trade Organization says, A products quality, reputation or
other characteristics can be determined by where it comes from. Geographical indications are
place names (in some countries also words associated with a place) used to identify products that
come from these places and have these characteristics.2
A geographical indication (GI) acts as a mechanism that helps producers differentiate their
products from competing products in the market and enables producers to build a reputation and
goodwill around their products that will fetch a premium price.3



A geographical indication right enables the holder or a specific company that reserves the
right, to use the indication to avoid or prevent it from getting used by a third party company or
person whose product does not adhere to the pertinent or the applicable grades, degree or the

For example, in the jurisdictions in which Salem geographical indication is protected,

producers of Salem Fabric can exclude use of the term Salem for fabrics not woven in their
manufacturing units or not produced according to the qualities and the standards set out in the
mentioned method of practice and follow all the codes that is used for Geographical Indications.

However, a protected geographical indication does not enable the holder to prevent
someone from making a product using the same techniques as those set out in the standards for
that indication. Protection for a geographical indication is usually obtained by acquiring a right
over the sign that constitutes the indication.4


Geographical indications are typically used for foodstuffs, agricultural products,
handicrafts, wine, alcohol and other spirit drinks, handicrafts, and engineering industry products.
It is mostly claimed by the government pertaining to where that specific Geographical Indication
Tag has been obtained from.



There are three main ways to protect a geographical indication:

1. The so-called sui generis systems (i.e. special regimes of protection);
2. Using collective or certification marks; and
3. The methods focusing on business practices, including administrative product
approval schemes.
These approaches involve differences with respect to important questions, such as the
conditions for protection or the scope of protection. On the other hand, two of the modes of
protection namely sui generis systems and collective or certification mark systems share
some common features, such as the fact that they set up rights for collective use by those who
comply with defined standards.
Broadly speaking geographical indications are protected in different countries and
regional systems through a wide variety of approaches and often using a combination of two or
more of the approaches outlined above. These approaches have been developed in accordance
with different legal traditions and within a framework of individual historical and economic
The validity of the registration of the Geographical Indication is for a lifetime unless and
until the original holder cancels the same. But, Geographical indications registered
as collective and certification marks are generally protected for renewable ten-year periods.
The right to use a protected geographical indication belongs to producers in the
geographical area defined, who comply with the specific conditions of production for the



The concept of geographical indication has its origin in 19th century Europe and has
considerably evolved since then. The current international framework is laid down in Article 22
of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement which mandates
member countries to provide for the protection of all GIs, where the obligation is for members to
provide the legal means for interested parties to secure protection of their GIs. The TRIPS
defines GIs as indications which identify a good as originating in the territory of a member, or a
region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of the
good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin (Article 22).
Under Article 22, the scope of protection is composed of three aspects:

Protection against the use of indications that mislead the public or are deceptive;
Protection against the use of indications in a manner that are acts of unfair competition;
Refusal or invalidation of trademarks that contain or consist of indications, where it may
mislead the public. 7
Article 22.2.a prohibits the use of indications (words, phrases, images or symbols) that

will mislead/ deceive the public about the goods geographical origin. Article 22.2.b prohibits
any use of GI that constitutes an act of unfair competition as defined in Article 10bis of the Paris
Convention. The language of Article 10bis indicates that in order to prohibit such acts as acts of
unfair competition, it has to be established that their use is misleading or will create confusion to
the public, and that damages result or there is likelihood of damages resulting from such use of
GI. As per Article 22.3 of TRIPS, registration of GI as trademarks shall be refused or invalidated
at the request of an interested party, if their use is likely to mislead the public as to the true place
of origin. Most countries including developing countries disallow the registration of geographical
names as trademarks, unless these have attained secondary meaning.8


The TRIPS Agreement provides for two levels of protection for GI. What Article 22
provides is the basic level or a minimum standard of protection whereby all GI must be offered
protection against use which would deceive the public or constitute an act of unfair competition.
The second kind of protection, in Article 23, is a higher standard of protection specifically for
wines and spirits. This article confers protection on GIs on wines and spirits per se or in absolute
terms, without requiring any test of confusion or likelihood of deception to be met. In the special
case of wines and spirits, Article 23.1 of TRIPS prohibits the use of translations of GI or
attachment of expressions such as kind, type, style, imitation to products not originating
from the place indicated, even where the true origin is clearly indicated.9


The Legal framework in India As a party to the TRIPS Agreement, India is required to
protect GI and hence in order to fulfill that obligation, the Geographical Indications of Goods
(Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 was enacted. It may also be noted that India felt that
some of its products have high potential to benefit from GI registration and it was necessary to
put in place a comprehensive legislation for registration and for providing adequate protection
for GI. For unless a geographical indication is protected in the country of its origin, there is no
requirement under the TRIPS Agreement for other countries to extend reciprocal protection.
1. Confers legal protection to GI in India;
2. Prevents unauthorized use of a registered geographical indication by others;
3. Enables seeking legal protection in other WTO member countries.10
8 The Protection of Geographical Indications in India: Issues and Challenges. Page 3; under the history
of IR in India
9 The Protection of Geographical Indications in India: Issues and Challenges. Page 3; under the history
of IR in India


From the perspective of a developing country, one of the best features of the Indian Act is
the comprehensive definition given of GI, whereby agricultural, natural and manufactured goods
all come under the ambit of GI. This is especially important in the Indian context considering the
wide variety of goods that is deserving of protection ranging from agricultural products like
Basmati, Darjeeling tea to manufactured goods such as Banrasi sari, Kolhapure chappals,
Chanderi silk etc. Section 11of the Act provides that any association of persons, producers,
organization or authority established by or under the law can apply for registration of a GI.
Another important aspect of the Act is the possibility of protecting a GI indefinitely by renewing
the registration when it expires after a period of ten years. In the domestic context, the Indian Act
has tried to extend the additional protection reserved for wines and spirits mandated by TRIPS to
include goods of national interest on a case to case basis. Section 22.2 of the Act endows the
Central Government with the authority to give additional protection to certain goods or classes of
goods. This is especially important in the developing country context considering that we may
not have wines and spirits to protect like the West but other exotic niche products like teas, rice
etc. Section 25 of the Act, by prohibiting the registration of a GI as a trademark, tries to prevent
appropriation of a public property in the nature of a geographical indication by an individual as a
trademark, leading to confusion in the market. Also, according to section 24 of the Act, a GI
cannot be assigned or transmitted. The Act recognizes that a GI is a public property belonging to
the producers of the goods concerned; as such it cannot be the subject matter of assignment,
transmission, licensing, pledge, mortgage or any contract for transferring the ownership or





Protection may be demanded or applied by a group of producers of that product which is
identified by the geographical indication. The producers may be structured as a group, such as a
cooperative or an organization, which correspond to them and make sure that the product meet
the terms of certain requirements and necessities which they have adhered to or agreed upon. In
some authority or jurisdictions, this protection may also be requested by a national competent
authority (for example, a local government authority).12


Protection for a geographical indication (GI) is granted by a national (regional) competent
authority upon request. In some countries the function of granting GI protection is carried out
by a special body responsible for GI protection. In other countries, the national intellectual
property (IP) office carries out this function. All further clarifications are cleared and the data of
who approves it will be available with the World intellectual Property Organization. 13





AN indication must qualify as a geographical indication under the applicable law and not
be subject to any problem in registering a geographical indication (GI). Usually, a vital
requirement under the classification is that the high-quality product identified by the GI should
have a link to the geographical origin. This link may be decided upon a quality under conditions,
reputation or other attribute basically due to the geographical origin. In many a jurisdiction, a
single norm identifiable to geographical origin is adequate enough, be it a quality or other feature
or the quality of the product, or just its reputation.14



From a permissible point of view, possible problem to successfully register a geographical

indication (GI) might comprise the following:
1. Conflict with a prior mark.
2. Generic character of the term that constitutes the GI.
3. The existence of a homonymous geographical indication , the use of which would be
considered potentially misleading as to the products true origin.
4. The indications name being that of a plant variety or animal breed.
5. The lack of protection of the GI in its country of origin.15

Goods and products that need to be applied with the Geographical Indication Tag, should
fall under these below mentioned categories of classification in order to get qualified to get that

Class 1. Chemical used in industry, science, photography, agriculture, horticulture and forestry;
unprocessed artificial resins, unprocessed plastics; manures; fire extinguishing compositions;
tempering and soldering preparations; chemical substances for preserving foodstuffs; tanning
substances; adhesive used in industry.

Class 2. Paints, varnishes, lacquers; preservatives against rust and against deterioration of
wood; colorants; mordents; raw natural resins; metals in foil and powder form for painters;
decorators; printers and artists.

Class 3. Bleaching preparations and other substances for laundry use; cleaning; polishing;
scouring and abrasive preparations; soaps; perfumery, essential oils, cosmetics, hair lotions,

Class 4. Industrial oils and greases; lubricants; dust absorbing, wetting and binding
compositions; fuels(including motor spirit) and illuminants; candles, wicks.

Class 5. Pharmaceutical, veterinary and sanitary preparations; dietetic substances adapted for
medical use, food for babies; plasters, materials for dressings; materials for stopping teeth, dental
wax; disinfectants; preparation for destroying vermin; fungicides, herbicides.

Class 6. Common metals and their alloys; metal building materials; transportable buildings of
metal; materials of metal for railway tracks; non-electric cables and wires of common metal;
ironmongery, small items of metal hardware; pipes and tubes of metal; safes; goods of common
metal not included in other classes; ores.

Class 7. Machines and machine tools; motors and engines (except for land vehicles); machine
coupling and transmission components (except for land vehicles); agricultural implements other
than hand-operated; incubators for eggs.16

Class 8. Hand tools and implements (hand-operated); cutlery; side arms; razors.
Class 9. Scientific, nautical, surveying, electric, photographic, cinematographic, optical,
weighing, measuring, signaling, checking (supervision), life saving and teaching apparatus and
instruments; apparatus for recording, transmission or reproduction of sound or images; magnetic
data carriers, recording discs; automatic vending machines and mechanisms for coin-operated
apparatus; cash registers, calculating machines, data processing equipment and computers; fire
extinguishing apparatus.

Class 10. Surgical, medical, dental and veterinary apparatus and instruments, artificial limbs,
eyes and teeth; orthopaedic articles; suture materials.

Class 11. Apparatus for lighting, heating, steam generating, cooking, refrigerating, drying
ventilating, water supply and sanitary purposes.

Class 12. Vehicles; apparatus for locomotion by land, air or water.

Class 13. Firearms; ammunition and projectiles; explosives; fire works.
Class 14. Precious metals and their alloys and goods in precious metals or coated therewith, not
included in other classes; jewellery, precious stones; horological and other chronometric

Class 15. Musical instruments.

Class 16. Paper, cardboard and goods made from these materials, not included in other classes;
printed matter; bookbinding material; photographs; stationery; adhesives for stationery or
household purposes; artists materials; paint brushes; typewriters and office requisites (except


furniture); instructional and teaching material (except apparatus); plastic materials for packaging
(not included in other classes); playing cards; printers' type; printing blocks.

Class 17. Rubber, gutta percha, gum, asbestos, mica and goods made from these materials and
not included in other classes; plastics in extruded form for use in manufacture; packing, stopping
and insulating materials; flexible pipes, not of metal.

Class 18. Leather and imitations of leather, and goods made of these materials and not included
in other classes; animal skins, hides, trunks and travelling bags; umbrellas, parasols and walking
sticks; whips, harness and saddler.

Class 19. Building materials, (non-metallic), non-metallic rigid pipes for building; asphalt,
pitch and bitumen; non-metallic transportable buildings; monuments, not of metal.

Class 20. Furniture, mirrors, picture frames; goods(not included in other classes) of wood,
cork, reed, cane, wicker, horn, bone, ivory, whalebone, shell, amber, mother- of-pearl,
meerschaum and substitutes for all these materials, or of plastics.

Class 21. Household or kitchen utensils and containers(not of precious metal or coated
therewith); combs and sponges; brushes(except paints brushes); brush making materials; articles
for cleaning purposes; steelwool; unworked or semi-worked glass (except glass used in
building); glassware, porcelain and earthenware not included in other classes.

Class 22. Ropes, string, nets, tents, awnings, tarpaulins, sails, sacks and bags (not included in
other classes) padding and stuffing materials(except of rubber or plastics); raw fibrous textile

Class 23. Yarns and threads, for textile use.

Class 24. Textiles and textile goods, not included in other classes; bed and table covers.
Class 25. Clothing, footwear, headgear.
Class 26. Lace and embroidery, ribbons and braid; buttons, hooks and eyes, pins and needles;
artificial flowers.

Class 27. Carpets, rugs, mats and matting, linoleum and other materials for covering existing
floors; wall hangings(non-textile). 17

Class 28. Games and playthings, gymnastic and sporting articles not included in other classes;
decorations for Christmas trees.

Class 29. Meat, fish, poultry and game; meat extracts; preserved, dried and cooked fruits and
vegetables; jellies, jams, fruit sauces; eggs, milk and milk products; edible oils and fats.

Class 30. Coffee, tea, cocoa, sugar, rice, tapioca, sago, artificial coffee; flour and preparations
made from cereals, bread, pastry and confectionery, ices; honey, treacle; yeast, baking powder;
salt, mustard; vinegar, sauces, (condiments); spices; ice.

Class 31. Agricultural, horticultural and forestry products and grains not included in other
classes; live animals; fresh fruits and vegetables; seeds, natural plants and flowers; foodstuffs for
animals, malt.

Class 32. Beers, mineral and aerated waters, and other non-alcoholic drinks; fruit drinks and
fruit juices; syrups and other preparations for making beverages.

Class 33. Alcoholic beverages(except beers) .

Class 34. Tobacco, smokers articles, matches.




1. Every application for the registration of a geographical indication shall be

made in the

prescribed form (GI-1A to ID) accompanied by the prescribed fee ( Rs.5,000).

2. It shall be signed by the applicant or his agent.
3. It must be made in triplicate along with three copies of a Statement of Case accompanied by
five additional representations.

1. Fees may be paid in cash or sent by money order or by a bank draft or by a cheque.
2. Bank Drafts or cheques shall be crossed and be made payable to the Registrar at the
appropriate office of the Geographical Indication Registry.
3. It should be drawn by a scheduled bank at the place where the appropriate office of the
Geographical Indications Registry is situated.
4. Where a document is field without fee or with insufficient fee such document shall be deemed
to have not been filed.


All applications, shall be typewritten, lithographed or printed in Hindi or in English.


It should in large and legible characters with deep permanent ink upon strong papers on

one side only.


3. The size should be a approximately 33 cms by 20 cms and shall have on the left and part
thereof a margin of not less than 4 centimeters.



In case of;

i. An association of persons or producers shall be signed by the authorized signatory.

ii. A body corporate or any organization or any authority established by or under
any law for the time being in force shall be signed by the Chief Executive, or the
Managing Director or the secretary or other principal officer.
iii. In case of partnership it shall be signed by at least one of the partners.
2. The capacity in which an individual signs a document shall be stated below his signature.
3. Signatures shall be accompanied by the name of the signatory in English or in Hindi and in
capital letters.


1. Every application for registration of a G.I shall state the principal place of business in India.
2. A body corporate should state the full name and nationality of the Board of Directors.
3. Foreign applicants and persons having principal place of business, in their home country
should furnish an address for service in India.
4. In the case of a body corporate or any organization or authority established by or under any
law for the time being in force, the country of incorporation or the nature of registration, if any,
as the case may be shall be given.








A certificate by the Registry or competent authority of the Geographical Indications Office

of the convention country.


The particulars of the geographical indication, the country and the date or dates of filing of

the first application.


The application must be the applicants first application in a convention country for the

same geographical indications and for all or some of the goods.


The application must include a statement indicating the filing date of the foreign

application, the convention country where it was filed, the serial number, if available.


An application to register a geographical indication shall contain a statement of user along
with an affidavit.


Every application shall be made in the prescribed forms and shall contain the following :
1. A statement as to how the geographical indication serves to designate the goods as originating
form the concerned territory in respect of specific quality, reputation or other characteristics.
2. The three certified copies of class of goods to which the geographical indication relates
3. The geographical map of the territory.
4. The particulars of the appearance of the geographical indication words or figurative elements
or both;



A statement containing such particulars of the producers of the concerned goods proposed

to be initially resisted. Including a collective reference to all the producers of the goods in
respect of which the application is made.

The statement contained in the application shall also include the following:
1. An affidavit as to how the applicant claim to represent the interest of the
association of persons or producers or any organization or authority
established under any law.
2. The standards benchmark for the use of the geographical indication or the
industry standard as regards the production, exploitation, making or
manufacture of the goods having specific quality, reputation or other
characteristic of such goods that is essentially attributable to its geographical
origin with the detailed description of the human creativity involved, if any or
other characteristic;
3. The particulars of the mechanism to ensure that the standards, quality,
integrity and consistency or other special characteristic are maintained by the
producers, or manufacturers of the goods.
4. Three certified copies of the map of the territory, region or locality;
5. The particulars of special human skill involved or the uniqueness of the
geographical environment or other inherent characteristics associated with
the geographical indication.
6. The full name and address of the association of persons or organization or
authority representing the interest of the producers of the concerned goods;
7. Particulars of the inspection structure ;


8. In case of a homonymous indication, the material factors differentiating the

application from the registered geographical indications and particulars of
protective measures adopted.18


Tamil Nadu has emerged as the top Indian state to protect its natural products and industrial
skills by filing the highest number of geographical indications (GI) since India established the
system of protecting such intellectual property (IP) rights in 2003. Tamil Nadu has so far
registered 24 geographical indications, which include the rights for the popular Kanchipuram silk
and Thanjavur paintings. It has filed 26 more applications for geographical indications that are
still pending, taking the total to 50.19









Salem Fabric


Kancheepuram Silk


Bhavani Jamakkalam


Madurai Sungudi


Coimbatore Wet Grinder


Thanjavur Paintings


Temple Jewellery of Nagercoil


Thanjavur Art Plate


E. I. Leather



Salem silk



Kovai Cora Cotton



Arani Silk



Swamimalai Bronze Icons



Eathomozhy Tall Coconut



Thanjavur Doll



Nilgiri (Orthodox) Logo





Once upon a time there was a master weaver named Sage Markanda who used to weave
for Gods. He even wove a tissue from the petals of the lotus flower. He knew the most favorite
fabric of all Gods he knew Lord Shiva liked cotton and Lord Vishnu liked silk. His expertise
was passed on to his descendents which are now considered as Kanchi Silk Weavers.
Thats the story of origin of Kanchipuram Silk Sarees. Those Kanchi Silk Weavers are
considered to be the ones behind the existence of this kind of Sarees. Kanchipuram Silk
Sarees arent normal but are hand-woven in the town named Kanchipuram in India. The land of
Kanchipuram is known as the temple city or the city of thousand temples.
According to the History, the city Kanchipuram came into popularity 400 years back
when two weaving communities the Saligars and the Devangas migrated to the city from a
neighboring state. These two communities were already popular for their silk weaving skills and
silk was really very popular in this town and gradually Kanchipuram became the mother.
In south India, these sarees are considered very special. Being an integral part of South
Indian weddings,Kanchipuram Sarees hold a luxurious status. The sarees are considered special
for their superior and rare color combinations. These sarees cost anywhere between Rs. 2500
Rs. 1,00,000 depending upon the kind of work that goes into the saree.
These sarees are hand woven from pure mulberry silk thread. The native industries of
Kanchipuram are only into manufacturing the sarees not the raw material. The main raw
materials that go into Kanchipuram Sarees are mulberry silk threads, metallic threads (Zari)
and dyes.


The Kanchipuram Sarees usually have three parts body, border and pallu. Three
shuttles i.e. three single threads of silk yarn and zari are used to weave a Kanchipuram Saree.
One more unique thing about these sarees is that the design of border and body are good.20


The Craftsmanship and weaving of Jamakkalam was initiated by 'Janlgama' or Lingayats,
a veera Saivite people who came from Mysore, 300 years ago and settled in and around Bhavani.
They have undertook the weaving of Jamakkalam as the profession of their caste. Coimbatore
District Manual published in 1887 at page 252 mentions about the Bhavani Jamakkalam which
got the first prize in 1883 at the Madras Fair. Today Bhavani is famous for its Jamakkalam
beautifully woven in Handlooms using only throw shuttles, having contrast cross border effect
on both the top and bottom sides of the fabric. The Bhavani Jamakkalams are hard to match in
their sophistication of artistically exhaustive excellence. Bhavani Jamakkalams in class 24 for
marufacturing Textile goods which is in existence for more than 300 years in the Certified
Geographical area of in and round Bhavani Consisting of about 10,000 persons comprising
Traders, Master weavers and 27 Co - operative Societies involved in the production, Marketing
and trading of Bhavani Jamakkalams.
Around 300 years ago, veerasavite people who are also known as lingayats or Jangama
people from mysore state settled in and around Bhavani and started the production of
Jamakkalam as their profession along with Okkaliga, who are primarily agriculturists and are
indentifed by the name Jamakkalam Pandaram. The word "Jamakkalam" a urdu word meaning
Procurement of raw material: the master weaver purchases the raw material from the yam
dealers at Madurai, Bangalore and Bombay. The dyeing in Bhavani is under Taren by about
15,00 people, who in the earliest stages used only black, brue and Khaki colours extracted from
vegetables Kadukkai Annabedhi - Green viniol (Feni sulpar - and blue yielding creeper were put
in large torra cotta tanks and turmeric and indigo (Avuri) are used for dying. The plant particles
of these things were crushed into juice, Khakhi colour is extracted from Gall nut husk while blue

colour is obtained from the boiling blue milk along with Gall nut. The next step in let them
drying the weaving is done in pit loom (hand loom by throw shuttle.21


Wet Grinder cluster had developed as a natural cluster. This cluster is not available
anywhere else in the world. In 1955, Mr. Sabapathy and others invented the Mechanical Wet
Grinder. Then many units in Coimbatore district had started manufacturing mechanical Wet
The Wet grinders and their parts are manufactured only in Coimbatore and not anywhere
else in India The suitable grinding stones are available only in Coimbatore District. COWMA
proposed to establish a standard common laboratory for the quality control jointly with Small
Industries Service Institute
Wet grinders that are made in Coimbatore are being exported to over a hundred countries
and the engine parts are being exported to over a 125 countries and all the countries see a
massive business and transaction from this place.22
There are 10 types of Grinder machines that are made in Coimbatore. They are;

Utility grinding machines.

Floor mounted utility grinding machine.
Bench type utility grinding machine.
Bench-type utility drill grinding machine.
Bench-type utility grinding and buffing machine.
Bench-type tool and cutter grinder.
Tool post grinding machine.


8. Milling and grinding lathe attachment.

9. Surface grinding machine.
10. Reciprocating surface grinding machine.23


Madurai Malli includes the local varieties which are called in the local names viz.,
Gundu Malli, Namma Ooru Malli, Ambu Malli, Ramabanam, Madhanabanam, Iruvatchi,
Iruvatchippoo, Kasthuri Malli, Oosi Malli and Single Mogra. Shape of Madurai Malli buds
ranges from round to oblong with short to medium long corolla tube having three to four whorls
of petals.
Madurai Malli growers, flower knitters and the women who wearing Madurai Malli claim
that the Madurai Malli has specialised characters like deep fragrance, thick petals, lengthiest
petiole, delayed opening of buds, delayed petal discolouration and keeping quality (long shelf
life). The special characters of Madurai Malli enable vendors to preserve the flower under
freezing condition for more than two days which is impossible with the Jasmine flowers
(Malligai) of same variety (J. sambac) cultivated in other parts of the state.

Madurai Malli

flowers can be knitted easily by anybody with little practice because of their sturdiness and long
floral stalk.
Madurai Malli differs from other jasmine flowers (Malligai) in the pattern of
transformation of petal colours from the harvest to utilisation. The colour of Madurai Malli is
some what greenish white when it was collected from the plant. After few hours probably at
noon, the colour will turn into milky white and turn into shiny creamy white during the evening.
So the whiteness of the flower will not turn into brown even after 24 hours if it is not touched or
handled by us. It is believed that the above said special characters may be due to its special


physical and physiological features acquired from special geographical features of in the districts
viz., Madurai, Virudhunagar, Theni, Dindigul and Sivagangai.24


Tanjore Dancing Doll / Thanjavur Dancing Doll is one of the old, traditional, world
famous Indian cultural Doll purely handmade doll with paper mache, wax / Lae , plaster of
paris/cement, coloring agents,Clay, Cardboard. In Tamil language it is called as Thanjavur
thalayatti bommai originated during 19th Century under King Sarabojis reign.It has been given
Geographical Indicator status by Government of India for its origin in culture rich Thanjavur.
This type of doll will welcomes you by shaking its head and its body like oscillating
head. It will look like the girl is dancing.Its welcomes you by shaking its head and body like
continuous oscillating. The beautiful movement of the dolls head adds to its uniqueness. It is one
of the unique traditional arts of Thanjavur . It is unique and only available in our Thanjavur/
Tanjore district. A tanjore doll is a type of traditional Indian bobblehead or roly-poly toy made
of terracotta material.
Its centre of gravity and total weight is concentrated at its bottom-most central core all
the time so as to present a dance-like continuous movement with slow-damping oscillations.
Hence it comes back to its normal seating position automatically after being tilted/disturbed
anyway. Round-bottomed toys are unique, but other standing types are available too.
Traditionally these toys are handmade and their exteriors are painted to an intrinsic sense of
humour. Nowadays, they are also being made in plastics.25


In India Geographical signs were represented by regular law standards before the
authorization of the Geographical signs of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.
Preceding this, Indian Judiciary, without any enactment, connected the guideline of going off to
ensure Geographical signs.
The wonders of Globalization and expanding advancement of shoppers has prompted an
uplifted craving for great wines, spirits and nourishment items that get their exceptional
attributes from the geological locale from which they start. Land signs can expand the
attractiveness and estimation of any number of shopper merchandise which incorporate
everything from materials to nourishment items.
Because of its monetary significance, there has been developing worry about the security
of geological sign which at last brought about the TRIPs Agreement. As a result of the expansive
number of signatories, the selection of TRIPs spoke to an essential stride forward for the
insurance of Geographical sign around the world, in this way making TRIPs a genuine turning
point in this appreciation.