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Worksheet

24 (5.1)

Chapter 5 Rational Expressions


5.1 Simplifying Rational Expressions
Summary 1:

97

Rational
Definitions
Numbers
and
and
General
Rational
Properties
Expressions
of
A rational number can be written as a quotient of two
a
integers, in the form
b , where the denominator, b, is not
0.
A rational expression is the indicated quotient of two
polynomials where
the value of the denominator is
assumed to be nonzero.
Sign rules of rational numbers and expressions:
-a
a
a
=
=b
-b
b
-a a
=
2.
-b b

1.

Fundamental Principle of Fractions:


If b and k are nonzero integers and a is any integer, then

ak
a
= .
bk
b

Simplifying a rational expression:


1. Completely factor the polynomial given in the numerator
and
denominator.
2. Apply the fundamental principle of fractions by dividing
the common
factor or factors.
3. The simplest form will be the quotient of the product of
remaining
factors in the numerator and the product of
remaining factors in
the denominator.

98

Worksheet 24 (5.1)
Warm-up 1. Reduce to lowest terms:
a)

- 80
22225
=
- 96
222223

b)

- 12yz
=20y

223 y z
225 y

=-

c)

2(m + 3)(
2 m2 - 18
=
2
(
)(
m - 6m + 9

=
d)

2
(
)(
)
x -4
=
5(2 - x)
10 - 5x

= (-1)

99

)
)

= -

or

-x-2
5

Problems - Simplify:
9 y 2 + 27y
2.
3
y + 27

- 90 a 3 c
1.
- 96 abc 2

ay + 3a - 4y - 12

3. 2ay + 4a - 8y - 16

4.

a - 36
18 - 3a

Worksheet

25 (5.2)

5.2
Multiplying
Expressions

and

Dividing

Rational

Summary 1:
Multiplying Rational Expressions
Basic definition for multiplying rational numbers:
If a, b, c, and d are integers with b and d not equal to zero,
then

a c
a c ac
=
=
.
b d b d bd

Multiplying rational expressions:


1. Completely factor each numerator and denominator.
2. Apply the basic definition for multiplying rational numbers
by
rewriting the numerator as a product
of factors and rewrite the
denominator as a
product of factors.
3. Simplify by dividing common factors.
4. The result is the quotient of the product of remaining
factors in the
numerator and the product of
remaining factors in the
denominator.
Warm-up 1. Multiply and simplify:
a)

-5 7
5 7

=
14 - 35 2 7 5 7

100

=
b)

)(
5ab a 2 - 49 5ab(
2
=
a(a + 7)(
a + 7 a - 7a

)
)

=
2

(2a + 5)(
)(
2 a - a - 15
3 a + 8a - 3

=
2
2
(a + 3)(a - 3)(
6 a + 17a + 5
a -9

c)
)(
)(

)
)

=
Worksheet 25 (5.2)
Problems - Perform the indicated operation. Express in
simplest form:
1.

6 -7

21 36

2.

3xy
2 x 2 + 20x + 50

x+5
xy - 5y

3.

4 n 2 - 4n - 24 3 n2 + 8n - 3

3 n2 + 5n - 2
9 - n2

Summary 2:

101

Dividing Rational Expressions


Basic definition for dividing rational numbers:
If a, b, c, and d are integers with b, c, and d not equal to
a c a d ad
= =
.
b d b c bc

zero, then
Note:
inverses.

c
d
and
are called reciprocals or multiplicative
d
c

Dividing rational expressions:


1. Apply the basic definition for dividing rational numbers.
2. Follow the steps for multiplying rational expressions in
summary 1.

Worksheet

(5.2)

25

Warm-up 2. Divide and simplify:


a)

5 10
5 - 21

=
7 - 21 7 10

=-

b)

4 x2
4 x 2 24 x 2 y 2

=
2
15xy
5y
5 y2
4 15
=
5 24

c)

3 m2 + 2m - 1 - 27 + 15m - 2 m2
3 m2 + 2m - 1

=
3 m2 + 14m - 5
2 m2 - 7m - 9
3 m2 + 14m - 5
(3m - 1)(m + 1)(
)(
)
=
(
)(
)(-3 + m)(9 - 2m)

=Problems - Perform the indicated operation. Express in


simplest form:

102

4.

5
8
7

12 15 18
2

5xy
y - 7y
2
5.
y +7
y - 49

xy + xb + cy + cb
18 x3 + 45 x 2 - 27x

6.
xy - 2xb + cy - 2cb
3 x3 - 27x

Worksheet 26 (5.3)

5.3 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions


Summary 1:

103

Adding Rational Expressions


Basic definition for adding rational numbers with a
common
denominator:
If a, b, and c are integers and b is not zero, then
a
c
a+c
+ =
.
b
b
b

Equivalent fractions are fractions with different denominators


that name the
same number.
The LCD, least common denominator, is the least common
multiple of a set of denominators. The LCD can be determined by
inspection or by writing
the product of the highest power for
each factor in any given polynomial.
Adding rational expressions:
1. Determine if the given rational expressions have a
common
denominator.
2. If not, find the LCD.
3. Rewrite the given rational expressions as equivalent
rational
expressions using the LCD in the denominators.
4. Apply the basic definition for adding rational numbers
with a common
denominator.
5. Express result in simplest form.
Warm-up 1. Add and simplify:
a)

2x
4
2x +
+
=
x+2
x+2
x+2
2(
)
=
x+2

Worksheet

26 (5.3)
b) -

5 (4)
7 (3)
5
7
+
+
=12(4) 16(3)
12 16
21
+
=48

104

c)

3
x
+
2 x2
5

The LCD is _______.


=
=
=
d)

3(

2x (
10 x 2

)
+

x(
5(

)
)

10 x 2

10 x 2

3
2
+
2x + 1 x - 5

The LCD is _______________.


3 (
)
2 (
)
+
(2x + 1)(
) (x - 5)(
)
3x +2
+
=
(x - 5)(2x + 1) (x - 5)(2x + 1)
7x =
(x - 5)(2x + 1)

Problems - Add and express in simplest form:


1. -

2
3
7
+
+
5
20
8

Worksheet 26 (5.3)
12.

n+6
2n - 1
+
9
12

13. 4 +

14.

8
2x - 1

4x - 12
x+1
+
2
x+3
x -9

105

Subtracting Rational Expressions

Basic definition for subtracting rational numbers with a


common
denominator:
If a, b, and c are integers and b is not zero, then

a c
a-c
- =
.
b b
b

Subtracting rational expressions:


1. Determine if the given rational expressions have a
common
denominator.
2. If not, find the LCD.
3. Rewrite the given rational expressions as equivalent
rational
expressions using the LCD in the
denominator.
4. Apply the basic definition for subtracting rational numbers
with a
common denominator.
5. Express in simplest form.
Summary 2:
Worksheet

26 (5.3)
Warm-up 2.
a)

Subtract and simplify:


(
4m
20
=
m-5 m-5

)-(
m-5
4(
=
(

)
)
)

=
b)

(2x)(
)
(5)(
2x
5
- =
(x + 3)(
) (x)(
x+3 x

)
)

The LCD is __________.


=

(
)
(
)
x(x + 3) x(x + 3)

106

=
=
c)

)-(
)
x(x + 3)

x(x + 3)

(5x)(
)
(2)(
5x
-2=
(x + 3)(
) (1)(
x+3

)
)

The LCD is __________.


(x + 3) (x + 3)
5x - 2(
)
=
(x + 3)
5x =
x+3

=
Worksheet 26 (5.3)
Problems - Subtract and simplify:
5.

x +1 x - 2
4
6

6.

5
3
7
2
x 2x
8x

7.

5
3
2x - 1 x + 3

107

Worksheet

27 (5.4)

5.4 More on Rational Expressions and Complex


Fractions
Summary 1:

108

Complex fractions are fractional forms that contain rational


numbers
Simplifying
or a complex
rational expressions
fraction - Method
in the numerators
A:
and/or
denominators.
1. If necessary, perform the indicated operation in the
numerator and/or
denominator.
2. Rewrite the indicated quotient as the division of two
rational numbers
or rational expressions.
3. Apply the basic definition for dividing rational numbers.
Simplifying a complex fraction - Method B:
1. Find the LCD of the rational numbers or rational
expressions in the
given complex fraction.
2. Multiply both numerator and denominator by the LCD to
obtain an
equivalent fraction. (If necessary, apply
the distributive property.)
3. Simplify the resulting expression.
Warm-up 1.

Simplify using method A:

+ 65
a)
=
- 83
3
4
5
12

( )
12
( )
24

19 ( )

12 ( )
19 ( )
=
12 ( )

( ) 3
3
+
x
x
x
b)
=
5
( ) 5
1x
x
x
Worksheet 27 (5.4)
2+

(
=

)
x

x
2x + 3 (

=
x
(
2x + 3 (

=
x
(

=
109

)
)
)
)

Simplify using method B:


5
xy
c)
6
+
x

5
2
)
- 2
xy y
6
3

)
+
y
x

2
(
2
y
=
3
(
y

5
)
- (
xy
=
6
( )
+(
x
5y - ( )
= 2
6 y +( )
(

2
) 2
y
3

)
y

) 6
n+3

) 5 +

n+3

2
(
n
+
3
d)
=
1
5+
(
n+3
6-

)(6) - (

)(5) + (

27 (5.4)
=

6n + (
5n + (

=
Problems - Simplify:
14
15x
1. 8
5xy

110

)- 2
)+ 1

n+3
1

n+3

Worksheet

8
+
y
2.
4
+
x

6
2
y
2
x

5
2
x - 2 x+2
3. 7
5
2
x - 4 x+2

Worksheet 28 (5.5)

5.5 Dividing Polynomials


Summary 1:

111

Dividing a polynomial by a monomial:


1. Divide each term of the polynomial by the common
monomial divisor.
2. Reduce each fraction to its simplest form.
Dividing a polynomial by a polynomial:
1. Use the conventional long division format and arrange
both the
dividend and the divisor in
descending order.
2. The first term of the quotient is determined by dividing
the first term in
the dividend by the first term of the
divisor.
3. Multiply each term of the divisor by the term of the
quotient found in
step 2. Position this product so that it
can be subtracted from the
dividend.
4. Subtract.
5. Repeat the process beginning with step 2 using the
resulting
polynomial from step 4 as the new
dividend.
Warm-up 1.
a)

Divide:
6 a 2 b3 - 8 a 3 b + 12ab
+
=
3 a2 3 a2 3 a2
3 a2
(
) (
)
)+
=(
3
a

3
+ x 2 - 3x - 3
b) x

x+1

28 (5.5)

x2 - 3 The quotient is ______________.

x + 1 x3 + x2 - 3x - 3
-(
)
- 3x - 3
-(
)
0 The remainder is _____.
Worksheet
c) (2 x4 - 3x + 1) ( x 2 - 5)
2x2
+ 10

112

x2 - 5 2x4 + 0x3 + 0x2 - 3x + 1


-(
)
2
10x - 3x + 1
-(
)
- 3x + 51

2
= 2 x + 10 +

Problems - Divide:
1.

- 72 a 3 b5 + 36 ab4 - 27 a 2 b2
- 9ab

4
-1
2. x

x+1

3. (5 y 3 - 2 y 2 + y + 1) ( y 2 - 2)

Worksheet 29 (5.6)

5.6 Fractional Equations


Summary 1:

113

)
x -5
2

The restricted values of a given rational expression are


those
Solving
values
equations
that
involving
make therational
denominator
expressions:
equal to 0.
1. Determine the restricted values for each rational
expression in the
given equation.
2. Find the LCD in the equation.
3. Apply the multiplication property of equality, using the
LCD, to clear
the equation of all fractional forms.
4. Solve the resulting equivalent equation.
5. Check when directed to do so.
Note: If a restricted value results as a solution to the
equation
found in step 4, then the solution set is .
Warm-up 1.

Solve:
5
6

a)

4
3
3x 4x

The restricted value is _____, (x ____).


The LCD is _______.
(
(

6
5
)

6
)

= (

=(

10x
10x

4
3x
4
3x

=(
=
=

4x

-(
)-(

The solution set is {

4x
)

}.

Worksheet

29 (5.6)
2
2
+
y-2
5

b)

3y
5y - 10

The restricted value is _____, (y ____).


The LCD is _________.

2
y-2

3y
2
2

+ = (
)
y-2 5
5(y - 2)

3y
2

+(
)
)
=(
5
5(y
- 2)

10 + (
)-(
)
= 3y

114

6 +(

The solution set is ______.


Problems - Solve:
1.

4
3
4
+ = 2
x-1
x
x -x

2.

a
3
6
+ =
a -1 2
a -1

Worksheet 29 (5.6)
Summary 2:

115

= 3y
=

Ratio and Proportion


A ratio is the comparison of two numbers with division.
A proportion is a statement of equality between two ratios.
The Cross-Multiplication Property of Proportions:
If ab =

c
d

where b0 and d0, then ad = bc .

Solving fractional equations as proportions:


1. Find restricted values for each rational expression in the
equation.
2. Determine if the given equation is in the form ab = dc .
3. If so, apply the cross-multiplication property of
proportions.
4. Solve resulting equivalent equation.
5. Check when directed to do so.
given

Warm-up 2.

Solve:
10
3x + 2
10(
)
20x - 10

a)

6
2x - 1
)
= 6(
(
)
+
(
=
2x
=

x =

}.

The

solution

set

is

Problem - Solve:
3.

-5
4
=
x - 1 2x + 1

Worksheet

29 (5.6)
Summary 3:

Word Problems Using Fractional Equations


Follow the listed steps in Summary 3 for Section 2.4.
Warm-up 3.
solve:

Set up and write an algebraic equation, then

116

a) The sum of two numbers is 40. If the larger is


divided by the
smaller, the quotient is 5 and
the remainder is 4. Find the numbers.
Declare the variable:
Let

= larger number
= smaller number

Write an algebraic equation and solve:

(
)
40 - x
4

) 5+

40 - x

)( 5 )+(

x
40 - x
x
40 - x

=5+

=(

40 - x
)
x = 200 - 5x + (
(
)
6x =
=(

x =

The numbers are _____ and _____.


Problem - Set up and write an algebraic equation, then
solve:
4. The perimeter of a rectangle is 104 meters. If the ratio of its
width to its length is 5 to 8, find the dimensions of the rectangle.

Worksheet 30 (5.7)

5.7 More Fractional Equations and Applications


Summary 1:

117

The restricted values of a given rational expression are


those
Solving
values
fractional
that
equations:
make the denominator equal to 0.
1. Factor the denominators.
2. Determine the restricted values for each rational
expression in the
given equation.
3. Find the LCD in the equation.
4. Apply the multiplication property of equality, using the
LCD, to clear
the equation of all fractional forms.
5. Solve the resulting equivalent equation.
6. Check when directed to do so.
Note: If a restricted value results as a solution to the
equation
found in step 5, then the solution set is .

Warm-up 1.

3x + 1 5x - 1
x+3
+
=
2
x+3
x-3
x -9
3x + 1
5x - 1 x + 3
+
=
(
)(
)
x+3
x-3

Solve:

a)

The restricted values are ___ and ___, (x ___ and x


___).
The LCD is _____________.

3x + 1
5x - 1
x+3
(
+
)=
)
(
x-3
(x + 3) (x - 3) x + 3

3x + 1
5x - 1
x+3

(
)+
)=
(
(
x+3
x-3
(x + 3) (x - 3)

(3x + 1) (

) + (5x - 1) (

) = (x + 3) (

Worksheet

30 (5.7)

3x + 1 + 5x2 - 16x + 3 = (
(
(

)=0
)(

)=0

x = ______ and x = ______


The solution set is {
118

Problems - Solve:
2
x
4
x + 16
=
1.
2
x + 4 x - 16
x-4

2.

2
4
a
a - 2a + 2
= 2
a +1 3 - a
a - 2a - 3

Worksheet 30 (5.7)

Word Problems Using Fractional Equations

Follow the listed steps in Summary 3 for Section 2.4.


Summary 2:

119

Warm-up 2.
solve:

Set up and write an algebraic equation, then

a) A tank can be filled by the hot-water faucet in 4 minutes


and by the
cold-water faucet in 6 minutes. How long
does it take to fill the
tank
using
both
faucets
together?
Declare the variable:
Let

x = time required using both faucets

Write an algebraic equation and solve:


1
(

1
4

+(

1
(

1
=(
6
3x + (

1
(

x
)= (
5x = (
)

x=

faucets is

)
)

The amount of time it takes to fill the tank with both


______ minutes.

Worksheet

(5.7)

30

Problems - Set up and write an algebraic equation, then solve:


3. John can pick a bushel of peaches in 30 minutes. His little sister
can pick a bushel of
peaches in 45 minutes. How long will it take
120

them to pick a bushel of peaches

working together?

4. One pipe can fill a tank in 6 hours. The drain can empty the tank
in 10 hours. How
long will it take to fill the tank if the drain is
left open?

121