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COLECIA DE BATOZE

Pn la apariia mainilor de treierat (batozele), treieratul se fcea prin batere cu mblciul


(o unealt veche de pe vremea Egiptului antic, format din dou segmente de lemn, unul mai
lung, altul mai scurt, unite printr-o legtur de piele). Mai era o metod, prin frecare pe o
platform din lemn cu un tvlug (vltuc de piatr) tras de un animal puternic. Separarea
boabelor de pleav i alte impuriti se fcea prin vnturare, dup care se cerneau cu ciurul.
Locul n care se fceau aceste operaiuni se numea arie.
Prima main de treierat a fost inventat de scoianul Andrew Meikle, n anul 1786. Ea
avea ca utilitate separarea boabelor de paie i pleav. El montase maina la o moar.
La scurt timp, un inginer englez s-a folosit de modelul scoianului i a realizat primul
aparat de treier care separa cerealele de restul paielor, prin trecerea snopului ntre un cilindru
rotativ i o suprafa concav, ambele fiind protejate cu fier. Aparatul de treier va fi principalul
organ de lucru al viitoarelor batoze.
Primele maini de treierat scuturau boabele din spic i le separau destul de precar de restul
paielor. Apoi, seminele treceau prin vnturtori. Pentru nceput, batozele i vnturtorile de
cereale erau acionate manual, prin manivel i aveau dimensiuni mici. Mai apoi, batozele au fost
perfecionate prin echiparea cu scuturtori de paie, site i ventilatoare. Acionarea lor se fcea cu
ajutorul animalelor, prin intermediul unor dispozitive care transformau efortul animalelor n
micare de rotaie, cu ajutorul platformelor rulante cu band de alergare sau a manejului.
Dispozitivul este alctuit din transmisii cu roi dinate, care transform micarea circular n
micare de rotaie a unui arbore care aciona batoza.
La sfritul secolului al XIX-lea au aprut primele batoze acionate de maini cu aburi prin
curele de transmisie i erau trase de la o gospodrie la alta i chiar de la un sat la altul, cu dou
sau patru perechi de boi. Batoza treiera, fie ntr-un loc amenajat n cmp numit ,,arie, fie n
curile gospodarilor, unde batoza era introdus de obicei n ur, iar maina cu aburi alimentat cu
lemne sttea n curte.
Adrian STROE, muzeograf
THE THRESHERS COLLECTION
Until the emergence of the threshing machines (threshers), threshing agricultural works
were done using the flail for separating the grains from the straws (an old tool from ancient

Egypt, consisting of two segments of wood of unequal length joined together by a piece of
leather). There was another commonly used method, by rubbing, on a wooden platform with a
stone roller (vltuc) pulled by a powerful animal. Separating the grain from the husk and other
"impurities" was done by winnowing, and then they were followed by sifting with a sieve. The
place where these operations were done was called arie (a specially organized threshing area).
The first threshing machine was invented by a Scotsman, Andrew Meikle, in 1786. It was
used for separating the grains from the straws and chaff. The machine was mounted to a fixed
mill. Shortly after that, an English engineer used the model of the Scotsman and made the first
threshing machine that separated the grains from the remaining of the straw, by passing the
sheaves between a rotating cylinder and a concave surface, both protected with iron. The
threshing machine would be the main work body for the future threshers.
The first threshing machines used to shake the grains from the ears of the wheat,
separating them from the rest of the straw. Then, the seeds were passing through the winnowers.
In the beginning, the threshers and the grain winnowers were manually operated by a handle, and
they were in small sizes. Later, the threshers were improved by fitting them with straw riddles,
sieves and fans. They were operated using animals, with a device that used to convert animal
effort into a rotary motion, with the help of rolling platforms which had treadmills or a maneges.
The device consists of a gear transmission with fluted rollers, which converts the circular motion
into a rotation movement of a drive shaft that powers the thresher.
At the end of the nineteenth century, the first steam driven threshing machines have been
created, using the transmission with belts, and they were towed from one household to another
and even from one village to another, using two or four pairs of oxen. The thresher was threshing
in a special arranged field named arie, or in households, where it used to be set in the stack, and
the steam engine fuelled with wood was sitting in the yard.

Batoz HOFHERR-SCHRANTZ - Batoza sau maina de treierat este o main agricol care, antrenat de o surs
de putere (locomobil, tractor), printr-o curea de transmisie, desface boabele de gru din spice i le separ de celelalte
pri ale plantei. Fabricat: 1918, Budapesta-Ungaria. Provenien: Amboia, jud. Alba. Dimensiuni: L - 480 cm, l
-160 cm, H - 240 cm.

HOFHERR-SCHRANTZ Thresher The thresher is an agricultural machine which, driven by a power source
(locomobile- portable or stationary engine, tractor), through a drive belt, loosens the wheat grains from the ears and
separates them from other parts of the plant. Manufactured: 1918, Budapest Hungary. Origin: Amboia, Alba
County. Dimensions: length 480 cm, width 160 cm, height 240 cm.

Batoz M.A.V. - Este o main agricol care, antrenat de o surs de putere (locomobil, tractor), printr-o
curea de transmisie, desface boabele de gru din spice i le separ de celelalte pri ale plantei. Fabricat:
1920, Budapesta - Ungaria. Provenien: Brecu, jud. Covasna. Dimensiuni: L - 590 cm, l - 190 cm, H- 270
cm.

M.A.V. Thresher - It is an agricultural machine which, driven by a power source (locomobile- portable or
stationary engine, tractor), through a drive belt, loosens the wheat grains from the ears and separates them
from other parts of the plant. Manufactured: 1920, Budapest Hungary. Origin: Brecu, Covasna County.
Dimensions: length 590 cm, width 190 cm, height 270 cm.

Batoz M.A.V. - Este o main agricol care, antrenat de o surs de putere (locomobil, tractor), printr-o
curea de transmisie, desface boabele de gru din spice i le separ de celelalte pri ale plantei. Fabricat:
1926, Budapesta-Ungaria. Provenien: Lunga, jud. Covasna. Dimensiuni: L - 640 cm, l - 190 cm, H - 270
cm.

M.A.V. Thresher - It is an agricultural machine which, driven by a power source (locomobile- portable or
stationary engine, tractor), through a drive belt, loosens the wheat grains from the ear and separates them from
other parts of the plant. Manufactured: 1926, Budapest Hungary. Origin: Lunga, Covasna County.
Dimensions: length 640 cm, width 190 cm, height 270 cm.

Maina de treierat H.S.C.S./batoz pentru trifoi - este o main agricol care, antrenat de o surs de putere
(locomobil, tractor), printr-o curea de transmisie, desface boabele de trifoi din spice i le separ de celelalte pri ale
plantei. Fabricat: 1915, Austria. Provenien: Lunga, jud. Covasna. Dimensiuni: L - 350 cm, l - 177 cm, H - 254
cm.

H.S.C.S. Thresher / Thresher for Clover - It is an agricultural machine which, driven by a power source
(locomobile - portable or stationary engine, tractor), through a drive belt, loosens the clover seed from the
ears and separates them from other parts of the plant. Manufactured: 1915, Austria. Origin: Lunga, Covasna
County. Dimensions: length 350 cm, width 177 cm, height 254 cm.