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J. K. Rowling
Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone
emerged from the creative mind of J. K.
(Joanna Kathleen) Rowling on a train ride from
Manchester to London in 1990. Rowling was a
single mother of an infant daughter and living
on welfare in Edinburgh, Scotland, when she
began the novel. Putting pen to paper in a
caf while her baby, Jessica, napped, Rowling
soon skyrocketed to fame and fortune. While
she received an advance of only 2,500
(approximately $3,500 American) for the
novel from her British publisher, Bloomsbury,
she has since become one of the richest
women in the United Kingdom. Her first book
was published under the original title Harry
Potter and the Philosophers Stone (the books
American publishers feared that mention of
philosophers would scare away young readers

and changed the title to Harry Potter and the

Sorcerers Stone). The book garnered rave
reviews in the United Kingdom, where it won
the British Book Awards Childrens Book of
the Year prize, as well as the Smarties Book
Prize. Critics have compared her to classic
childrens writers such as Roald Dahl, C. S.
Lewis, and J. R. R. Tolkien, who also fused the
traditional adventure story with fantastic
elements drawn from myth and legend.

Soon after the British release of Harry Potter

and the Philosophers Stone, Arthur Levine, an
editorial director for Scholastic Books, bought
the American rights to the novel for the
impressive sum of $105,000. This money
allowed Rowling to retire from a teaching job
and devote herself entirely to writing. When it
was released in America, Harry Potter and the
Sorcerers Stone almost immediately became
a publishing sensation, holding the top spot

on the New York Times Best-Seller List for

several months. The book was unique in
attracting both young and adult readers;
indeed, the British publisher issued an edition
with a less colorful cover for grown-ups to
read on trains without having to hide the
novel behind a newspaper. Spurred by the
success of her first book, Rowling produced a
number of sequels, which have won the
Smarties Book Prize so often (in three
consecutive years) that Rowling has
requested that her books no longer be
considered candidates for the prize. To date,
the Harry Potter empire includes four books in
the Potter series, a couple of related works
written by Rowling for charity (Quidditch
Through the Ages and Fantastical Beasts and
Where to Find Them), and a major motion
picture produced by Warner Brothers.

Harry Potter and the Sorcerers

Stone draws on a long tradition of English
fantasy works that seem to be for children but

are in fact deep allegories of the human

condition. Rowling herself has stated that her
book is really about imagination and that
practicing wizardry is only a metaphor for
developing ones full potential. On one level,
the story is a thriller with a criminal plot (the
planned theft of the Sorcerers Stone) that is
thwarted by a group of brave students, just as
C. S. Lewiss Narnia bookschildhood
favorites of Rowlingsare about children who
explore a strange land and perform heroic
deeds. But on a deeper level, Harry Potter and
the Sorcerers Stone, like the Narnia books,
illustrates the challenges and adventures of
growing up. Rowlings book outlines every
childs ordeal of becoming an individual,
winning respect from peers, learning about
loyalty, discovering the difference between
forgivable vices and unforgivable sins, and
believing in something bigger than oneself.
Harrys transformation from a forgotten
orphan living under the stairs into a publicly
recognized individual (symbolized by the
magical, adultlike letters addressed to him),

and then finally into a renowned hero

represents the successful entry into the public
world wished for by every child. Harrys
escape from misery to a new place where he
has friends, respect, and a useful role in the
world is a projection of every childs ideal life.
Most important, Harrys discovery that there
is something uniquely valuable inside him
represents the dream of innumerable people
children and adults alikewho enjoy
indulging their imaginations.
Plot Overview
Mr. Dursley, a well-off Englishman, notices
strange happenings on his way to work one
day. That night, Albus Dumbledore, the head
of a wizardry academy called Hogwarts,
meets Professor McGonagall, who also
teaches at Hogwarts, and a giant named
Hagrid outside the Dursley home. Dumbledore
tells McGonagall that someone named
Voldemort has killed a Mr. and Mrs. Potter and
tried unsuccessfully to kill their baby son,
Harry. Dumbledore leaves Harry with an

explanatory note in a basket in front of the

Dursley home.

Ten years later, the Dursley household is

dominated by the Dursleys son, Dudley, who
torments and bullies Harry. Dudley is spoiled,
while Harry is forced to sleep in a cupboard
under the stairs. At the zoo on Dudleys
birthday, the glass in front of a boa constrictor
exhibit disappears, frightening everyone.
Harry is later punished for this incident.

Mysterious letters begin arriving for Harry.

They worry Mr. Dursley, who tries to keep
them from Harry, but the letters keep arriving
through every crack in the house. Finally, he
flees with his family to a secluded island
shack on the eve of Harrys eleventh birthday.
At midnight, they hear a large bang on the
door and Hagrid enters. Hagrid hands Harry

an admissions letter to the Hogwarts School

of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry learns that
the Dursleys have tried to deny Harrys
wizardry all these years.

The next day, Hagrid takes Harry to London to

shop for school supplies. First they go to the
wizard bank, Gringotts, where Harry learns
that his parents have left him a hefty supply
of money. They shop on the wizards
commercial street known as Diagon Alley,
where Harry is fitted for his school uniform.
Harry buys books, ingredients for potions,
and, finally, a magic wandthe companion
wand to the evil Voldemorts.

A month later, Harry goes to the train station

and catches his train to Hogwarts on track
nine and three quarters. On the train, Harry
befriends other first-year students like Ron
Weasley and Hermione Granger, a Muggle girl

chosen to attend Hogwarts. At school, the

first-years take turns putting on the Sorting
Hat to find out in which residential house
they will live. Harry fears being assigned to
the sinister Slytherin house, but he, Ron, and
Hermione end up in the noble Gryffindor

As the school year gets underway, Harry

discovers that his Potions professor, Snape,
does not like him. Hagrid reassures Harry that
Snape has no reason to dislike him. During
their first flying lesson on broomsticks, the
students are told to stay grounded while the
teacher takes an injured boy named Neville to
the hospital. Draco Malfoy, a Slytherin bully,
snatches Nevilles prized toy and flies off with
it to the top of a tree. Harry flies after him.
Malfoy throws the ball in the air, and Harry
speeds downward, making a spectacular
catch. Professor McGonagall witnesses this
incident. Instead of punishing Harry, she
recommends that he play Quidditch, a much-

loved game that resembles soccer played on

broomsticks, for Gryffindor. Later that day,
Malfoy challenges Harry to a wizards duel at
midnight. Malfoy doesnt show up at the
appointed place, and Harry almost gets in
trouble. While trying to hide, he accidentally
discovers a fierce three-headed dog guarding
a trapdoor in the forbidden third-floor corridor.

On Halloween, a troll is found in the building.

The students are all escorted back to their
dormitories, but Harry and Ron sneak off to
find Hermione, who is alone and unaware of
the troll. Unwittingly, they lock the troll in the
girls bathroom along with Hermione.
Together, they defeat the troll. Hermione tells
a lie to protect Harry and Ron from being
punished. During Harrys first Quidditch
match, his broom jerks out of control.
Hermione notices Snape staring at Harry and

muttering a curse. She concludes that he is

jinxing Harrys broom, and she sets Snapes
clothes on fire. Harry regains control of the
broom and makes a spectacular play to win
the Quidditch match.

For Christmas, Harry receives his fathers

invisibility cloak, and he explores the school,
unseen, late at night. He discovers the Mirror
of Erised, which displays the deepest desire of
whoever looks in it. Harry looks in it and sees
his parents alive. After Christmas, Harry, Ron,
and Hermione begin to unravel the
mysterious connection between a break-in at
Gringotts and the three-headed guard dog.
They learn that the dog is guarding the
Sorcerers Stone, which is capable of
providing eternal life and unlimited wealth to
its owner and belongs to Nicolas Flamel,
Dumbledores old partner.

A few weeks later, Hagrid wins a dragon egg

in a poker game. Because it is illegal to own
dragons, Harry, Ron, and Hermione contact
Rons older brother, who studies dragons.
They arrange to get rid of the dragon but get
caught. Harry, Ron, and Hermione are
severely punished, and Gryffindor is docked
150 points. Furthermore, part of their
punishment is to go into the enchanted forest
with Hagrid to find out who has been killing
unicorns recently. In the forest, Harry comes
upon a hooded man drinking unicorn blood.
The man tries to attack Harry, but Harry is
rescued by a friendly centaur who tells him
that his assailant was Voldemort. Harry also
learns that it is Voldemort who has been
trying to steal the Sorcerers Stone.

Harry decides that he must find the stone

before Voldemort does. He, Ron, and
Hermione sneak off that night to the
forbidden third-floor corridor. They get past
the guard dog and perform many impressive

feats as they get closer and closer to the

stone. Harry ultimately finds himself face to
face with Quirrell, who announces that Harry
must die. Knowing that Harry desires to find
the stone, Quirrell puts Harry in front of the
Mirror of Erised and makes him state what he
sees. Harry sees himself with the stone in his
pocket, and at that same moment he actually
feels it in his pocket. But he tells Quirrell that
he sees something else. A voice tells Quirrell
that the boy is lying and requests to speak to
Harry face to face. Quirrell removes his turban
and reveals Voldemorts face on the back of
his head. Voldemort, who is inhabiting
Quirrells body, instructs Quirrell to kill Harry,
but Quirrell is burned by contact with the boy.
A struggle ensues and Harry passes out.

When Harry regains consciousness, he is in

the hospital with Dumbledore. Dumbledore
explains that he saved Harry from Quirrell just
in time. He adds that he and Flamel have
decided to destroy the stone. Harry heads

down to the end-of-year banquet, where

Slytherin is celebrating its seventh
consecutive win of the house championship
cup. Dumbledore gets up and awards many
last-minute points to Gryffindor for the feats
of Harry and his friends, winning the house
cup for Gryffindor. Harry returns to London to
spend the summer with the Dursleys.

Harry Potter
Harry Potter is the hero of the story. Orphaned
as a baby, he is brought up by his aunt and
uncle, the Dursleys, maltreated by them, and
tormented by their obnoxious son, Dudley.
Neglected and disdained, Harry grows up to
be a timid boy unsure of his abilities. His
sudden fame as a wizard at Hogwarts comes
not just as a total contrast to his earlier
forgotten misery, but as a fate that we feel is
very much deserved after his youthful
suffering. Yet even after he becomes famous,
Harry never loses his modesty and humility.

Even by the end of the story, when he has

obtained the Sorcerers Stone and saved
Hogwarts (and perhaps the whole world) from
Voldemort, Harry does not revel in his
success. He simply asks Dumbledore a few
factual questions and is satisfied with the
answers, never expecting any praise.
Moreover, he does not wish to use his powers
to fulfill grandiose wishes. Dumbledore wisely
knows that, unlike Voldemort, Harry will desire
only to get the magic stone, not to use it. He
does not covet riches or power, or harbor any
secret wild ambition; he just wants to make
sure that the stone and its power do not fall
into the wrong hands. The simplicity of his
desire is part of what makes him a hero.

Harrys capacity for loyal friendship is another

of his attractive features. It is also one of the
surest proofs that Harry is developing at
Hogwarts, where he is a lonely individual at
the storys beginning but has a circle of loyal

friends and admirers by the end. His faithful

membership in Gryffindor is a symbol of his
newly developing team spirit. He prefers
maintaining good relations with his
schoolmates to basking in individual glory.
Similarly, rather than boast of his immense
talent at Quidditch, he rejoices in the
communal victory for his house and does not
stop for applause even when he breaks
Quidditch records. He is willing to put himself
at risk for the sake of a friend, sometimes
foolishly, as when he battles a troll to save
Hermione and when he gets himself severely
punished for helping Hagrid with his dragon.
Harrys success at forging true friendships
and overcoming his early loneliness is almost
as inspiring as his defeat of the evil and
powerful Voldemort.

Draco Malfoy
The son of a long line of wizards, Malfoy is the
opposite of Harry in his familiarity with the

Hogwarts experience, his sense of

entitlement, his snobbery, and his generally
unpleasant character. Rowling includes Malfoy
in the story partly as a foil to Harrys
character; in seeing how unlikable Malfoy is,
we appreciate all the more Harrys kindness
and generosity of spirit. For example, right
after Malfoy insults Rons poverty on the train
ride to Hogwarts, Harry buys double the
number of pastries that he needs and shares
them with Ron. Malfoys snobbish insistence
on only socializing with children of the best
families, his selfishness, and his
overwhelming aura of superiority all resemble
similar characteristics in Dudley Dursley,
Harrys nemesis in the Muggle world. The
similarity between Malfoy and Dudley is
important in reminding us that Harrys new
life will not be an escape from his old
problems. Malfoys presence throughout the
preparatory stages of Harrys educational
adventure is a rude awakening to the realities
of the wizards world, which includes
detestable characters like Malfoy. At

Hogwarts, Harry will not be surrounded simply

by kindness, but will have to face
unpleasantness as well, just as he has earlier
in his life.
But Malfoy also plays a somewhat deeper role
in the story, at least symbolically. He is meanspirited and nasty, but there are hints that in
time he may become far worse than nasty; he
may blossom into a truly evil character like
Voldemort. The Latin word draco means
dragon, and the French words mal and foi
mean bad faith. We sometimes suspect that
Draco Malfoy may indeed be a bad faith
dragon, a monster of ill will. Perhaps he is a
dragon still being incubated, like Hagrids
baby dragon that will soon grow into a
destructive monster. Malfoy belongs to the
darkly powerful house of Slytherin, as did
Voldemort. His total lack of redeeming
features makes him almost as flat a villain as
Voldemort. Like Voldemort, Malfoy is not so
much a realistic character as a caricature of
badness. Of course, we do not know what

Malfoy will become in the future. But his

presence at Hogwarts reminds us that every
generation will have its heroes and its villains,
and that the struggle between right and
wrong will always continue.

Hermione Granger
Hermiones character develops significantly
over the course of the story and sheds light
on Harrys character as well. At the outset,
she is an annoying perfectionist, a goody-twoshoes who has read all the books for her
classes in advance, has learned all about
Hogwarts, and never breaks the rules. When
she first speaks to Harry on the train ride to
school, she is eager to impress him with her
knowledge, whereas Harry only wants to
make friends. Her intellectual talents are
indeed worthy of pride, as we find out later
when she scores 112 percent on her final
exam. But we sense that her show-off side is
a defense against her feelings of inferiority,

because she comes from a Muggle family and,

like Harry, is unfamiliar with the wizard world.
In both Hermione and Harry we see that
learning wizardry requires a great deal of
social adjustment and self-confidence.
Hermiones development into a likable
character and a friend begins in the troll
episode, when Harry and Ron are
reprimanded for trying to save her from the
monster and she coolly delivers a bold-faced
lie to the teacher. The little girl who has been
abiding by all the school rules now dares to lie
to her superiors, and a new friendship is born.
Hermiones decision to support her friends
rather than obey the rules showcases what is
perhaps truly valuable about Harrys
Hogwarts experience. The school teaches him
not just facts from books and how to follow
procedures, but alsoand perhaps more
importantloyalty, compassion for others,
and solidarity.


J. K. Rowling

Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
begins when Harry is spending a miserable
summer with his only remaining family, the
Dursleys. During a dinner party hosted by his
uncle and aunt, Harry is visited by Dobby, a
house-elf. Dobby warns Harry not to return to
Hogwarts, the magical school for wizards that
Harry attended the previous year. Harry
politely disregards the warning, and Dobby
wreaks havoc in the kitchen, infuriating the
Dursleys. The Dursleys angrily imprison Harry
in his room for the rest of the summer.
Luckily, Harry's friend Ron Weasley steals
Harry away in a flying car, and Harry happily
spends the rest of the summer at the Weasley

While shopping for school supplies with the

Weasleys, Harry has two unfortunate
encounters. He first encounters Lockhart, one
of his teachers, who demands to be in a photo
shoot with Harry. Harry then encounters
Lucius Malfoy, the evil father of one of Harry's
enemies, who almost starts a fight with Mr.
Weasley. As Harry prepares to return to
Hogwarts, he finds that he and Ron are unable
to enter the magically invisible train platform,
so they fly the Weasley car to Hogwarts. They
land messily, and both boys are given
detentions. Lockhart, who believes Harry flew
the car to get attention, lectures Harry.

Quidditch practices begin and Draco Malfoy is

the new Slytherin seeker. On the field, he calls
Hermione a "mudblood," insulting her Muggle
heritage. After taunting Hermione, Draco is

the suspect when, on Halloween night,

someone petrifies the school caretaker's cat
and writes a threatening message. Before the
cat is attacked, Harry twice hears an eerie
voice. He hears it first during his detention
and second during a party, moments before
the cat is attacked. Everybody in the school is
alarmed. By doing some research, Harry, Ron,
and Hermione learn that fifty years ago a
chamber at Hogwarts was opened and a
student was killed.

Playing for Gryffindor, Harry wins the

Quidditch match against Slytherin. During the
game, an enchanted ball hits Harry and
causes him to lose the bones in his arm.
Dobby, a house elf, has enchanted the ball in
an effort to have Harry injured and sent home.
That night, Harry sees the body of a first-year
who has been petrified arrive at the hospital.
Soon after, Lockhart begins a dueling club.
During the first meeting, Harry terrifies his
fellow students by speaking in Parseltongue to

a snake. Harry's ability frightens the others

because only the heir of Slytherin, who is
responsible for opening the chamber, would
have the ability to converse with snakes.
Harry comes under further suspicion when he
stumbles upon the petrified bodies of Justin
Finch-Fletchley and Nearly- Headless Nick.

Determined to catch the culprit, Ron, Harry

and Hermione brew a potion called Polyjuice.
The potion allows them to assume the bodies
of Slytherins and question Malfoy on the
Chamber of Secrets. They find out that Malfoy
is not the heir of Slytherin. No more attacks
occur for a while, and right before Valentine's
Day, Harry finds a diary in the broken toilet.
The diary belongs to a ghost named Moaning
Myrtle who haunts the girls' restroom. Harry
writes in the diary, which responds by writing
back. Through this dialogue, Harry meets Tom
Riddle, a boy who many years before had
accused Hagrid of opening the Chamber of

Hermione and a Ravenclaw girl are

mysteriously petrified. Harry and Ron venture
out of the castle to question Hagrid. Before
they reach Hagrid, the Minister of Magic,
Cornelius Fudge, and Lucius Malfoy remove
Dumbledore and Hagrid from Hogwarts. As
Hagrid is led away, he instructs the boys that
by following the spiders, they can find out
about the Chamber monster. Several nights
later, Harry and Ron sneak into the Forbidden
Forest to follow the spiders. They discover the
monster who killed the girl fifty years before
was not a spider, that the girl's body was
found in a bathroom, and that Hagrid is
innocent. The boys are almost killed by a
colony of giant spiders. As they escape, Harry
and Ron decide that Moaning Myrtle must
have been the girl killed by the monster.

A few days later, Ron and Harry discover a

piece of paper with a description of a basilisk
on it in Hermione's frozen hand. They deduce
the Chamber monster is a basilisk. Before the
boys can act on their knowledge, the teachers
announce that Ginny Weasley has been taken
into the chamber. Ron, Harry, and Lockhart
slide down a secret passage in Myrtle's
bathroom to underground tunnels. When
Lockhart accidentally curses himself, Ron
helps him and Harry leaves them behind.
Harry enters the Chamber of Secrets and
encounters Ginny's still body and Tom Riddle.
Tom turns out to be a younger version of
Voldemort, who has been enchanting Ginny
through his journal. Harry calls for help from
Dumbledore. A phoenix and a magic hat
arrive. Tom summons a basilisk, but the
phoenix punctures its eyes. The hat produces
a sword, which Harry uses to kill the giant
snake. Harry sticks a basilisk fang through the
diary, destroying Tom. Ginny wakes up.

Harry explains his adventure to Dumbledore.

Lucius Malfoy storms into the office with his
house-elf, Dobby, and Harry frees Dobby from
by tricking Lucius into giving Dobby a sock. All
is well in the castle as the students leave for
their summer vacations.


J. K. Rowling

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
opens on the night before Harry's thirteenth
birthday, when he receives gifts by Owl Post
from his friends at school. The next morning
at breakfast, Harry sees on television that a
man named Black is on the loose from prison.
At this time, Aunt Marge comes to stay with
the Dursleys, and she insults Harry's parents
numerous times. Harry accidentally causes

her to inflate. Harry leaves the Dursley's

house and is picked up by the Knight Bus, but
only after an alarming sighting of a large,
black dog. The Knight Bus drops Harry off at
Diagon Alley, where he is greeted by
Cornelius Fudge, the Minister of Magic. He
rents a room and awaits the start of school. In
Diagon Alley, Harry finishes his schoolwork,
admires a Firebolt broomstick in the window
of a shop, and after some time, finds his
friends Ron and Hermione. At a pet shop,
Hermione buys a cat named Crookshanks,
who chases Scabbers, Ron's aging pet rat.
Ron is most displeased. The night before they
all head off to Hogwarts, Harry overhears
Ron's parents discussing the fact that Sirius
Black is after Harry.

The students board the Hogwarts Express

train and are stopped once by an entity called
a Dementor. Harry faints and is revived by

Professor Lupin, the new defense against the

dark arts teacher. Soon afterward, the
students arrive at Hogwarts and classes
begin. In divination class, Professor Trelawney
foresees Harry's death by reading tealeaves
and finding the representation of a Grim, a
large black dog symbolizing death. In the care
of magical creatures class, Hagrid introduces
the students to Hippogriffs, large, deeply
dignified crosses between horses and eagles.
Malfoy insults one of these beasts, Buckbeak,
and is attacked. Malfoy drags out the injury in
an attempt to have Hagrid fired and Buckbeak
put to sleep. In Defense Against the Dark Arts,
Professor Lupin leads the class in a defeat of a
Boggart, which changes shape to appear as
the viewer's greatest fear. For Lupin, it turns
into an orb, for Ron, a spider. Harry doesn't
have a chance to fight it.

During a Hogwarts visit to Hogsmeade, a

wizard village which Harry is unable to visit
because he has no permission slip, Harry has

tea with Professor Lupin. Harry discovers that

the reason he wasn't allowed to fight the
Boggart was that Lupin had worried that it
would take the shape of Voldemort. This
concern catches Harry by surprise, because
Harry had been thinking even more fearfully
about the awful Dementors. Snape brings
Lupin a steaming potion, which Lupin drinks,
much to Harry's alarm. Later that night, Sirius
Black breaks into Hogwarts and destroys the
Fat Lady portrait that guards Gryffindor Tower.
The students spend the night sleeping in the
Great Hall while the teachers search the
castle. Soon afterwards, Quidditch moves into
full swing, and Gryffindor House plays against
Hufflepuff. During the game, Harry spies the
large black dog, and seconds later he sees a
hoard of Dementors. He loses consciousness
and falls off his broomstick. Harry wakes to
find that his trusty broomstick had flown into
the Whomping Willow and been smashed in
his fall, and the game itself had lost. Later,
Harry learns from Lupin that the Dementors

affect Harry so much because Harry's past is

so horrible.

During the next Hogsmeade visit, from which

Harry is forbidden, Fred and George Weasley
give Harry the Marauder's map, written by the
mysterious quartet of Moony, Prongs,
Wormtail and Padfoot. This map leads him
through a secret passageway into
Hogsmeade, where he rejoins Ron and
Hermione. Inside the Hogsmeade tavern,
Harry overhears Cornelius Fudge discussing
Sirius Black's responsibility for Harry's
parents' deaths, as well as for the death of
another Hogwarts student, Peter Pettigrew,
who was blown to bits, leaving only a finger.
Back at Hogwarts, Harry learns that Hagrid
received a notice saying that Buckbeak, the
hippogriff who attacked Malfoy, is going to be
put on trial, and Hagrid is inconsolable. The
winter holidays roll around. For Christmas,
Harry receives a Firebolt, the most impressive
racing broomstick in the world. Much to his

and Ron's dismay, Hermione reports the

broomstick to Professor McGonagall, who
takes it away out of fear that it may have
been sent (and cursed) by Sirius Black.

After the holidays, Harry begins working with

Professor Lupin to fight Dementors with the
Patronus charm; he is moderately successful,
but still not entirely confident in his ability to
ward them off. Soon before the game against
Ravenclaw, Harry's broomstick is returned to
him, and as Ron takes it up to the dormitory,
he discovers evidence that Scabbers has been
eaten by Crookshanks. Ron is furious at
Hermione. Soon afterwards, Gryffindor plays
Ravenclaw in Quidditch. Harry, on his Firebolt,
triumphs, winning the game. Once all the
students have gone to bed, Sirius Black
breaks into Harry's dormitory and slashes the
curtain around Ron's bed. Several days later,
Hagrid invites Harry and Ron over for tea and
scolds them for shunning Hermione on
account of Scabbers and the Firebolt. They

feel slightly guilty, but not terrible. Soon

Harry, under his invisibility cloak, meets Ron
during a Hogsmeade trip; when he returns,
Snape catches him and confiscates his
Marauder's Map. Lupin saves Harry from
Snape's rage, but afterwards he reprimands
him severely for risking his safety for "a bag
of magic tricks." As Harry leaves Lupin's
office, he runs into Hermione, who informs
him that Buckbeak's execution date has been
set. Ron, Hermione, and Harry are reconciled
in their efforts to help Hagrid. Around this
time, Hermione is exceptionally stressed by
all of her work, and in a day she slaps Malfoy
for picking on Hagrid and she quits Divination,
concluding that Professor Trelawney is a great
fraud. Days later, Gryffindor beats Slytherin in
a dirty game of Quidditch, winning the Cup.

Exams roll around, and during Harry's

pointless Divination exam, Professor
Trelawney predicts the return of Voldemort's
servant before midnight. Ron, Hermione, and

Harry shield themselves in Harry's invisibility

cloak and head off to comfort Hagrid before
the execution. While at his cabin, Hermione
discovers Scabbers in Hagrid's milk jug. They
leave, and Buckbeak is executed. As Ron,
Harry, Harry and Hermione are leaving
Hagrid's house and reeling from the sound of
the axe, the large black dog approaches
them, pounces on Ron, and drags him under
the Whomping Willow. Harry and Hermione
and Crookshanks dash down after them;
oddly, Crookshanks knows the secret knob to
press to still the flailing tree. They move
through an underground tunnel and arrive at
the Shrieking Shack. They find that the black
dog has turned into Sirius Black and is in a
room with Ron. Harry, Ron, and Hermione
manage to disarm Black, and before Harry
can kill Black, avenging his parents' deaths,
Professor Lupin enters the room and disarms
him. Harry, Ron, and Hermione are aghast as
Lupin and Black exchange a series of nods
and embrace.

Once the three students calm down enough to

listen, Lupin and Black explain everything.
Lupin is a werewolf who remains tame
through a special steaming potion made for
him by Snape. While Lupin was a student at
Hogwarts, his best friends, James Potter,
Sirius Black, and Peter Pettigrew, became
animagi (humans able to take on animal
forms) so that they could romp the grounds
with Lupin at the full moon. They explain how
Snape once followed Lupin toward his
transformation site in a practical joke set up
by Sirius, and was rescued narrowly by James
Potter. At this moment, Snape reveals himself
from underneath Harry's dropped invisibility
cloak, but Harry, Ron, and Hermione disarm
him, rendering him unconscious. Lupin and
Black then explain that the real murderer of
Harry's parents is not Black, but Peter
Pettigrew, who has been presumed dead but
really hidden all these years disguised as

Scabbers. Lupin transforms Scabbers into

Pettigrew, who squeals and hedges but
ultimately confesses, revealing himself to be
Voldemort's servant, and Black to be
innocent. They all travel back to Hogwarts,
but at the sight of the full moon, Lupin, who
has forgotten to take his controlling tonic (the
steaming liquid), turns into a werewolf. Sirius
Black responds by turning into the large black
dog in order to protect Harry, Ron, and
Hermione from Lupin. As Black returns from
driving the werewolf into the woods, a swarm
of Dementors approaches, and Black is
paralyzed with fear. One of the Dementors
prepares to suck the soul out of Harry, whose
patronus charm is simply not strong enough.
Out of somewhere comes a patronus that
drives the Dementors away. Harry faints.

Harry awakens in the hospital wing to hear

Snape and Cornelius Fudge discussing the fact
that Sirius Black is about to be given the fatal
Dementor's Kiss. Harry and Hermione protest,

claiming Black's innocence, but to no avail;

then Dumbledore enters the room, shoos out
the others, and mysteriously suggests that
Harry and Hermione travel back through
Hermione's time-turning device, and save
both Black and Buckbeak. Hermione turns her
hour-glass necklace back three turns, and
Harry and Hermione are thrust into the past,
where they rescue Buckbeak shortly before
his execution. From a hiding place in the
forest, Harry watches the Dementor sequence
and discovers that he had been the one who
conjured the patronus, and he is touched and
confused to note that his patronus had taken
the shape of a stag that he recognizes
instantly as Prongs, his father's animagi form.
After saving his past self from the Dementors,
Harry and Hermione fly to the tower where
Black is imprisoned, and they rescue Black,
sending him away to freedom on Buckbeak's
back. The next day, Harry is saddened to
learn that Professor Lupin is leaving Hogwarts
because of the previous night's scare.
Dumbledore meets with Harry and gives him

wise fatherly advice on the events that have

happened. On the train ride home, Harry
receives an owl- post letter from Sirius that
contains a Hogsmeade permission letter,
words of confirmation that he is safe in hiding
with Buckbeak and that he was, in fact, the
sender of the Firebolt, and a small pet owl for
Ron. Harry feels slightly uplifted as he returns
to spend his summer with the Dursleys.

Ron Weasley
Ron possesses the confidence of being a child
deeply loved. Unlike Harry, he has no financial
means. His father is a highly ranked member
of the Ministry of Magic and his family is
backed by generations of pure wizard blood,
but Ron is often picked on by Malfoy for
wearing tattered robes, for living in an old
house, and for not having a rich father. Ron is
deeply loyal to the people he loveshis
family, Harry, his pet rat Scabbers, and
Hermioneand he defends their rights with a

fiery desperation, as we see in this book when

he refuses to speak to Hermione for allowing
her cat to attack his rat, or for turning Harry's
new broomstick into Professor McGonagall. He
and Harry are inseparable, and he is often
perceived to be a sidekick to the famous
Harry Potter. Ron feels valued by Harry and
doesn't seem to mind this on a regular basis,
although in spurts he seems to feel deflated
and glossed over. He is adventurous, like
Harry, and somewhat mischievous but always
with good intentions, also like Harry. Ron has
a wry, skeptical sense of humor; if Harry is the
bold leader of their trio and Hermione the
textbook brain, Ron often acts as the defender
and jester. Ron Weasley and Hermione
Granger are Harry's best friends, although in
this book, they often are in disagreement.


J. K. Rowling

The story begins fifty years before the present
day, with a description of how the Riddle
family was mysteriously killed at supper, and
their groundsman, Frank Bryce, was
suspected of the crime, then declared
innocent. Frank Bryce, now an elderly man,
wakes in the night to see a light in the window
of the abandoned Riddle House. He
investigates and overhears Voldemort and
Wormtail plotting to kill a boy named Harry
Potter. Voldemort takes note of him and kills
him on the spot. Harry Potter wakes up in the
night with a throbbing pain in the scar
Voldemort gave him. He worries that
Voldemort is nearby, and he writes to Sirius
Black, his godfather, mentioning the pain in
his scar.

The next morning Harry's Uncle Vernon

receives a letter from the Weasleys asking
Harry to join them at the Quidditch World Cup,
and Vernon grudgingly agrees to let Harry go.
The following day, the Weasleys arrive in the
Dursleys' boarded-up fireplace to pick up
Harry. The Weasley twins "accidentally" leave
a trick toffee on the ground, which Dudley
eats, causing his tongue to engorge itself. The
Dursleys panic and throw things at Mr.
Weasley as the Weasley boys and Harry exit
through the fireplace. Harry arrives at The
Burrow, the Weasley household, and there he
meets for the two eldest Weasley brothers,
Bill and Charlie, and there, Mrs. Weasley
berates the twins for making Weasleys'
Wizard Wheezes and giving them to Dudley.

Early the next morning, the Weasleys, Harry

and Hermione head off to the Quidditch World
Cup. They travel by Portkey, a process that
involves using a piece of trash as a
touchstone for warping across space. They

use the same Portkey as Cedric Diggory,

another Hogwarts student, and his dad.
Together they are carried to the World Cup
campground. Upon arrival, the Weasleys,
Harry and Hermione head off to pitch their
tent. Soon, Ludo Bagman arrives, jubilant at
the festivities, and makes a wager with the
twins on the outcome of the Cup. Soon
afterward, Mr. Crouch arrives, throwing Percy
into a great reverent fuss. Before they leave,
they allude to a mysterious event that will
happen at Hogarts. Harry, Ron, and Hermione
buy souvenirs and troop to the Top Box, where
they meet Winky, a house-elf who is saving a
seat for her master. The game begins, after a
show from the respective mascots. In the end,
Ireland wins, but Viktor Krum, the Bulgarian
Seeker, catches the Snitch.

The night after the game, a crowd of Death

Eaters, followers of Voldemort who escaped
punishment, torture four Muggles by
levitating them in the air. Harry, Hermione

and Ron escape by fleeing into the woods,

where Harry discovers that his wand is
missing. Moments later someone fires the
Dark Mark (the sign of Voldemort) using his or
her wand. Winky the house-elf is found
holding a wand at the scene of the crime.
Mayhem ensues at the Ministry of Magic
through the week.

Ron receives horrible second-hand robes from

his mother and is upset. Amos Diggory brings
news that a man named Mad-Eye Moody
attacked an intruder at his house. Mr. Weasley
runs to the Ministry to sort everything out.
The Weasleys, Harry, and Hermione take taxis
to the train station and board the train to
Hogwarts. Upon arriving, after the Sorting
ceremony and in the middle of dinner in the
Hogwarts Great Hall, Dumbledore announces
that the Triwizard Tournament between
schools will take place this year at Hogwarts,
and also that Mad-Eye Moody will be the new
teacher of defense against the dark arts.

Mad-Eye Moody is a competent teacher. He

turns Malfoy into a ferret for trying to attack
Harry while Harry's back is turned. In class,
Moody teaches Gryffindor the three
unforgivable curses, Imperius, Cruciatus, and
Avada Kedavra (the curse that killed Harry's
parents). Meanwhile, Hermione founds a
society that advocates freeing house-elves,
who are slaves. She asks Harry and Ron to
wear badges. As Defense Against the Dark
Arts progresses, Harry learns to successfully
ward off the Imperius Curse.

In late October, the delegates from

Beauxbatons and Durmstrang arrive, and Ron
is thrilled to see that Viktor Krum, a famous
Quidditch player, has come with Durmstrang.
On halloween night, the Goblet of Fire spits
out the names of the champions who will
compete in the Triwizard Tournament; along

with Cedric Diggory, Fleur Delacour, and

Viktor Krum, Harry Potter is selected. Mass
chaos ensues, since Harry is too young. But
because the Goblet's decision is final, it is
generally decided that Harry is obligated to
compete. Gryffindor House is triumphant, but
Ron is sullen and envious, and he doesn't
speak to Harry for quite some time. School
resumes, and Harry is frustrated that few
people believe he didn't place his own name
in the Goblet of Fire. The first task
approaches, and Harry is fretful; during the
weighing of the wands, a reporter named Rita
Skeeter accosts Harry and interviews him for
what she says is a story about the
tournament, but instead publishes a sappy,
exaggerated article about Harry's tragic past.

A few nights before the task, Hagrid invites

Harry for a late night walk, which ultimately
turns into a glimpse of the first task: dragons.
Harry hurries home, and in the Gryffindor
common room fireplace, Sirius's head

appears, warning Harry that Karkaroff, the

head of Durmstrang, was a Death Eater and
possibly still is dangerous, and that Moody
was the Ministry's best dark wizard catcher
ever, and is probably at Hogwarts for a
reason. The next day, Harry warns Cedric
about the first task; Moody overhears,
commends Harry's decency, and hints that
Harry should use his broomstick to get past
the dragon. Harry and Hermione spend hours
practicing summoning charms, and the day of
the first task, Harry summons his broomstick
and flies past the dragon, capturing the
golden egg and receiving high marks.
Everyone in Gryffindor is ecstatic, and Ron
and Harry are reunited.

Soon afterward, Hermione drags Harry and

Ron down to the kitchens, where they
encounter Dobby, who is thrilled at his
freedom, and Winky, Mr. Crouch's ex- houseelf, who is miserable at hers. In class,
Professor McGonagall announces that the Yule

Ball is approaching and that the champions

must find partners; this is an unexpected and
difficult task. Harry gathers his courage to ask
Cho, but finds out that she is already going
with Cedric. Hermione has a date, but won't
say who it is; and she is annoyed when Ron
asks her as his last-resort date. Finally, Harry
and Ron procure the pretty but annoying Patil
twins as their partners for the Yule Ball. On
Christmas, the night of the ball, Ron wears his
awful dress robes and spends the entire night
staring at Hermione, who is there as Viktor
Krum's date. Harry spends the whole night
feeling miserable about Cho and Cedric, and
so Harry and Ron leave the ball for a stroll,
during which they overhear Hagrid telling
Madame Maxime, the giant head of
Beauxbatons, that he is half-giant. After the
ball that night, Cedric hints for Harry to take a
bath with the golden egg, but Harry is wary of
this advice. Harry returns to Gryffindor tower
to find that Hermione and Ron are having a
huge fight about why she went to the ball with
Krum instead of with him.

The next day, Hagrid is not teaching class.

Rita Skeeter has written an article saying that
his ancestors, who are giants, give him a
violent and dangerous nature. He is
embarrassed and refuses to emerge from his
cabin. During a trip to Hogsmeade, Ludo
Bagman offers to help Harry with the
tournament and mentions that Mr. Crouch has
stopped coming to work. Hermione insults
Rita for writing such horrible articles. Harry,
Ron, and Hermione return to Hogwarts, visit
Hagrid, and persuade him to return. Hagrid is
grateful for their loyalty, and he begs Harry to
win the tournament. That night Harry takes
the egg into the bathtub. It sings that he will
have an hour to reclaim something valuable
that has been taken into the lake. On his way
back to his dorm from the bathroom, Harry,
wearing his Invisibility cloak, checks his
Marauder's Map and spies Mr. Crouch in
Snape's office. In his surprise, he drops the
golden egg, which makes a loud screeching

noise. Filch and Snape appear instantly.

Moody also appears, shoos away the other
men and returns Harry's egg to him. Moody
asks to borrow the Marauder's Map, which
shows every part of Hogwarts grounds and
castle, and where every person is within it.

The night before the second task, Harry still

has not figured out how to breathe under
water. He falls asleep in the library and is
awakened in the morning by Dobby, who
gives him a ball of gillyweed and sends him
off to the lake, where the task is starting. The
gillyweed gives Harry gills, so he swims easily
through the lake, finding Hermione, Ron, Cho,
and Fleur's sister asleep and tied together in a
merpeople village. Harry waits to make sure
all of the champions rescue their hostages
before returning to the surface. Fleur never
comes, so he returns with her sister and with
Ron, coming up last, but gaining high marks
for his moral fiber in his completion of the

Soon afterwards, Rita Skeeter publishes an

article claiming that Hermione toys with the
hearts of both Harry and Krum. The three
friends read the article in potions class. After
class, Harry overhears Karkaroff confiding
fearfully in Snape that something on his arm
has returned. The following day, Harry, Ron,
and Hermione meet Sirius Black, disguised as
a large black dog named Padfoot, in
Hogsmeade. He informs them that Mr.
Crouch's son was convicted as a Death Eater,
and he finds it peculiar that Mr. Crouch has
not been coming to work, as well as that he
never showed up to take the seat saved by
Winky, his house-elf, at the World Cup. Back
at Hogwarts, Harry, Ron, and Hermione visit
the kitchens to give a gift of socks to Dobby,
who is delighted. Winky is still sad and
currently drunk, and she mentions between
hiccups that she is guarding a great secret for
her ex-master. Around this time, Hermione

begins getting hate mail for supposedly

breaking Harry Potter's heart.

The four champions are taken to see the

grounds for the maze, their third task, and on
the way back, Krum pulls Harry into the forest
to ask if he is at all romantically interested
inHermione. When Harry answers no, a
disheveled Mr. Crouch appears from the
forest, speaking to trees and madly
demanding to see Dumbledore. Harry runs to
get Dumbldore while Krum waits with Mr.
Crouch; when Harry returns, Mr. Crouch has
stunned Krum and disappeared, much to
everyone's puzzlement. Sirius sends Harry a
letter warning him to be careful and to
practice hexes for the third task; Harry tries to
follow both instructions. In Divination class,
Harry falls asleep and dreams about
Voldemort, and he wakes up screaming and
clutching his scar. Harry leaves class and goes
to tell Dumbledore what happened. As he
waits for Dumbledore to return to his office,

he peers into a Pensieve and enters

Dumbledore's memories of various Death
Eater trials, including that of Ludo Bagman,
Karkaroff, and Mr. Crouch's son. Dumbledore
returns, pulls Harry from the memory-world,
listens to his story, and says that he suspects
that Voldemort is growing stronger.

The morning of the third task, Rita Skeeter

prints an article about how Harry fainted in
class and is possibly disturbed. The evening of
the task, the four champions enter the maze,
and Harry finds his path relatively
manageable. Soon both Fleur and Krum are
out of the running, and Harry and Cedric, the
only remaining contestants, arrive at the
trophy at the same time, and they both agree
to touch it together. The trophy turns out to
be a portkey, and it takes both boys to a far
away graveyard, where a man in a hood
instantly kills Cedric and ties up Harry. The
man, Wormtail, drops the bundle he is
carrying (Voldemort's current form) into a

cauldron, as well as ashes from Voldemort's

father, blood from Harry's arm, and Wormtail's
own right hand. Voldemort resumes his body
and rises from the cauldron. Voldemort
presses a tattoo of the Dark Mark on
Wormtail's arm, and suddenly Death Eaters
begin appearing in a circle around them.
Voldemort explains to Harry and his Death
Eaters his fall from and rise back to power,
and then he challenges Harry to a duel. Harry
prepares for death, but he manages to use
the disarming spell on Voldemort just as
Voldemort cries "Avada Kedavra!" the killing
curse, at Harry. The light from the two wands
meets in midair and remains connected.
Voldemort's past victims emerge from his
wand and protect Harry once the wand
connection is broken, giving him time to grab
Cedric's body and touch the trophy, thus
returning to Hogwarts.

Once Harry returns, he is weak and shaken.

Moody carries him into the castle, where

Moody reveals that he is in fact a Death Eater,

and that he was responsible for placing
Harry's name in the Goblet and for turning the
trophy into a portkey. Moody also informs
Harry that Karkaroff felt his Dark Mark burn
and then fled that night. Moody prepares to
kill Harry when Dumbledore and other
teachers burst into the room, stunning Moody
and saving Harry. Dumbledore explains to
Harry that Moody's body is a disguised
version of Mr. Crouch's son, the young Barty,
and that he has made the switch by drinking
Polyjuice potion every hour. After some time,
the potion wears off and Harry recognizes
Barty Crouch. Snape gives Crouch truth
serum, and Crouch explains how his father
smuggled him out of prison and allowed him
to live under an Invisibility cloak, guarded by
Winky; and how Bertha Jorkins discovered him
and ultimately was relieved of his information
by Voldemort, who returned to find young
Crouch. He also says that he killed his father,
and that he was hoping to bring Voldemort
back into power by bringing Harry to him.

Then Dumbledore takes Harry into his own

office, where he asks Harry to explain what he
saw in the graveyard to him and to Sirius, who
had arrived. After listening to Harry,
Dumbledore explains that the wands of Harry
and Voldemort are made of feathers from the
same phoenix, so one was forced to
regurgitate its spells when the two wants met.

Harry is sent to bed, and in the night he is

awakened by an argument between Cornelius
Fudge and Dumbledore, in which Dumbledore
tries unsuccessfully to persuade Fudge to take
precautions against Voldemort's new power.
Fudge refuses to believe that this is possible.
He gives Harry the tournament prize money
and leaves huffily. Soon the term ends, and at
the final dinner Dumbledore makes a speech
telling everyone how Cedric was murdered by
Voldemort, and how the future looks bleak
and would require them to join together. On
the train ride back to London, Hermione
shows Harry and Ron a beetle in a jarRita

Skeeter's animagus formthat she caught

and warned not to write any more untrue
things. As the students leave the train, Harry
gives his gold to the Weasley twins to help
start their practical joke company, and he
asks that they use some of it to buy Ron a
new pair of dress robes. Harry returns to the
Dursleys for the summer.


J.K. Rowling

Plot Overview
Harry Potter is spending another tedious
summer with his dreadful Aunt Petunia and
Uncle Vernon when a group of evil spirits
called dementors stage an unexpected
attack on Harry and his cousin Dudley. After
using magic to defend himself, Harry is visited

by a group of wizards and whisked off to

number twelve, Grimmauld Place, London.
Number twelve is the home of Harrys
godfather, Sirius Black, and the headquarters
of the Order of the Phoenix. The Order is a
group of wizards, led by Hogwarts
headmaster Albus Dumbledore, dedicated to
fighting evil Lord Voldemort and his followers.
The Order is forced to operate in secrecy,
outside of the jurisdiction of the Ministry of
Magic, which is headed by the dense and
corrupt Cornelius Fudge. Fudge refuses to
believe that Lord Voldemort has returned.

Harry used magic to fight off the dementors,

and since underage wizards are not permitted
to use their wands outside of school, he must
face a disciplinary hearing at the Ministry.
With Dumbledores help, Harry is cleared and
permitted to return to Hogwarts School of
Witchcraft and Wizardry.

Reunited with his best friends, Ron and

Hermione, Harry returns to Hogwarts and
learns that Dolores Umbridge, an employee of
Fudge, will be his new Defense Against the
Dark Arts teacher. The Sorting Hat, which
traditionally sorts all new students into one of
four houses, cautions the students against
becoming too internally divided. Meanwhile,
the wizard newspaper, the Daily Prophet,
continues printing untrue and unfair stories
about Harry. Many of his classmates are
whispering about him behind his back, but
Harry ignores them and tries to concentrate
on his studies, since all fifth-year students at
Hogwarts are required to take O.W.L.s, or
Ordinary Wizarding Level examinations.

Umbridge refuses to teach her students how

to perform Defense spells, and before long,
Fudge appoints her High Inquisitor of
Hogwarts, giving her the authority to inspect
all faculty members and evaluate their skills.

In desperation, Harry, Hermione, and Ron

form their own Defense Against the Dark Arts
group, also known as the D.A., or
Dumbledores Army. Twenty-five other
students sign up, and they meet as often as
possible to learn and practice Defense spells.
Harry wishes desperately to contact his
godfather Sirius to discuss the situation, but
Umbridge is inspecting all Owl Mail and
patrolling the fires that students can use to
make contact with wizards residing outside of
Hogwarts. Umbridge openly dislikes Harry,
whom she considers a liar, and eventually
bans him from the Gryffindor Quidditch team.
Rons twin brothers, Fred and George, storm
out of Hogwarts in protest, moving to London
where they plan to open a joke shop using the
money Harry won last year in the Triwizard

Harry continues to have upsetting dreams

about walking down a corridor at the
Department of Mysteries, deep inside the

Ministry of Magic. At the end of the corridor,

Harry goes through several doors and enters
a room full of dusty glass spheres. Harry
always wakes up before he finds out what the
dream means or what the spheres signify. One
night, Harry has a vision where he inhabits
the body of a large snake, and attacks Rons
father. Harry wakes up horrified, and Professor
McGonagall takes him to Dumbledore
immediately. Dumbledore uses the portraits
on the walls of his office to raise an alert, and
Mr. Weasley is promptly rescued by two
members of the Order. Dumbledore then
demands that Harry take Occlumency lessons
with Professor Snape, which should help Harry
protect his mind against further invasions by
Lord Voldemort.

Harry is unsuccessful at Occlumency because

he has such difficulty clearing his mind of all
thoughts, making it difficult for him to focus
on closing his mind off to all outside influence.
Meanwhile, his scar (from the attack in which

Voldemort killed Harrys parents) burns

horribly every time Voldemort experiences a
powerful emotion. The D.A. continues to meet
regularly, and Harrys peers show great
improvement until they are caught by
Umbridge. Dumbledore takes full
responsibility for the group and resigns as
Headmaster. Umbridge takes over his
position. The students begin taking their
O.W.L. exams, and Harry has another vision,
this time about Sirius being held captive and
tortured by Voldemort. Horrified, Harry
becomes determined to save him. Hermione
warns Harry that Voldemort may be
deliberately trying to lure Harry to the
Department of Mysteries, but Harry is too
concerned about Sirius to take any chances.

Harry sneaks into Umbridges office, and,

using her fireplace, transports himself to
Twelve Grimmauld Place to look for Sirius.
Kreacher, the Black house elf, tells Harry that

Sirius is at the Ministry of Magic. Harry returns

to Hogwarts to find that he and his friends
have been caught in Umbridges office.
Hermione and Harry convince Umbridge to
follow them into the forest, where they claim
to be hiding a weapon for Dumbledore. Once
in the forest, Centaurs carry Umbridge away.
Harry and his friends climb aboard flying
horses called thestrals and speed off to the
Ministry. Once they arrive, Harry cannot find
Sirius and realizes that Hermione was right.
Harry also sees that one of the glass spheres
has his name on it, as well as Voldemorts.
Harry grabs the sphere, and Death Eaters
surround to attack, demanding that Harry
hand over the prophecy. Employing all of their
Defense skills, Harry, Ron, Hermione, Ginny,
Luna, and Neville have moderate success
fighting the Death Eaters, but they are
ultimately helped enormously by the arrival of
several members of the Order. In the midst of
the fight, Harry drops the glass sphere, and it
shatters. Meanwhile, Sirius own cousin, Death

Eater Bellatrix Lestrange, kills Sirius. Harry is


Dumbledore appears and corrals the Death

Eaters. Voldemort and Lestrange escape, just
as Fudge shows up. Dumbledore sends Harry
back to school, where he explains how the
sphere was a prophecy, which stated that
Harry has a power that Voldemort does not
know about. Dumbledore explains that this
power is love. The prophecy goes on to claim
that Harry will either destroy Voldemort or be
destroyed by him. Dumbledore takes this
opportunity to tell Harry why he must spend
his summers with the Durselys in Little
Whinging. Because Harrys mother died to
save him, he is blessed with her love, a
blessing that can be sealed only by blood.
Harrys Aunt Petunia, his mothers sister,
makes that bond complete by taking Harry
into her home. As long as he still calls Little
Whinging home, Harry is safe. With this news,

Harry returns to his Aunt and Uncles house

for one more miserable summer.

Sirius Black
Sirius Black and James Potter attended
Hogwarts together, and Sirius is Harrys
godfather. Sirius is an Animagus, which means
he can transform himself into a black, shaggy
dog named Padfoot at will. Years ago, Sirius
was wrongly imprisoned at Azkaban for the
murder of thirteen people. Following his
escape, he has been forced to live in absolute
secrecy. To keep Sirius safe, Dumbledore
demands that Sirius not leave his parents
home at Twelve Grimmauld Place, lest the
Ministry of Magic catch him and return him to
Azkaban. In this sense, Harry and Sirius lead
parallel lives, since Dumbledore orders Harry
to spend his summers with the Dursleys. In
both cases, Dumbledore is simply attempting
to ensure his friends safety, but both Harry
and Sirius resent the lack of freedom that

goes along with such isolation, likening it to

imprisonment. Sirius grew up at Twelve
Grimmauld Place but has long since dismissed
the rest of the Black family, who chose to
follow Voldemort. Being trapped in that house
simply reminds Sirius of his alienation, just as
Harrys time at Privet Drive reminds him of his
own lack of real family.
Although Mr. and Mrs. Weasley often act as
Harrys surrogate parents, Sirius is the closest
Harry has to family, and Harry clearly
treasures their relationship. Whenever Harry
is in trouble or confused, he turns to Sirius for
advice. Sirius, in turn, is protective of Harry,
doing his best to assure his godsons safety
and well-being. As other members of the
Order of the Phoenix have observed, Sirius
occasionally confuses Harry with his father,
James Potter, and Siriuss relationship with
Harry seems to be deepened by his mourning
for James. Often, when Harry expresses
reservations about one of Siriuss
suggestions, Sirius reprimands him for not

being more like James, who thrived on risktaking. In a way, Harry can get to know his
own father through Sirius, and, surprisingly,
the images he stumbles across in Book V are
not the unequivocally positive ones he has
always carried with him.

Dolores Umbridge
Dolores Umbridge introduces a seemingly
endless string of problems to the students at
Hogwarts. She serves as the Senior
Undersecretary to Cornelius Fudge, the
Minister of Magic, and is extremely loyal to
him. Like Fudge, she refuses to acknowledge
the return of Lord Voldemort, and she believes
that both Dumbledore and Harry Potter are
devious liars. Fudge forces Dumbledore to
appoint Umbridge as the new Defense Against
the Dark Arts teacher, and from her first
moment at the school, when she interrupts
Dumbledores welcome speech to give a long,
tedious lecture about her role at Hogwarts,

she is massively disliked by both students and

faculty. This dislike, however, is rooted in
more than just her unpleasant personality.
Defense Against the Dark Arts is a crucial
class at Hogwarts, but Umbridge refuses to
teach her students any actual Defense spells,
instructing them instead to simply read their
textbooks during class time. Her students are
forced to meet in secret. The only students
who seem to respond favorably to Umbridges
presence are Draco Malfoy and his gang of
Slytherins, and even then only because
Umbridge expresses such a strong dislike for
Harry Potter, whom Draco has long despised.
When Umbridge is appointed High Inquisitor
of Hogwarts, her negative effect on the school
increases a hundredfold, especially for Harry.
She insists on posting new and progressively
more ridiculous Educational Decrees to the
student bulletin boards. She bans Harry from
the Quidditch team and forces him to carve I
must not tell lies into the back of his hand
until he bleeds. She reads Harrys mail and

prevents him from corresponding with Sirius.

Ultimately, she discovers the secret meeting
place of her Dark Arts students and forces
Dumbledore to resign, effectively destroying
the central spirit of Hogwarts. Umbridges
name is very close to the word umbrage,
which means to take offense, and this
characterization fits Umbridge perfectly.
Umbridge takes much offense at Harry and
even more at the way Hogwarts is being run:
besides forcing Dumbledores resignation, she
fires Professor Trelawney and Hagrid and
clashes frequently with Professors McGonagall
and Snape. Umbridge ultimately gets her
comeuppance, but the damage she causes
will surely linger even after her very
welcomed departure from the school.


J. K. Rowling

Plot Overview

Lord Voldemort has returned to power, and his

wrath has been felt in both the Muggle and
Wizarding worlds. Severus Snape, long
considered an enemy of Voldemort and a
member of Dumbledores anti-Voldemort
coalition, the Order of the Phoenix, meets
with Narcissa Malfoy, mother of Draco and
wife of Lucius, an imprisoned Death Eater.
Snape makes an Unbreakable Vow to
Narcissa, promising to protect her son, Draco.

Dumbledore heads to 4 Privet Drive to collect

Harry from his aunt and uncle. On their way to
the Burrow, Harry and Dumbledore stop to
recruit Horace Slughorn to return to teaching
at Hogwarts. Harry is reunited with his best
friends, Ron and Hermione. When shopping
for schoolbooks, Harry runs into Draco and
follows him to Borgin and Burkes, where he
overhears Draco threatening Borgin and
insisting that he fix an unknown object. Harry

is instantly suspicious of Draco, whom he

believes to be a Death Eater, just like his
father. The students return to school, and
Dumbledore announces that Snape will be
teaching Defense Against the Dark Arts, much
to Harrys surprise.

Harry receives a used Potions textbook that

once belonged to someone named The HalfBlood Prince. Spells and amendments are
written in the margins of the book, and Harry
uses the Princes notes to excel at Potions.
Dumbledore schedules regular meetings with
Harry in which they use Dumbledores
pensieve to look at memories of those who
have had direct contact with Voldemort.
Dumbledore believes that if Harry can learn
enough about Voldemorts history, it will help
him when they finally fight face to face, as the
prophecy concerning Harry foretells. Harry
learns about Voldemorts family, including his
grandfather Marvolo, his uncle Morfin, and his
mother Merope, who cast a love spell on a

Muggle and was abandoned by him when it

wore off. Voldemort was left at an orphanage
and grew to be an unpleasant and aggressive
boy. Harry also learns that Voldemort has
divided his soul into seven Horcruxes. Two of
these, Tom Riddles diary and Marvolos ring,
have already been destroyed. One resides in
Voldemort, one resides in a snake, one is
Meropes locket, and the other two are
suspected to be hidden in objects belonging
to Hufflepuff, Ravenclaw, or Gryffindor.

Ron acquires a new girlfriend, Lavender, of

whom Hermione is extremely jealous. Harry
feels stuck in the middle of his friends
bickering. Eventually, Harry falls in love with
Ginny, Rons sister, and Ron and Lavender
break up, making Hermione quite happy.
Harry spends much of his time keeping up
with his duties as Quidditch captain and
following Draco Malfoy. Harry uses his
Marauders Map to keep track of Draco, but
often cannot find him on the map. Eventually,

Harry realizes that when Draco is not on the

map, he is using the Room of Requirement on
the seventh floor of Hogwarts, which
transforms into whatever its user needs.
Harry tries his best to get in to see what
Draco is up to, but until he knows exactly
what Draco is using the room for, he cannot
gain access. Eventually Harry and
Dumbledore leave Hogwarts together to fetch
and destroy Meropes locket, thus making
Voldemort one step closer to mortal. They
must overcome a variety of traps and
challenges before reaching the basin where
the locket is hidden under a poisonous potion.
Dumbledore drinks the potion and Harry fights
off Voldemorts Inferi. They take the locket
and return to Hogwarts as quickly as possible.
Dumbledore is quite weak, and when they
reach Hogsmeade they can see that the Dark
Mark is visible above the astronomy tower.

Harry and Dumbledore rush toward the tower.

When they arrive, Dumbledore uses his magic

to freeze Harry in place, while Harry remains

hidden by his cloak of invisibility. Draco Malfoy
sprints into the room, threatening
Dumbledores life. Weak and with his wand
out of reach, Dumbledore stalls Draco, telling
him that he is not a killer and that the Order
of the Phoenix could protect him and his
mother from Voldemort. Draco lowers his
wand, and Snape pushes into the tower. Harry
cannot move or speak, but he hears members
of the Order fighting Death Eaters below.
Snape raises his wand and kills Dumbledore,
sending him flying over the edge of the tower.
When Dumbledore dies, his spell on Harry is
broken, and Harry rushes after Snape,
determined to avenge the death of his friend
and headmaster. Snape escapes, and Harry is
devastated. He looks at the locket he and
Dumbledore retrieved and realizes that it is
not a Horcrux. Inside the locket is a note from
someone named R. A. B. Harry tells his
friends he will not be returning to Hogwarts
next year and will instead search out and kill

Voldemort by destroying all of the Horcruxes.

Ron and Hermione vow to join him.

Severus Snape
Many at Hogwarts have reason to fear
Severus Snape, a reformed Death Eater now
teaching at the school, who skulks around,
sneering and hissing at Harry Potter. Even
though Harry and his friends despise Snape,
Dumbledore continues to trust him implicitly,
dismissing Harrys stories about overhearing
Snape plotting with Draco and insisting that
Snape is completely trustworthy, an
irreplaceable member of the Hogwarts staff.
Harrys father, James Potter, was also at odds
with Snape, and members of the Order of the
Phoenix suggest that Harrys inherent dislike
of Snape was inherited from James. Harry is
appropriately devastated when he learns that
Snape and his beloved Half-Blood Prince are
one and the same.

Although Harry sees Snapes shiftiness as

black and white, Rowling is purposefully
vague about Snapes true allegiances.
Although Harry Potter and the Half-Blood
Prince features a pointed scene in which
Snape makes an Unbreakable Vow to Narcissa
Malfoy, promising to protect Draco and take
over his Dark duties, if necessary, there are
still signs that point to Snapes allegiance to
Dumbledore. Moments before Dumbledore is
murdered, Dumbledore freezes Harry,
presumably to prevent him from stopping
Snape. Likewise, Dumbledore appears to be
stalling Draco until Snape can arrive, after
specifically requesting that Harry call for
Snape and not Madam Pomfrey making it
seem possible that Dumbledore wishes for
Snape to be his killer. When Harry chases
after Snape, Snape prevents Harry from
casting any death spells, but once again does
not try to kill Harry himself. Snape is an
extremely complex and multi-faceted

Horace Slughorn
An unlikely candidate for a teaching position
at Hogwarts, Horace Slughorn is a strange,
hopelessly self-serving professor. Although
Slughorns intentions are usually good, and
his behavior is almost always harmless, he
has extreme difficulty seeing past his own
needs and desires. Occasionally, Slughorns
greediness works out for the best. When
Draco sends a bottle of poisoned Mead
intended for Dumbledore, Slughorn keeps it
for himself. Ron ends up getting sick from the
drink but is saved by Harry, and Slughorn
inadvertently prevents Dumbledore from
being poisoned. Slughorn maintains a small
group of potentially influential wizards (known
as the Slug Club) that he romances with
parties and special meetings. However, if a
student is of no particular use to Slughorn, as
is Ron Weasley, he gives that student no
attention whatsoever. Slughorn is usually
unable to remember Rons name, but he is

quite attentive to Harry and Hermione, whom

he considers important and potentially useful
to him.
As later revealed in Dumbledores Pensieve,
Slughorn was the first to tell Voldemort, then
a Slug Club member and Hogwarts student
named Tom Riddle, about Horcruxes. Slughorn
was obviously embarrassed by this memory,
as it implicated him as being far too carefree
with the students he considered the most
potentially powerful. Slughorn concealed and
changed the memory but eventually gives up
the real one, sacrificing his own reputation
with Dumbledore to help Harry avenge his
parents death.


J. K. Rowling

Plot Overview

At Malfoy Manor, Snape tells Voldemort the

date that Harrys friends are planning to move
him from the house on Privet Drive to a new
safe location, so that Voldemort can capture
Harry en route.

As Harry packs to leave Privet Drive, he reads

two obituaries for Dumbledore, both of which
make him think that he didnt know
Dumbledore as well as he should have.
Downstairs, he bids good-bye to the Dursleys
for the final time, as the threat of Voldemort
forces them to go into hiding themselves.

The Order of the Phoenix, led by Alastor MadEye Moody, arrives to take Harry to his new
home at the Weasleys house, the Burrow. Six
of Harrys friends take Polyjuice Potion to
disguise themselves as Harry and act as
decoys, and they all fly off in different

directions. The Death Eaters, alerted to their

departure by Snape, attack Harry and his
friends. Voldemort chases Harry down, but
Harrys wand fends Voldemort off, seemingly
without Harrys help.

Harry arrives at the Burrow, and when his

friends get there, he learns that Moody has
been killed and George Weasley maimed in
the chase. Harry begins to have visions in
which he sees what Voldemort is doing
through Voldemorts eyes, and witnesses
Voldemort interrogating a wand maker, trying
to find out how to defeat Harry.

Harry, Ron, and Hermione assemble the books

and tools necessary to embark on the quest
that Dumbledore left them: to find and
destroy the Horcruxes into which Voldemort
placed fragments of his soul, making himself
immortal as long as the objects survive. Rufus
Scrimgeour, the Minister of Magic, delivers to

them the items Dumbledore left them in his

will. Harry is left the Snitch he caught in his
first Quidditch match, as well as the Sword of
Gryffindor, which Scrimgeour does not give
him, claiming it did not belong to
Dumbledore. Ron is left a device called a
Deluminator that turns lights off, and
Hermione is left a book of wizard fairy tales.
None of them have any idea what the items

The Weasleys host the wedding of their son

Bill to Fleur Delacour. At the reception, Harry
hears Rons Aunt Muriel telling terrible rumors
about Dumbledore: that his sister was a Squib
(a non-magical person born to wizard parents)
kept prisoner by her family, and that
Dumbledore had dabbled in the Dark Arts as a
young man. The wedding is interrupted by
Death Eaters, as Voldemort has taken over
the Ministry of Magic and is now in charge of
the wizarding world.

Harry, Ron, and Hermione Disapparate (i.e.,

teleport) to a busy street in London, where
they are soon attacked by Death Eaters. They
find safe haven in the enchanted house left to
Harry by Sirius Black, Number Twelve
Grimmauld Place. There, they discover the
significance of the letters R.A.B. In the
previous book, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood
Prince, Harry and Dumbledore had undergone
trials to find a locket that Voldemort had
made into a Horcrux, but at the end they
found that the locket had been stolen, with a
fake locket and note left behind, signed R.A.B.
Now, they see that the initials belong to
Siriuss dead younger brother, Regulus
Arcturus Black, who had been one of
Voldemorts followers. They remember that
they have seen a locket in the house that is
now gone.

Harry and his friends summon Kreacher, the

house-elf who came with the house. Kreacher

explains that Voldemort had used him to test

the magical defenses guarding the locket,
having borrowed him from Regulus. Afterward,
Regulus had a change of heart about serving
Voldemort, and Kreacher had helped him to
steal the locket and leave the fake one in its
place. The real locket had been in Kreachers
possession for many years, but was recently
stolen by Mundungus Fletcher. Harry orders
Kreacher to find Mundungus and bring him

Kreacher returns later with Mundungus, who

reveals that the locket was confiscated from
him by Dolores Umbridge, a senior official at
the Ministry of Magic. Ron, Harry, and
Hermione disguise themselves as Ministry
employees and sneak into the Ministry,
stealing the locket from Umbridge, while
witnessing the Ministrys efforts to persecute
wizards who dont come from pureblood
wizard families.

As they Disapparate back to the house on

Grimmauld Place, Hermione accidentally leads
one of the Death Eaters inside the protective
enchantments, so they are forced to abandon
the house and go on the run, moving from
place to place and camping in the woods.
They dont know where to look for the next
Horcrux, and they dont know how to destroy
the locket, which is protected by powerful
magic. Harry has a vision of Voldemort
tracking down another famous wand maker
and looking for a young man who stole a

One night, in the forest, Harry and friends

overhear a goblin saying that the Sword of
Gryffindor that had been in the headmasters
office at Hogwarts is a fake. Harry realizes
that the real Sword of Gryffindor has the
power to destroy Horcruxes, and that they
need to find it. Ron, frustrated at their lack of
progress, gets fed up and abandons Harry and

Harry and Hermione go to Godrics Hollow,

where they visit the graves of Harrys parents
and see the house where he lived before
Voldemort killed them. An old woman named
Bathilda Bagshot leads them into her house,
and they follow, hoping that she knew
Dumbledore and can give them the sword, but
she turns out to be dead, her body inhabited
by Voldemorts snake, Nagini. They barely
escape, and Harrys wand is destroyed in the

Harry reads the new (and malicious)

biography of Dumbledore, which claims that
Dumbledore helped the Dark wizard
Grindelwald as a young man and may have
been responsible for his own sisters death.
Harry recognizes in a photograph in the book
the young man whom Voldemort is seeking,
and it is Grindelwald.

One night, while Harry is keeping watch, a

silver doe Patronus appears and leads him to
the Sword of Gryffindor, buried beneath the
ice in a pond. Harry dives in, and the locket
Horcrux around his neck tries to strangle him.
Ron, who has returned, saves Harry, recovers
the sword, and destroys the locket.

Harry, Ron, and Hermione go to visit

Xenophilius Lovegood, because Hermione has
discovered a strange symbol in the book
Dumbledore left her, and they had seen
Xenophilius wearing it. Xenophilius explains
that the symbol represents the Deathly
Hallows, three objectsthe Elder Wand,
Resurrection Stone, and Invisibility Cloak
that were made by Death and that give the
owner of the three objects mastery over

Xenophilius betrays them to the Death Eaters,

hoping to free his daughter Luna, whom the

Ministry has imprisoned, and they narrowly

escape from his house. Harry is tempted to
pursue the Hallows and abandon his quest for
the Horcruxes. Harry accidentally says
Voldemorts name, which triggers a tracking
spell, and they are caught by Voldemorts
followers and taken to Malfoy Manor.

At Malfoy Manor, Bellatrix Lestrange tortures

Hermione for information about where they
got the sword they are carrying, since she
thought it was in her vault at Gringotts bank.
She is very concerned about anything else
they might have taken. Dobby, the Malfoys
former house-elf, helps Harry and his friends
to escape, along with Ollivander the wand
maker, Luna Lovegood, and Griphook the
goblin. Harry takes them all to Rons brother
Bills cottage.

Harry guesses that Voldemort has a Horcrux

stored in Bellatrixs vault, since she seemed

so worried about it, and he persuades

Griphook the goblin to help him break into the
vault. With Griphooks help, Harry, Ron, and
Hermione break in and steal the Hufflepuff
Cup from the vault, then escape on the back
of a dragon.

Harry learns from a vision of Voldemorts that

the final Horcrux is at Hogwarts, so they
travel to the nearby village of Hogsmeade.
There they meet Aberforth, Dumbledores
brother, who helps them get into Hogwarts
through a painting by summoning Neville
Longbottom, who has been organizing
meetings of Dumbledores Army in the hidden
Room of Requirement. Harry asks the
members of the D.A., who are all his
supporters, if they can think of an important
item associated with the school, hoping such
an item might be the final Horcrux. The
Ravenclaw students tell him about the lost
diadem of Ravenclaw.

While Harry looks for the diadem, the

professors and students of Hogwarts rally to
his defense, having been warned that
Voldemort is on his way. Voldemort and his
followers attack the school in a great battle,
and Harry finds and destroys the diadem

Harry witnesses Voldemort murdering Snape

in order to take possession of Dumbledores
powerful wand (since Snape killed
Dumbledore, Snape is presumably the wands
true master until someone kills him). Before
he dies, Snape gives Harry his memories,
extracted for viewing in the Pensieve.

Harry goes to the Pensieve in the

headmasters office and views the most
important moments of Snapes life. He learns
that he has been completely mistaken about
Snape, who loved Harrys mother, Lily Potter,
his whole life. Snape had spent his entire

adult life spying on Voldemort for Dumbledore

and working to protect Harry.

From one of Snapes conversations with

Dumbledore, Harry learns that theres a piece
of Voldemorts soul inside him (Harry is in fact
the final Horcrux), and that he will have to let
Voldemort kill him before Voldemort can die.
He goes into the forest and lets Voldemort kill
him, then wakes up in a dreamlike version of
Kings Cross train station, where Dumbledore
meets him and tells him that he hasnt died,
and that the protective charm Lily Potter
placed on Harry is kept alive inside of
Voldemort, because Voldemort used Harrys
blood to reconstitute himself. Thus, Voldemort
could not kill Harry, and Harry can now go
back and finish him off.

Voldemort takes Harry, whom he believes to

be dead, back to Hogwarts to demand its
surrender. The students and teachers defy

Voldemort, and Neville uses the Sword of

Gryffindor to kill the giant snake, Nagini,
which was the last Horcrux keeping Voldemort
invulnerable. A final battle erupts, and Harry
reveals that hes still alive, going on to kill
Voldemort in a duel.

In an Epilogue set nineteen years later, Harry

is married to Ginny and is sending their
children to Hogwarts. Ron and Hermione are
married, and their families are both thriving.

Severus Snape
Chapter Thirty-Three brings us the longawaited truth about Snape, beginning with his
childhood and stretching almost to his death.
After reading his life story, we see the
explanations of many of the mysteries and
enigmas that have surrounded this character,
and yet he remains full of intriguing

As a child he both is and is not an appealing

and likable character. We want to take his
side, because he has a father who doesnt
love him and a mother who dresses him, to
his humiliation, in ugly rags. Also appealing is
his obvious devotion to Lily, his urgent desire
to make her his friend. And yet he has already
developed unattractive qualities out of his
reaction to the obstacles he faces. He is
secretive and closed to most people, and
resentful of most of the world. He wants to be
special, and wants to have a special friend in
Lily, scorning her Muggle sister. And in his
secretiveness and desire to be special, he is
somewhat sneaky, opening Petunias letter
and telling Lily about it.
These contradictions continue during his
school years at Hogwarts, and come between
him and Lily. He continues to adore her and
stay loyal to her, but his contempt for the
Muggles who mistreated him and his desire to
be special lead him into pureblood views that
are offensive to Lily, and lead him to associate

with other Slytherins who see themselves as

special and superior. His need to cling to Lily,
which is the downside of his loyalty to her,
leads him to jealously resent James Potter. He
develops a mixture of bad qualities partially
redeemed by his loyalty and love.

After Lily tells him that theyre no longer

friends, Snape joins Voldemort and becomes a
Death Eater. The one unforgivable thing he
does is to tell Voldemort about Professor
Trelawneys prediction regarding the boy who
can destroy Voldemort, unwittingly putting
Lily Potters life in jeopardy. Yet Dumbledore
offers him a chance to redeem himself, and
Snape remains true to his promise even after
Lily dies, staying faithful to her by protecting
her son. Thereafter, the mixture of bad and
good qualities is more a matter of surface
appearance. On the surface, Snape appears
to be greasy, sinister, and vindictive, but he is
in reality the bravest and most reliable of
Dumbledores supporters.

Spells in Harry Potter occur in the fictional

wizarding world of the series of books by
author J. K. Rowling. Magic spells are used by
many of the characters to achieve useful
effects without the benefit of modern
technology. The main depiction of a "spell" in
the Harry Potter books consists of a gesture
made with the character's wand, combined
with a spoken or mental incantation. In the
books and the associated film series, the
names of the majority of these spells or the
incantations used to effect them are derived
from the classical languages, particularly
Latin.[1] These names are not grammatically
correct in any language; most spoken phrases
resemble Latin words of appropriate meaning
but are not proper Latin themselves.

Spells are listed here by their incantations
(when known), with their vernacular names in
parentheses. Some spells have no known

incantation the only reference in the text is

by an informal name, either because in its
only appearance in the relevant book it was
cast nonverbally, or because it was never
depicted in the books, only mentioned. The
majority of spells cast in duels between adult
characters in all seven books appear
nonverbally; only their effects can identify
such spells.


Accio (Summoning Charm)

Pronunciation: Various suggestions have been
made, including:
/kio/ ak-ee-oh film
/ksio/ ak-see-oh UK audio book and
video game

/sio/ as-see-oh U.S. audio book

/tio/ at-chee-oh Anglo-Catholic
Description: This charm summons an object to
the caster, potentially over a significant
distance.[2] Its opposite is the Banishing
Seen/mentioned: First mentioned in Harry
Potter and the Goblet of Fire, when it was
briefly used by Molly Weasley on the Weasley
twins to confiscate their Weasleys' Wizard
Wheezes' products from their pockets, before
they left for the Quidditch World Cup.
Hermione was also mentioned trying to learn
this charm during her ride aboard the
Hogwarts Express. Later on in the same book,
Harry summons his broom to complete the
First Task of the Triwizard Tournament.[GF
Ch.20] Near the end of the book, Harry uses it
to summon the Triwizard Cup after he
encounters Voldemort. When Ron goes mad in
the department of mysteries in Order of the
Phoenix, he attempts to use it to summon a

brain. Harry uses this spell to summon Hagrid

in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows but
(Age Line Spell)
Description: Creates a thin, shimmering line
that can only be passed by people of a set
age. Aging potions are useless against age
lines. Incantation unknown. As demonstrated
by Fred and George Weasley, attempting to
use an aging potion and stepping over the
line appears to work, but moments later they
are seen with grey hair and beards. It is
unknown whether the ageing potion causes
this alongside the age line spell.
Seen/mentioned: Seen in Harry Potter and the
Goblet of Fire to prevent underage students
entering the Triwizard Tournament.

Pronunciation: /wmnti/ ah-gw-men-tee
Description: Produces a jet of water from the
caster's wand.

Seen/mentioned: First seen in Goblet of Fire,

when Fleur put the fire out on her skirt "with a
bit of water from her wand." First named in
Half-Blood Prince, when Harry is being taught
how to perform this specific charm in
Professor Flitwick's class. Later Harry casts
this spell in an attempt to create water for
Dumbledore to drink after taking Voldemort's
potion[HBP Ch.26], and again to douse
Hagrid's hut after it is set on fire.[HBP Ch.28]
[DH Ch.31].

Pronunciation: /lohmr/ -loh-h-mohr
Description: Used to open and/or unlock
doors,[3] but doors can be bewitched so that
this spell has no effect.[PS Ch.16]
Seen/mentioned: Used throughout the series,
with the first use by Hermione in Harry Potter
and the Philosopher's Stone. Used gradually
less in the series as the characters discover
more and more doors, chests, etc. with

counter-charms on them. For example, the

doors into Professor Snape's and Professor
Umbridge's offices are mentioned as being
Notes: J. K. Rowling stated that the word was
from the West African Sidiki dialect used in
geomancy and has the literal meaning
Friendly to thieves.[4]
Pronunciation: /npnio/ -nap-nee-oh
Description: Clears the target's airway, if
Seen/mentioned: Shown in Harry Potter and
the Half-Blood Prince, Horace Slughorn casts
this spell on Marcus Belby when the latter
begins to choke.[HBP Ch.7]
(Anti-Cheating Spell)
Description: Cast on parchment or quills to
prevent the writer from cheating whilst writing

Seen/mentioned: Mentioned in Harry Potter

and the Philosopher's Stone and Harry Potter
and the Order of the Phoenix as being cast on
quills and exam papers for exams at
Hogwarts.[PS Ch.16]
(Anti-Disapparition Jinx)
Description: Used to prevent Disapparition
and/or Apparition in an area for a period.
Presumably can be used to prevent an enemy
from entering a defended area, or used to
trap an enemy in an area.
Seen/mentioned: Mentioned in Order of the
Phoenix, used by Dumbledore to trap several
Death Eaters in the Department of Mysteries.
[OotP Ch.36] Also cast long ago on Hogwarts,
the reason why, as Hermione quotes often
throughout the series, "no one can Apparate
or Disapparate inside the Hogwarts grounds."
Pronunciation: /prisim/ ap--ree-see-m
Description: This spell makes invisible ink

Seen/mentioned: First seen in Harry Potter

and the Chamber of Secrets, when Hermione
tries to make hidden writing appear in Tom
Marvolo Riddle's diary.[CS Ch.13]
Notes: See also Specialis Revelio.

Avada Kedavra

(Killing Curse)

Pronunciation: /vd kdvr/ -vah-d

Description: Causes instant, painless death to
whomever the curse hits. There is no
countercurse or method of blocking this spell;
however, if someone sacrifices their life for
someone else, the person who was saved will
not encounter any adverse effects of any
curses by the specific attacker (e.g. when Lily
Potter sacrificed her life for Harry Potter at
Voldemort's hands, Harry became immune to
curses cast by Voldemort). One of the three
Unforgivable Curses.
Survivors: Only two people in the history of
the magical world are known to have survived
the killing curse Harry Potter and Voldemort;

the latter was only saved by his horcruxes.

Harry was hit twice directly. Phoenixes can
also survive a killing curse. They burst into
flame as they would do in old age and are
reborn from the ashes. This occurred in Harry
Potter and the Order of the Phoenix.
Seen/mentioned: First said (not by name) at
the beginning of the first book when Harry
arrives at the Dursleys' home. Seen first in
Goblet of Fire against Muggle Frank Bryce,
and in every book following.
Suggested etymology: During an audience
interview at the Edinburgh Book Festival (15
April 2004) Rowling said: "Does anyone know
where Avada Kedavra came from? It is an
ancient spell in Aramaic, and it is the original
of Abracadabra, which means 'let the thing be
destroyed'. Originally, it was used to cure
illness and the 'thing' was the illness, but I
decided to make it the 'thing' as in the person
standing in front of me. I take a lot of liberties
with things like that. I twist them round and
make them mine."[5] Rowling's use of this

name may have been influenced by Latin

cadaver = "corpse".

Pronunciation: /evs/ ay-vis
Description: This charm creates a flock of
birds from the caster's wand. When coupled
with Oppugno, it can be used offensively.
Seen/mentioned: Shown in Goblet of Fire, cast
by Mr Ollivander to test Viktor Krum's wand.
[GF Ch.18] In Half-Blood Prince, it is cast by
Hermione, followed by Oppugno which causes
the birds to attack Ron.[HBP Ch.14]
(Babbling Curse)
Description: The Babbling Curse is presumed
to cause a person to babble whenever they
try to speak.
Seen/mentioned: In Chamber of Secrets,
Gilderoy Lockhart falsely claimed to have
cured this curse.

(Banishing Charm)
Description: Opposite to "Accio". Banishes the
object the spell is performed on.
Seen/mentioned: Seen in Goblet of Fire, cast
by Hermione on a cushion in their Charms
class. Harry also perfectly banishes a cushion
during this lesson.
(Bat-Bogey Hex)
Description: Grotesquely enlarges the target's
bogeys, gives them wings, and sets them
attacking the target.
Seen/mentioned: Ginny Weasley is depicted
as an accomplished caster of this particular
spell.[OotP Ch.6] She is shown to use it in
Order of the Phoenix on Draco Malfoy,[OotP
Ch.33] and in Half-Blood Prince on Zacharias
Smith.[HBP Ch.7][6]
(Bedazzling Hex)
Description: Similar to a Disillusionment
Charm, it can be used to conceal a person or

an object. Is also used to make invisibility

Seen/mentioned: Mentioned in Deathly
Hallows by Xenophilius Lovegood when
speaking of the different methods by which
Invisibility Cloaks may be created.
(Bubble-Head Charm)
Description: Puts a large bubble of air around
the head of the user. Used as a magical
equivalent of a scuba set or self-contained
breathing apparatus.
Seen/mentioned: in Goblet of Fire, Cedric
Diggory and Fleur Delacour use this charm
underwater in the second task of the Triwizard
Tournament.[GF Ch.26] In Order of the
Phoenix, it is described as used by many
Hogwarts students when walking through the
hallways, because of the bad smells caused
by the various pranks played on Dolores
Umbridge.[OotP Ch.30]
(Caterwauling Charm)

Description: Anyone entering the perimeter of

a Caterwauling Charm sets off a high-pitched
Seen/mentioned: Mentioned in Deathly
Hallows, cast by Death Eaters over
Hogsmeade to protect against intruders.[DH
Note: Similar to an intruder charm: they both
produce an alarm if the vicinity is disturbed.
[citation needed]
Cave Inimicum
Pronunciation: /kve nmikm/ kah-vay ini-mee-km
Description: Spell used to strengthen an
enclosure from enemies.
Seen/mentioned: Shown only in Deathly
Hallows, cast by Hermione and Harry Potter to
strengthen their campsites' defences.[DH
(Cheering Charm)

Description: Causes the person upon whom

the spell was cast to become happy and
contented, though heavy-handedness with
the spell may cause the person to break into
an uncontrollable laughing fit.
Seen/mentioned: First seen in Harry Potter
and the Prisoner of Azkaban.[PA Ch.15]
Pronunciation: /kloprts/ kol-o-por-ts
Description: Magically locks a door,
preventing it from being opened by Muggle
Seen/mentioned: First in Order of the Phoenix,
cast by Hermione in the Department of
Notes: This spell functions as the counter spell
to Alohomora
(Colour-Change Charm)
Description: Changes an object's colour.

Seen/mentioned: Attempted by Ron on initial

trip to Hogwarts; mentioned in Harry's
Ordinary Wizarding Levels in Order of the
Phoenix;[OotP Ch.31] also used by Harry on
Ron's Chudley Cannon's poster when the
Trace was lifted.
Confringo (Blasting Curse)
Pronunciation: /knfro/ kon-fring-goh
Description: Causes anything that the spell
meets to explode in flames.
Seen/mentioned: Seen only in Deathly
Hallows. In the opening chapters, it is cast by
Harry to destroy the sidecar of the flying
motorbike.[DH Ch.4] Later, it is used by
Hermione in an attempt to kill Nagini and
facilitate an escape from Bathilda Bagshot's
house in Godric's Hollow.[DH Ch.17]

Confundo (Confundus Charm)

Pronunciation: /knfndo/ kon-fun-doh
Description: Causes the victim to become
confused, befuddled, overly forgetful and

prone to follow simple orders without thinking

about them.
Seen/mentioned: First mentioned in Prisoner
of Azkaban, when Severus Snape suggests
that Harry and Hermione had been Confunded
to believe Sirius Black's claim to innocence.
[PA Ch.21] In Goblet of Fire, it is suggested
that a powerful Confundus Charm is
responsible for the Goblet choosing a fourth
Triwizard contestant.[GF Ch.17] It is first seen
in action when Hermione uses it on Cormac
McLaggen during Quidditch tryouts in HalfBlood Prince.[HBP Ch.11]
(Conjunctivitus Curse)
Description: A curse that causes great pain to
the victim's eyes.
Seen/mentioned: It is suggested by Sirius in
Goblet of Fire as a means for defeating a
dragon for the first task of the Triwizard
Tournament, and used by Krum for this
purpose.[GF Ch.19, 20] Mentioned in Order of

the Phoenix as cast by Madame Maxime

against giants.[OotP Ch.20]

Crucio (Cruciatus Curse)

Cruciatus redirects here. For the ligaments in
the knee, see Cruciate ligament.
Pronunciation: /krusio/ krew-see-oh
Description: Inflicts unbearable pain on the
recipient of the curse.[HP4] One of the three
Unforgivable Curses.
Seen/mentioned: First seen in Goblet of Fire
introduced by Barty Crouch Jr. (acting as
Moody) and used on a spider. Used regularly
by the Death Eaters as torture, and by
Voldemort as punishment, even against his

Defodio (Gouging Spell)

Pronunciation: /dfodio/ de-foh-dee-oh
Description: Can carve or dig out materials,
such as stone and steel.

Seen/mentioned: Cast by Harry, Ron and

Hermione in Deathly Hallows to help dig their
way out of the Gringotts Tunnels.[DH Ch.26]
Pronunciation: /dlitris/ d-lee-tree-s
Description: Removes or dismisses the effect
of Prior Incantato.
Seen/mentioned: Seen only in Goblet of Fire
when Amos Diggory gets rid of the echo of the
Dark Mark from Harry's wand.[GF Ch.9]
Pronunciation: /dnsdio/ den-saw-jee-oh
Description: Causes the teeth of the recipient
to grow at an alarming rate.
Seen/mentioned: Seen only in Goblet of Fire,
cast by Draco on Harry, which is then
deflected onto Hermione.[GF Ch.18]
Pronunciation: /dprmo/ dep-rim-oh

Description: A very powerful wind that can

loosen and/or soften a variety of things; it can
also be used to detach objects.
Seen/mentioned: Introduced in Deathly
Hallows when Hermione casts this to blast a
hole in the Lovegoods' living room floor.[DH

Pronunciation: /dsndo/ de-sen-doh
Description: Makes things sink, or go down.
Seen/mentioned: Seen twice in Deathly
Hallows, it is cast by Ron to magically cause
the stairs in his room to descend,[DH Ch.6]
and later by Crabbe in the Room of
Requirement to lower the wall behind which
Ron is hiding.[DH Ch.31]

Diffindo (Severing Charm)

Pronunciation: /dfndo/ di-fin-doh
Description: Cuts or rips objects.

Seen/mentioned: In Goblet of Fire when Ron

wants to get rid of the lace on his dress robes.
In Goblet of Fire when Harry urgently wants to
talk to Cedric he casts this spell to rip his bag,
delaying him for class.[GF Ch.9] In Half-Blood
Prince when Harry swaps the cover of the
Half-Blood Prince's copy of Advanced PotionMaking with the cover of a new copy, allowing
him to keep the Prince's notes under the guise
of a new book.
(Disillusionment Charm)
Description: Causes the target to become
invisible, or close to it.
Seen/mentioned: First in Harry Potter and the
Philosopher's Stone, when Dumbledore tells
Harry that he does not need a cloak to
become invisible. In Order of the Phoenix,
Moody casts this charm on Harry.[OotP Ch.3,
4] Xenophilius Lovegood mentions, in Deathly
Hallows, that Invisibility Cloaks are sometimes
created by casting a Disillusionment Charm
on a regular cloak.[DH Ch.21]

Pronunciation: /djro/ dewr-oh
Description: Makes the object hard.
Seen/mentioned: Seen in Deathly Hallows,
cast by Hermione while escaping from Death
Eaters in Hogwarts.[DH Ch.32]

Engorgio (Engorgement Charm)

Pronunciation: /rdio/ eng-gor-jee-oh
Description: Causes objects to swell in size.
Seen/mentioned: A "Growth Charm" with the
same effect is briefly mentioned. Hagrid is
suspected of having performed the charm on
his pumpkins in Chamber of Secrets. Also
seen in Goblet of Fire when Barty Crouch Jr,
impersonating Moody, casts it on a spider to
enhance a demonstration of the effects of the
Cruciatus Curse.
(Entrail-Expelling Curse)

Description: Presumably causes the entrails

(i.e. intestines) to be ejected from the body.
Seen/mentioned: First mentioned in Order of
the Phoenix when Harry visits St Mungo's
following Arthur Weasley's attack by Nagini
while guarding the Department of Mysteries.
Pronunciation: /pski/ e-pis-kee
Description: Used to heal relatively minor
injuries. When this spell is cast, the person
feels his/her injured body part go very hot and
then very cold.
Seen/mentioned: Used in Goblet of Fire after
the first task of the Triwizard Tournament. In
Half-Blood Prince, Nymphadora Tonks uses
this spell to fix Harry's broken nose; also used
by Harry in the same book to fix Demelza
Robins' mouth.
Suggested etymology: Greek episkeu meaning
"repair, restoration".[8]

Notes: Rowling writes in Half-Blood Prince that

Harry's knowledge tells him this spell could
belong to a family (or variety) of Healing

Pronunciation: /rkto/ e-rek-toh
Description: Used to erect something.
Seen/mentioned: Possibly used in Goblet of
Fire by wizards at the campsites near the
Quidditch World Cup. Used by Hermione and
Harry in Deathly Hallows.

Evanesco (Vanishing Spell)

Pronunciation: /vnsko/ ev--nes-koh
Description: Makes the target vanish.
Seen/mentioned: Used in Order of the Phoenix
by Snape to make Harry's potions disappear
from his cauldron. In addition, when Fred and
George were showing off their puking
pastilles, Lee Jordan cleared the bucket of
vomit with the Evanesco spell.

Notes: According to Minerva McGonagall, in

Deathly Hallows, Vanished objects and
organisms go "into non-being, which is to say,

Expecto Patronum

(Patronus Charm)

Pronunciation: /kspkto ptronm/ ekspek-toh p-troh-nm

Description: Conjures an incarnation of the
caster's innermost positive feelings, such as
joy or hope, known as a Patronus. A Patronus
is conjured as a protector, and is a weapon
rather than a predator of souls: Patronuses
shield their conjurors from Dementors or
Lethifolds, and can even drive them away.
They are also used amongst the Order of the
Phoenix to send messages.[9] According to
Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, the
Charm is the only known defensive spell
against Lethifolds.
Seen/mentioned: First seen in Prisoner of
Azkaban when a Dementor appears in the
Hogwarts Express, and Hermione says that

Remus Lupin repelled the Dementor by

casting a silvery object from his wand. Harry's
corporeal Patronus first appears in a Quidditch
game, and other characters throughout the
rest of the series use it.

Expelliarmus (Disarming Charm)

Pronunciation: /ksplirms/ eks-pel-ee-arms
Description: This spell is used to disarm
another wizard, typically by causing the
victim's wand to fly out of reach.[10][11]
Seen/mentioned: First seen in Chamber of
Secrets, when Snape disarms Gilderoy
Lockhart in the Duelling Club; from then on it
is commonly used throughout the rest of the
series. Draco uses it to disarm Dumbledore
and Harry used it during his first (Goblet of
Fire) and last duel (Deathly Hallows) with
Voldemort. As such, at the beginning of
Deathly Hallows, Death Eaters consider it
Harry Potter's trademark and correctly identify
Harry by the sight of this spell.

Pronunciation: /ksplso/ ek-spuul-soh
Description: A spell that causes an object to
explode. The force of the explosion may
depend on the intent of the caster.
Seen/mentioned: Used by a Death Eater in an
attempt to capture Harry in The Deathly
Hallows, it struck the table that Harry was
standing behind, causing an explosion that
slammed him into a wall with great force.
Pronunciation: /frl/ ferr-uul-
Description: Creates a bandage and a splint.
Seen/mentioned: Used by Lupin in Prisoner of
Azkaban to bind Ron's broken leg.
(Fidelius Charm)
Description: A charm involving secret
information hidden within the soul of a SecretKeeper. This information is irretrievable until

the Secret-Keeper chooses to reveal it; those

who have the secret revealed to them cannot
reveal it to others.
Seen/mentioned: In Prisoner of Azkaban, it is
explained that when Harry was an infant, he
and his parents, James and Lily Potter, were
hidden from Voldemort by this charm. Later,
in Order of the Phoenix, the charm is used to
hide the location of the headquarters for the
Order of the Phoenix. Order members in
Deathly Hallows also use it to protect their
Notes: Rowling previously stated that when a
Secret-Keeper dies, the Secret they held can
never be revealed to anyone else; the people
who were told before the Secret-Keeper's
death will still know the secret, but after the
death of the Secret-Keeper no one new can be
brought into the circle of knowledge.[12]
However, in Deathly Hallows, it is explained
that upon the Keeper's death, all those who
have been told the secret become Secret-

Keepers in turn, and can pass the secret on to

(Fiendfyre Curse)
Description: Dangerous, hard to control and
extremely powerful cursed fire which can take
the form of beasts such as serpents,
Chimeras, and dragons.
Seen/mentioned: In Deathly Hallows, Vincent
Crabbe uses Fiendfyre in the Room of
Requirement against Harry, Ron, and
Hermione who manage to escape on
broomsticks with Draco and Goyle.[DH Ch.31]
Notes: It is only used by Crabbe throughout in
Deathly Hallows, who Harry believes learned
it from the Carrows[DH Ch.31] during their
tenure as teachers at Hogwarts. Therefore,
Crabbe inadvertently destroyed one of Lord
Voldemort's Horcruxes.

Finite Incantatem
Pronunciation: /fnite knttm/ fi-neetay in-kn-taht-m

Description: Negates many spells or the

effects of many spells.
Seen/mentioned: Snape uses it in Chamber of
Secrets to restore order in the Duelling Club
when Harry and Draco are duelling. Lupin
uses the short form "Finite" in Order of the
Phoenix. It was suggested to Ron Weasley
(whose appearance at the time was that of
Reg Cattermole, a maintenance worker in the
Ministry of Magic) that this incantation might
work to stop a rainstorm in a Ministry office
when Harry, Hermione and Ron infiltrated the
Ministry of Magic in search of the Slytherin
Locket in Deathly Hallows.
Pronunciation: /flreti/ fl-gray-tee
Description: With this spell, the caster's wand
can leave fiery marks.
Seen/mentioned: Cast by Tom Riddle in The
Chamber of Secrets to spell out 'Tom Marvolo
Riddle' and unscramble it to 'I am Lord
Voldemort'. Also cast by Hermione in Order of

the Phoenix to identify doors of the

Department of Mysteries which members of
Dumbledore's Army had already opened, by
marking them with an 'X'.
(Flame-Freezing Charm)
Description: Causes fire to become harmless
to those caught in it, creating only a gentle,
tickling sensation instead of burns.
Seen/mentioned: Mentioned in the first
chapter of Prisoner of Azkaban in the book
History of Magic which Harry is reading to do
his homework. Witches and wizards used this
spell during medieval burnings.
(Flying Charm)
Description: Cast on broomsticks, and
(presumably) magic carpets to make them fly.
Seen/mentioned: Draco mentioned this spell
when tauntingly asking Ron why would
anyone cast a Flying Charm on Ron's
broomstick in Order of the Phoenix during
Ron's first Quidditch practice. It is also
mentioned in Quidditch Through the Ages.

(Freezing Charm)
Description: Renders target immobile.
Seen/mentioned: According to Horace
Slughorn, a Freezing Charm will also disable a
Muggle burglar alarm.
Furnunculus (Furnunculus Curse)
Pronunciation: /frnkjls/ fr-nung-kew-ls
Description: Causes the target to become
covered in boils.
Seen/mentioned: Used by Harry in Goblet of
Fire on Draco, but was deflected onto Goyle
instead. Also used later in the book when
Draco tried to harass Harry on the Hogwarts
Express and was hit with a barrage of curses,
including the Furnuculus Curse (which was
cast by Harry).[GF Ch.37]

Pronunciation: /dmnio/ je-min-ee-oh

Description: Creates a duplicate of any object

upon which it is cast. As revealed by the
goblin Griphook, any copies created are
worthless. The duplicate lasts several hours.
Magical properties, at least of a Horcrux, are
not copied.
Seen/mentioned: Used by Hermione in
Deathly Hallows to copy Salazar Slytherin's
locket to hide their tracks from Umbridge.
(Gemino Curse)
Description: Whenever an object affected by
this curse is touched, it duplicates itself into
many useless copies to hide the original. To
add confusion and eventually fill the
surrounding area with copies, the copies also
Seen/mentioned: Seen in Deathly Hallows
when Harry, Ron, Hermione, and Griphook
break into the Lestrange vault in Gringotts.
Used to great effect as the room fills with
useless duplicates.

Pronunciation: /lsio/ glis-ee-oh or /l

seo/ gli-say-oh
Description: Causes the steps on a stairway to
flatten and form a ramp or slide.
Seen/mentioned: Used by Hermione to escape
from pursuing Death Eaters in Deathly
Hallows. Used on the girls' dormitory to
ensure that boys cannot enter.
(Gripping Charm)
Description: Used to help someone grip
something with more effectiveness. This
charm is placed upon Quaffles to help Chasers
carry the Quaffle whilst simultaneously
holding their brooms.
Seen/mentioned: Mentioned in Quidditch
Through the Ages.
(Hair Loss Curse)
Description: Causes one to lose one's hair.

Seen/mentioned: In Philosopher's Stone, Harry

visits the "Curses and Counter-Curses" shop in
Diagon Alley, on the sign it mentioned three
curses: Hair Loss, Jelly-Legs and Tongue-Tying.
(Hair-Thickening Charm)
Description: Thickens one's hair.
Seen/mentioned: In Order of the Phoenix,
Snape asserts that Alicia Spinnet used it on
her eyebrows even though she was obviously
hexed by a member of the Slytherin Quidditch

Homenum Revelio
Pronunciation: /hmnm rvlio/ hom-inm re-vel-ee-oh
Description: Reveals humans near the caster.
Seen/mentioned: Used by Dumbledore to
detect Harry under his Invisibility Cloak, but
first named when used multiple times by
various characters in Deathly Hallows. Also
used by Hermione upon her, Ron, and Harry's
arrival at Grimmauld Place after being

attacked by Death Eaters in Tottenham Court

Road, after the wedding.[13]
(Homorphus Charm)
Description: Causes an Animagus or
transfigured object to assume its normal
Seen/mentioned: According to Lockhart, he
used it to force the Wagga Wagga Werewolf to
take its human form. It was, however, used by
Lupin and Sirius on the rat named Scabbers to
reveal that he was Peter Pettigrew in Prisoner
of Azkaban.
(Horton-Keitch Braking Charm)
Description: This spell was first used on the
Comet 140 to prevent players from
overshooting the goal posts and from flying
Seen/mentioned: Mentioned in Quidditch
Through the Ages as the charm that gave the
Comet 140 an advantage over the

(Hot-Air Charm)
Description: Causes wand to emit hot air.
Seen/mentioned: Used by Hermione Granger
in Order of the Phoenix to dry off her robes.
Also used shortly after to melt snow. Also was
used by Albus Dumbledore in Half-Blood
Prince to dry Harry's and his own robes.
(Hover Charm)
Description: An object is levitated off the
ground and moved according to the caster.
See Locomotor, Mobiliarbus and Wingardium
Seen/mentioned: Used by Dobby silently in
Chamber of Secrets to levitate a cake, of
which Harry is accused. Also used by
Xenophilius to clear rubble off his stairs in
Deathly Hallows.
(Hurling Hex)
Description: Causes brooms to vibrate
violently in the air and try to buck their rider

Seen/mentioned: In Philosopher's Stone,

Quirinus Quirrell may have been casting a
wordless and wandless version of this spell on
Harry's broom during his Quidditch match.
Flitwick suggested that Harry's confiscated
Firebolt might be jinxed with this spell.

Impedimenta (Impediment Jinx,

Impediment Curse)
Pronunciation: /mpdmnt/ im-ped-i-ment
Description: This powerful spell is capable of
tripping, freezing, binding, knocking back and
generally impeding the target's progress
towards the caster. The extent to which the
spell's specific action can be controlled by the
caster is not made clear. If this spell does
bind, it does eventually wear off as stated in
Deathly Hallows.
Seen/mentioned: Used in Goblet of Fire when
Harry is practising for the third task. Also used
by Madam Hooch to briefly stop Harry from

fighting with Draco. Also seen toward the end

of Order of the Phoenix, when Harry is fighting
the Death Eaters. Stronger uses of this spell
seem capable of blowing targets away.

Imperio (Imperius Curse)

Pronunciation: /mprio/ im-peer-ee-oh
Description: Causes the victim of the curse to
obey the spoken/unspoken commands of the
caster. The experience of being controlled by
this curse is described as a complete,
wonderful release from any sense of
responsibility or worry over one's actions, at
the price of one's free will. Resisting the effect
of the curse is possible, however, and several
individuals have been able to successfully
overcome it, including Harry and both of the
Crouches, who learn to resist the curse after
being subjected to its effects for an extended
period. Harry describes the feeling of being
the caster as controlling a marionette through
a wand (although Harry's particular
experience is suspect due to his lack of

commitment to casting Unforgivable Curses).

One of the three Unforgivable Curses.
Seen/mentioned: First mentioned (not by
name) in the first book when Ron told Harry
that during the first war Lucius Malfoy claimed
that he had been jinxed, thus evading
imprisonment. First seen in Goblet of Fire
introduced by Barty Crouch Jr. (acting as
Moody) and used on a spider. Later seen in
the book when Barty Crouch Jr., acting as
Professor Moody, used it on all the students to
see if they would be able to overcome it.
Barty Crouch Sr. had used it on Barty Crouch
Jr., who then escaped it and used it on his
father before killing him in the fourth book.
Used by Harry in Deathly Hallows on a
Gringotts goblin and Travers, and by the
Death Eaters on Pius Thicknesse.
(Imperturbable Charm)
Description: Makes objects such as doors
impenetrable (by everything, including
sounds and objects).

Seen/mentioned: The spell is used by Mrs

Weasley in Order of the Phoenix on the door
of the room in which an Order meeting was
being held, to prevent her sons, Fred and
George, from eavesdropping (using their
extendable ears). Also mentioned in HalfBlood Prince when Harry, Ron, and Hermione
followed Draco to Borgin and Burkes and used
extendable ears.
Impervius (Impervius Charm)
Pronunciation: /mprvis/ im-pur-vee-s
Description: This spell makes something repel
(literally, become impervious to) substances
and outside forces, including water.
Seen/mentioned: Used by Hermione in
Prisoner of Azkaban on Harry's glasses while
in a Quidditch match and also by the
Gryffindor Quidditch team in Order of the
Phoenix, both times to allow team members
to see in a driving rain. Also used in Deathly
Hallows, first by Ron to protect objects in
Yaxley's office from rain, and then by

Hermione in an attempt to protect Harry, Ron

and Griphook from the burning treasure in the
Lestranges' vault.
Pronunciation: /krsrs/ ing-kar-sr-s
Description: Ties someone or something up
with ropes.
Seen/mentioned: An unnamed spell,
presumably incarcerous, is used by Lupin to
tie up Snape in the Shrieking Shack in
Prisoner of Azkaban and likewise in Goblet of
Fire when Pettigrew ties Harry to Tom Riddle's
grave. Incarcerous itself is first heard in Order
of the Phoenix, when Umbridge gets in a
battle with the centaurs. Also used by Harry
on the Inferi in Voldemort's Horcrux chamber,
in Half-Blood Prince, and later again when
Harry tries to bound Snape after the death of

Pronunciation: /nsndio/ in-sen-dee-oh

Description: Produces fire.[10] Flames burst

out flying.
Seen/mentioned: It is first seen in Harry Potter
and the Philosopher's Stone when Hagrid
(nonverbally) produces fire out of his umbrella
in the little house the Dursleys took refuge in
(from the Hogwarts letters). In Half-Blood
Prince, this spell is used several times in
battle, for instance when Hagrid's hut is set
(Intruder Charm)
Description: Detects intruders and sounds an
Seen/mentioned: Slughorn had it on a
temporary Muggle owned house he was living
in, allowing him to detect Dumbledore and
Harry as they approached in Half-Blood Prince.
(Jelly-Brain Jinx)
Description: Presumably affects the target's
mental processes.

Seen/mentioned: During the September 1999

riot that took place during the
Puddlemere/Holyhead Quidditch game.
(Jelly-Fingers Curse)
Description: Causes the target's fingers to
become almost jelly-like to make it impossible
for the victim to grasp objects. If the
opponent touches a wall, he/she will be stuck
to it forever.
Seen/mentioned: After a June 1999
Portree/Arrows Quidditch game, the losing
Seeker accused his opposite number of
putting this curse on him as they both closed
in on the Snitch.
(Jelly-Legs Jinx)
Description: A jinx that renders its victim's
legs temporarily useless, leaving him/her to
wobble around helplessly until the effect
wears off or the counter-jinx is performed.
Seen/mentioned: First mentioned as one of
the jinxes in the book Curses and CounterCurses.[PS Ch.5] First used on Harry, while

practising for the Third Task of the Triwizard

Tournament, by Hermione.[GF Ch.31] At the
end of the term, Draco, Crabbe and Goyle
tried to harass Harry on the Hogwarts Express
and were hit with a few hexes, curses and
jinxes, including the Jelly-Legs Jinx (cast by
George Weasley).[GF Ch.37]
(Knee-Reversal Hex)
Description: Causes the victim's knees to
appear on the opposite side of his/her legs.
Seen/mentioned: In Quidditch Through the
Ages, Gertie Keddle uses this hex when a man
playing an early form of Quidditch comes to
retrieve his ball from her garden.
Pronunciation: /llk/ lang-lok
Description: Glues the victim's tongue to the
roof of his/her mouth. Created by Severus

Seen/mentioned: Used by Harry in Half-Blood

Prince on Peeves and on Argus Filch, to
general applause.

Pronunciation: /ldlmnz/ le-jil-i-menz
Description: Allows the caster to delve into
the mind of the victim, allowing the caster to
see the memories, thoughts, and emotions of
the victim.
Seen/mentioned: Used by Snape on Harry
during Occlumency lessons in Order of the
Phoenix and by Dumbledore on Kreacher. Also
used nonverbally by Snape on Harry in HalfBlood Prince to allow him to see where Harry
had learned the Sectumsempra spell. Used by
Lord Voldemort multiple times to see Harry's
Notes: See also Legilimency for more


Pronunciation: /lvkrps/ lev-i-kor-ps

(usually nonverbal)
Description: The victim is dangled upsidedown by one of his/her ankles, sometimes
accompanied by a flash of white light.[14]
Created by Severus Snape. Its counter curse
is Liberacorpus.
Seen/mentioned: It was originally shown to be
a nonverbal-only spell, but in the Deathly
Hallows, the text shows that Hermione
whispers it to lift Harry so he can steal the
Cup of Helga Hufflepuff. Harry learns it by
reading the notes written by the Half-Blood
Prince. He inadvertently uses it on Ron in HalfBlood Prince. In addition, in Order of Phoenix,
Harry sees (through the Pensieve) his father,
James, use the spell against Snape.
Notes: Though Harry initially learns Levicorpus
as a nonverbal spell, it is used verbally by
James Potter in The Order of the Phoenix and
by Hermione Granger in The Deathly Hallows.


Pronunciation: /lbrkrps/ lib-r--kor-ps

Description: The counter spell to Levicorpus.
Created by Severus Snape.
Seen/mentioned: Harry uses the spell in HalfBlood Prince to counteract the Levicorpus
spell he inadvertently casts on Ron. Harry also
casts it on himself in Deathly Hallows after
managing to retrieve the Horcrux from the
shelf in the Lestrange's vault.

Pronunciation: /lokomotr/ loh-ko-mohtor
Description: The spell is always used with the
name of a target, at which the wand is
pointed (e.g. "Locomotor Trunk!"). The spell
causes the named object to rise in the air and
move around at the will of the caster.
Seen/mentioned: Used by Tonks in Order of
the Phoenix to move Harry's trunk from his
room. Flitwick similarly uses it to move Sybill

Trelawney's trunk after Umbridge sacks her.

Parvati Patil and Lavender Brown use this
spell to race their pencil cases around the
edges of the table. A variation seen in Deathly
Hallows is Piertotum Locomotor, which
animated the suits of armour in Hogwarts.
Locomotor Mortis (Leg-Locker Curse)
Pronunciation: /lokomotr mrts/ lohko-moh-tor mor-tis
Description: Locks the legs together,
preventing the victim from moving the legs in
any fashion. The target can hop when
affected by this curse, but walking is
impossible without the countercurse
Seen/mentioned: Used by Draco on Neville
Longbottom in Philosopher's Stone. Also
mentioned further on in the book as Ron and
Hermione prepare to use it on Snape during a
Quidditch match. Used by Harry on Draco,
who deflects it, in Half-Blood Prince.


"Lumos" redirects here. For the charity, see

Lumos (charity).
Pronunciation: /ljums/ lew-mos
Description: Creates a narrow beam of light
that shines from the wand's tip, like a torch.
Seen/mentioned: First seen in Chamber of
Secrets and then constantly throughout the
Notes: The counter spell, Nox, extinguishes
the light. The caster of this spell can cast
other spells while this spell is in effect.
Meteolojinx Recanto
Pronunciation: /mitilodks rknto/
mee-tee-ol--jingks re-kan-toh
Description: Causes weather effects caused
by incantations to cease.
Seen/mentioned: Suggested in Deathly
Hallows by Arthur Weasley to Ron (disguised

by the Polyjuice Potion as Reginald 'Reg'

Cattermole from Magical Maintenance) as the
best way to clear up the incessant rain in
Yaxley's office at the Ministry.

Pronunciation: /moblirbs/ moh-bil-ee-arbs
Description: Lifts a tree a few inches off the
ground and levitates it to where the caster
points his or her wand.
Seen/mentioned: In Prisoner of Azkaban,
Hermione uses the spell to move a Christmas
Tree in The Three Broomsticks beside her
table to hide Harry, who was in Hogsmeade

Pronunciation: /moblikrps/ moh-bil-eekor-ps
Description: Lifts a body a few inches off the
ground and levitates it where the caster
points his or her wand[10]

Seen/mentioned: Sirius Black uses it on

Severus Snape in Prisoner of Azkaban.
Morsmordre (Dark Mark)
Pronunciation: /mrzmrdr/ morz-mor-dr
Description: Conjures the Dark Mark,
Voldemort's mark. It is often used to mark
deaths, or cause terror (as at the Quidditch
World Cup in The Goblet of Fire)
Seen/mentioned: Used by Barty Crouch Jr in
Goblet of Fire. Also seen in Half-Blood Prince
over the castle to lure Dumbledore to his
death. Voldemort apparently invented it.
According to Mr. Weasley, very few wizards
know how to cast this spell.

Pronunciation: /mflito/ muf-lee-ah-toh
Description: Keeps nearby people, or those to
whom the wand is directed, from hearing
nearby conversations.[14]
Seen/mentioned: It is used in Half-Blood
Prince by Harry and Ron on various teachers

and people such as Madam Pomfrey.

Hermione also uses it in Deathly Hallows in
protection of the campsite where she and
Harry stayed in hiding.

Pronunciation: /nks/ noks
Description: Counter charm to the Lumos
Seen/mentioned: In Prisoner of Azkaban,
Harry and Hermione used this spell to turn off
their wand-lights in the Shrieking Shack. Also
used in Deathly Hallows when Harry was in
the passage beneath the Whomping Willow
that leads to the Shrieking Shack.
(Obliteration Charm)
Description: Removes things not wished to be
seen again.

Seen/mentioned: Used by Hermione in Order

of the Phoenix to remove the footprints that
she, Harry, and Ron left in the snow. Also used
in Deathly Hallows by Hermione to remove
the footprints she and Harry leave behind
them in the snow as they journey through
Godric's Hollow.
Notes: The above instances only reveal that
the Obliteration Charm can remove footprints.
There is no explanation as to what effect it
can have on other things.

Obliviate (Memory Charm)

Pronunciation: /oblviet/ oh-bliv-ee-ayt
Description: Used to hide a memory of a
particular event.
Seen/mentioned: First mentioned (not by
name) in the Philosopher's Stone by Ron that
it was used on Muggles who have seen
dragons. First used in Chamber of Secrets by
Lockhart who wanted to use it on Harry and
Ron; the spell backfired because Ron's wand
had been damaged, causing Lockhart to lose

most of his own memory (which he never

recovers). In Goblet of Fire, it is used by an
unknown Ministry worker on Mr. Roberts and
later the rest of his family. In Deathly Hallows,
Hermione uses the spell on two Death Eaters
who had followed Harry, Ron, and Hermione
after their escape from Bill Weasley and
Fleur's wedding. Also used by Hermione on
Xenophilius Lovegood after destroying his
house in Deathly Hallows and erasing her
parents memories of herself.

Pronunciation: /bskjro/ ob-skewr-oh
Description: Causes a blindfold to appear over
the victim's eyes, obstructing his/her view of
his/her surroundings.
Seen/mentioned: Used by Hermione in
Deathly Hallows to obstruct Phineas Nigellus
Black's portrait's view of their location.
Pronunciation: /pno/ -pug-noh

Description: Causes conjured objects to

Seen/mentioned: Used by Hermione in HalfBlood Prince to attack Ron with a conjured
flock of canaries (also see Avis).
Pronunciation: /rkdis/ or-kid-ee-s
Description: Makes a bouquet of flowers
appear out of the caster's wand.
Seen/mentioned: Used in Goblet of Fire by
Ollivander to test Fleur's wand.
Pronunciation: /pk/ pak, as in English
Description: Packs a trunk, or perhaps any
Seen/mentioned: Used in Prisoner of Azkaban
by Lupin in his office, and in Order of the
Phoenix by Tonks, once verbally and again

(Permanent Sticking Charm)

Description: Makes objects permanently stay
in place.
Seen/mentioned: First mentioned in Order of
the Phoenix, Sirius suspects that his mother's
painting was fixed to the wall with such a
Charm. In Deathly Hallows, Harry discovers
that it was used by Sirius to permanently affix
his pictures to the wall in his room.

Petrificus Totalus

(Body-Bind Curse)

Pronunciation: /ptrfks totls/ pe-trif-iks toh-tal-s

Description: Used to temporarily bind the
victim's body in a position much like that of a
soldier at attention; this spell does not restrict
breathing or seeing, and the victim will
usually fall to the ground.[10]
Seen/mentioned: First used in Philosopher's
Stone by Hermione, who was trying to prevent
Neville from stopping her, Ron, and Harry
from leaving the common room to hunt for

the Philosopher's Stone.[PS Ch.16] It is then

used throughout the rest of the series,
especially during the Battle of the Department
of Mysteries in Order of the Phoenix. Seen in
Half-Blood Prince twice: in the beginning,
Draco uses the spell against Harry on the
train, and later when Dumbledore casts the
spell non-verbally to make Harry freeze so he
does not give himself away in the Astronomy
Tower. The spell was broken when
Dumbledore was killed.
Notes: The eyes of the target remain mobile,
as seen in the Philosopher's Stone, and in the
Deathly Hallows.
Piertotum Locomotor
Pronunciation: /pa.rtotm lokomotr/
py-r-toh-tm loh-ko-moh-tor
Description: Spell used to animate statues
and suits of armour to do the caster's bidding.
Seen/mentioned: In Deathly Hallows,
McGonagall uses this spell to animate the

suits of armour and statues within Hogwarts

to defend the castle.[15]
(Placement Charm)
Description: A charm which temporarily
places an object upon a desired target.
Seen/mentioned: Mentioned in Fantastic
Beasts and Where to Find Them.

Point Me

(Four-Point Spell)

Pronunciation: /pntmi/ poynt-mee, as in

Description: Causes the caster's wand tip to
point to the north cardinal point, acting like a
Seen/mentioned: By Harry during the third
task of the Triwizard Tournament in Goblet of
Pronunciation: /prts/ port-s
Description: Turns an object into a portkey.
The object glows an odd blue colour to show it

has been transformed into a portkey, then

goes solid again.[OotP Ch.22]
Seen/mentioned: Used by Dumbledore in
Order of the Phoenix.
Notes: Portkeys were first seen in Goblet of
Fire as a means for Harry, Hermione, and the
Weasleys to go to the Quidditch World Cup.
However, the spell used in its creation was
not seen until Order of the Phoenix when
Dumbledore creates a Portkey to get Harry
Potter and Fred, George, Ron, and Ginny
Weasley to Grimmauld Place.[OotP Ch.22]
Also requires Ministry approval to use.

Prior Incantato
See also: Magic in Harry Potter Priori
Pronunciation: /prar kntto/ pry-or
Description: Causes the echo (a shadow or
image) of the last spell cast by a wand to
emanate from it.

Seen/mentioned: Used by Amos Diggory in

Goblet of Fire to discover the last spell cast by
Harry's wand after it was found in the hands
of Winky, a house-elf. Mentioned in Deathly
Hallows as a means of discovering that Harry
had been casting spells with Hermione's wand
(implying that his own was broken).
(Protean Charm)
Description: Causes copies of an object to be
remotely affected by changes made to the
Seen/mentioned: First used in Order of the
Phoenix. Hermione put the charm on a
number of fake Galleons.[7] Instead of the
serial number around the edge of the coin,
the time and date of the next meeting of
Dumbledore's Army appeared. Said to be a
spell at NEWT level.

Protego (Shield Charm)

Pronunciation: /proteo/ proh-tay-goh

Description: The Shield Charm[11] causes

minor to strong jinxes, curses, and hexes to
rebound upon the attacker, or at least
prevents them from having their full effect. It
can also cause a shield to erupt from the
caster's wand.
Seen/mentioned: First seen in Goblet of Fire,
in which Harry Potter is taught this spell by
Hermione Granger in preparation for the third
task in the Triwizard Tournament. Also used
throughout the series. Examples are in Order
of the Phoenix when Harry blocks Snape's
Legilimency after a lengthy Occlumency
lessons and when Harry is duelling the Death
Eaters. Harry later uses this spell in Half-Blood
Prince to block Snape's jinx when he was
showing Ron how to cast a spell without
saying a word. Harry later uses it in Deathly
Hallows to separate Ron and Hermione when
they are fighting.
Protego Horribilis
Pronunciation: /proteo hrbls/ prohtay-goh hor-rib-il-is

Description: Provides some form of protection

against Dark Magic.
Seen/mentioned: Cast by Flitwick in an
attempt to strengthen the castle's defences in
Deathly Hallows
Protego Totalum
Pronunciation: /proteo totlm/ prohtay-goh toh-tal-m
Description: Provides protection of some form
for an area or dwelling.
Seen/mentioned: In Deathly Hallows, this is
one of the spells used by Hermione and Harry
to protect their camp site from unwanted

Pronunciation: /kwaets/ kwy-ay-ts
Description: Makes a magically magnified
voice return to normal.

Seen/mentioned: Used in Goblet of Fire by

Ludo Bagman.
Notes: Functions as the counter spell to

Pronunciation: /rdjusio/ re-dew-see-oh
Description: Makes an enlarged object
smaller. Counter-charm to Engorgio.
Seen/mentioned: Used in Goblet of Fire by
Barty Crouch Jr (as Moody) to shrink the
spider he used to demonstrate the Cruciatus
Curse. Harry attempts the spell in the Deathly
Hallows when practising with Draco's
blackthorn wand.

Reducto (Reductor Curse)

Pronunciation: /rdkto/ re-duk-toh
Description: Enables the caster to explode
solid objects.

Seen/mentioned: In Goblet of Fire, Harry uses

it on one of the hedges of the Triwizard maze
and ends up burning a small hole in it; in
Order of the Phoenix, Gryffindors in Harry's
year reference Parvati Patil as being able to
reduce a table full of dark detectors to ashes
and Ginny Weasley uses it in the Room of
Requirement during the practice and in the
Hall of Prophecy, Department of Mysteries; in
Half Blood Prince, a member of the Order of
the Phoenix attempts to use this spell to
break down a door which Death Eaters have
blocked when the Death Eaters have cornered
Dumbledore in the Lightning Struck Tower.
(Refilling Charm)
Description: Refills whatever at which the
caster points with the drink originally in the
Seen/mentioned: Used in Half-Blood Prince,
when Harry notices that Hagrid and Slughorn
are running out of mead.


Pronunciation: /rlio/ re-lash-ee-oh

Description: A charm used to force someone
or something to release that which it holds or
grapples by means of shooting fiery sparks
out or, underwater, shooting hot bursts of
Seen/mentioned: Used by Harry against
Grindylows in the second task of the Triwizard
Tournament. When used more expertly by Bob
Ogden in Half-Blood Prince, it threw Marvolo
Gaunt backwards after an attempted attack.
Hermione uses it in Deathly Hallows to free
Mrs Cattermole from the chained chair.
Pronunciation: /rnrvet/ ren-r-vayt
Description: Brings someone out of
Seen/mentioned: In Goblet of Fire, Amos
Diggory uses it to wake up Winky and
Dumbledore uses it to wake up Krum and
Barty Crouch Jr. In "Half-Blood Prince", Harry

later uses it to try to reawaken a cursed

Dumbledore in the seaside cave.
Suggested etymology: Officially renamed from
Ennervate by J. K. Rowling[16]
Notes: Counter spell to Stupefy; when this
spell is cast, red light is emitted.

Pronunciation: /rpro/ re-par-oh
Description: Used to repair broken or
damaged objects.[10]
Seen/mentioned: Many times throughout the
books. First used by Hermione, when she uses
it to fix a broken window. Shattered objects
are often described as having "flown" back
together. However, substances contained
within broken objects are not restored.
Notes: Harry used this spell twice to repair his
wand in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows,
once with a normal wand and a second time
with the "Elder Wand" or "Wand of Destiny".
Only the second attempt was successful.

(Repelling Charm)
Description: Pushes a moving object away
from an invisible barrier.
Seen/mentioned: Quidditch Through the Ages,
Chapter 4. e.g. "the wizards in the crowd
forced [the snidget] back with repelling
Notes: This is only mentioned repelling the
snidget (a small but agile bird). However
context suggests the spell is a generic
repelling spell, but we do not know the extent
or limitations. It was used to prevent the bird
escaping the confines of the quidditch pitch.
Repello Muggletum (Muggle-Repelling Charm)
Pronunciation: /rplo mltm/ re-pel-oh
Description: Keeps Muggles away from
wizarding places by causing them to
remember important meetings they missed
and to cause the Muggles in question to
forget what they were doing in the first place.

Seen/mentioned: Mentioned in Quidditch

Through the Ages as being used to keep
Muggles away from the Quidditch World Cup.
Hogwarts was also said to be guarded by the
Muggle-Repelling Charm. Harry and Hermione
also use it on numerous occasions, among
many other spells, to protect and hide their
campsite in Deathly Hallows.
Rictusempra (Tickling Charm)
Pronunciation: /rktsmpr/ rik-t-sem-pr
Description: The subject experiences the
sensation of being tickled
Seen/mentioned: First seen used by Harry on
Draco in Chamber of Secrets, when they
fought in the Duelling Club.
Notes: This spell takes the form of a jet of
silver light (purple in video games).

Pronunciation: /rdkls/ ri-dik--ls[17]
Description: A spell used when fighting a
Boggart, "Riddikulus" forces the Boggart to

take the appearance of an object upon which

the caster is concentrating. When used
correctly, this will be a humorous form.
Seen/mentioned: First seen in Prisoner of
Azkaban, when taught by Lupin. Then seen in
Goblet of Fire on a boggart that was in the
maze in the Third Task. Finally seen in Order
of the Phoenix, when Mrs Weasley tries to cast
Riddikulus on a Boggart in Grimmauld Place.
Notes: The effect depends on what the caster
is thinking. Neville concentrates on his
grandmother's dress, causing a Boggart in the
form of Snape to appear in it.
Salvio Hexia
Pronunciation: /slvio hksi/ sal-vee-oh
Description: Provides some form of protection
against hexes.

Seen/mentioned: Harry and Hermione cast

this spell to strengthen their campsite's
defences against intruders in Deathly Hallows.
Scourgify (Scouring Charm)
Pronunciation: /skrdfa/ skur-ji-fy
Description: Used to clean something.[7][10]
Seen/mentioned: First used by Tonks to clean
Hedwig's cage in Order of the Phoenix. Later,
Ginny performs the spell to clean up Stinksap
in the Hogwarts Express. While looking at
Snape's memories, Harry sees James use the
spell on Snape's mouth.

Pronunciation: /sktmsmpr/ sek-tm-sempr
Description: Violently wounds the target;
described as being as though the subject had
been "slashed by a sword".[14] Created by
Severus Snape.
Seen/mentioned: First seen in Order of the
Phoenix when Snape uses it in his memory

against James, but misses and only lightly

cuts his cheek. Used successfully by Harry in
Half-Blood Prince against Draco, and then
later against the Inferi in Voldemort's Horcrux
chamber, and Snape during his flight from
Hogwarts. In the opening chapters of Deathly
Hallows, Snape accidentally casts this curse
against George Weasley in the Order's flight
from Privet Drive, though George was not his
intended target. [DH Ch.3] It is known as a
speciality of Snape's. [DH Ch.5]
Notes: Though Snape was able to mend the
wounds inflicted on Draco by this curse with
ease, with "an incantation that sounded
almost like song", Mrs Weasley was unable to
heal her son George when his ear was
severed by the curse. It was discovered in an
old copy of Advanced Potion Making by Harry;
Sectumsempra was invented by Snape with
the words "For enemies" written next to it.


Pronunciation: /srpnsrti/ sur-pn-sortee-

Description: Conjures a serpent from the spell
caster's wand.[10]
Seen/mentioned: Used by Draco whilst
duelling Harry in Chamber of Secrets and
Voldemort in the duel against Dumbledore in
Order of the Phoenix.

Silencio (Silencing Charm)

Pronunciation: /slnsio/ si-len-see-oh
Description: Silences something
Seen/mentioned: First used by Hermione in
Order of the Phoenix to silence a frog and a
raven in Charms class, then later to silence a
Death Eater who was trying to use a spell
against Harry Potter. It was also used by
Voldemort in Deathly Hallows during the
Battle of Hogwarts.
(Slug-Vomiting Charm)

Description: A jet of green light strikes the

victim, who then vomits slugs for an
undefined period of time (greater than five
hours). The sizes of the vomited slugs
decrease with time.
Seen/mentioned: In Chamber of Secrets, Ron
attempts to use it on Draco by saying "Eat
Slugs"; the spell backfired and hit him
instead. Mentioned in Order of the Phoenix
before Gryffindor's first Quidditch Match
against Slytherin when Draco taunts Ron,
"Harry was reminded forcibly of the time that
Ron had accidentally put a Slug-Vomiting
Charm on himself".[OotP Ch.19]

Pronunciation: /snrs/ son-nohr-s
Description: Magnifies the spell caster's voice,
functioning as a magical megaphone
Seen/mentioned: By Ludo Bagman and
Cornelius Fudge in Goblet of Fire to
commentate at the Quidditch World Cup and
during the Triwizard Tournament. Also used by

Dumbledore to silence everyone in the Great

Hall in Goblet of Fire. Used by Voldemort
several times during the Battle of Hogwarts in
Deathly Hallows.
Notes: The counter-spell is Quietus.[citation
Specialis Revelio (Scarpin's Revelaspell)
Pronunciation: /spsils rvlio/ spes-eeal-is re-vel-ee-oh
Description: Causes an object to show its
hidden secrets or magical properties.
Seen/mentioned: Used by Hermione to find
out more of Harry's Advanced Potion-Making
book in Half-Blood Prince. Used by Ernie
Macmillan to find out the ingredients of a
(Stealth Sensoring Spell)
Description: Detects those under magical

Seen/mentioned: In Order of the Phoenix,

Umbridge casts this around her office. Also
used at the entrance to the Ministry of Magic.
(Stinging Hex/Stinging Jinx)
Description: Produces a stinging sensation in
the victim, resulting in angry red welts and
occasionally the severe inflammation of the
affected area.
Seen/mentioned: Harry inadvertently casts
one on Snape during Occlumency lessons in
Order of the Phoenix. Hermione casts the
Stinging Hex on Harry in Deathly Hallows to
purposefully distort Harry's appearance.

Stupefy (Stunning Spell, Stupefying

Charm, Stunner)
Pronunciation: /stjupfa/ stew-pi-fy
Description: Puts the victim in an unconscious
state. Manifests as a jet of red light.
Seen/mentioned: First seen in Goblet of Fire,
used by Ministry officials at the Quidditch
World Cup and later against Barty Crouch Jr..

Also seen used by a number of Ministry

officials against McGonagall in Order of the
Phoenix. It is also taught by Harry in his
Dumbledore's Army meetings and used
extensively during the Battle of the
Department of Mysteries against the Death
Eaters. Is seen by some, including Harry
himself, as the basic spell for fighting. Death
Eaters, Ministry Officials, Order members and
students all seem to refer to this spell as their
preferred attack.
Notes: Hagrid was able to withstand multiple
direct Stunners due to being half-giant, and
Goblet of Fire shows six to seven wizards
working in unison to Stun a single dragon.
[citation needed]
(Supersensory Charm)
Description: Able to possess superior senses
than before.
Seen/mentioned: Mentioned by Ron outside of
the Hogwarts Express during the epilogue of

Deathly Hallows as a potential substitute for

using mirrors while driving a car.
(Switching Spell)
Description: Causes two objects to be
switched for one another.
Seen/mentioned: Harry contemplates using
this spell against his dragon in the first task of
the Triwizard Tournament. Neville also uses
this in Transfiguration class in Goblet of Fire,
and accidentally transplants his ears onto a
Description: A jinx which may be placed upon
a word or a name, so that whenever that word
is spoken, a magical disturbance is created
that alerts the caster of the Taboo to the
location of the speaker. Any protective
enchantments in effect around the speaker
are broken when the Tabooed word is spoken

Seen/mentioned: In Deathly Hallows, this spell

is placed on the word "Voldemort"; Harry, Ron
and Hermione are tracked this way to
Tottenham Court Road. Ron tells the other two
to stop using the word as he began to fear the
name might be a jinx, later discovering it to
be a Taboo. The Taboo on Voldemort's name
proves useful in identifying supporters of
Harry Potter, since the name is so feared that
only "rebels" dare speak it. Later in the book,
Harry accidentally says Voldemort's name
again, resulting in the trio being caught by
Snatchers and taken to Malfoy Manor.

Pronunciation: /trntlr/ t-ran-t-leg-r
Description: Makes victim's legs dance
uncontrollably, so the victim cannot control
his or her movements (recalling the tarantella
Seen/mentioned: First used by Draco on Harry
in the Duelling Club in Chamber of Secrets. It
can be stopped using Finite, as mentioned in

Order of the Phoenix. It is notably used

against Neville in the Department of
Mysteries, causing the prophecy to be broken.
Pronunciation: /trdio/ tur-jee-oh
Description: Siphons material from a surface,
(e.g., blood, ink, dust, etc.)
Seen/mentioned: Hermione uses this spell in
Half-Blood Prince to remove blood from
Harry's face, as well as to remove ink from an
essay that Ron had completed previously. It
was used in Deathly Hallows to clean off a
handkerchief by Ron, and to dust off a picture
of Gellert Grindelwald in Bathilda Bagshot's
(Tongue-Tying Curse)
Description: A curse that prevents certain
information from being revealed by the
individual upon whom the spell is placed. The
curse manifests itself by causing the tongue
to temporarily curl backwards upon itself.

Seen/mentioned: First mentioned as one of

the spells in Curses and Counter-Curses.[PS
Ch.5] Seen in Deathly Hallows as a deterrent
to Snape, or any other unwanted visitor of
Number 12 Grimmauld Place, from betraying
their location to anyone else.
(Transmogrifian Torture)
Seen/mentioned: Gilderoy Lockhart suggested
that it was this curse that "killed" Mrs Norris
after she was really found petrified on a torch
bracket in Chamber of Secrets[HP2]
(Trip Jinx)
Description: Causes the victim of the jinx to
trip and fall.[HP5]
Seen/mentioned: Used by Draco in Order of
the Phoenix, to catch Harry when he was
fleeing after Dumbledore's Army was
(Unbreakable Vow)

Description: Causes a vow taken by a witch or

wizard to be inviolable; if he or she should
break it, the consequence is death. It
manifests itself as interlinking chains of fire
binding the clasped hands of the people
taking the Vow; the fire shoots out as a
tongue of flame from the wand of the Binder
(a witness to the Vow) every time the person
who takes the vow makes a promise. The
flames then form into the linking chains.
According to Ron Weasley, the spell causes
death to anyone who breaks the vow.
Seen/mentioned: Snape takes an Unbreakable
Vow with Narcissa Malfoy at the beginning of
Half-Blood Prince, vowing to help Narcissa's
son Draco with a task given to him by
Voldemort, and to finish the task should Draco
prove incapable.[HBP Ch.2] Fred and George
attempted to force an Unbreakable Vow upon
Ron as children.
(Undetectable Extension Charm)
Description: Causes a container's capacity to
be increased, without changing the object's

external appearance, or its weight noticeably.

The container may be carried or used as
Seen/mentioned: This spell is used by Mr
Weasley to allow eight people, six large
trunks, two owls, and a rat to fit comfortably
inside his modified Ford Anglia in Chamber of
Secrets. Hermione casts this spell upon her
small beaded handbag in Deathly Hallows.
Probably used in Goblet of Fire to make the
tents internal appearance bigger.
(Unbreakable Charm)
Description: Causes an object to become
Seen/mentioned: Hermione uses this spell in
Goblet of Fire on a glass jar containing Rita
Skeeter in her unregistered animagus form (a
beetle) so as to make sure she could not
return to human form.


Pronunciation: /wdiwsi/ wah-dee-wah-see

Description: Appears to launch small objects
through the air.
Seen/mentioned: Used only once in the series,
by Lupin in Prisoner of Azkaban to expel a
wad of chewing gum from the key hole Peeves
put it in, launching it up Peeves' left nostril.

Wingardium Leviosa


Pronunciation: /wrdim lvios/ winggar-dee-m lev-ee-oh-s
Description: Levitates objects.[2][10]
Seen/mentioned: First seen in The
Philosopher's Stone, when Flitwick's first-year
class practice the spell on feathers. Later in
that book, Ron performs the spell on the club
of a mountain troll.[PS Ch.10] Harry uses it to
hold himself up on Hagrid's motorbike much
later on, in The Deathly Hallows. Later in the
same book, Ron uses it to prod the knot at the
base of the Whomping Willow with a twig to

allow him, Harry and Hermione into the

Shrieking Shack.[DH Ch.32]