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# CONTENT

TITLE

PAGE
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INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVE
APPARATUS
DIAGRAM
THEORY
PROCEDURE
RESULT AND
CALCULATION
CONCLUSION
REFERENCE

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EXPERIMENT
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## WATER JET IMPACT

INTRODUCTION
Over the years, engineers have found many ways to utilize the
force that can be imparted by a jet of fluid on a surface diverting the
flow.
For example, the pelt on wheel has been used to
make flour. Further more, the impulse turbine is still used
in the first and sometimes in the second stages of steam
turbine. Firemen make use of the kinetic energy stored in
a jet to deliver water above the level in the nozzle to
extinguish fires in high-rise buildings. Fluid jets are also
used in industry for cutting metals and debarring. Many
other applications of fluid jets can be cited which reveals
their technological importance.
This experiment aims at assessing the different
forces exerted by the same water jet on a variety of
geometrical different plates. The results obtained
experimentally are to be compared with the ones inferred
from theory through utilizing the applicable versions of
the Bernoulli and momentum equations.

OBJECTIVE
1. To asses the different forces exerted by the same water jet on a variety
of geometrically different plates.
2. To compare the result from experiment and theory forces
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APPARATUS
1. Jet impact apparatus
2. Hydraulic bench
3. Stopwatch
4. Variety of plates
5. Metal weights

## JET IMPACT APPARATUS

HYDRAULIC BENCH

STOPWATCH

METAL WEIGHT

DIAGRAM

THEORY
1. Bernoullis Theorem : P/g + v/2g = P/g + v/2g + z
2. Experiment Force, Fexp = mg
3. Theoretical force, Ftheo : Flat plate : Ftheo = Qv(cos 90 - 1 )
4. Percentage of differences =

Ft h eoFexp
Ft h eo

x 100

PROCEDURE
1. After securing the pipe connections between the jet apparatus and the water pump in the
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5.

bench plate the jet impact apparatus in the bed of the bench and fix the flat plate on.
Calibrate the legs until you have the jet apparatus leveled.
Adjust the needle so that you have it leveled with the center line of the empty weight pan.
After opening the supply valve to allow maximum flow, turn on the water pump.
After the jet of water raises the empty pan about the needle level, measure the vertical jet

force by placing enough weights on the weight pan to restore its original position.
6. Record the weight.
7. Discharge is measured by using the stopwatch to record the time need for a certain
volume of water to accumulate. (a meter on the hydraulic bench keeps track of the water
volume). Measure the time for different volumes to obtain the average discharge.
8. The whole procedure is to be repeated for the 120 and 180 plates. (The discharge value
measured for the plate is retained and considered constant throughout the experiment.)

## RESULT AND CALCULATION

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RESULT

NO.

Mass,
m(kg)

Volume,
V(m)

Time, t (s)

0.05

5 x 10

31

0.15

5 x 10

25

0.35

5 x 10

14

0.45

5 x 10

13

Discharge,
Q(m/s)
1.613
104
1.97
104
3.42 10
4

3.72
104

Velocity,
v(m/s)

Velocity,
v(m/s)

8.217

1.729

10.05

13.72

17.45

17.00

18.98

19.07

Mass, m(kg)

Force, Fexp(N)

Force, Ftheo(N)

Differences (%)

0.05

0.491

-1.956

218.87

0.15

1.472

-2.703

154.5

0.35

3.434

-5.831

158.84

0.45

4.415

-6.324

169.8

CALCULATION
Mass, m
Volume, V
Time, t

= 0.05kg
= 5 x 10 m3
= 31s

Discharge, Q (m/s)

V
T

5 10
31

## = 1.613 104 m/s

Velocity, V (m/s)

Q
A

1.613 10 4
1. 963 1 0

=8.217

Velocity, V (m/s)
V

((V/2G) + (Z + Z)2G)

(3.44- 0.451)

= 1.729m/s

8

=mxg
= 0.05 x 9.81
= 0.49N

## Force, Ftheo (N)

F

= Q(V - V)
= 1000(1.63 x 104)(-2.563)
= -0.418N

Differences, error, %
E

Ftheo Fexp
Ftheo

100

0.418 0.49
0.418

100

= 217.22

CONCLUSION
in our experiment we have learned lots of things, we have had a close look on how the
hydraulic bench and how a water jet work. We also have learned to calculate the force caused
by a water jet experimentally using different sets of data and also learned how to calculate the
mass flow rate and speed of water using the mass of weights and their X using time intervals
measured experimentally.

there is for sure a difference between our results and the theoretical ones because of
different sources of errors that have been discussed earlier in this report.

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REFERENCE
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

www.wjta.org/images/wjta/Proceedings/Binder2.pdf
dspace.nitrkl.ac.in/dspace/bitstream/2080/273/1/WJM.pdf
www.scribd.com/doc/58935531/Lab-1-Impact-of-Jet
labreport.brinkster.net/.../Impact%20Of%20A%20Water%20Jet.doc
staff.fit.ac.cy/eng.../Fluids%20Lab%20Impact%20of%20a%20Jet.pdf
www.dynaflow-inc.com/.../Influence%20of%20Struc%20Deformatio...