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3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

IntroductionIntroduction andand MotivationMotivation ofof LTELTE

Introduction and and Motivation Motivation of of LTE LTE “I saw the angel in the marble

“I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free.Michelangelo

© Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights reserved

in the marble and carved until I set him free. ” Michelangelo © Telecom Italia S.p.A.
3G Long Term Evolution Telecom Italia Valencia, May 20 th 2009 AA fewfew wordswords onon……
3G Long Term Evolution
Telecom Italia
Valencia, May 20 th 2009
AA fewfew wordswords onon…… TelecomTelecom ItaliaItalia LabLab
Telecom Italia Lab (TILab), based in Torino
(Italy), is the competence center for Research &
Development and Testing within the Telecom
Italia Group.
Features know-how, resources and activities on
innovation and engineering of wireline and
mobile networks.
Telecommunication excellence center promoting
service, technology and process innovation.
Torino
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1

3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

AgendaAgenda

The wireless evolution trend The 3GPP standardization towards Long Term Evolution The 3GPP standardization path Long Term Evolution targets and requirements Overview of 3GPP technical specifications The relevance of the standardization phase LTE frequency bandwidths Creating the ecosystem Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN) LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology

Telecom Italia

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The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology Telecom Italia © Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights

2

3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

AgendaAgenda

The wireless evolution trend The 3GPP standardization towards Long Term Evolution The 3GPP standardization path Long Term Evolution targets and requirements Overview of 3GPP technical specifications The relevance of the standardization phase LTE frequency bandwidths Creating the ecosystem Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN) LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology

Telecom Italia

© Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights reserved

The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology Telecom Italia © Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights

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3G Long Term Evolution Telecom Italia Valencia, May 20 th 2009 TheThe wirelesswireless evolutionevolution trendtrend
3G Long Term Evolution
Telecom Italia
Valencia, May 20 th 2009
TheThe wirelesswireless evolutionevolution trendtrend
The mobile communications revolution involves:
New emerging telecommunicationstelecommunications applicationsapplications
multimedia streaming
music and video download
mobile gaming
content browsing
New communicationcommunication requirementsrequirements
instant-on
always-on
connection everywhere, anytime
To achieve this revolution strongly
depends on increasing the data rate
available at the mobile user.
multi-megabit throughput
higher spectral efficiency
higher bandwidths
lower cost per bit
improved QoS
© Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights reserved
4

3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

AgendaAgenda

The wireless evolution trend The 3GPP standardization towards Long Term Evolution The 3GPP standardization path Long Term Evolution targets and requirements Overview of 3GPP technical specifications The relevance of the standardization phase LTE frequency bandwidths Creating the ecosystem Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN) LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology

Telecom Italia

© Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights reserved

The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology Telecom Italia © Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights

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3G Long Term Evolution

 

Telecom Italia

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

 

TheThe 3GPP3GPP standardizationstandardization pathpath

 

User and operator requirements and expectations are continuously evolving, and different competing radio access technologies are emerging. Work has started in the 3rd3rd GenerationGeneration PartnershipPartnership ProjectProject (3GPP)3GPP to define a LongLong TermTerm EvolutionEvolution for 3G, which will:

stretch the performance of 3G technology; meet user expectations and ensure 3G competitiveness in a 10-year perspective and beyond.

The fundamental targets of this evolution — to further reduce user and operator costs and to improve service provisioning (more services at lower cost with better user experience) — will be met through improvedimproved coveragecoverage andand systemsystem capacitycapacity as well as increasedincreased datadata ratesrates and reducedreduced latencylatency and reducedreduced costcost forfor thethe operatoroperator.

As a consequence, 3GPP has launched the study item EvolvedEvolved UTRAUTRA andand UTRANUTRAN, a.k.a. LongLong TermTerm EvolutionEvolution (LTE)(LTE).

 
  The The LTE LTE project project is is not not a a standard, standard, but

TheThe LTELTE projectproject isis notnot aa standard,standard, butbut itit willwill resultresult inin thethe newnew evolvedevolved ReleaseRelease 88 ofof thethe UMTSUMTS standard.standard.

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3G Long Term Evolution Telecom Italia Valencia, May 20 th 2009 SomeSome detailsdetails onon 3GPP3GPP
3G Long Term Evolution
Telecom Italia
Valencia, May 20 th 2009
SomeSome detailsdetails onon 3GPP3GPP evolutionevolution
Release '99
(March 2000) : UMTS/W-CDMA
Release 5
(March 2002) : HSDPA
Release 6
Release 7
(March 2005) : HSUPA, Advanced HSDPA receivers
(June 2007) : HSPA+ (DL MIMO, Higher Order Modulations)
Release 8 and beyond : Long Term Evolution (LTE)
• 3GPP work on 3G evolution started in November 2004
• Release 8 specifications frozen in March 2009
• Currently, LTE standardization work is in progress under Release 9
• Field trials planned in 2009
• Target Deployment in 2010-2011
1999
2002
2005
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Rel. 99
Rel. 4
Rel. 5
Rel. 6
Rel. 7
Rel. 8
Rel. 9
Rel. 10
“CDMA path”
WCDMAWCDMA
HSDPAHSDPA
HSUPAHSUPA
HSPAHSPA evolutionevolution
“OFDMA path”
LTELTE
LTELTE--AA
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3G Long Term Evolution

Telecom Italia

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

LongLong TermTerm EvolutionEvolution requirementsrequirements

The 3GPP is standardizing the Evolved-UTRA (E-UTRA) radio interface with the goal of satisfying the mobilemobile broadbandbroadband wirelesswireless accessaccess requirements.

The objective of Evolved UTRA and UTRAN is to develop a framework for the evolutionevolution ofof thethe 3GPP3GPP radioradio--accessaccess technologytechnology towards a highhigh--datadata--raterate, lowlow--latencylatency and packetpacket--optimizedoptimized radio- access technology that can provide service performance comparable with the current fixed line access at limited cost.

A set of target target requirements requirements have been identified by 3GPP within the technical

A set of targettarget requirementsrequirements have been identified by 3GPP within the technical report “RequirementsRequirements forfor EvolvedEvolved UTRAUTRA (E(E--UTRA)UTRA) andand EvolvedEvolved UTRANUTRAN (E(E--UTRAN)UTRAN)” (TechnicalTechnical ReportReport TRTR 25.91325.913), regarding:

Capability-related requirements

System performance requirements

Deployment-related requirements

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3G Long Term Evolution

 

Telecom Italia

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

 

CapabilityCapability--relatedrelated requirementsrequirements

 

High level capability-related requirements are considered for the evolution of the radio interface and radio access network architecture.

PeakPeak datadata rate:rate: the possibility to provide significantly higher data rates than the current steps of 3G evolution, with targettarget instantaneousinstantaneous peakpeak datadata ratesrates up to 100 Mbps for the downlinkdownlink within a 20 MHz spectrum allocation (5 bit/s/Hz) and up to 50 Mbps for the uplinkuplink within a 20 MHz spectrum allocation (2.5 bit/s/Hz).

NOTE :

NOTE:

• the peak data rate may depend on the number of transmit and receive antennas.

 

• reference UE configuration comprises 2 receive antennas (downlink) and 1 transmit antenna (uplink).

• the supported peak data rate should scale according to the size of the spectrum allocation.

CellCell edgeedge bitbit rate:rate: increased cell edge bit rates, whilst maintaining same site locations as deployed today are required. Cell edge targets are significant since they impact the dimensioningdimensioning ofof thethe networknetwork and help deliver a more uniform user experience across the cell area. Cell edge throughput should be measured at the 5 th percentile.

Latency:Latency: significantly reduced controlcontrol planeplane latency (less than 100 ms) and useruser planeplane latency (below 10 ms).

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3G Long Term Evolution

Telecom Italia

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

SystemSystem performanceperformance requirementsrequirements

 

Different system performance requirements should be achieved with the system configuration of E-UTRA, while maintainingmaintaining acceptableacceptable systsystemem andand terminalterminal complexitycomplexity, costcost and powerpower consumptionconsumption and compatibilitycompatibility withwith earlierearlier releasesreleases and with other systems.

AverageAverage useruser throughput:throughput: downlink average user throughput per MHz 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA - uplink average user throughput per MHz 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink.

SpectrumSpectrum efficiency:efficiency: should deliver significantly improved spectrum efficiency (bit/s/Hz/site), targeting an improvement, in a loaded network, of a factor 3 to 4 (in downlink) and of a factor 2 to 3 (in uplink) as compared to current standards (Rel. 6 HSDPA, Rel. 6 Enhanced Uplink).

Mobility:Mobility: E-UTRAN shall support mobility across the cellular network. It should be optimized for low mobile speed from 0 to 15 km/h. Higher mobile speed between 15 and 120 km/h should be supported with high performance. Mobility across the cellular network shall be maintained at speeds from 120 km/h to 350 km/h. The E-UTRAN shall also support techniques and mechanisms to optimize delay and packet loss during intra system handover.

Coverage:Coverage: the above throughput, spectrum efficiency and mobility targets should be met assuming the reuse of existing UTRAN sites and the same carrier frequency. E-UTRA should support the following deploymentdeployment scenarioscenario: up to 5 km cell range and, with a slight degradation, up to 30 km cell range. A cell range up to 100 km should not be precluded by the specs.

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3G Long Term Evolution

Telecom Italia

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

DeploymentDeployment--relatedrelated requirementsrequirements

 

In order to protectprotect operatoroperator andand vendorvendor investmentsinvestments, the performance gain of any proposed update to, or evolution of, the 3G radio access or RAN must always be traded off against its impactimpact onon alreadyalready mademade investmentsinvestments. So an additional requirement is the possibility for smoothsmooth introductionintroduction ofof technicaltechnical solutionssolutions that fulfill the targets. Thus, any new or evolved radio access technology must be able to coexist with current 3G radio access technologies and radio network architectures and vice versa.

DeploymentDeployment scenarios:scenarios: the deployment scenarios that could be considered are a standalonestandalone deploymentdeployment scenarioscenario (deploying E-UTRAN either with no previous network deployed in the area or with no requirement for interworking with UTRAN/GERAN) and an integratedintegrated deploymentdeployment scenarioscenario (existing UTRAN and GERAN network deployed in the same geographical area).

SpectrumSpectrum flexibility:flexibility: a scaleablescaleable bandwidthbandwidth in order to allow deployment in different frequency bands, both in uplink and downlink (spectrum allocation: 1.25, 1.6, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz). Operation in paired and unpaired spectrum shall be supported.

SpectrumSpectrum deployment:deployment: is required to cope with coco--existenceexistence in the same geographical area and co-location with GERAN/UTRAN and between operators on adjacent channels. Co-existence on overlapping and/or adjacent spectrum at country borders.

InterworkingInterworking withwith 3GPP3GPP RAT:RAT: E-UTRAN terminals supporting also UTRAN and/or GERAN operation should be able to support measurement of, and handover from and to, both 3GPP3GPP UTRANUTRAN andand 3GPP3GPP GERANGERAN with acceptable impact on terminal complexity and performance.

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3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

Telecom Italia

OverviewOverview ofof 3GPP3GPP technicaltechnical specificationsspecifications

All new Radio Access Network specifications for E-UTRA and E-UTRAN use the prefix 36.x36.x (rather than 25.x). The described radio interface covers the interface between the User Equipment (UE) and the network.

The radio interface is composed of the layer 1, 2 and 3. The 36.20036.200 seriesseries describes the layerlayer 11 (physical layer) specifications. LayersLayers 22 andand 33 are described in the 36.30036.300 seriesseries.

3GPP TS 36.201

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer; General description

 

3GPP TS 36.211

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical Channels and Modulation

 

3GPP TS 36.212

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Multiplexing and channel coding

 

3GPP TS 36.213

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer procedures

 

3GPP TS 36.214

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical layer; Measurement

 

3GPP TS 36.302

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Services provided by the physical layer

 

3GPP TS 36.304

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) procedures in idle mode

3GPP TS 36.306

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) radio access capabilities

3GPP TS 36.321

Evolved

Universal

Terrestrial

Radio

Access

(E-UTRA);

Medium

Acces

Control

(MAC)

protocol

3GPP TS 36.322

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol specification

3GPP TS 36.323

Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA);

Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)

3GPP TS 36.331

Evolved

Universal

Terrestrial

Radio

Access

(E-UTRA);

Radio

Resource Control

(RRC)

protocol

Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol http://www.3gpp.org/specifications
Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol http://www.3gpp.org/specifications
http://www.3gpp.org/specifications
http://www.3gpp.org/specifications

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3G Long Term Evolution

Telecom Italia

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

TheThe relevancerelevance ofof thethe standardizationstandardization phasephase

Standards are important to operators because:

 
Standards are important to operators because:  

1. Open standards ensure that there is a sufficient ecosystem behind the technology.

2. Open and standard interfaces allow multi vendor solutions.

 

3. International standards enable roaming solutions.

 

The success of a standard is not only its technical soundness (which is however a must!). The commitment of the industry behind a standard is a key indicator.

It enables mass market economies and availability of multiple devices from multiple vendors.

In other words: the success of the technology!

 

What happens if a standard is not available at the launch of a technology?

 

The operator must rely on a single vendor pre-standard implementation (Limited number of terminals, No mass market economy, No roaming, Need to update the network to standard equipment in a second stage)

How to deal with pre-standard terminals?

 

The adoption of pre-standard solutions increases the costs for network deployment and operation and will likely result in customer dissatisfaction!

 
 
 
 

Source: G. Romano, “Progress of LTE Standardisation”.

Presented at: “Next Generation Networks”, Bath, April 2009.

From paper to hardware

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13

3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

AgendaAgenda

The wireless evolution trend The 3GPP standardization towards Long Term Evolution The 3GPP standardization path Long Term Evolution targets and requirements Overview of 3GPP technical specifications The relevance of the standardization phase LTE frequency bandwidths Creating the ecosystem Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN) LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology

Telecom Italia

© Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights reserved

The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology Telecom Italia © Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights

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3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

LTELTE frequencyfrequency bandwidthsbandwidths

The potential LTELTE spectrumspectrum availabilityavailability:

Telecom Italia

spectrum availability availability : Telecom Italia LTE LTE Deployment Deployment Scenario Scenario : Source:

LTELTE DeploymentDeployment ScenarioScenario:

Italia LTE LTE Deployment Deployment Scenario Scenario : Source: “Spectrum Analysis for Future LTE Deployments”,

Source: “Spectrum Analysis for Future LTE Deployments”,

Motorola White Paper.

© Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights reserved

Analysis for Future LTE Deployments”, Motorola White Paper. © Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights

15

3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

AgendaAgenda

The wireless evolution trend The 3GPP standardization towards Long Term Evolution The 3GPP standardization path Long Term Evolution targets and requirements Overview of 3GPP technical specifications The relevance of the standardization phase LTE frequency bandwidths Creating the ecosystem Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN) LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology

Telecom Italia

© Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights reserved

The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology Telecom Italia © Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights

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3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

Telecom Italia

NextNext GenerationGeneration MobileMobile NetworksNetworks (NGMN)(NGMN)

The Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) Alliance, founded in 2006 by leading international mobile network operators, is a group of world leading mobile operators, technology vendors and research institutes.

NGMN's primary objective is to provide a coherent view of what operator community is going to require beyond currently deployed 3G networks.

Its goal is to ensure that the standards for next generation mobile networks and end user equipment will satisfy customer expectations upon future applications, as well as requirements of the network operators.

In June of 2008, NGMN selected LTE as the first technology that matched its requirements successfully.

technology that matched its requirements successfully. Source: “The NGMN Alliance - An Overview”, 2009.
technology that matched its requirements successfully. Source: “The NGMN Alliance - An Overview”, 2009.
technology that matched its requirements successfully. Source: “The NGMN Alliance - An Overview”, 2009.

Source: “The NGMN Alliance - An Overview”, 2009. Available at: http://www.ngmn.org/nc/downloads/techdownloads.html

http://www.ngmn.org
http://www.ngmn.org

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3G Long Term Evolution

 

Telecom Italia

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

 

LTE/SAELTE/SAE TrialTrial InitiativeInitiative (LSTI)(LSTI)

The

LSTI

is

an open initiative

driven by

*
*

Vendors and Operators launched in May 2007.

It currently counts 3939 participantsparticipants mapped over the entire LTE ecosystem.

Its objectives are to:

 

Drive

industrialization

of

3GPP

LTE/SAE

technology

 

Demonstrate LTE/SAE capabilities against 3GPP and NGMN requirements

Stimulate

 

development

of

the

LTE/SAE

ecosystem

 

* The latest companies to join LSTI: Bouygues Telecom, EMOBILE, EB Elektrobit Corporation, Setcom, Cisco, DT Mobile, and Turkcell.

FebruaryFebruary 20092009: The LSTI's Proof of Concept activity has consolidated measurements from leading equipment vendors to show that the industry's targets for performance are achievable:

LTE/SAE does exactly what it says on the tin. In addition to peak rates and minimum latency, results also reveal the 'real world' performance that operators will be able to offer to end users. Updates from the LSTI's Interoperability and Trials activities are also given.

 
http://www.lstiforum.com/
http://www.lstiforum.com/

Source: “Latest Results from the LSTI, Feb 2009”, 2009. Available at: http://www.lstiforum.org/file/news/Latest_LSTI_Results_Feb09_v1.pdf

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3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

AgendaAgenda

The wireless evolution trend The 3GPP standardization towards Long Term Evolution The 3GPP standardization path Long Term Evolution targets and requirements Overview of 3GPP technical specifications The relevance of the standardization phase LTE frequency bandwidths Creating the ecosystem Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN) LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology

Telecom Italia

© Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights reserved

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3G Long Term Evolution

Telecom Italia

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

TheThe MobileMobile broadbandbroadband futurefuture

While voice will always be important, mobile data is taking the driver’s seat as mobile operators develop their near and long-term technology strategies.

To meet and exceed subscribers’ expectations and requirements, mobile operators will offer new, innovative mobile data applications, supporting a seamless experience that provides end users with the access and ability to use the data-centric applications they use at home, in the office or on the go anywhere in the world.

The road to the mobile broadband future has several paths and each mobile operator will have different timetables and reasons for taking one path over another.

All agree on the ultimate goal: an efficient all-IP wireless network capable of supporting voice, video and data services. Choosing the air interface best suited to meet tomorrow’s needs is the key to reaching that goal!

All roads lead to Long Term Evolution (LTE)! For the first time in the world, a future technology standard has spanned the U.S., Asia and Europe with commitments from leading operators on their planned deployment of LTE and a global consensus that LTE will become the dominant technology for the next generation of mobile broadband.

LTE and a global consensus that LTE will become the dominant technology for the next generation

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3G Long Term Evolution Telecom Italia Valencia, May 20 th 2009 MobileMobile broadbandbroadband isis alreadyalready
3G Long Term Evolution
Telecom Italia
Valencia, May 20 th 2009
MobileMobile broadbandbroadband isis alreadyalready happening!happening!
PRESSPRESS
TelecomTelecom Italia:Italia: 2828 MPSMPS MobileMobile BroaBroadbanddband launchinglaunching inin ItalyItaly inin 20200909
RELEASERELEASE
Telecom Italia first to offer HSPA+ Data Cards based on Qualcomm chipset capable of 28
Megabits per second downlink and 5.7 megabits per second uplink
Telecom Italia will be offering mobile broadband connections speeds of up to 28 Mps in 2009.
At its Turin Labs, Telecom Italia is the first company in Europe to run field trials of the next-
generation broadband products that are coming to market in spring 2009. HSPA+ technology,
using Qualcomm chipsets, will roll out in the first half of next year in an initial Data Card offering
for PCs enabling mobile internet connections at data rates of up to 21 Mps (5.7 Mps upload).
Downlink speeds will rise to 28 Mps in the second half of 2009.
“This is truly a game-changing milestone for the European mobile market,” said Enrico Salvatori,
Senior Vice President and General Manager of Qualcomm Europe. “Telecom Italia is leveraging our
technology to enable a new generation of wireless services that redefine the capabilities of the
mobile internet and transform the wireless experience.”
“This milestone confirms Telecom Italia’s commitment to innovation and bringing the best possible
user experience to its subscribers,” said Luca Tomassini, Head of Business Innovation at Telecom
Italia.
Rome, 22 December 2008
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3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

AgendaAgenda

The wireless evolution trend The 3GPP standardization towards Long Term Evolution The 3GPP standardization path Long Term Evolution targets and requirements Overview of 3GPP technical specifications The relevance of the standardization phase LTE frequency bandwidths Creating the ecosystem Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN) LTE/SAE Trial Initiative (LSTI) The Mobile broadband future Internet numerology

Telecom Italia

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3G Long Term Evolution Telecom Italia Valencia, May 20 th 2009 InternetInternet numerologynumerology A search
3G Long Term Evolution
Telecom Italia
Valencia, May 20 th 2009
InternetInternet numerologynumerology
A search for the keyword LTE, on GOOGLE Italy, brings 8.460.000 result links and 6.225 news
links!
A search for the keyword Mobile Broadband, on GOOGLE Italy, brings to 20.300.000 result links
and 10.561 news links!
Interesting is the result coming from GOOGLE Trends: ☺
Sources: http://www.google.it, http://www.google.com/trends
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3G Long Term Evolution

Valencia, May 20 th 2009

Telecom Italia

¡Gracias!

Valeria D’Amico

TELECOM ITALIA

Telecom Italia Lab (TILAB) Wireless Access Innovation

Email: valeria1.damico@telecomitalia.it

© Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights reserved

Wireless Access Innovation Email: valeria1.damico@telecomitalia.it © Telecom Italia S.p.A. 2009 - All rights reserved 24

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