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CommodoreInternational­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

CommodoreInternational

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

CommodoreInternational(orCommodore InternationalLimited)wasaNorthAmericanhome computerandelectronicsmanufacturer.Commodore International(CI)alongwithitssubsidiaryCommodore BusinessMachines(CBM)participatedinthe developmentofthehome–personalcomputerindustryin

the1970sand1980s.Thecompanydevelopedand

marketedoneoftheworld'sbest­sellingdesktop

computers,theCommodore64(1982)andreleasedits

Amigacomputerlinein1985.

Contents

  1 History 1.1 Foundingandearlyyears 1.2 "Computersforthemasses,notthe classes" 1.3
 

1 History

  1 History 1.1 Foundingandearlyyears 1.2 "Computersforthemasses,notthe classes" 1.3

1.1 Foundingandearlyyears

  1 History 1.1 Foundingandearlyyears 1.2 "Computersforthemasses,notthe classes" 1.3

1.2 "Computersforthemasses,notthe

classes"

1.2 "Computersforthemasses,notthe classes" 1.3 Tramielquits;theAmigavs.STbattle 1.4 Demise 1.5

1.3 Tramielquits;theAmigavs.STbattle

classes" 1.3 Tramielquits;theAmigavs.STbattle 1.4 Demise 1.5 Post­CommodoreInternationalLtd.   2

1.4 Demise

1.3 Tramielquits;theAmigavs.STbattle 1.4 Demise 1.5 Post­CommodoreInternationalLtd.   2 Productline

1.5 Post­CommodoreInternationalLtd.

1.4 Demise 1.5 Post­CommodoreInternationalLtd.   2 Productline 2.1 Calculators 2.2 Computers 2.3
 

2 Productline

1.5 Post­CommodoreInternationalLtd.   2 Productline 2.1 Calculators 2.2 Computers 2.3 Gamesconsoles 2.4 Monitors

2.1 Calculators

  2 Productline 2.1 Calculators 2.2 Computers 2.3 Gamesconsoles 2.4 Monitors 2.5 Software

2.2 Computers

  2 Productline 2.1 Calculators 2.2 Computers 2.3 Gamesconsoles 2.4 Monitors 2.5 Software   3 Seealso

2.3 Gamesconsoles

Productline 2.1 Calculators 2.2 Computers 2.3 Gamesconsoles 2.4 Monitors 2.5 Software   3 Seealso   4

2.4 Monitors

Productline 2.1 Calculators 2.2 Computers 2.3 Gamesconsoles 2.4 Monitors 2.5 Software   3 Seealso   4

2.5 Software

Productline 2.1 Calculators 2.2 Computers 2.3 Gamesconsoles 2.4 Monitors 2.5 Software   3 Seealso   4
 

3 Seealso

Productline 2.1 Calculators 2.2 Computers 2.3 Gamesconsoles 2.4 Monitors 2.5 Software   3 Seealso   4
 

4 References

Productline 2.1 Calculators 2.2 Computers 2.3 Gamesconsoles 2.4 Monitors 2.5 Software   3 Seealso   4

5 Externallinks

CommodoreInternational

I n d u s t r y Computerhardware Electronics Computersoftware F a t e

Industry

Fate

Bankruptcy

Founded

1954

Defunct

1994

Keypeople JackTramiel(Founder) IrvingGould(Maininvestorand chairman)

Products

Others

History

Foundingandearlyyears

ThecompanythatwouldbecomeCommodoreBusinessMachines, Inc.wasfoundedin1954 [1] inTorontoastheCommodorePortable TypewriterCompanybyPolishimmigrantandAuschwitzsurvivor JackTramiel.ForafewyearshehadbeenlivinginNewYork, drivingataxicabandrunningasmallbusinessrepairingtypewriters, whenhemanagedtosignadealwithaCzechoslovakiancompanyto manufacturetheirdesignsinCanada.HemovedtoTorontotostart

OriginalCommodorelogo:all­ lowercasecompanyname(1962– 1984).

OriginalCommodorelogo:all­

lowercasecompanyname(1962–

1984).

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production.Bythelate1950sawaveofJapanesemachinesforced

mostNorthAmericantypewritercompaniestoceasebusiness,but

Tramielinsteadturnedtoaddingmachines.

In1955,thecompanywasformallyincorporatedasCommodore

BusinessMachines,Inc.(CBM)inCanada.In1962,Commodore

wentpublicontheNewYorkStockExchange(NYSE)underthe

nameofCommodoreInternationalLimited.Inthelate1960shistory

repeateditselfwhenJapanesefirmsstartedproducingandexporting

addingmachines.Thecompany'smaininvestorandchairman,

IrvingGould,suggestedthatTramieltraveltoJapantounderstand

howtocompete.Instead,hereturnedwiththenewideatoproduce

electroniccalculators,whichwerejustcomingonthemarket.

CommodorePR­100programmable calculator

CommodorePR­100programmable

calculator

Commodoresoonhadaprofitablecalculatorlineandwasoneofthemorepopularbrandsintheearly

Instruments,themainsupplierofcalculatorparts,enteredthemarketdirectlyandputoutalineofmachines pricedatlessthanCommodore'scostfortheparts.CommodoreobtainedaninfusionofcashfromGould,

Technology,Inc.,inordertoassurehissupply. [2] HeagreedtobuyMOS,whichwashavingtroublesofits own,onlyontheconditionthatitschipdesignerChuckPeddlejoinCommodoredirectlyasheadof engineering.

Throughthe1970s,Commodorealsoproducednumerousperipheralsandconsumerelectronicproducts

suchastheChessmate,achesscomputerbasedaroundaMOS6504chip,releasedin1978.

Commodore.Hesaid:"IwantedtocallmycompanyGeneral,butthere'ssomanyGeneralsintheU.S.:

GeneralElectric,GeneralMotors.ThenIwenttoAdmiral,butthatwastaken.SoIwindupinBerlin, Germany,withmywife,andwewereinacab,andthecabmadeashortstop,andinfrontofuswasan OpelCommodore." [3] Tramielgavethisaccountinmanyinterviews,butOpel'sCommodoredidn'tdebut until1967,yearsafterthecompanyhadbeennamed. [4]

"Computersforthemasses,nottheclasses"

OnceChuckPeddlehadtakenoverengineeringatCommodore,he convincedJackTramielthatcalculatorswerealreadyadeadendand thattheyshouldturntheirattentiontohomecomputers.Peddle packagedhissingle­boardcomputerdesigninametalcase,initially withakeyboardusingcalculatorkeys,laterwithafull­travel QWERTYkeyboard,monochromemonitor,andtaperecorderfor programanddatastorage,toproducetheCommodorePET

(PersonalElectronicTransactor).FromPET's1977debut,

Commodorewouldbeacomputercompany.

CommodorePET2001(1977)

CommodorePET2001(1977)

CommodorehadbeenreorganizedtheyearbeforeintoCommodore

International,Ltd.,movingitsfinancialheadquarterstotheBahamasanditsoperationalheadquartersto

WestChester,Pennsylvania,neartotheMOSTechnologysite.Theoperationalheadquarters,where

researchanddevelopmentofnewproductsoccurred,retainedthenameCommodoreBusinessMachines,

Inc.

By1980Commodorewasoneofthethreelargestmicrocomputercompanies,andthelargestinthe

CommonMarket. [5] BYTEstatedofthebusinesscomputermarket,however,that"thelackofamarketing strategybyCommodore,aswellasitspastnonchalantattitudetowardtheencouragementanddevelopment ofgoodsoftware,hashurtitscredibility,espeiallyincomparisontotheothersystemsonthemarket". [6]

ThePETcomputerlinewasusedprimarilyinschools,whereitstoughall­metalconstructionandabilityto shareprintersanddiskdrivesonasimpleLocalAreaNetworkwereadvantages,butPETsdidnotcompete wellinthehomesettingwheregraphicsandsoundwereimportant.Thiswasaddressedwiththe

introductionoftheVIC­20in1981,whichwasintroducedatacostofUS$299andsoldinretailstores.

CommodoretookoutaggressiveadsfeaturingWilliamShatneraskingconsumers"Whybuyjustavideo

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game?"ThestrategyworkedandtheVIC­20becamethefirstcomputertoshipmorethanonemillionunits.

Atotalof2.5millionunitsweresoldoverthemachine'slifetime [7] andhelpedCommodore'ssalesto Canadianschools. [8] Inanotherpromotionaimedatschools(andasawayofgettingridofoldunsold

inventory)somePETmodelslabeled"Teacher'sPET"weregivenawayaspartofa"buy2get1free"

promotion.

Commodore64(1982)

Commodore64(1982)

In1982,CommodoreintroducedtheCommodore64asthe

successortotheVIC­20.Thankstoawell­designedsetof

chipsdesignedbyMOSTechnology,theCommodore64,

(alsoreferredtoasC64),possessedremarkablesoundand

graphicsforitstimeandisoftencreditedwithstartingthe

computerdemoscene.ItsUS$595pricewashighcompared

withthatoftheVIC­20,butitwasstillmuchlessexpensive

thananyother64Kcomputeronthemarket.EarlyC64ads

boasted,"Youcan'tbuyabettercomputerattwicethe

price."

Australianadvertsinthemid­1980susedatunespeaking

thewords"AreyoukeepingupwiththeCommodore?BecausetheCommodoreiskeepingupwithyou." [9]

In1983,TramieldecidedtofocusonmarketshareandcutthepriceoftheVIC­20andC64dramatically,

startingwhatwouldbecalledthe"homecomputerwar".TIrespondedbycuttingpricesonitsTI­99/4A,

whichhadbeenintroducedin1981.Soontherewasanall­outpricewarinvolvingCommodore,TI,Atari,

andpracticallyeveryvendorotherthanAppleComputer.CommodorebegansellingtheVIC­20andC64

throughmass­marketretailerssuchasK­Mart,inadditiontotraditionalcomputerstores.Bytheendofthis

conflict,Commodorehadshippedsomewherearound22millionC64s—makingtheC64thebestselling

computerofalltime.

AttheJune1983ConsumerElectronicsShowCommodoreloweredtheretailpriceofthe64to$300,and

storessolditforaslittleas$199.Atonepointthecompanywassellingasmanycomputersastherestof

theindustrycombined. [10] ItspricesfortheVIC­20and64were$50lowerthanAtari'spricesforthe 600XLand800XL. [11] Commodore'sstrategywasto,accordingtoaspokesman,devote50%ofitsefforts

totheunder­$500market,30%onthe$500–1000market,and20%ontheover­$1000market.Itsvertical

integrationandTramiel'sfocusoncostcontrolhelpedCommodoredowellduringthepricewar,with$1

billionin1983sales. [12] Byearly1984SynapseSoftware—thelargestproviderofthird­partyAtari8­bit software—received65%ofsalesfromtheCommodoremarket, [11] andCommodoresoldalmostthreetimes asmanycomputersasAtarithatyear. [13]

Despiteitsfocusonthelowerendofthemarket,Commodore'scomputerswerealsosoldinupmarket departmentstoressuchasHarrod's. [14] Thecompanyalsoattractedseveralhigh­profilecustomers.In1984, thecompany'sBritishbranchbecamethefirstmanufacturertoreceivearoyalwarrantforcomputer businesssystems. [15] NASA'sKennedySpaceCenterwasanothernotedcustomer,withover60 Commodoresystemsprocessingdocumentation,trackingequipmentandemployees,costingjobs,and ensuringthesafetyofhazardouswaste. [16]

Tramielquits;theAmigavs.STbattle

Althoughbyearly1984CreativeComputingcomparedCommodore

to"awell­armedbattleship[which]rulesthemicrowaves"and threatenedtodestroyrivalslikeAtariandColeco, [17] Commodore's boardofdirectorswereasimpactedasanyoneelsebytheprice spiralanddecidedtheywantedout.Aninternalpowerstruggle

resulted;inJanuary1984,Tramielresignedduetointense

disagreementwiththechairmanoftheboard,IrvingGould.Gould replacedTramielwithMarshallF.Smith,asteelexecutivewhohadnoexperiencewithcomputersor consumermarketing. [18][19][20] Tramielfoundedanewcompany,TramelTechnology(spelleddifferentlyso peoplewouldpronounceitcorrectly),andhiredawayanumberofCommodoreengineerstobeginworkon anext­generationcomputerdesign.

SecondCommodorelogo,with mixed­casecompanyname(1985– 1994).

SecondCommodorelogo,with

mixed­casecompanyname(1985–

1994).

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NowitwaslefttotheremainingCommodoremanagementtosalvagethecompany'sfortunesandplanfor

thefuture.ItdidsobybuyingasmallstartupcompanycalledAmigaCorporationinAugust1984,for$25

million($12.8millionincashand550,000incommonshares)whichbecameasubsidiaryofCommodore,

calledCommodore­Amiga,Inc. [21] Commodorebroughtthisnew32­bitcomputerdesign(initially

codenamed"Lorraine",laterdubbedtheAmiga1000)tomarketinthefallof1985forUS$1295.

ButTramielhadbeatenCommodoretothepunch.Hisdesignwas95%completedbyJune(whichfueled

speculationthathisengineershadtakentechnologywiththemfromCommodore).InJuly1984hebought

theconsumersideofAtariInc.fromWarnerCommunicationswhichallowedhimtostrikebackandrelease

theAtariSTearlierin1985forabout$800.

Duringdevelopmentin1983,Amigahadexhaustedventurecapitalandwasdesperateformorefinancing.

JayMinerandcompanyhadapproachedformeremployerAtari,andtheWarner­ownedAtarihadpaid Amigatocontinuedevelopmentwork. [22] InreturnAtariwastogetone­yearexclusiveuseofthedesignas avideogameconsole.AfteroneyearAtariwouldhavetherighttoaddakeyboardandmarketthecomplete Amigacomputer.TheAtariMuseumhasacquiredtheAtari­AmigacontractandAtariengineeringlogs

revealingthattheAtariAmigawasoriginallydesignatedasthe1850XLD.AsAtariwasheavilyinvolved

withDisneyatthetime,itwaslatercode­named"Mickey",andthe256Kmemoryexpansionboardwas

codenamed"Minnie". [23]

Thefollowingyear,TramieldiscoveredthatWarnerCommunicationswantedtosellAtari,whichwas

rumoredtobelosingabout$10,000aday.InterestedinAtari'soverseasmanufacturingandworldwide

distributionnetworkforhisnewcomputer,heapproachedAtariandenterednegotiations.Afterseveralon­

again/off­againtalkswithAtariinMayandJune1984,TramielhadsecuredhisfundingandboughtAtari's

ConsumerDivision(whichincludedtheconsoleandhomecomputerdepartments)inJuly.

AsmoreexecsandresearchersleftCommodoreaftertheannouncementtojoinupwithTramiel'snew

companyAtariCorp.,Commodorefollowedbyfilinglawsuitsagainstfourformerengineersfortheftof

tradesecretsinlateJuly.Thiswasintended,ineffect,tobarTramielfromreleasinghisnewcomputer.

OneofTramiel'sfirstactsafterformingAtariCorp.wastofiremostofAtari'sremainingstaff,andto cancelalmostallongoingprojects,inordertoreviewtheircontinuedviability.InlateJuly/earlyAugust, TramielrepresentativesdiscoveredtheoriginalAmigacontractfromthepreviousfall.Seeingachanceto gainsomeleverage,Tramielimmediatelyusedthecontracttocounter­sueCommodorethroughitsnew

subsidiary,Amiga,onAugust13.

TheAmigacrew,stillsufferingseriousfinancialproblems,hadsoughtmoremonetarysupportfrom investorsthatentirespring.AtaroundthesametimethatTramielwasinnegotiationswithAtari,Amiga enteredintodiscussionswithCommodore.ThediscussionsultimatelyledtoCommodore'sintentionsto purchaseAmigaoutright,whichwould(fromCommodore'sviewpoint)cancelanyoutstandingcontracts­ includingAtariInc.'s.This"interpretation"iswhatTramielusedtocounter­sue,andsoughtdamagesandan injunctiontobarAmiga(andeffectivelyCommodore)fromproducinganyresemblingtechnology.This wasanattempttorenderCommodore'snewacquisition(andthesourceforitsnextgenerationof computers)useless.Theresultingcourtcaselastedforseveralyears,withbothcompaniesreleasingtheir

respectiveproducts.ByMarch1987theyhadsettledoutofcourt,withallsuitsagainstTramiel'sengineers

dropped.His"BusinessisWar"tacticshadsucceededagain.

ThroughoutthelifeoftheSTandAmigaplatforms,a ferociousAtari­Commodorerivalryraged.Whilethisrivalry wasinmanywaysaholdoverfromthedayswhenthe

Commodore64hadfirstchallengedtheAtari800(among

others)inaseriesofscathingtelevisioncommercials,the eventsleadingtothelaunchoftheSTandAmigaonly servedtofurtheralienatefansofeachcomputer,whofought vitriolicholywarsonthequestionofwhichplatformwas superior.Thiswasreflectedinsalesnumbersforthetwo

platformsuntilthereleaseoftheAmiga500in1987which

ledtheAmigasalestoexceedtheSTbyabout1.5to1,

despitereachingthemarketlater.However,thebattlewasin

vain,asneitherplatformcapturedasignificantshareofthe

worldcomputermarketandonlytheAppleMacintosh

wouldsurvivetheindustry­wideshifttoMicrosoftWindowsrunningonPCclones.

Amiga500(1987)

Amiga500(1987)

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Demise

AdamOsbornestatedinApril1981that"themicrocomputerindustryaboundswithhorrorstories

describingthewayCommodoretreatsitsdealersanditscustomers." [24] Manyintheindustrybelieved

rumorsinlate1983thatCommodorewoulddiscontinuethe64despiteitsgreatsuccessbecausethey

dislikedthecompany'sbusinesspractices,includingpoortreatmentofdealersandintroducingnew computersincompatiblewithexistingones.Onedealersaid"It'stoounsettlingtobeoneoftheirdealersand notknowwhereyoustandwiththem." [25] AfterTramiel'sdeparture,anotherjournalistwrotethathe"had neverbeenabletoestablishverygoodrelationswithcomputerdealers computerretailershaveaccused Commodoreoftreatingthemasharshlyasiftheyweresuppliersorcompetitors,andasaresult,manyhave becomedisenchantedwithCommodoreanddroppedtheproductline". [12] However,uponthe1987

introductionoftheAmiga2000,Commodoreretreatedfromitsearlierstrategyofsellingitscomputersto

discountoutletsandtoystores,andnowfavoredauthorizeddealers. [26][27][28] Softwaredevelopersalso dislikedthecompany,withonestatingthat"DealingwithCommodorewaslikedealingwithAttilathe Hun." [29] Atthe1987Comdex,aninformalInfoWorldsurveyfoundthatnoneofthedeveloperspresent plannedtowriteforCommodoreplatforms. [30] AlthoughComdexwasorientedtowardbusinesscomputing, notCommodore'straditionalconsumermarket,sucharesponsedidnotbodewellforCommodore'sefforts toestablishtheAmigaasabusinessplatform.

Commodorefacedtheproblem,whenmarketingtheAmiga,ofstillbeingseenasthecompanythatmade cheap,disposablecomputerslikethe64andVICwereperceivedtobe. [31][32] Bythelate1980s,the personalcomputermarkethadbecomedominatedbytheIBMPCandAppleMacintoshplatformsand Commodore'smarketingeffortsfortheAmigawerelesssuccessfulinbreakingthenewcomputerintothis

now­establishedmarketthanitspromotionsforthe8­bitlinehadbeeninmakingCommodorethehome

computerleader.Thecompanyputeffortintodevelopingandpromotingconsumerproductsthatwouldnot

beindemandforyears,suchasanAmiga500­basedHTPCcalledCDTV.Asearlyas1986,the

mainstreampresswaspredictingCommodore'sdemise, [33] andin1990ComputerGamingWorldwroteof its"abysmalrecordofcustomerandtechnicalsupportinthepast". [34] Nevertheless,asprofitsandthestock

pricebegantoslide,ThePhiladelphiaInquirer'sTop100Businessesannualcontinuedtolistseveral

Commodoreexecutivesamongthehighest­paidintheregionandthepaperdocumentedthecompany's questionablehiringpracticesandlargebonusespaidtoexecutivesamidshareholderdiscontent. [35][36]

CommodorefailedtoupdatetheAmigatokeeppaceasthePCplatformadvanced. [37] CBMcontinued

sellingAmiga2000swith7–14MHz68000CPUs,eventhoughtheAmiga3000with25MHz68030was

onthemarket.Applebythistimewasusingthe68040andhadrelegatedthe68000toitslowestendmodel,

consolesoftheera,whichsurpassedtheAmiga'sgamingcapabilities. [38] PCsfittedwithhigh­colorVGA graphicscardsandSoundBlaster(orcompatible)soundcardshadfinallycaughtupwiththeAmiga's performance [39][40] andCommodorebegantofadefromtheconsumermarket. [41] AlthoughtheAmigawas originallyconceivedasagamingmachine,CommodorehadalwaysemphasizedtheAmiga'spotentialfor professionalapplications. [42][43] ButtheAmiga'shigh­performancesoundandgraphicswereirrelevantfor mostoftheday'sMS­DOS­basedroutinebusinessword­processinganddata­processingrequirements,and themachinecouldnotsuccessfullycompetewithPCsinabusinessmarketthatwasrapidlyundergoing commoditization.CommodoreintroducedarangeofPCcompatiblesystemsdesignedbyitsGerman division,andwhiletheCommodorenamewasbetterknownintheUSthansomeofitscompetition,the systems'priceandspecswereonlyaverage. [44]

In1992,theA600replacedtheA500.Itremovedthenumerickeypad,Zorroexpansionslot,andother

functionality,butaddedIDE,PCMCIAandatheoreticallycost­reduceddesign.DesignedastheAmiga

300,anonexpandablemodeltosellforlessthantheAmiga500,the600wasforcedtobecomea

replacementforthe500duetotheunexpectedhighercostofmanufacture.Productivitydevelopers

increasinglymovedtoPCandMacintosh,whiletheconsolewarstookoverthegamingmarket.David Pleasance,managingdirectorofCommodoreUK, [45] describedtheA600asa'completeandutterscrew­ up'. [46]

Inlate1992,CommodorereleasedtheA4000andA1200computers,whichfeaturedanimprovedgraphics

chipset,theAGA.Thecustom­designedandcustom­builtAGAchipsetcostCommodoremorethanthe

commoditychipsusedinIBMPCs,despitelaggingtheminperformance.TheadventofPCgamesusing

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3DgraphicssuchasDoomandWolfenstein3DspelttheendofAmigaasagamingplatform,asitsgraphic

chipsetcouldn'tkeepup. [47][48]

In1993,the'makeorbreak'system,accordingtoPleasance, [49] wasa32­bitCD­ROM­basedgameconsole

calledtheAmigaCD32,butitwasnotsufficientlyprofitabletoputCommodorebackintheblack.

Inthe1992,allUKservicingandwarrantyrepairswereoutsourcedtoWangLaboratories.,whowere

replacedbyICLafterfailingtomeetrepairdemandduringtheChristmasrush1992. [50] By1994,onlyits operationsinGermanyandtheUnitedKingdomwerestillprofitable.Commodoredeclaredbankruptcyon April29,1994andceasedtoexist, [51] causingtheboardofdirectorsto"authorizethetransferofitsassets totrusteesforthebenefitofitscreditors",accordingtoanofficialstatement. [52]

Thecompany'scomputersystems,especiallytheC64andAmigaseries,retainedacultfollowingdecades

afteritsdemise. [53][54]

Post­CommodoreInternationalLtd.

Followingitsliquidation,Commodore'sformerassetswenttheirseparateways,withnoneofthe descendantcompaniesrepeatingCommodore'searlysuccess.BothCommodoreandAmigaproductlines

wereproducedinthe21stcentury,butseparatelywithAmiga,Inc.beingitsowncompanyandCommodore

computersbeingproducedbyCommodoreUSA,anunrelatedFlorida­basedcompanythathadpurchased

thebrandname.Othercompaniesdevelopoperatingsystemsandmanufacturecomputersforboth

CommodoreandAmigabrandsaswellassoftware.

"Commodore'shigh pointwastheAmiga

1000(1985).The

Amigawassofar aheadofitstimethat almostnobody­­ including Commodore's marketing department­­could fullyarticulatewhatit wasallabout.Today, it'sobvioustheAmiga wasthefirst multimediacomputer, butinthosedaysit wasderidedasagame machinebecausefew peoplegraspedthe importanceof advancedgraphics, sound,andvideo. Nineyearslater, vendorsarestill strugglingtomake systemsthatworklike

1985Amigas.

August1994

CommodoreUKwastheonlysubsidiarytosurvivethebankruptcy andevenplacedabidtobuyouttherestoftheoperation,oratleast theformerparentcompany.Foratimeitwasconsideredthefront

runnerinthebid,andnumerousreportssurfacedduringthe1994–

1995timeframethatCommodoreUKhadmadethepurchase.

CommodoreUKstayedinbusinessbysellingoldinventoryand makingcomputerspeakersandsomeothertypesofcomputer peripherals.However,CommodoreUKwithdrewitsbidatthestart oftheauctionprocessafterseverallargercompanies,including GatewayComputersandDellInc.,becameinterested,primarilyfor

Commodore's47patentsrelatingtotheAmiga.Ultimately,the

successfulbidderwasGermanPCconglomerateEscom,and

CommodoreUKwentintoliquidationonAugust30,1995.

In1995EscompaidUS$14millionfortheassetsofCommodore

International. [55] ItseparatedtheCommodoreandAmigaoperations intoseparatedivisionsandquicklystartedusingtheCommodore brandnameonalineofPCssoldinEurope.However,itsoon startedlosingmoneyduetoover­expansion,wentbankruptonJuly

15,1996,andwasliquidated.

InSeptember1997,theCommodorebrandnamewasacquiredby

DutchcomputermakerTulipComputersNV.

InJuly2004,Tulipannouncedanewseriesofproductsusingthe

Commodorename:fPET,aflashmemory­basedUSBFlashdrive;

mPET,aflash­basedMP3Playeranddigitalrecorder;eVIC,a20

GBmusicplayer.Also,itlicensedtheCommodoretrademarkand

"chickenlips"logototheproducersoftheC64DTV.

Inlate2004,TulipsoldtheCommodoretrademarkstoYeahronimoMediaVenturesfor€22million. [56]

ThesalewascompletedinMarch2005aftermonthsofnegotiations.YeahronimoMediaVenturessoon

renameditselftoCommodoreInternationalCorporationandstartedanoperationintendedtorelaunchthe Commodorebrand.ThecompanylauncheditsGravellineofproducts:personalmultimediaplayers equippedwithWi­Fi,withthehopetheCommodorebrandwouldhelpthemtakeoff.TheGravelwasnever asuccessandwasdiscontinued.OnJune24,2009,CICrenameditselftoReuniteInvestments. [57] CIC's founder,BenvanWijhe,boughtaHongKong­basedcompanycalledAsiarim,. [58] Thebrandisnowowned

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byC=Holdings(formerlyCommodoreInternationalB.V.): [59][60] Reunitebecamethesoleownerofitin 2010,afterbuyingtheremainingsharesfromthebankruptNedfield, [61] thensoldittoCommodore LicensingBV,asubsidiaryofAsiarim,laterin2010. [60] Itwassoldagainon7November2011:this transactionbecamethebasisofalegaldisputebetweenAsiarim(which,evenafterthatdate,made commercialuseoftheCommodoretrademark,amongothersbyadvertisingforsaleCommodore­branded computers,anddealinglicensingagreementsforthetrademarks)andthenewowners,thatwasresolvedby

thenewowners. [59]

TheCommodoreSemiconductorGroup(formerlyMOSTechnology,Inc.)wasboughtbyitsformer

managementandin1995,resumedoperationsunderthenameGMTMicroelectronics,utilizingatroubled

facilityinNorristown,PennsylvaniathatCommodorehadclosedin1992.By1999ithad$21millionin

revenuesand183employees.However,in2001theUnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyshut

theplantdown.GMTceasedoperationsandwasliquidated.

OwnershipoftheremainingassetsofCommodoreInternational,includingthecopyrightsandpatents,and

theAmigatrademarks,passedfromEscomtoU.S.PCclonemakerGateway2000in1997,whoretained

thepatentsandsoldthecopyrightsandtrademarks,togetherwithalicensetousethepatents,toAmiga, Inc.,aWashingtoncompanyfounded,amongothers,byformerGatewaysubcontractorsBillMcEwenand

FleecyMossin2000.OnMarch15,2004,Amiga,Inc.announcedthatonApril23,2003ithadtransferred

itsrightsoverpastandfutureversionsoftheAmigaOS(butnotyetoverotherintellectualproperty)toItec, LLC,lateracquiredbyKMOS,Inc.,aDelawarecompany.Shortlyafterwards,onthebasisofsomeloans andsecurityagreementsbetweenAmiga,Inc.andItec,LLC,theremainingintellectualpropertyassetswere

alsotransferredfromAmiga,Inc.toKMOS,Inc.OnMarch16,2005,KMOS,Inc.announcedthatithad

completedallregistrationswiththeStateofDelawaretochangeitscorporatenametoAmiga,Inc.The Commodore/AmigacopyrightswerelatersoldtoCloanto. [62] AmigaOS(aswellasspin­offsMorphOSand AROS)isstillmaintainedandupdated.Severalcompaniesproducerelatedhardwareandsoftwaretoday.

TheCommodorePetPDAwasannouncedin2015fromCommodoreBusinessMachinesLTD,London. [63]

Productline

ThisproductlineconsistsoforiginalCommodoreproducts.

Calculators

774D,9R23,C108,C110,F4146R,F4902,MM3,Minuteman6,P50,PR100,SR1800,SR4120D,

SR4120R,SR4148D,SR4148R,SR4190R,SR4212,SR4912,SR4921RPN,SR5120D,SR5120R,

SR5148D,SR5148R,SR5190R,SR59,SR7919,SR7949,SR9150R,SR9190R,US*3,andTheSpecialist

series:M55(TheMathematician),N60(TheNavigator),S61(TheStatistician). [64]

Computers

(listedchronologically)

CommodoreKIM­1­singleboardcomputer(1976)

CommodorePET/CBMrange(1977)

CommodoreVIC­20­a.k.a.VC­20andVIC­1001(1980[VIC­1001]/1981)

CommodoreCBM­IIrange­a.k.a.B­rangea.k.a.600/700range(1982)

CommodoreMAXMachine­PredecessortoC64(1982)

Commodore64­includingC64C(1982/1986)

CommodoreEducator64­64inaPET40xxcase(1983)

CommodoreSX­64­all­in­oneportableC64includingscreenanddiskdrive(1984)

Commodore16­includingC116,incompatiblewithC64(1984)

CommodorePlus/4­compatiblewithC16(1984)

CommodoreLCD­LCD­equippedlaptop(neverreleased)

Commodore128­including128Dand128DCR(1985/1985/1986)

Commodore65­C64successor(neverreleased)

Commodore900workstation(neverreleased)

workstation(neverreleased) CommodoreAmiga range Amiga1000 (1985)

Amiga1000(1985)

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Amiga500­inclA500+(1987/1991)

Amiga2000­inclA2000HD(1987)

Ami g a2500 (1989) Amiga2500(1989)

Amiga1500 (1990) Amiga1500(1990)

Amiga3000­inclAmiga_3000UX&Amiga_3000T(1990/1990/1991)

Amiga600 (1992) Amiga600(1992)

Ami g a1200 (1992) Amiga1200(1992)

Amiga4000­inclAmiga_4000T(1994/1996)

CommodorePCcompatiblesystems­CommodoreColt,PC1,PC10,PC20,PC30,PC40,

486SX­LTC

Gamesconsoles

AmigaCD32 (1993) AmigaCD32(1993)

Monitors

,

1000,1024,1070,1080,1081,1083S,1084,1084S,1084ST,1085S,1201,1402,1403,1404,1405,1407,

1428,1428x,1432D,1432V,1701,1702,1703,1801,1802,1803,1900M/DM602,1901/75BM13/M1,

1902,1902A,1930,1930­II,1930­III,1934,1935,1936,1936ALR,1940,1942,1950,1960,1962,2002,

Software

Commodore'sownsoftwarehadapoorreputation;InfoWorldin1984,forexample,statedthat"sofar,the

normalstandardforCommodoresoftwareismediocrity". [65] Thirdpartiesdevelopedthevastmajorityof softwareforCommodorecomputers.

AmigaOS­OperatingsystemfortheAmigarange;multitasking,microkernel,GUI

AmigaUnix­OperatingsystemfortheAmiga,basedonUnixSystemVRelease4

CommodoreDOS­Diskoperatingsystemforthe8­bitrange;embeddedindiskdriveROMs

KERNAL­CoreOSroutinesforthe8­bitrange;ROMresident

Simons'BASIC­BASICextensionfortheC64;cartridge­based

SuperExpander­BASICandmemoryextensionfortheVIC­20;cartridge­based

SuperExpander64­BASICextensionfortheC64

Smartphones­July2015 [66]

CommodorePet­5.5",3GBRAM,32GB,13MPCamera

Seealso

References

1."CommodoreInternationalB.V.:PrivateCompanyInformation".Investing.businessweek.com.2008­09­17.

Retrieved2009­08­10.

2."Calculatormakerintegratesdownwards".NewScientist.Vol.71no.1017.September9,1976.p.541.

3.SoftwareDevelopmentTimes(January1,2008),Page10.

2/10/2016

CommodoreInternational­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

5.Hogan,Thom(1981­08­31)."FromZerotoaBillioninFiveYears".InfoWorld.pp.6–7.Retrieved15February

2015.

6.Dickerman,Harold(August1982)."TheCommodore8032BusinessSystem".BYTE.p.366.Retrieved

16January2016.

7.Bagnall,Brian(2006).OntheEdge:TheSpectacularRiseandFallofCommodore,VariantPress.Page221.

Archive.Retrieved29November2015.

10.Mitchell,PeterW.(1983­09­06)."Asummer­CESreport".BostonPhoenix.p.4.Retrieved10January2015.

11.Mace,Scott(1984­02­27)."CanAtariBounceBack?".InfoWorld.p.100.Retrieved18January2015.

12.Leeman,Sheldon(May1984)."TheFutureofCommodore?".Ahoy!.p.44.Retrieved27June2014.

13.Kleinfield,N.R.(1984­12­22)."TradingUpinComputerGifts".TheNewYorkTimes.Retrieved5February

2015.

(PDF).TheTransactor(TransactorPublishing)7(6):21–23.Retrieved5December2015.

15."NewsBRK"(PDF).TheTransactor(TransactorPublishing)5(2):6–14.1984.Retrieved1January2015.

5December2015.

17.Anderson,JohnJ.(March1984)."Commodore".CreativeComputing.p.56.Retrieved6February2015.

18.Maher,Jimmy(2013­07­28)."AComputerforEveryHome?".TheDigitalAntiquarian.Retrieved10July2014.

19.Herzog,Marty(January1988)."NeilHarris".ComicsInterview(54)(FictioneerBooks).pp.41–51.

21.DavidNeedle."SpecialReport"p.90PersonalComputing,(August1985)

22."TOPSECRET:ConfidentialAtari­AmigaAgreement".AtariHistoricalSociety.November1983.Retrieved

2006­07­23.

Archives.atarimuseum.com.Retrieved2009­08­10.

24.Osborne,Adam(1981­04­13)."ThePortableOsborne".InfoWorld.pp.42–43.Retrieved1January2015.

25.Wierzbicki,Barbara(1983­12­05)."LongevityofCommodore64,VIC20questioned".InfoWorld.p.24.

Retrieved13January2015.

29.Chin,Kathy(1985­01­28)."AtariPromisesSoftwareForST".InfoWorld(IDG).p.17.Retrieved2011­03­19.

31.Dvorak,JohnC.(September1985)."Image".Ahoy!.p.5.Retrieved27June2014.

33."Adios,Amiga?".Time.February24,1986.

08.p.11.Retrieved16November2013.

combinedsalaryandbonuswillcertainlyearnhimaplaceamongthemostrichlyrewardedtechnologycompany executivesinthecountry."

37."TheAmigaStory:ConceivedatAtari,BornatCommodore"."Commodorebegantofalterintheearly90sas

WindowsPCsbecamemoreadvanced.Themultimediafeaturesthatwowedaudiencesin1985werecommonplace

ineveninexpensivecomputersoftheearly90s."

38."What'shot:AmigaorSega?"."Still,Amigaownerscouldtakeconsolationinthefactthattheirsystemplayed

thebestgamesaround.Butthat'snolongerthecase.Threenewvideogamesystems­­theSegaGenesis,NEC

TurboGrafix,andSNK'sNeoGeo­­havesurpassedtheAmigaasagamemachine.Anotherup­and­comer,the

NintendoSFX(knowninJapanastheSuperFamicom),willblowitaway.Meanwhile,aftersevenyearsthe Amigastillhasthesamepalette,thesameeightsprites,andthesamefouraudiovoices."

43."PERIPHERALS;COMMODOREINTRODUCESNEWAMIGA"." asanew,untestedmachinefroma companythathaspreviouslysolditsproductsintoystores,Amigafacesatoughchallengeincrackingthe conservativebusinessmarket.CommodoreofficialsvowthatAmigaistheflagshipofanarmadaofbusiness productsthatwilltransformthecompanyintoamajorinternationalforceintechnology."

jointmanagingdirectorofCommodore'sUnitedKingdomsubsidiary

"

46.TimSmithandChrisLloyd(1994),"ChewingtheFacts",'AmigaFormat'Annual1994,106­111,107.

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CommodoreInternational­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

50.CTW16/8/1993

52."CommodoreSinks".GamePro(60)(IDG).July1994.p.168.

53."Kidnapper'sretrocomputeroffersscantclues"."Thebeige­colouredmachinewaspopularinthe1980sbutis

nowconsideredanantique,thoughsomeelectronicdanceactsstilluseitandithasacultfollowingamongsome fansofretrocomputers."

55."CommodoreAuctionReport".Retrieved29November2015.

56."TulipoffloadsCommodorebrand".Retrieved29November2015.

24,2009.

58."EDGARFilingDocumentsfor0001457860­09­000002".Sec.gov.RetrievedNovember29,2012.

59.C=HoldingsBVv.AsiarimCorp.(UnitedStatesDistrictCourt,SouthernDistrictofNewYorkDecember16,

62."CloantoconfirmstransfersofCommodore/Amigacopyrights".amiga­news.de.Retrieved2015­02­20.

65.Mace,Scott(1984­04­09)."Atarisoftvs.Commodore".InfoWorld.p.50.Retrieved4February2015.

66."CommodoreSmartphonesrelaunched".SmartFoneArena.Retrieved29November2015.

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