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# Polarization of Antenna

Cristina Tene, Freddy Lpez, Valeria Bone, Deysi Tixi, Hipatia Ilbay
Abstract This paper describes the polarization of
an antenna.

Polarizacin Circular:

Index Terms,
I. INTRODUCTION
magnetic fields have a certain bias. Since this field
radiated at large distances can be considered a plane
wave, it may consider that there is only field in directions
perpendicular to the propagation direction (to where the
information is transmitted). So if, for example, we take
propagation direction Z axis only have components of
electric and magnetic field in the X and Y axes
II. THEORY
Depending on how the offset x and y components of the
electric field will have three types of polarization:
Linear: If they are the same phase or in antiphase (offset
= 0 or pi)
Circular: If they are out of phase pi / 2 or 3pi / 2 and
their magnitudes are equal
Elliptical: If they are out of phase and have the same or
different magnitudes.
Most commonly have linear or circular polarization, so
we focus on them.
To understand the concept of polarization is best to see a
few performances:

Linear Polarization:

## La importancia de como polariza una antena el

preparada para captar un campo elctrico de su misma
polarizacin (principio de reciprocidad). Es decir, que
si una antena
genera un campo elctrico
con
polarizacin lineal en transmisin, esa misma antena
captar de forma eficiente un campo elctrico de su
misma polarizacin. Esto no impide que pueda captar
parte del campo elctrico de una antena con distinta
polarizacin, sino que slo captar una parte de la seal
recibida.

## RESULTS AND SIMULATION:

CODIGO
function varargout =
Polarizacion_Antena(varargin)
% POLARIZACION_ANTENA MATLAB code for
Polarizacion_Antena.fig
%
POLARIZACION_ANTENA, by itself,
creates a new POLARIZACION_ANTENA or
raises the existing
%
singleton*.
%
%
H = POLARIZACION_ANTENA returns
the handle to a new
POLARIZACION_ANTENA or the handle to
%
the existing singleton*.
%
%
POLARIZACION_ANTENA('CALLBACK',hObject
,eventData,handles,...) calls the
local
%
function named CALLBACK in
POLARIZACION_ANTENA.M with the given
input arguments.
%
%
POLARIZACION_ANTENA('Property','Value'

## ,...) creates a new

POLARIZACION_ANTENA or raises the
%
existing singleton*. Starting
from the left, property value pairs
are
%
applied to the GUI before
Polarizacion_Antena_OpeningFcn gets
called. An
%
unrecognized property name or
invalid value makes property
application
%
stop. All inputs are passed to
Polarizacion_Antena_OpeningFcn via
varargin.
%
%
*See GUI Options on GUIDE's
Tools menu. Choose "GUI allows only
one
%
instance to run (singleton)".
%
% Edit the above text to modify the
response to help Polarizacion_Antena
% Begin initialization code - DO NOT
EDIT
gui_Singleton = 1;
gui_State = struct('gui_Name',
mfilename, ...
'gui_Singleton',
gui_Singleton, ...
'gui_OpeningFcn',
@Polarizacion_Antena_OpeningFcn, ...
'gui_OutputFcn',
@Polarizacion_Antena_OutputFcn, ...
'gui_LayoutFcn',
[] , ...
'gui_Callback',
[]);
if nargin && ischar(varargin{1})
gui_State.gui_Callback =
str2func(varargin{1});
end
if nargout
[varargout{1:nargout}] =
gui_mainfcn(gui_State, varargin{:});
else
gui_mainfcn(gui_State,
varargin{:});
end
% End initialization code - DO NOT
EDIT

## % --- Executes just before

function
Polarizacion_Antena_OpeningFcn(hObject
, eventdata, handles, varargin)
% This function has no output args,
see OutputFcn.

% hObject
handle to figure
% eventdata reserved - to be defined
in a future version of MATLAB
% handles
structure with handles
and user data (see GUIDATA)
% varargin
command line arguments to
Polarizacion_Antena (see VARARGIN)
% Choose default command line output
for Polarizacion_Antena
handles.output = hObject;
% Update handles structure
guidata(hObject, handles);
% UIWAIT makes Polarizacion_Antena
wait for user response (see UIRESUME)
% uiwait(handles.figure1);

## % --- Outputs from this function are

returned to the command line.
function varargout =
Polarizacion_Antena_OutputFcn(hObject,
eventdata, handles)
% varargout cell array for returning
output args (see VARARGOUT);
% hObject
handle to figure
% eventdata reserved - to be defined
in a future version of MATLAB
% handles
structure with handles
and user data (see GUIDATA)
% Get default command line output from
handles structure
varargout{1} = handles.output;

## % --- Executes during object creation,

after setting all properties.
function axes1_CreateFcn(hObject,
eventdata, handles)
% hObject
handle to axes1 (see
GCBO)
% eventdata reserved - to be defined
in a future version of MATLAB
% handles
empty - handles not
created until after all CreateFcns
called
% Hint: place code in OpeningFcn to
populate axes1

## % --- Executes on button press in

CAMPO.
function CAMPO_Callback(hObject,
eventdata, handles)
%% CONSTANTES
vaco

epsilon0 = 8.854e-12;

eta = sqrt(mu-j*eps)/sqrt(epsilonj*eps);

mu0 = 4*pi*1e-7;

% campo

z = linspace(-3,3,10000);

c=1/sqrt(epsilon0*mu0);

E = real(exp(-j*k*z).*exp(j*0));

%% DATOS
----------------------------------------------------------------

z0 = 2;

% frecuencia

for i=0:200

h = figure;

f = 300e6;

t = (T/101)*i;

## % parmetros constitutivos relativos

del material

%subplot(2,1,1)

epsilonr = 1;
mur = 1;
%%
---------------------------------------------------------------------% periodo
T = 1/f;
% longitud de onda
lambda = c/f;

E = real((exp(-j*k*z)
+exp(+j*k*z)).*exp(j*w*t));
plot(z,E,'linewidth',1.5);
hold on
E_z0 = real((exp(j*k*z0)+exp(+j*k*z0)).*exp(j*w*t));
plot(z0,E_z0,'or','markerfacecolor','r
');
hold on
%plot([z0 z0],[-3 3],'--')
%plot(z,exp(-alpha.*z)
+exp(alpha.*z),'--')
hold off
axis([min(z) max(z) -6 6])

% frecuencia angular
w = 2*pi*f;
% parametros constitutivos del
material
epsilon = epsilon0*epsilonr;
mu = mu0*mur;
% constante de propagacion
k = w*sqrt(mu-j*eps)*sqrt(epsilonj*eps);
% constantes de fase y atenuacin
beta = real(k);

%
subplot(2,1,2)
%
%
P = 1/(2*real(eta)).*exp(2.*alpha.*z)+1/
(2.*real(eta)).*real(exp(j*2*k*z).*exp(j*2*w*t));
%
Pav = 1/(2*real(eta)).*exp(2.*alpha.*z);
%
plot(z,P,'linewidth',1.5);
%
hold on
%
plot(z,Pav,'linewidth',1.5);
%
hold off
%
%
axis([min(z) max(z) 0 1/
(real(eta))])
M(i+1) = getframe(h);
end
implay(M,100);

alpha = -imag(k);
% impedancia intrinseca
% hObject
GCBO)

## % eventdata reserved - to be defined

in a future version of MATLAB
% handles
structure with handles
and user data (see GUIDATA)

% constante de propagacion
k = w*sqrt(mu-j*eps)*sqrt(epsilonj*eps);

## % --- Executes on button press in

campo_magnetic.
function
campo_magnetic_Callback(hObject,
eventdata, handles)
%% CONSTANTES
-----------------------------------------------------------

## % constantes de fase y atenuacin

vaco

eta = sqrt(mu-j*eps)/sqrt(epsilonj*eps);

epsilon0 = 8.854e-12;

% campo

mu0 = 4*pi*1e-7;

z = linspace(-3,3,10000);

E = real(exp(-j*k*z).*exp(j*0));

c=1/sqrt(epsilon0*mu0);

z0 = 2;

%% DATOS
---------------------------------------------------------------% frecuencia

h = figure;

f = 300e6;
% parmetros constitutivos relativos
del material
epsilonr = 1;
mur = 1;
%%
---------------------------------------------------------------------% periodo

beta = real(k);
alpha = -imag(k);
% impedancia intrinseca

for i=0:200
t = (T/101)*i;
%subplot(2,1,1)
E = real((exp(j*k*z)+exp(j*k*z)).*exp(j*w*t));
plot(z,E,'linewidth',1.5);
hold on
E_z0 = real((exp(j*k*z0)+exp(+j*k*z0)).*exp(j*w*t));
plot(z0,E_z0,'or','markerfacecolor','b
');
hold on
%plot([z0 z0],[-3 3],'--')

T = 1/f;
% longitud de onda
lambda = c/f;
% frecuencia angular
w = 2*pi*f;
% parametros constitutivos del
material
epsilon = epsilon0*epsilonr;
mu = mu0*mur;

%plot(z,exp(-alpha.*z)
+exp(alpha.*z),'--')
hold off
axis([min(z) max(z) -6 6])
%
subplot(2,1,2)
%
%
P = 1/(2*real(eta)).*exp(2.*alpha.*z)+1/
(2.*real(eta)).*real(exp(j*2*k*z).*exp(j*2*w*t));
%
Pav = 1/(2*real(eta)).*exp(2.*alpha.*z);
%
plot(z,P,'linewidth',1.5);
%
hold on
%
plot(z,Pav,'linewidth',1.5);

%
hold off
%
%
axis([min(z) max(z) 0 1/
(real(eta))])

As shown in figure 5.

M(i+1) = getframe(h);
end
implay(M,100);
% hObject
handle to campo_magnetic
(see GCBO)
% eventdata reserved - to be defined
in a future version of MATLAB
% handles
structure with handles
and user data (see GUIDATA)

## % --- Executes on button press in

Polarizacion.
function
Polarizacion_Callback(hObject,
eventdata, handles)

## % Create some x data

x = linspace(0, 4*pi, 30);
% Create two waves to plot
y = sin(x);
z = sin(x-pi);
% Plot the first wave in red and fill
with color
u = zeros(size(x+pi));
figure
fill3(x, y, u, 'r', 'EdgeColor', 'r',
'FaceAlpha', 0.5)
hold on
% Add arrows for the first wave
quiver3(x, u, u, u, y, u, 0, 'r')
% Plot the first wave in blue and fill
with color
fill3(x, u, z, 'b', 'EdgeColor', 'b',
'FaceAlpha', 0.5)

## Figure 6. Electric Field

POLARIZATION OF ANTENNA:
Fig7. Shows the directivity for the operating frequency
of 9GHz.

## % Add the arrows for the second wave

quiver3(x, u, u, u, u, z, 0, 'b')
% Use equal axis scaling
view(-49,28)
axis square
daspect([1 1 1])
xlim([0 13])
ylim([-1 1])
zlim([-1 1])
% hObject
handle to Polarizacion
(see GCBO)
% eventdata reserved - to be defined
in a future version of MATLAB
% handles
structure with handles
and user data (see GUIDATA)

## Fig7: Radiation pattern at 9GHz at 0& 90

IV. CONCLUSION
- Circular polarization is a desirable feature for many
antennas. Two antennas are circularly polarized suffer no
loss of signal due to the polarization mismatch. Antennas
used in GPS systems are right-handed circularly
polarized.
- Any waveform can be decomposed into two orthogonal
linear polarizations, simply by designing the electric field
on unit vectors oriented in said directions. Applying the
same principle, any wave can be decomposed into two
circularly polarized waves right or left.
- The polarization of an antenna is the polarization of
electromagnetic fields from an antenna, evaluated in the
far field.
Fig8: Gain at 8.20-12.20GHz

V. REFERENCES
http://www.upv.es/antenas/Tema_1/polarizacion.htm

http://www.antennatheory.com/spanish/basics/antennapol
.php