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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr.

2/2009

NOUL CURRICULUM I PRINCIPIUL

THE NEW CURRICULUM AND THE

RACORDRII LA SOCIAL

PRINCIPLE OF CONNECTION WITH


THE SOCIAL CONTEXT

Lect. univ. Gabriela Elena Gorun,


Universitatea Constantin Brncui din
Trgu-Jiu

Gabriela Elena Gorun,


Constantin Brncui University of TrguJiu

Rezumat
Unul dintre principiile de constituire i
dezvoltare a curriculumului universitar este cel al
racordrii la social care presupune conceperea
curriculumului n aa mod, nct s ofere inserie socioprofesional optim i compatibilizat cu valori etice i
estetice pozitive. Scoaterea acestui principiu din sfera
teoreticului i declarativului presupune rspunsuri
fundamentate la un set de imperative care, la rndul
lor, asigur modernizarea (nu doar n sine) a
sistemului educaional dintr-o ar, construindu-i
finalitile i conturndu-i eficacitatea, eficiena i
competitivitatea.

Abstract
One of the organization and development
principles of academic curriculum is that of
connection with the social context which supposes
academic curriculum conception in such a way that
can provide adequate social and professional
insertion and be compatibilized with positive ethical
and aesthetic values. Removing this principle from
the theoretic and declarative range supposes answers
based on a set of requirements which, in turn, provide
the modernization (not only in itself) of the
educational system from a country, building its
finalities and developing its efficacy, efficiency and
competitiveness.

Cuvinte cheie: coninuturi, curriculum,


ancor epistemologice, set de competene, racordare la
social, interiorizarea conceptelor.

Key Words: contents, curriculum, specific


epistemological anchors, set of competences, relation
to the social context, the interiorization of concepts.

Introducere
De ani buni sunt vehiculate judeci
constatative privind scderea calitii
educaiei, producia pe stoc a liceelor
tehnologice i facultilor, hiperteoretizarea
coninuturilor etc.
coala ca i universitatea s-au cantonat
sub clopotul de sticl n faa ascensiunii i
ubicuitii regulilor pieei libere. Apoi,
constrngerile globalizrii diverse i n
multiplicare nu pot fi neglijate. Tocmai de
aceea, iterm imperativele crora trebuie s le
fac fa mediul educaional azi.
1. Configurarea curriculumului din
perspectiva pieei muncii
Un astfel de demers este nu doar util
pentru absolveni, ci extrem de stringent. El
necesit, ns, studii prealabile asupra

Concluding judgments have been


conveyed for years regarding the decrease of
educational quality, the products of
technological high schools and faculties,
excessive theoretization of contents etc.
School and university have quartered
below the glass bell in front of the growth
and ubiquity of free market rules. Then,
globalization constraints various and in
multiplication cannot be neglected. This is
why we iterate the requirements that the
present educational environment has to face.
2. Curriculum configuration from
the labour market perspective
Such a step is useful not only for
graduates, but it is also extremely stringent.
It requires previous studies upon the labour

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dinamicii pieei muncii, studii derivate din


strategii i politici publice care s reprezinte
indicatori primordiali de referin.
Tocmai de aceea, excesul de zel cu
care muli actori (ndeosebi politici) se
grbesc n a nvinui excesiv coala pentru
lipsa de orientare n pregtirea elevilor i
studenilor este condamnabil. Pe scurt, dac
comanda social (fundamentat n strategii
durabile i politici publice obiectivaplicabile), este una slab definit, incert,
incoerent, neorientat pe finaliti riguros
circumscrise, atunci nici comunitatea
educaional nu-i poate (re) proiecta strategia
curricular. coala, universitatea se afl n
situaia n care se afl sistemul social cruia i
aparin: aceea de a reproduce trecutul i
prezentul, cenzurndu-i dezideratele (inclusiv
suportul ontic temporal al acestora) pe fondul
maximelor incertitudini.
Aici se disting dou tipuri de aciuni
(relative la imperativul definit supra): a)
aciuni dependente exclusiv de actorii
educaionali i b) aciuni ce transcend
competenele de status profesional ale acestor
actori.
Succint: configurarea curriculumului
din perspectiva cerinelor pieei muncii
presupune:
- fundamentarea pe elementele de baz
ale domeniului cunoaterii la care se
raporteaz specializarea. Aceast aciune este
n sarcina corpului didactic i specialitilor n
tiinele educaiei, fiind vorba, n esen, de
configurarea unui cadru conceptual specific,
constituit din definiii, concepte, teorii, legi,
aplicaii, ipoteze, proceduri, presupoziii
filosofice i tiinifice1, adic de nucleul tare
al demersului de studiu;
- realizarea unei focalizri disciplinare
care conduc la configurarea coninuturilor la
nivelul fiecrui ciclu universitar. Aceste
focalizri cad n sarcina specialitilor i
constituie cum afirm Karl Popper2
ancore epistemologice specifice, care se
fixeaz pe fundamentul conceptual comun;
- corelarea
specializrii/masterului/doctoratului cu piaa

market dynamics, studies derived from


public strategies and policies that would
represent the main reference markers.
This is why the excessive zeal that
many actors (especially political ones) rush
into excessively blaming school for the lack
of orientation in pupils and students training
is to be blamed. In short, if social order
(based on sustainable strategies and
objective-applicable public policies) is
poorly defined, uncertain, incoherent, not
oriented on roughly circumscribed finalities,
then the educational community cannot
(re)design its curricular strategy. School,
university are in the position of the social
system they belong to: that of reproducing
the past and the present by censuring its
desiderates (including their temporal ontic
support) due to maximum incertitude.
We distinguish two types of actions
here
(regarding
the
aforementioned
requirement): a) actions that depend
exclusively on educational actors and b)
actions that transcend professional status
competences of such actors.
In short: curriculum configuration
from the labour market perspective supposes:
- Basing on the main elements of the
knowledge area that specialization relates to.
This action shall be performed by the teacher
and by experts in educational sciences,
mainly referring to the configuration of a
specific conceptual framework consisting of
definitions,
concepts,
theories,
laws,
applications,
hypotheses,
procedures,
philosophical
and
scientific
presuppositions12, that is the strong nucleus
of the study activity;
- Development of a disciplinary
focalization that leads to contents
configuration at the level of any academic
cycle. These focalizations shall be performed
by experts and are according to Karl

specific epistemological
Popper13
anchors, based on common conceptual
grounds;
- Correlation
of
the
specialization/master PhD with labour

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muncii. La acest nivel competenele


specialitilor n educaie, ale actorilor
educaionali sunt limitate, fiind dependente de
cunoaterea dinamicii pieei muncii. O
dinamic ce nu se poate prefigura n absena
strategiilor pe termen mediu i lung. Aici se
afl cheia problemei i, deocamdat, n
Romnia cercul se nchide: pe de o parte
specializarea/masteratul/doctoratul trebuie s
fie n compatibilitate cu piaa muncii prin
setul de competene pe care studentul le
achiziioneaz pe parcursul formrii sale
profesionale, pe de alt parte, acest set de
competene nu poate fi elaborat n absena
comenzii sociale pe termen mediu i mai
ales lung. Marketingul universitar se afl n
impas tocmai datorit acestor limitri de
orizont, neexistnd nici indicatori calitativi,
nici, mai ales, indicatori cantitativi de
referin. Sunt implacabile rspunsuri la
ntrebri de tipul: ce profesii sunt necesare n
urmtorii 5-30 de ani n Romnia?; care este
nevoia (cuantificat) de ingineri (cu multiple
specializri), economiti, juriti, profesori,
specialiti
n
comunicare,
manageri,
funcionari publici etc. n acelai interval de
timp? Rspunsurile sunt imposibil de dat
(excepie referine externe) ndeosebi n
condiiile unei dezvoltri accentuate a pieei
universitare (declarat cu concuren perfect,
dar, n realitate, una cu concuren imperfect)
i cele ale unei piee a muncii supus
clivajelor profesionale pe termen scurt, fr
capaciti de autoreglare, incert i gestionar
de crize. Crizele de orientare i strategie
manifestate i persistente n plan social
anuleaz capacitatea de autoreglare a pieei
muncii i, prin aceasta, implicit, se produc
dereglri i incompatibiliti la nivelul pieei
educaionale.
Configurarea
curriculumului
din
3
perspectiva pieei muncii mai presupune :
- proiectarea curriculumului dintr-o
perspectiv transdisciplinar, care este
necesar exercitrii unui rol socioprofesional n lumea contemporan. Aceast
aciune intr n competenele specialitilor

market. At this level experts and actors


educational competences are limited,
depending on the knowledge level of labour
market dynamics. It is a dynamics that
cannot develop in the absence of medium
and long-term strategies. This is the key of
the problem and, for now, in Romania the
circle
is
closed:
on
one
hand,
specialization/master/PhD have to be in
compatibility with the labour market through
the set of competences that the student
acquires during its professional development,
on the other hand, this set of competences
cannot be drawn-up in the absence of
medium and especially long-term social
order. Academic marketing is in difficulty
due to these horizon limitations, as there are
no reference qualitative or especially
quantitative markers. There are implacable
answers to questions like: what professions
are necessary for the 5-30 years in
Romania?; which is the need quantified by
engineers (with multiple specializations),
economists,
jurists,
professors,
communication experts, managers, public
officials etc. in the same period of time?
Answers are impossibly to be given (except
for external references) especially under the
conditions of an increasing development of
the academic market (declared with perfect
competition, but actually, one with imperfect
competition) and those of a labour market
undergoing
short-term
professional
cleavages, without abilities for self-control,
uncertain and crises managing. Orientation
and strategy crises developing and persisting
at social level cancel labour market self
control capacity and implicitly, deregulations
and incompatibilities occur at the level of
educational market.
Curriculum configuration from the
perspective of labour market also
supposes14:
Curriculum design from a transdisciplinary perspective, which is necessary
for exercising a socio-professional role in
the contemporary world. This action is

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n
tiinele
educaiei
i
actorilor
educaionali, ntruct, din punct de vedere
metodologic, implic depirea exemplelor
i aplicaiilor standard4 ale unei discipline
prin raportarea predrii-nvrii la contexte
de realitate privit n integralitatea ei.5
Avnd ns n vedere raportarea predriinvrii la contexte de realitate privit n
integralitatea
ei,
este
cert
c
responsabilitile
se
divid,
actorii
educaionali fiind condiionai n aciunea de
acest tip de aceleai elemente: prezena
strategiilor fundamentate n privina
devenirii realitii, mai ales a realitii
sociale;
- organizarea
curriculumului prin:

pragmatic

included in experts and actors competences


in educational sciences because, from
methodological point of view, it implies
overcoming
standard
examples
and
applications15 of a subject by relating
teaching-learning to contexts of reality seen
in its integrality.16 Considering the relation
of teaching-learning to reality contexts seen
as a whole, it is certain that responsibilities
are divided, educational actors being
conditioned in this type of action by the
same elements: the presence of grounded
strategies regarding reality becoming,
especially social reality;
-

alorizarea elementelor perene ale


domeniilor de studiu n configuraii noi,
consonante
cu
cerinele
socioprofesionale
(din
nou,
dubla
responsabilizare);

Pragmatic organization
curriculum through:

of

the

The use of perennial elements of study


areas into new configurations, in agreement
with socio-professional requirements (again,
double responsibilization);
Curriculum update by introducing
subjects/modules based on professional
feedback.

In essence, this last type of action


ctualizarea
curriculumului
prin
correlated
to the defined requirements,
introducerea de discipline/module pe
involves
both
the educational environment
baza feedback-ului profesional.
and the extra-educational environment, with
n esen, acest ultim tip de aciune accent on the latter, since socio-professional
corelat imperativului definit, implic feedback plays a determining role. There are
deopotriv mediul educaional i mediul actually various situations.
extra-educaional, cu accent pe ultimul, din
Therefore,
methodologically
moment ce feedback-ul socio-profesional
the
aforementioned
action
joac rol determinant. Exist situaii diverse, speaking,
supposes
first
of
all
a
reverse
connection
de altfel.
type control, which requires the change of
strategies,
Astfel, metodologic, aciunea definit assessment/self-assessment
abandoning
the
mystics
of
classicalsupra presupune, n primul rnd, un reglaj tip
conexiune invers, reglaj ce solicit academic assessment/examination. From the
schimbarea
strategiilor
de point of view of its relation to the social
evaluare/autoevaluare,
abandonndu-se context, curriculum development supposes
mistica evalurii/examinrii clasic-academice. cognitive and attitudinal inputs structured in
Din perspectiva racordrii la social, accordance with social requirements, the
dezvoltarea
curriculumului
presupune opening towards the social context operating
17
inputuri cognitive i atitudinale structurate n as an organizational criterion . Distinctions
conformitate
cu
cerinele
socialului, occur inevitably here.
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deschiderea spre social funcionnd ca un


They come from the set of elements
6
criteriu organizatoric . Aici, apar inevitabil (areas) to which relation is made, some of
distinciile.
them being universal and long-lasting
coordinates of social evolution, others being
Ele provin din setul de elemente immediate and/or sporadic effects of social
(domenii) la care se realizeaz raportarea, transformations. The first ones allow
unele dintre acestea reprezentnd coordonate operation without risks at the level of the
universale i de durat a evoluiei socialului, curriculum: it is the case of informational
altele reprezentnd efecte imediate i/sau and communicational technologies that
sporadice ale transformrilor socialului. inevitably become a part of the curriculum
Primele permit operare fr riscuri la nivelul irrespective of students specialization;
curriculumului: este cazul tehnologiilor things are the same in the case of subjects
informaionale i comunicaionale, care devin related to communication techniques, public
inevitabil component a curriculumului relations, education for democratic living,
indiferent de specializarea studenilor; la fel sustainable
education,
education
for
stau lucrurile n privina unor discipline legate integration and differentiation etc. The other
de tehnici de comunicare, relaii publice, elements, being punctual, suppose punctual
educaie pentru modul de via democratic, answers, depending on resources and
educaie durabil, educaia pentru integrare i demands. They can be reabsorbed through
difereniere etc. Celelalte elemente, fiind various modules based on rough contractual
punctuale, presupun rspunsuri punctuale, relations which along with the perpetuation
funcie de resurse i solicitri. Ele pot fi of curriculum strong nucleus they also
resorbite ndeosebi prin diverse module, n provide its flexibility. It is a continuous
baza unor raporturi contractuale riguroase flexibility that allows adequate development
care, pe lng perpetuarea nucleului tare al of student/pupils personality.
curriculumului, asigur i o flexibilizare a
This adequate development involves
acestuia. O flexibilizare continu care s
permit dezvoltarea optim a personalitii the achievement of two potentialities:
differentiation
and
integration.
A
studentului/elevului.
differentiated person is competent, has
Aceast dezvoltare optim implic character and has reached a completely
realizarea a dou potenialiti: diferenierea i autonomous individuality. It is the ultimate
integrarea. O persoan difereniat este purpose in Western cultures. An integrated
competent, are caracter i a atins o person is someone whose objectives, values,
individualitate complet autonom. Acesta este thoughts and actions are in harmony,
scopul suprem n culturile occidentale. O someone who belongs to a network of
persoan integrat este cineva ale crui relations, someone who accepts a place in a
obiective, valori, gnduri i aciuni sunt n system of mutual responsibilities and
armonie, cineva care aparine unei reele de common senses. In many Asiatic cultures,
relaii, cineva care accept un loc n cadrul integration is considered the ultimate goal of
unui sistem de responsabiliti reciproce i human development. A future worth fighting
sensuri comune. n multe culturi asiatice, for is, in our opinion, that in which a person
integrarea este considerat scopul suprem al is able to develop both its differentiation and
dezvoltrii umane. Un viitor pentru care integration to the maximum18.
merit s te lupi este, dup prerea noastr,
cel n care o persoan i poate dezvolta la
maximum att diferenierea, ct i
2. Contents reorganization from
integrarea7.
descriptive to procedural and contextual is
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the second requirement. The operation is


difficult and complex referring to the
structuring of major themes and problems
that would lead to classic contents
essentialization,
eliminating
tendencies
towards
exhaustivity,
(re)memorizing,
repetitiveness. This by virtue of the fact that
universities have lost the status of sole
monopole of information production,
communication and use. There have been
statements in this sense since the first years
after 1990, but it is difficult to where such
mutations took place. It is a complex step
that focuses the concepts of the subject in
order to establish an operation base for the
development of this subject specific
procedures within the context of a
problematic situation/problem of real life.19

2. Reorganizarea coninuturilor de la
descriptiv la procedural i contextual este un
al doilea imperativ. Operaia este una dificil
i complex, ea viznd structurarea unor teme
i problematici majore care s conduc la
esenializarea coninuturilor clasice, s
elimine tendinele spre exhaustivitate,
(re)memorare, repetitivitate. Aceasta i n
virtutea faptului c universitile au pierdut
statutul de monopol unic al producerii,
comunicrii i utilizri informaiei. Sunt
declaraii n acest sens nc din primii ani de
dup 1990, ns este greu de detectat unde sau realizat mutaiile de acest tip. Este vorba
despre un demers complex care focalizeaz
conceptele disciplinei n vederea constituirii
unei baze de operare pentru dezvoltarea
procedurilor specifice acelei discipline n
Such a step has a double finality from
contextul unei situaii problem/probleme ale the point of view of its closeness to the social
vieii reale.8
reality: on one hand, it contextualizes
learning, on the other hand, it facilitates the
Asemenea demers are o dubl interiorization of concepts and procedures
finalitate din perspectiva apropierii de realul useful for the social-professional insertion.
social: pe de o parte, contextualizeaz
nvarea, pe de alt parte, faciliteaz
In specialized literature a set of
interiorizarea conceptelor i procedurilor questions is drawn-up in order to answer this
utile inseriei socio-profesionale.
requirement, like: Which are the dominating
concepts of the subject? Which are the
n literatura de specialitate este specific procedures of the subject that can
formulat un set de ntrebri la care trebuie s develop by operating with dominating
rspund acest imperativ, ntrebri de tipul: concepts? Which is the usefulness level of
Care sunt conceptele dominante ale these procedures from the point of view of
disciplinei? Care sunt procedurile specifice developing specialized competences? Which
disciplinei ce se pot dezvolta prin operarea cu are the relations between concepts,
concepte dominante? Care este gradul de procedures
and
contexts/problematic
utilitate al acestor proceduri din perspectiva situations? Do these functional relations have
formrii competenelor vizate de specializare? the effect of competences development that
Care sunt relaiile dintre concepte, proceduri the specialization proposes? etc.
i contexte/situaii problem? Aceste relaii
funcionale au ca efect dezvoltarea
competenelor pe care i le propune
Teaching focusing on experts
specializarea? etc.
procedures
application
and
demonstration
Focalizarea
demonstrarea

The expert, from this point of view, is


predrii
pe
i
aplicarea the specialist in a field. Every field faces a

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procedurilor expertului

series of problematic situations, that require


contextual solutions. This is why, the expert
has to approach problematic situations
through a way of thinking specific to that
field, a style acquired by operating with the
field concepts in a variety of specific
contexts/problems. Complex processes occur
that suppose the automation of some
operations as well as thinking flexibility.
In essence, every expert builds its
own thinking style during its initial training
which is not enough considered by the ones
guiding it.20

Expertul, din aceast perspectiv,


reprezint specialistul dintr-un domeniu.
Fiecare domeniu se confrunt cu o serie de
situaii-problem,
necesitnd
soluii
contextuale. De aceea, expertul trebuie s
abordeze situaiile-problem printr-un stil de
gndire specific domeniului respectiv, stil
dobndit prin operarea cu conceptele
domeniului
ntr-o
varietate
de
contexte/probleme specifice. Au loc procese
complexe, care presupun automatizarea unor
operaii, dar i o mare flexibilizare a gndirii.
n esen, fiecare expert i
5.
Students
cognitive
construiete stilul propriu de gndire pe experiences diversification through metaparcursul formrii iniiale, aspect insuficient cognitive and experimental cognitive
luat n considerare de ctre cei care l approach
ndrum.9
This requirement demands that, in
3. Diversificarea experienelor order to get quality acquisitions, students
cognitive ale studenilor prin abordarea learning has to be active, interactive and
metacognitiv i experimental cognitiv
reflexive. In short, specific thinking style is
not formed by using only the amount of
Acest imperativ solicit ca pentru information (facts accumulation, application,
obinerea unor achiziii de calitate, nvarea rememoration of theories, axioms, etc.).
studenilor trebuie s fie activ, interactiv i According
to
Vygotsky,
systematic,
reflexiv. Pe scurt, stilul de gndire specific conceptualized operations are necessary in
nu se formeaz apelnd doar la cantitatea de order to build concepts and procedures in the
informaie (acumulare a factologiei, aplicaii area of near development at the same time.21
adaos, rememorarea unor teorii, axiome, etc.).
Virtual companies are of great use for
Aa cum susine Vygotsky, sunt necesare putting this objective into practice, they as
operri sistematice, contextualizate, care s well as other similar entities being meant to
construiasc concomitent conceptele i establish skills regarding the development of
procedurile n zona proximei dezvoltri.10
operations, fast decisions making, conflicts
Firmele virtuale sunt de mare utilitate negotiation, teams integration etc. The
pentru transpunerea n practic a acestui student has to be put in the position of
obiectiv, ele, ca i alte entiti similare avnd learning to reflexively relate to its own
menirea de a fundamenta deprinderi n learning, being aware of strong points, weak
privina derulrii unor operaii, lurii rapide a points, opportunities and risks, searching for
deciziilor, negocierii conflictelor, integrrii n actual improvement solutions. Such a
echipe etc. Studentul trebuie pus n situaii de measure necessarily involves passing from
a nva s se raporteze reflexiv asupra the classical repetitive method of allpropriei nvri, contientiznd punctele tari, knowing teacher to a problematizing
punctele slabe, oportunitile i riscurile, didactics. It is not the image generated by
cutnd soluiile concrete de ameliorare. absolute truths, served in a temporal
Asemenea demers implic necesar trecerea de continuum that has to be present in the
la didactica repetitiv clasic a profesorului students mind, but the image of the coAnnals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2009

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atotcunosctor,
la
o
didactic
problematizatoare. Nu imaginea generat de
adevrurile
absolute,
servite
ntr-un
continuum temporal trebuie s fie prezent n
mintea
studentului,
ci
imaginea
coparticipantului la (re)descoperirea i
utilizarea secvenelor de coninut. i aceasta
este cu att mai stringent, cu ct sursele de
documentare se multiplic i diversific azi.
4. Dezvoltarea unei noi relaii
profesor-student este un alt imperativ
solicitat de principiul racordrii la social.
Premisele obiectivrii11 acestei relaii au fost
expuse implicit supra. n esen, construcia
unei relaii de tip nou vizeaz transformri
funcie de urmtoarele premise:
profesorul i studentul sunt parteneri n
construirea cunoaterii: nvarea activ,
implicarea studentului n construirea
propriei cunoateri ofer profesorului
posibilitatea trecerii de la strategiile
cunoaterii-produs, la cele ale cunoateriiproces. Aceasta conduce la creterea
eficienei cunoaterii, facilitnd parcursul
viitorului specialist;
ambii
reconstruiesc
perspectiva
domeniului de studiu, n virtutea rolului
activ-participativ: studentul i modeleaz
schemele de gndire, profesorul este
solicitat la reconceptualizri;
ambii cunosc i aplic criterii de evaluare
a achiziiilor: att profesorul, ct i
studentul cunosc criteriile care asigur o
evaluare transparent i care ofer
posibilitatea unui feedback util n procesul
cunoaterii la ambii parteneri.
Concluzii
Contextul nou prefigureaz noi roluri
pentru profesorul din nvmntul superior:
profesorul facilitator al nvrii, profesorul
pedagog, profesorul consilier, profesorul
modelator, profesorul anticipator etc.
Miestria pedagogic, stilul empatic,
corectitudinea, capacitatea epistemic sunt

participant to the re(discovery) and use of the


content sequences. This is even more
stringent the more documentation sources
multiply and diversify.
6. Developing a new professorstudent relationship is another requirement
demanded by the principle of connection to
the social context. The premises of this
relation objectifying22 have been implicitly
described
above.
In
essence,
the
construction of a new relation refers to
transformations that depend on the
following premises:
The professor and the student are
partners in knowledge building: active
learning, students involvement in
building its own conscience gives the
professor the possibility to pass from
knowledge-product
strategies
to
knowledge-process
strategies.
This
increases
knowledge
efficiency,
facilitating the development of the future
expert;
Both of them rebuild the perspective of
the study field, by virtue of the activeparticipating role; the student shapes its
thinking schemes, the professor is called
for re-conceptualization;
Both of them know and apply
acquisitions assessment criteria: both the
professor and the student know the
criteria
that
provide
transparent
assessment and give the possibility for a
useful feedback in the knowledge
process for both partners.
The new contexts announces new
roles for the higher education professor: the
professor
facilitating
learning,
the
pedagogue professor, the counsellor
professor, the modeller professor, the
anticipator professor etc.
Pedagogic mastery, empathy style,
correctness, epistemic capacity are just a few
of the features that the new professor-student
relationship is based on.

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr. 2/2009

doar cteva dintre nsuirile ce fundamenteaz


noua relaie profesor-student.
BIBLIOGRAFIE:

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Fischer K.W., Yan Z. i Stewart J., Adult


cognitive development: Dynamics in the
developmental web. n J. Valsiner i K.
Connolly
(Eds),
Handbook
developmental psychology (pp.491-516).
Thousand Oaks, C.S. Sage, 2003;

1. Fischer K.W., Yan Z. i Stewart J., Adult


cognitive developement: Dynamics in the
developemental web. n J. Valsiner i K.
Connolly
(Eds),
Handbook
developemental psychology (pp.491-516).
Thousand Oaks, C.S. Sage, 2003;

2. Gardner H., Csikszentmihaly, Damon

2. Gardner H., Csikszentmihaly, Damon M.,

M., W., Well performed work, Sigma


Press, Bucharest, 2005;

W., Munca bine fcut, Editura Sigma,


Bucureti, 2005;

3. Kuhn Thomas, Scientific Revolutions

3. Kuhn Thomas, Structura revoluiilor

Structure, Humanitas Press, Bucharest,


2000;

tiinifice, Editura Humanitas, Bucureti,


2000;

4. Popper K. i Eccles, J. The Self and the


Brain, Berlin Springer Verlag, 1977;
K. Popper, Research Logics, Scientific
and Encyclopaedic Press, Bucharest,
1981;

4. Popper K. i Eccles, J. The Self and the


Brain, Berlin Springer Verlag, 1977; K.
Popper, Logica cercetrii, Editura
tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti,
1981;

5. Singer Mihaela, Sarivan Ligia, Quo vadis,


academia, Editura Sigma, 2006;

6.

5. Singer Mihaela, Sarivan Ligia, Quo


vadis, academia, Editura Sigma, 2006;

6. Vygotsky L.S., Mind in society. The


development of thinker psychological
processes.
Cambridge:
Harvard
University Press, 1980.

Vygotsky L.S., Mind in society. The


developement of thinker psichological
processes. Cambridge: Harvard University
Press, 1980.

Vezi Thomas Kuhn, Structura revoluiilor tiinifice, Editura Humanitas, Bucureti, 2000
Vezi K. Popper i J. Eccles, The Self and the Brain, Berlin Springer Verlag, 1977; K. Popper, Logica
cercetrii, Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti, 1981
3
Coordonatori Mihaela Singer, Ligia Sarivan, Quo vadis, academia, Editura Sigma, 2006, pp.122 i urm.
4
Thomas Kuhn, 2000
5
Mihaela Singer, Ligia Sarivan, op. cit.
6
Ibidem.
7
H. Gardner, M. Csikszentmihaly, W. Damon, Munca bine fcut, Editura Sigma, Bucureti, 2005
8
Idem, p. 124
9
Vezi K.W. Fischer, Z. Yan i J. Stewart, Adult cognitive developement: Dynamics in the developemental web.
n J. Valsiner i K. Connolly (Eds), Handbook developemental psychology (pp.491-516). Thousand Oaks, C.S.
Sage, 2003
10
Vezi L.S.Vygotsky, Mind in society. The developement of thinker psichological processes. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1980
11
M. Singer, Ligia Sarivan, op. cit. pp.126-127
12
Vezi Thomas Kuhn, Scientific Revolutions Structure, Humanitas Press, Bucharest, 2000
2

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2009

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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr. 2/2009

13

Vezi K. Popper i J. Eccles, The Self and the Brain, Berlin Springer Verlag, 1977; K. Popper, Research
Logics, Scientific and Encyclopedic Press, Bucharest, 1981
14
Coordinators Mihaela Singer, Ligia Sarivan, Quo vadis, academia, Sigma Press, 2006, pp.122 i urm.
15
Thomas Kuhn, 2000
16
Mihaela Singer, Ligia Sarivan, op. cit.
17
Ibidem.
18
H. Gardner, M. Csikszentmihaly, W. Damon, Well developed work, Sigma Press, Bucharest, 2005
19
Idem, p. 124
20
Vezi K.W. Fischer, Z. Yan i J. Stewart, Adult cognitive developement: Dynamics in the developemental web.
n J. Valsiner i K. Connolly (Eds), Handbook developemental psychology (pp.491-516). Thousand Oaks, C.S.
Sage, 2003
21
Vezi L.S.Vygotsky, Mind in society. The developement of thinker psichological processes. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1980
22
M. Singer, Ligia Sarivan, op. cit. pp.126-127

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