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1.WHAT IS BIOS? Basic input/output system of your computer, commonly known as the BIOS
(pronounced "bye-ose"). On virtually every computer available, the BIOS makes sure all the other chips,
hard drives, ports and CPU function together. BIOS is a firmware.
3.PHISHING FILTER: - A new feature of IE 7 which warns you and help protect your personal information
from fraudulent websites.
4.POST Power-on self-test (POST) is the common term for a computers pre-boot sequence. It checks
whether all the hardware devices are working OK
5.SD RAM and DDR RAM DDR SDRAM (double data rate synchronous dynamic random access
memory) is a class of memory used in computers. It achieves nearly twice the bandwidth of the preceding
[single data rate RAM]
The latest is DDR-2
Hard reboot
A hard reboot (also known as a cold reboot, cold boot or cold start) is when power to a computer is cycled
(turned off and then on)
Soft reboot
A soft reboot (also known as a warm reboot) is restarting a computer under software control, without
removing power or (directly) triggering a reset line.
7.VIRTUAL MEMORY Virtual memory: For example, if you load the operating system, an e-mail program,
a Web browser and word processor into RAM simultaneously, 32 MB is not enough to hold it all. If there
were no such thing as virtual memory, then once you filled up the available RAM your computer would
have to say, "Sorry, you can not load any more applications. Please close another application to load a new
8.VIRUS: A program that would invade the compture & would cause serious damage to the system (might
lead to data loss, corrupt programs & system crash)
9.SPYWARE is software which would hack into a users confidential information like Credit Card details,
passwords, Bank Account details, etc.
10.ADWARE or advertising-supported software is any software package which automatically plays,
displays, or downloads advertisements to a computer after the software is installed on it or while the
application is being used.
11.MALWARE, also known as Malicious Software, is software designed to infiltrate or damage a computer
12.WHAT IS A TROJAN? In the context of computing and software, a Trojan horse, also known as a
trojan, is malware that appears to perform a desirable function but in fact performs undisclosed malicious
13.Types of Internet Connections

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A router is a more sophisticated network device than either a switch or a hub.
A switch is used in a wired network to connect Ethernet cables from a number of devices together. The
switch allows each device to talk to the others. (Switches aren't used in networks with only wireless
connections, since network devices such as routers and adapters communicate directly with one another,
with nothing in between.)
A tool used to stop unwanted programs to automatically start during the startup.
1. Click Start, click Run, type "msconfig" (without the quotation marks), and then click OK.
2. Click the Startup tab.

Bitlocker is one of the features in Windows which protects your computer from hackers

It has a tool known as defender tool which protects your computer from viruses

It has IE 7.0 already installed in it

Phishing filter is also available in Vista as one of the features .its main work is to protect us
from visiting black listed file

Parental control is also there in vista


Windows Restarts Continuously with Blue Screen
A fatal system error (STOP error) causes the computer to stop.
The Automatically Reboot option is enabled under Recovery on the Startup/Shutdown tab in the
System properties.
19.SWITCH MODE POWER SUPLY A switched/switching -mode power supply or SMPS, is an
electronic power supply unit (PSU) that incorporates a switching regulator.
20.DEVICE DRIVERS In computing, a device driver or software driver is a computer program allowing
higher-level computer programs to interact with a hardware device.
21.PCI The Peripheral Component Interconnect, or PCI Standard (commonly PCI), specifies a
computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard. Typical PCI cards used in PCs
include: network cards, sound cards, modems, extra ports such as USB or serial, TV tuner cards and disk
22.SAFE MODE Safe mode typically provides access to utility and diagnostic programs so a user can
troubleshoot what is preventing the operating system from working normally. Safe mode is intended for
maintenance, not functionality, and provides minimal access to features which often frustrates users who
are only aware that their computer "isn't working right".Microsoft Windows' safe mode is accessed by
repeatedly pressing the F8 key as the operating system boots.
23.CHANGES IE 7.0 Version 7 is intended to defend users from phishing as well as deceptive or malicious
software, and it also features full user control of ActiveX and better security framework, including not being
integrated as much with Windows as previous versions, thereby increasing security. It also includes bug

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fixes, enhancements to its support for web standards, tabbed browsing with tab preview and management,
a multiple-engine search box, a web feeds reader, Internationalized Domain Name support (IDN), and
antiphishing filter.
On Windows Vista, Internet Explorer operates in a special "Protected Mode", that runs the browser in a
security sandbox that has no access to the rest of the operating system or file system, except the
Temporary Internet Files folder.
DNS The Domain Name System (DNS) associates various information with domain names; most
importantly, it serves as the "phone book" for the Internet by translating human-readable computer
hostnames, e.g., into IP addresses, e.g., which networking equipment
needs to deliver information. A DNS also stores other information such as the list of mail servers that
accept email for a given domain.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a protocol used by networked devices (clients) to
obtain the parameters necessary for operation in an Internet Protocol network. This protocol reduces
system administration workload, allowing devices to be added to the network with little or no manual
In DOS, OS/2, and Microsoft Windows, a batch file is a text file containing a series of commands intended
to be executed by the command interpreter. When a batch file is run, the shell program (usually
COMMAND.COM or cmd.exe) reads the file and executes its commands, normally line-by-line. Batch files
are useful for running a sequence of executables automatically.
Use the Add/Remove Programs option from the Control Pannel
Use the Windows XP Installation disk
RUN COMMAND: - %windir%\ie7\spuninst\spuninst.exe
OS 8 | OS 9 | OS 10 OR OS X | OS X 10.1 PUMA | OS X 10.2 JAGUAR |OS X 10.3 PANTHER | OS X 10.4
29.What is a paging file?
Ans: The paging file is very closely related to the physical RAM installed in the computer. Its purpose is to
extend the amount of physical RAM and make it available to the system. Both services and installed
applications can benefit from this 'extra' RAM, even though it is substantially different from the sticks that
plug into the motherboard. A file used to store unneeded pages of memory.
30.What is Static IP?
Static IP is an IP address which entered manually to computer using Control Panel > Network Connections
> Local Area Network [Right Click] -> properties > Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) > properties and the
assigning the IP address this IP Address will remain the same unless you change it.
31.What is dynamic IP?
The temporary IP address is called a dynamic IP address. Requesting DHCP computers receive a dynamic
IP address (think of it as a temporary phone number) for the duration of that Internet session or for some
other specified amount of time. Once the user disconnects from the Internet, their dynamic IP address
goes back into the IP address pool so it can be assigned to another user. Even if the user reconnects
immediately, odds are they will not be assigned the same IP address from the pool.

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32.How to scan in safe mode .if we dont have any option like my computer, no options
available .Only task memory available.
Go to file run a new task name of the software like .exe file ---& we will be able to scan in safe mode.
33.Can we go on X-box line with hub & with a router?
A hub and switch are two devices that split the bandwidth coming from any Ethernet device that is
connected to them they will not route communications from your LAN to the internet. All they do is split
the bandwidth so your modem can see all of the MAC addresses connected to it so it will only give a
connection to one of those devices.
34.What is the clock timing of dual core?
1.6 GHz --- 2.66 GHz
35.What is the Path to save a file on the desktop?
C:\Documents and Settings\<user>\Desktop
36.Apart From F8 how to reach safe mode?
If you only want to enter Safe Mode occasionally and have trouble using the F8 key, you can use the
System Configuration Utility (msconfig). Go to Start -- Run and enter msconfig (without quotes). When
the utility opens, click on the tab BOOT.INI ---------START-Run-enter MsconfigBOOT.INI--Select--safe boot
37.If we restore the system the pictures saved in my computer do they come back?
38.How to uninstall I.E 6 if we dont have Add & Remove program option with us?
In XP it can not be removed since IE 6 is the basic version in 9X we can do from Installation CD.
39.What is add & remove Program in Vista called?
Add & Remove in vista is called Programs and Features.
40.IDE Integrated Drive Electronics.
41.How to create a master & a slave drive?
It is done by changing the jumper settings different manufacturers have different jumper setting are
usually available on drive it self. We just need to follow the diagram to change from master to slave and
vice versa.
The only practical difference between master and slave is that the PC considers the master "first" and the
slave "second" in general terms. For example, DOS/Windows will assign drive letters to the master drive
before the slave drive.
42.If in x-box there is a connection timed-out .How to resolve this problem?
A connect or send request failed because the connected party did not properly respond after a period of
Check that the destination IP address is valid. If you used a hostname, check that it resolves to the correct
If using a local host table for hostname resolution, check to see that it does not resolve to an
obsolete address.

Try to ping the hostname.

Check the router configuration and that its working properly. Check that the router is working by
pinging it, then ping an address outside of the router.
Use the tracert command at the command prompt to determine the path to the destination address
and to check that all the routers are functioning.

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Check your subnet mask. If you do not have the correct subnet mask, your network system might
treat a local address as a remote address (so it forwards addresses on the local subnet to the router, rather
than broadcasting an ARP request locally), or vice versa.
Increase the connection timeout threshold under Favorite Properties > Connection: from the
SmartFTP Favorites window select the Favorite of interest. Right click on the Favorite and select Properties.
The Properties dialog appears. Select the Connection option where server timeout settings can be
43.What is a gateway?
A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the Internet, a node or
stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node. Both the computers of Internet
users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes. The computers that control traffic
within your company's network or at your local Internet service provider (ISP) are gateway nodes.
44.What is APIPA?
A feature of Windows, APIPA is a DHCP failover mechanism. With APIPA, DHCP clients can obtain IP
addresses when DHCP servers are non-functional. APIPA exists in all popular versions of Windows except
Windows NT
It can generate IP Addresses in the range to
45.What is RAID?
RAID which stands for Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks or alternatively Redundant Array
of Independent Disks is a technology that employs the simultaneous use of two or more hard disk
drives to achieve greater levels of performance, reliability, and/or larger data volume sizes
46.What is the memory of Xbox?
1 GB
47.What is the Difference between Core 2 Duo & Dual Core?
The main difference is that core duo is 32-bit processor, where as Core 2 Duo is 64-it processor, also for
Core 2 Duo, the cache memory is 4MB compared to 2MB of Core Duo.
48.What is System Restore and What are the steps involved?
System Restore is a component of Microsoft's Windows Me, Windows XP and Windows Vista operating
systems that allows for the rolling back of system files, registry keys, installed programs, etc., to a previous
state in the event of malfunctioning or failure
Steps involved are StartAll ProgramsAccessories System ToolsSystem RestoreRestore Computer
49.What are the devices that are checked in post?
Motherboard, RAM, CPU
50.What is virtual private network (VPN)?
A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are
carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by
physical wires. The link-layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger
network when this is the case. One common application is secure communications through the public
Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security features, such as authentication or content encryption.
VPNs, for example, can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying
network with strong security features.
A VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between
the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. Generally, a VPN has a topology more complex than pointto-point.
51.How to Restore System in Win 98?
We can not, the feature was introduces in Windows XP.
52.How to Restore System in Win2000?

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We can not, the feature was introduces in Windows XP.
53.How to change proxies in Google Chrome?
Tools Options Under the Hood Network Change Proxy Settings
54.Where is virtual memory stored?
Virtual memory is stored in hard drive.
55.What is PC Recovery?
PC recovery = System Recovery = repair
It is done through installation CD from which the operating system was installed.
56.In win 2000 is there any option of pc recovery?
57.How we can connect 2 laptops via wifi if we dont have any hub or router?
Through add hoc connection
58.What is the latest version of I phone?
I phone 3g
59.What is 3G?
3G is a network i.e. Video conference is not possible without 3g network.
60.What is an Ad-hoc connection?
On wireless computer networks, ad-hoc mode is a method for wireless devices to directly communicate
with each other. Operating in ad-hoc mode allows all wireless devices within range of each other to
discover and communicate in peer-to-peer fashion without involving central access points (including those
built in to broadband wireless routers).
61.What is the difference between the process of data transfer in DDR 1, 2, 3?
Transfer data rate
DDR1: - 200/266/333/400Mbps
DDR2: - 400/533/667/800Mbps
DDR3: - 800/1066/1333/ 1600Mbps
62.What is PATA & SATA?
PATA (Parallel Advance
Slow data transfer
133Mbps Max
40 pin connector

SATA (Serial Advance

Fast data transfer up to
7 pin connector
More reliable

63.The red line on IDE cable, what does it signifies?

First pin on the cable.
64.How you can uninstall IE 7 from Vista?
No we cannot uninstall IE 7 in Vista since its the basic preinstalled version of IE.
65.What is firewall and what it does?
A firewall examines all traffic routed between the two networks to see if it meets certain criteria. If it does,
it is routed between the networks, otherwise it is stopped. A firewall filters both inbound and outbound
traffic. It can also manage public access to private networked resources such as host applications. It can be
used to log all attempts to enter the private network and trigger alarms when hostile or unauthorized entry
is attempted. Firewalls can filter packets based on their source and destination addresses and port
numbers. This is known as address filtering. Firewalls can also filter specific types of network traffic. This is
also known as protocol filtering because the decision to forward or reject traffic is dependant upon the
protocol used, for example HTTP, ftp or telnet. Firewalls can also filter traffic by packet attribute or state.

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66.IE is able to access all sites except how do we solve it?
Check restricted sites list and lower the security level and delete cookies.
67.If BIOS is corrupt what will happen?
System will not boot. Max to max it will go up to POST.
68.How will you go to secured websites?
69.Yahoo messenger is not connecting (reinstall is not working) how will we fix it?
Check proxy settings (yahoo messenger) and firewall settings.
70.While playing a movie you hear the audio but you cant see a video, what could the reason?
Video codec is not installed.
71.There is question mark sign in front of the audio device in device manager, what does it
The driver for the device is not installed.
Class of Subnet mask IP A, B & C = Class A =, Class B =, Class C =,

72.Computers connected through a hub and we have a USB printer how to print.
Well connect the printer to one of the 5 systems and share it. If the main computer is off it will not print
and if it is on and on logon screen it will print cause printer spooler service starts working in the back
73.What is cipher strength?
Its the encryption strength of IE like 64bit 128bit you cant access secured websites without 128bit cipher
strength. To check cipher strength go to HELP -> ABOUT INTERNET EXPLORER.
74.What is IRQ? And how do we change it?
The IRQ is a number set in the computer for the interrupt request. The interrupt request is assigned to
devices to allow it to "interrupt", or send a signal, to the computer when it is finished processing. In older
computers, you had to manually set the IRQ values for devices. Newer computers and operating systems
use plug'n'play, which allows you to not need to set IRQ values. IRQs can be changed from Device
Manager, for that you need to disable ACPI from BIOS or Kernel.
75.What is ACPI?
ACPI (Advanced Configuration Power Interface) refers to a Power Management specification developed by
Intel, Microsoft and Toshiba. The specification allows an operating system to control the power distribution
to peripherals such as hard-drives, it was originally intended for laptops/notebooks where power saving is
ACPI allows the operating system to communicate with the computer's BIOS and instruct the BIOS to
power down peripherals, for instance when your computer goes into hibernation mode, the operating
system is using the ACPI specification to control the power to the internal components.
76.What is Kernel?
The kernel is the essential center of a computer operating system, the core that provides basic services for
all other parts of the operating system. A synonym is nucleus. A kernel can be contrasted with a shell, the
outermost part of an operating system that interacts with user commands. Typically, a kernel (or any
comparable center of an operating system) includes an interrupt handler that handles all requests or
completed I/O operations that compete for the kernel's services, a scheduler that determines which
programs share the kernel's processing time in what order, and a supervisor that actually gives use of the
computer to each process when it is scheduled. A kernel may also include a manager of the operating
system's address spaces in memory or storage, sharing these among all components and other users of
the kernel's services. A kernel's services are requested by other parts of the operating system or
by application programs through a specified set of program interfaces sometimes known as system calls.
77.What is loopback address? What does it check?

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Loopback address is IP address it checks whether the hardware is working fine or not.
78. What is the BLUE SCREEN error in window?
Ans. The Blue Screen Of Death (also known as BSoD or bluescreen), known officially as a Stop Error, is
the error screen displayed by theMicrosoft Windows family of operating systems upon encountering a
critical error during system startup, of a non-recoverable nature, that causes the system to "crash." The
term is named after the color of the screen generated by the error.
Stop errors are usually hardware-related, causing the computer to stop responding in order to prevent
damage to the hardware, whereupon, in the latest versions of Windows, the screen presents information
for diagnostic purposes that was collected as the operating system performed a bug check.
79.Short Cuts Keys to oper any program window.
Ans. Some Shortcuts given below:System Properties
Window Key + Pause and Break Key.
Device Manager
Type following command in Run devmgmt.msc.
80.What is data recovery and how to perform this task?
Ans. Data Recovery is the process of salvaging data from damaged, failed, corrupted, or
inaccessible secondary storage media when it cannot be accessed normally. Often the data are being
salvaged from storage media such as hard disk drives, storage tapes, CDs, DVDs, RAID, and other
electronics. Recovery may be required due to physical damage to the storage device or logical damage to
the file system that prevents it from being mounted by the host operating system.
81. What is the Parallel Installation?
Parallel installation is usually use for given task
Repair your previous copy of window
To install new copy of window on you computer. It may Window 98, Window NT, Window 2000, Window XP,
Window Vista and Windown 2007.
82.What is Upper Lower Filters in XP Registry.
Ans. Upper and Lower filters
Windows operating systems allow the author the possibility to use upper and lower class filters with their
software. This should allow for more direct integration with your CD/DVD drive. Unfortunately it can also
cause issues with certain mixes of burning software i.e. Nero and Windows burning. Nero does have its own
filtercheck during the startup of Windows. This check can fix and help prevent problems with Nero, but
sometimes it doesn't find and remove the problematic filter. Other filters are device filters, these are
usually installed by Microsoft themselves.
83.What is clean boot?
Ans. Starting (booting) a computer as minimalistically as possible. Typically when you start your computer,
it loads many files and programs to customize yourenvironment. A clean boot eliminates these optional
features and loads only those files and programs that are absolutely required by the operating system.
A clean boot is a troubleshooting technique that allows you to get the computer up and running so that
you can perform diagnostic tests to determine which elements of the normal boot process are causing
84.What is Registry in Microsoft Window.
The Windows Registry is a hierarchical database that stores configuration settings and options on Microsoft
Windows operating systems. It contains settings for low-level operating system components as well as the
applications running on the platform: the kernel, device drivers,services, SAM, user interface and third
party applications all make use of the Registry. The registry also provides a means to accesscounters for
profiling system performance.