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Chem istry M od u le Three H and out

Qu alitativ e Inorganic A naly sis


Id entification of A nions (Specific Objectives 6.5 6.6)
Carbonates (CO 32- )

Two tests are available


Add dilute HCl or concentrated H2SO4: CO2 (g) is liberated with effervescence. Carbonates of
the cations Pb2+, Ca2+ and Ba2+ do not react with H2SO4 as these cations form insoluble
sulfates.

CO32- (s) + 2H+(aq) H2O(l) + CO2(g)


Add Ba2+(aq) or Ca2+(aq) followed by dilute acid: a white precipitate of BaCO3(s) or CaCO3(s) is
formed. The precipitate is soluble in dilute acid with the liberation of CO2 (g).
M2+(aq) + CO32- (aq) MCO3(s)
Ba2+ ions can be obtained from BaCl2 (aq) and Ba(NO3)2 (aq); Ca2+ ions can be obtained from
CaCl2 (aq).

Nitrate (NO 3-)

Four tests are available


Add concentrated H2SO4
given off. The HNO3

: on warming, HNO 3 (g) and red brown nitrogen dioxide gas are

(aq)

(g)

formed undergoes thermal decomposition to produce nitrogen

dioxide and oxygen gas.


NO3-(s) + H2SO4 (aq) HNO3 g) + HSO4- (aq)
4HNO3 (g) 2H2O (l) + 4NO2 (g) + O2 (g)

Add concentrated H2SO4


HNO3

(g)

(aq)

in the presence of Cu: NO2 (g) and HNO3

reacts with the Cu to produce NO2

(g)

(g)

are liberated. The

and the resulting solution is green-blue in

colour due to the presence of Cu2+ (aq) ions.

4HNO3 (g) + Cu (s) Cu (NO3) 2 (aq) + 2NO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)


Add powdered Al or Zn (reducing agents) and Sodium Hydroxide: On heating, NH3

(g)

is

given off. The NO3 - (aq) ions are reduced by Al/Zn.


NO3- (s) + 3Al (s) + 3OH- (aq) + 6H2O (l) 3 [Al (OH) 4]- (aq) + NH3 (g)

NO3- (s) + 4Zn (s) + 7OH- (aq) + 6H2O (l) 4 [Zn (OH) 4]2- (aq) + NH3 (g)
Add iron (II) sulfate and concentrated sulphuric acid: crystals of FeSO4 are mixed with the
nitrate solution and then concentrated sulphuric acid is gently added to the mixture such tha
the sulphuric acid forms a layer above the aqueous solution. A brown ring forms at the
junction of the two liquids owing to the presence of Fe(NO)SO4; this test is known as the
brown ring test. The NO3- ion is reduced by iron (II) which is oxidized to iron (III) and forms
a nitrosyl complex.
NO3- (aq) + 3Fe2+ (s) + 4H+ (aq) NO(g) + 3Fe3+ (aq) + 2H2O (l)
NO (g) + FeSO4 (s) Fe(NO)SO4 (s)

Sulfate (SO4 2-)

Two tests are available:


Add Ba2+

/H+

(aq)

concentrated HCl.

: a white precipitate of BaSO4

(aq)

(s)

is formed. It is soluble in warm

Ba2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) BaSO4 (s)


This test is carried out in an acidified medium to inhibit the precipitation of carbonate and

sulfite.
Add Pb2+ (aq): a white precipitate of PbSO4 (s) is formed which is soluble in hot concentrated
sulphuric acid.
Pb2+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) PbSO4 (s)
Pb2+ ions can be obtained from lead (II) ethanoate.

Sulfite (SO32- )

Three tests are available:


Add dilute hydrochloric acid or concentrated sulphuric acid: SO2 (g) is evolved on warming.

SO32- (aq) + 2H+ (aq) SO2 (g) + H2O (l)


Add Ba2+ (aq): a white precipitate of Barium Sulfite is formed which is readily soluble in dilute
hydrochloric acid with the liberation of Sulphur Dioxide gas.

Ba2+ (aq) + SO32- (aq) BaSO3 (s)


Add Silver Nitrate solution: a white precipitate of Silver Sulfite is formed which turns from
grey to black on warming as a result of the decomposition to silver.
2Ag+ (aq) + SO32- (aq) Ag2 SO3 (s)

Chlorides (Cl -)

Three tests are available:


Add concentrated sulphuric acid: the pungent, colourless hydrogen chloride gas is evolved.
H2 SO4 (aq) + Cl- (s) HCl (g) + HSO4- (aq)

Add Silver Nitrate solution followed by aqueous ammonia: a white precipitate of Silver
Chloride is formed which is soluble in aqueous ammonia to form Ag(NH3) 2+ (aq).

Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) AgCl (s)


Add Pb2+ (aq) : a white precipitate of lead chloride is formed which dissolves on heating and reprecipitates on cooling.
Pb2+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) PbCl2 (s)

Bromides (Br - )

Three tests are available


Add Silver nitrate solution followed by aqueous ammonia: a white or cream precipitate of
Silver Bromide is formed which is partially soluble in aqueous ammonia.

Ag+ (aq) + Br- (aq) AgBr (s)


Add concentrated sulphuric acid: red brown vapours of Bromine gas and Hydrogen Bromide
gas are seen. The Hydrogen Bromide gas that is formed is oxidized to Bromine gas.

H2 SO4 (aq) + Br- (aq) HBr (g) + HSO4- (aq)


Add Pb2+(aq): a white precipitate of Lead Bromide is formed. This precipitate dissolves on
heating and re-precipitates on cooling.
Pb2+ (aq) + 2Br- (aq) PbBr2 (s)

Iodides (I-)
Three tests are available:

Add Silver Nitrate solution followed by aqueous ammonia: a yellow or cream precipitate of
Silver Iodide is formed which is insoluble in aqueous ammonia.

Ag+ (aq) + I - (aq) AgI (s)


Add concentrated sulphuric acid: Iodine is formed as a black or violet precipitate. On
warming, violet vapours of iodine are evolved. Hydrogen Iodide gas is initially formed but is
oxidized to Iodine.
H2 SO4 (aq) + I - (s) HI (g) + HSO4- (aq)

2HI (g) + [o] I2 (s) + H2 O (l)


Add Pb2+ ions: a yellow precipitate of Lead Iodide is formed which is soluble in excess of the
iodine solution.
Pb2+ (aq) + 2I- (aq) PbI2

(s)

PbI2 (s) + 2I- (aq) [PbI4 ]2- (aq)

Chromate (CrO 42-)

Three tests are available:


Add Silver Nitrate solution: a red-brown precipitate of Silver Chromate is formed which is
soluble in aqueous ammonia.

2Ag+ (aq) + CrO42- (aq) Ag2 CrO4 (s)


Add Ba2+ ions: a pale yellow precipitate of Barium Chromate is formed which is soluble in
strong acids.

Ba2+ (aq) + CrO42- (aq) BaCrO4 (s)


Add Pb2+ ions: a yellow precipitate of Lead Chromate is formed.
Pb2+ (aq) + CrO4 2- (aq) PbCrO4 (s)

Testing for Gases


Carbon Dioxide
i)

Colourless, odourless

ii)

When bubbles through lime water (Calcium Hydroxide Solution), the mixture turns
milky. The milky appearance is due to the formation of a solid precipitate of Calcium
Carbonate.
Ca(OH) 2 (aq) + CO2 (g) CaCO3 (s) + H2O (l)

Hydrogen
i)

Colourless, odourless

ii)

Pops with lighted splint or may burn with a blue flame. Hydrogen gas is recognized
by the
popwhen it burns. This
popis the sound of a small explosion since H2 is
extremely flammable.

Hydrogen Chloride
i)

Colourless, pungent

ii)

Hydrogen Chloride gas is an acidic gas; it dissolves in water to form hydrochloric


acid, HCl (aq)

iii)

Fumes in moist air; turns moist blue litmus red; fumes with ammonia gas. The fumes
are due to the formation of Ammonium Chloride.

HCl (g) + NH3 (g) NH4Cl (g)

Hydrogen Sulfide
i)

Colourless, odour of rotten eggs

ii)

Turns Pb2+ ions black due to the formation of Lead Sulfide.

Ammonia
i)

Colourless, pungent

ii)

Turns moist red litmus blue; fumes with Hydrogen Chloride gas.

iii)

Ammonia is an alkaline gas

Nitrogen dioxide
i)

Red-brown, pungent

ii)

Turns moist blue litmus red

Oxygen
i)

Colourless, odourless

ii)

Relights a glowing splint

iii)

Oxygen is the only gas which supports burning and hence will relight a glowing splint

Sulfur dioxide
i)

Colourless, choking odour

ii)

Turns moist blue litmus red

iii)

Turn KMnO4/H+ colourless

iv)

Turns K2 Cr2O7/H+ green

v)

Sulfur dioxide is an acidic, reducing gas.

Chlorine
i)

Pale yellow-green, pungent, choking odour

ii)

Bleaches moist blue litmus

iii)

Chlorine gas has a bleaching effect

Bromine
i)

Red-brown, pungent

ii)

Moist blue litmus turns red then bleached; fumes in moist air

iii)

Bromine gas has a bleaching effect

Iodine
i)

Violet-black solid and violet vapours

ii)

Bleaches moist litmus

iii)

Turns starch/iodide paper blue-black