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24 (5.1)

5.1 Simplifying Rational Expressions

Summary 1:

97

Rational

Definitions

Numbers

and

and

General

Rational

Properties

Expressions

of

A rational number can be written as a quotient of two

a

integers, in the form

b , where the denominator, b, is not

0.

A rational expression is the indicated quotient of two

polynomials where

the value of the denominator is

assumed to be nonzero.

Sign rules of rational numbers and expressions:

-a

a

a

=

=b

-b

b

-a a

=

2.

-b b

1.

If b and k are nonzero integers and a is any integer, then

ak

a

= .

bk

b

1. Completely factor the polynomial given in the numerator

and

denominator.

2. Apply the fundamental principle of fractions by dividing

the common

factor or factors.

3. The simplest form will be the quotient of the product of

remaining

factors in the numerator and the product of

remaining factors in

the denominator.

98

Worksheet 24 (5.1)

Warm-up 1. Reduce to lowest terms:

a)

- 80

22225

=

- 96

222223

b)

- 12yz

=20y

223 y z

225 y

=-

c)

2(m + 3)(

2 m2 - 18

=

2

(

)(

m - 6m + 9

=

d)

2

(

)(

)

x -4

=

5(2 - x)

10 - 5x

= (-1)

99

)

)

= -

or

-x-2

5

Problems - Simplify:

9 y 2 + 27y

2.

3

y + 27

- 90 a 3 c

1.

- 96 abc 2

ay + 3a - 4y - 12

3. 2ay + 4a - 8y - 16

4.

a - 36

18 - 3a

Worksheet

25 (5.2)

5.2

Multiplying

Expressions

and

Dividing

Rational

Summary 1:

Multiplying Rational Expressions

Basic definition for multiplying rational numbers:

If a, b, c, and d are integers with b and d not equal to zero,

then

a c

a c ac

=

=

.

b d b d bd

1. Completely factor each numerator and denominator.

2. Apply the basic definition for multiplying rational numbers

by

rewriting the numerator as a product

of factors and rewrite the

denominator as a

product of factors.

3. Simplify by dividing common factors.

4. The result is the quotient of the product of remaining

factors in the

numerator and the product of

remaining factors in the

denominator.

Warm-up 1. Multiply and simplify:

a)

-5 7

5 7

=

14 - 35 2 7 5 7

100

=

b)

)(

5ab a 2 - 49 5ab(

2

=

a(a + 7)(

a + 7 a - 7a

)

)

=

2

(2a + 5)(

)(

2 a - a - 15

3 a + 8a - 3

=

2

2

(a + 3)(a - 3)(

6 a + 17a + 5

a -9

c)

)(

)(

)

)

=

Worksheet 25 (5.2)

Problems - Perform the indicated operation. Express in

simplest form:

1.

6 -7

21 36

2.

3xy

2 x 2 + 20x + 50

x+5

xy - 5y

3.

4 n 2 - 4n - 24 3 n2 + 8n - 3

3 n2 + 5n - 2

9 - n2

Summary 2:

101

Basic definition for dividing rational numbers:

If a, b, c, and d are integers with b, c, and d not equal to

a c a d ad

= =

.

b d b c bc

zero, then

Note:

inverses.

c

d

and

are called reciprocals or multiplicative

d

c

1. Apply the basic definition for dividing rational numbers.

2. Follow the steps for multiplying rational expressions in

summary 1.

Worksheet

(5.2)

25

a)

5 10

5 - 21

=

7 - 21 7 10

=-

b)

4 x2

4 x 2 24 x 2 y 2

=

2

15xy

5y

5 y2

4 15

=

5 24

c)

3 m2 + 2m - 1 - 27 + 15m - 2 m2

3 m2 + 2m - 1

=

3 m2 + 14m - 5

2 m2 - 7m - 9

3 m2 + 14m - 5

(3m - 1)(m + 1)(

)(

)

=

(

)(

)(-3 + m)(9 - 2m)

simplest form:

102

4.

5

8

7

12 15 18

2

5xy

y - 7y

2

5.

y +7

y - 49

xy + xb + cy + cb

18 x3 + 45 x 2 - 27x

6.

xy - 2xb + cy - 2cb

3 x3 - 27x

Worksheet 26 (5.3)

Summary 1:

103

Basic definition for adding rational numbers with a

common

denominator:

If a, b, and c are integers and b is not zero, then

a

c

a+c

+ =

.

b

b

b

that name the

same number.

The LCD, least common denominator, is the least common

multiple of a set of denominators. The LCD can be determined by

inspection or by writing

the product of the highest power for

each factor in any given polynomial.

Adding rational expressions:

1. Determine if the given rational expressions have a

common

denominator.

2. If not, find the LCD.

3. Rewrite the given rational expressions as equivalent

rational

expressions using the LCD in the denominators.

4. Apply the basic definition for adding rational numbers

with a common

denominator.

5. Express result in simplest form.

Warm-up 1. Add and simplify:

a)

2x

4

2x +

+

=

x+2

x+2

x+2

2(

)

=

x+2

Worksheet

26 (5.3)

b) -

5 (4)

7 (3)

5

7

+

+

=12(4) 16(3)

12 16

21

+

=48

104

c)

3

x

+

2 x2

5

=

=

=

d)

3(

2x (

10 x 2

)

+

x(

5(

)

)

10 x 2

10 x 2

3

2

+

2x + 1 x - 5

3 (

)

2 (

)

+

(2x + 1)(

) (x - 5)(

)

3x +2

+

=

(x - 5)(2x + 1) (x - 5)(2x + 1)

7x =

(x - 5)(2x + 1)

1. -

2

3

7

+

+

5

20

8

Worksheet 26 (5.3)

12.

n+6

2n - 1

+

9

12

13. 4 +

14.

8

2x - 1

4x - 12

x+1

+

2

x+3

x -9

105

common

denominator:

If a, b, and c are integers and b is not zero, then

a c

a-c

- =

.

b b

b

1. Determine if the given rational expressions have a

common

denominator.

2. If not, find the LCD.

3. Rewrite the given rational expressions as equivalent

rational

expressions using the LCD in the

denominator.

4. Apply the basic definition for subtracting rational numbers

with a

common denominator.

5. Express in simplest form.

Summary 2:

Worksheet

26 (5.3)

Warm-up 2.

a)

(

4m

20

=

m-5 m-5

)-(

m-5

4(

=

(

)

)

)

=

b)

(2x)(

)

(5)(

2x

5

- =

(x + 3)(

) (x)(

x+3 x

)

)

=

(

)

(

)

x(x + 3) x(x + 3)

106

=

=

c)

)-(

)

x(x + 3)

x(x + 3)

(5x)(

)

(2)(

5x

-2=

(x + 3)(

) (1)(

x+3

)

)

(x + 3) (x + 3)

5x - 2(

)

=

(x + 3)

5x =

x+3

=

Worksheet 26 (5.3)

Problems - Subtract and simplify:

5.

x +1 x - 2

4

6

6.

5

3

7

2

x 2x

8x

7.

5

3

2x - 1 x + 3

107

Worksheet

27 (5.4)

Fractions

Summary 1:

108

numbers

Simplifying

or a complex

rational expressions

fraction - Method

in the numerators

A:

and/or

denominators.

1. If necessary, perform the indicated operation in the

numerator and/or

denominator.

2. Rewrite the indicated quotient as the division of two

rational numbers

or rational expressions.

3. Apply the basic definition for dividing rational numbers.

Simplifying a complex fraction - Method B:

1. Find the LCD of the rational numbers or rational

expressions in the

given complex fraction.

2. Multiply both numerator and denominator by the LCD to

obtain an

equivalent fraction. (If necessary, apply

the distributive property.)

3. Simplify the resulting expression.

Warm-up 1.

+ 65

a)

=

- 83

3

4

5

12

( )

12

( )

24

19 ( )

12 ( )

19 ( )

=

12 ( )

( ) 3

3

+

x

x

x

b)

=

5

( ) 5

1x

x

x

Worksheet 27 (5.4)

2+

(

=

)

x

x

2x + 3 (

=

x

(

2x + 3 (

=

x

(

=

109

)

)

)

)

5

xy

c)

6

+

x

5

2

)

- 2

xy y

6

3

)

+

y

x

2

(

2

y

=

3

(

y

5

)

- (

xy

=

6

( )

+(

x

5y - ( )

= 2

6 y +( )

(

2

) 2

y

3

)

y

) 6

n+3

) 5 +

n+3

2

(

n

+

3

d)

=

1

5+

(

n+3

6-

)(6) - (

)(5) + (

27 (5.4)

=

6n + (

5n + (

=

Problems - Simplify:

14

15x

1. 8

5xy

110

)- 2

)+ 1

n+3

1

n+3

Worksheet

8

+

y

2.

4

+

x

6

2

y

2

x

5

2

x - 2 x+2

3. 7

5

2

x - 4 x+2

Worksheet 28 (5.5)

Summary 1:

111

1. Divide each term of the polynomial by the common

monomial divisor.

2. Reduce each fraction to its simplest form.

Dividing a polynomial by a polynomial:

1. Use the conventional long division format and arrange

both the

dividend and the divisor in

descending order.

2. The first term of the quotient is determined by dividing

the first term in

the dividend by the first term of the

divisor.

3. Multiply each term of the divisor by the term of the

quotient found in

step 2. Position this product so that it

can be subtracted from the

dividend.

4. Subtract.

5. Repeat the process beginning with step 2 using the

resulting

polynomial from step 4 as the new

dividend.

Warm-up 1.

a)

Divide:

6 a 2 b3 - 8 a 3 b + 12ab

+

=

3 a2 3 a2 3 a2

3 a2

(

) (

)

)+

=(

3

a

3

+ x 2 - 3x - 3

b) x

x+1

28 (5.5)

x + 1 x3 + x2 - 3x - 3

-(

)

- 3x - 3

-(

)

0 The remainder is _____.

Worksheet

c) (2 x4 - 3x + 1) ( x 2 - 5)

2x2

+ 10

112

-(

)

2

10x - 3x + 1

-(

)

- 3x + 51

2

= 2 x + 10 +

Problems - Divide:

1.

- 72 a 3 b5 + 36 ab4 - 27 a 2 b2

- 9ab

4

-1

2. x

x+1

3. (5 y 3 - 2 y 2 + y + 1) ( y 2 - 2)

Worksheet 29 (5.6)

Summary 1:

113

)

x -5

2

those

Solving

values

equations

that

involving

make therational

denominator

expressions:

equal to 0.

1. Determine the restricted values for each rational

expression in the

given equation.

2. Find the LCD in the equation.

3. Apply the multiplication property of equality, using the

LCD, to clear

the equation of all fractional forms.

4. Solve the resulting equivalent equation.

5. Check when directed to do so.

Note: If a restricted value results as a solution to the

equation

found in step 4, then the solution set is .

Warm-up 1.

Solve:

5

6

a)

4

3

3x 4x

The LCD is _______.

(

(

6

5

)

6

)

= (

=(

10x

10x

4

3x

4

3x

=(

=

=

4x

-(

)-(

4x

)

}.

Worksheet

29 (5.6)

2

2

+

y-2

5

b)

3y

5y - 10

The LCD is _________.

2

y-2

3y

2

2

+ = (

)

y-2 5

5(y - 2)

3y

2

+(

)

)

=(

5

5(y

- 2)

10 + (

)-(

)

= 3y

114

6 +(

Problems - Solve:

1.

4

3

4

+ = 2

x-1

x

x -x

2.

a

3

6

+ =

a -1 2

a -1

Worksheet 29 (5.6)

Summary 2:

115

= 3y

=

A ratio is the comparison of two numbers with division.

A proportion is a statement of equality between two ratios.

The Cross-Multiplication Property of Proportions:

If ab =

c

d

1. Find restricted values for each rational expression in the

equation.

2. Determine if the given equation is in the form ab = dc .

3. If so, apply the cross-multiplication property of

proportions.

4. Solve resulting equivalent equation.

5. Check when directed to do so.

given

Warm-up 2.

Solve:

10

3x + 2

10(

)

20x - 10

a)

6

2x - 1

)

= 6(

(

)

+

(

=

2x

=

x =

}.

The

solution

set

is

Problem - Solve:

3.

-5

4

=

x - 1 2x + 1

Worksheet

29 (5.6)

Summary 3:

Follow the listed steps in Summary 3 for Section 2.4.

Warm-up 3.

solve:

116

divided by the

smaller, the quotient is 5 and

the remainder is 4. Find the numbers.

Declare the variable:

Let

= larger number

= smaller number

(

)

40 - x

4

) 5+

40 - x

)( 5 )+(

x

40 - x

x

40 - x

=5+

=(

40 - x

)

x = 200 - 5x + (

(

)

6x =

=(

x =

Problem - Set up and write an algebraic equation, then

solve:

4. The perimeter of a rectangle is 104 meters. If the ratio of its

width to its length is 5 to 8, find the dimensions of the rectangle.

Worksheet 30 (5.7)

Summary 1:

117

those

Solving

values

fractional

that

equations:

make the denominator equal to 0.

1. Factor the denominators.

2. Determine the restricted values for each rational

expression in the

given equation.

3. Find the LCD in the equation.

4. Apply the multiplication property of equality, using the

LCD, to clear

the equation of all fractional forms.

5. Solve the resulting equivalent equation.

6. Check when directed to do so.

Note: If a restricted value results as a solution to the

equation

found in step 5, then the solution set is .

Warm-up 1.

3x + 1 5x - 1

x+3

+

=

2

x+3

x-3

x -9

3x + 1

5x - 1 x + 3

+

=

(

)(

)

x+3

x-3

Solve:

a)

___).

The LCD is _____________.

3x + 1

5x - 1

x+3

(

+

)=

)

(

x-3

(x + 3) (x - 3) x + 3

3x + 1

5x - 1

x+3

(

)+

)=

(

(

x+3

x-3

(x + 3) (x - 3)

(3x + 1) (

) + (5x - 1) (

) = (x + 3) (

Worksheet

30 (5.7)

3x + 1 + 5x2 - 16x + 3 = (

(

(

)=0

)(

)=0

The solution set is {

118

Problems - Solve:

2

x

4

x + 16

=

1.

2

x + 4 x - 16

x-4

2.

2

4

a

a - 2a + 2

= 2

a +1 3 - a

a - 2a - 3

Worksheet 30 (5.7)

Summary 2:

119

Warm-up 2.

solve:

and by the

cold-water faucet in 6 minutes. How long

does it take to fill the

tank

using

both

faucets

together?

Declare the variable:

Let

1

(

1

4

+(

1

(

1

=(

6

3x + (

1

(

x

)= (

5x = (

)

x=

faucets is

)

)

______ minutes.

Worksheet

(5.7)

30

3. John can pick a bushel of peaches in 30 minutes. His little sister

can pick a bushel of

peaches in 45 minutes. How long will it take

120

working together?

4. One pipe can fill a tank in 6 hours. The drain can empty the tank

in 10 hours. How

long will it take to fill the tank if the drain is

left open?

121

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