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Energy

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

pump and vapor-compression refrigeration part 1: Energy and

economic modeling and analysis

Iman Janghorban Esfahani a, Yong Tae Kang b, ChangKyoo Yoo a, *

a

Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1,

Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701, South Korea

School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-701, South Korea

a r t i c l e i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:

Received 17 February 2014

Received in revised form

16 July 2014

Accepted 24 July 2014

Available online 21 August 2014

A novel combined system that combines a MEEeABHP (multi-effect evaporationeabsorption heat pump)

with a VCR (vapor-compression refrigeration) cycle is proposed to simultaneously generate cooling and

fresh water. In the combined system, the condenser of the VCR system is replaced by the MEEeABHP

system, where a portion of the fresh water produced in the last effect of the MEE (multi-effect evaporation) system is used as the refrigerant for the VCR system. In Part 1 of this two-part paper, model-based

energy and cost analysis is developed to quantify and qualify the performance of the combined system.

Parametric analysis is carried out to investigate the effects of absorber pressure (PA), temperature difference between effects of the MEE subsystem (DTMEE), temperature of the strong solution from absorber

(T1), and temperature of the weak solution from generator (T4) on the performance of the system. In Part

2, thermo-economic and exergy analysis is conducted to evaluate the exibility of the system for fuel

allocation from different available power and heat energy sources. The results of Part 1 showed that the

combined system can save 57.12%, 5.61%, and 25.6% in electric power, heat energy, and total annual cost

compared to the stand-alone VCR and MEEeABHP systems, respectively.

2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Combined system

Desalination

Refrigeration

Absorption

MEE (multi-effect evaporation)

VCR (vapor-compression refrigeration)

1. Introduction

In the Middle East, which is water-decient region with a warm

climate, fresh water and cooling are often required simultaneously

and are generated separately by stand-alone desalination and

refrigeration systems [1]. The two most widely used desalination

techniques are RO (reverse osmosis) membrane separation and

thermal desalination. In the thermal desalination salt is separated

from water by evaporation and condensations processes, whereas

in the RO process semi-permeable and driving forces like pressure

are used to separate salts from water. The membrane processes

have rapidly developed and surpassed the thermal process because

of the lower energy consumption, higher recovery factor and lower

desalted water costs. Despite of higher energy consumption, thermal desalination systems have remained the most frequently

applied technology due to lack of the discharge of brine chemical

* Corresponding author. Tel.: 82 31 201 3824; fax: 82 31 202 8854.

E-mail address: ckyoo@khu.ac.kr (C. Yoo).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.07.081

0360-5442/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

coast-based power plants, iron and steel plants, and paper and pulp

industries, and the low cost of fossil fuel in many regions such as

Middle East countries [2,3]. Among thermal desalination systems,

LT-MEE (low-temperature multi-effect evaporation) desalination

has received more attention in recent years because it has a lower

corrosion rate, consumes less power, and costs less than MSF

(multi-stage ash) desalination systems [4,5]. The LT-MEE desalination systems are often combined with heat pumps such as a SJE

(steam jet ejector) and ABHP (absorption heat pump), which are

known as MEE-TVC and MEEeABHP (multi-effect evaporationeabsorption heat pump) respectively, to increase fresh water

production compared to a stand-alone LT-MEE with the same

driving heat source conditions [5].

Recently, several researchers have studied the MEE (multi-effect

evaporation) desalination combined with SJE and ABHP systems

[4e10]. Janghorban Esfahani et al. [4] analyzed and optimized a

MEE-TVC desalination system that combines LT-MEE desalination

system with a SJE. They applied MOO (multi-objective optimization) to minimize the total annual cost, to and maximize the fresh

water ow rate, and to gain the output ratio. Wang and Lior [5]

investigated a LT-MEE desalination system combined with a singleeffect LiBreH2O ABHP with regard to energy and economics to

improve the understanding of the system. Li et al. [6] studied the

feasibility of using low-grade heat for thermal desalination via a

hybrid absorption heat pump system with ammonia-water working uid. Their results showed that the proposed system was

competitive with the reverse osmosis technology with regard to

power consumption. Gomri [7] compared the inuence of absorber

temperature and intermediate heat source temperature on energy

efciency, exergy efciency, and freshwater production of single

effect and double effect absorption heat pumps system used for

seawater desalination.

As investigated in the literature, the absorption cycles are

combined with the desalination system only to increase the fresh

water production not for cooling. Therefore, cooling is often separately generated by refrigeration cycles. The two most widely used

techniques to generate cooling are vapor compression and absorption. Recently, several studies have been carried out on application of refrigeration cycles [11e23]. To continue the refrigeration

cycle in both systems, the heat should be absorbed from the cold

environment by an evaporator and released to the hot environment

by a condenser, which can be recovered as a heat source for many

purposes such as the desalination process [24].

Therefore, refrigeration and desalination systems can be combined to simultaneously generate cooling and fresh water more

efciently and economically than two single-generation systems.

Recently, several studies have been conducted on combining

desalination systems and refrigeration cycles by recovering the

waste heats from the refrigeration cycle as an energy source for the

thermal desalination system.

Gude and Nirmalakhandan [25] presented a combined lowgrade desalination system with a modied absorption refrigeration system. In their study, heat rejected by the condenser of the

absorption refrigeration system was upgraded as an energy source

for desalination. Hou et al. [26] presented an open air-vapor

compression refrigeration system for both air-conditioning and

desalination on ships. In their proposed system, fresh water is obtained using humid-air dehumidication and a ash desalination

process. Wang and Lior [27] proposed a combined absorption

refrigeration cycle with a LT-MEE desalination system in which the

condenser of the absorption system is replaced by the rst effect of

the LT-MEE system. Janghorban Esfahani et al. [28] proposed a new

combined GT (gas turbine) and RO (reverse osmosis) desalination

system that uses a vapor compression refrigeration system to cool

the compressor inlet air and preheat the RO feed water by recovering waste heat from the refrigeration system condenser.

As investigated in the literature, recent research efforts have

focused on waste heat recovery from the refrigeration cycle as an

energy source for an LT-MEE desalination system. However,

combing highly efcient desalination systems such as MEEeABHP

with refrigeration systems to co-generate fresh water and cooling is

scarce.

This study proposes a new combined MEEeABHP with a VCR

(vapor-compression refrigeration) system that simultaneously

generates cooling and fresh water with lower energy consumption

and total annual cost compared to the systems proposed in the

literature. In the combined system, the condenser of the VCR system is replaced by a MEEeABHP system, where a portion of the

fresh water produced in the last stage of the MEEeABHP system is

used as the refrigerant for the VCR system. Two compressors are

used to compress the refrigerant, which increases the exibility of

the system by using both electricity and heat as energy sources. A

low pressure compressor is used to compress a portion of the

refrigerant, which is condensed in the absorber of the ABHP subsystem. A high pressure compressor is used to provide a portion of

313

another portion of the refrigerant, which is condensed through the

tube side of the rst stage of the MEE subsystem.

Part 1 of this two-part paper consists of two major parts. First,

simulation models based thermodynamic and economic equations

are developed to simulate and calculate the energy consumption

and TAC (total annual cost) of the proposed system by using EES

(Engineering Equation Solver) software [29]. Second, parametric

and sensitivity analysis are carried out to investigate the four key

parameters of absorber pressure (PA), temperature difference between effects of MEE subsystem (DTMEE), temperature of the strong

solution from absorber (T1), temperature of the weak solution from

generator (T4) and how they inuence the performance of the

combined system with one compressor to better understand the

process. Part 2 as a separate paper consists of the thermo-economic

analysis and optimization of the combined system with two compressors to evaluate the exibility of the system to allocate the

different energy sources.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. System conguration

Fig. 1 shows the proposed system, which combines a MEEeABHP desalination system with six stages in the MEE subsystem

by a VCR system. In the proposed system, the condenser of the VCR

system is replaced with the MEEeABHP desalination system to

recover the waste heat of the VCR condenser as a heat energy

source for the MEE system. For this purpose, a portion of the fresh

water produced in the last stage of the MEEeABHP system (which

has a lower pressure than the other stages) is used as refrigerant for

the VCR system. The refrigerant is expanded through the expansion

valve (EV2) and passes through the evaporator. The saturated vapor

refrigerant coming from the evaporator (stream 15) is compressed

by the compressor and, with the vapor coming from the last stage

of the MEEeABHP system (stream 10), is sent to the absorber (A)

and absorbed by the strong solution (stream 6). Stream 6 leaves the

absorber with a weak LiBr concentration (stream 1) and is then

pumped to the generator at a higher pressure through the SHX

(solution heat exchanger). The weak solution (stream 2) is preheated by heat recovered from the strong solution (stream 4)

coming from the generator. The strong liquid solution (stream 4)

returns to the absorber through the solution heat exchanger and

expansion valve (EV1). The heating steam (stream 0) for the MEE

subsystem is provided by two sources: the rst is stream 7, which is

generated by boiling off the LiBreH2O by heat provided by the

motive steam (stream 8) in the generator; the second is stream 12,

which is a portion of the condensed vapor in the tube side of the

rst stage of the MEEeABHP system vaporized by recovering the

released heat of the solution and the compressed vapor in the

absorber [5,24,30,31]. Stream 0 is introduced to the tube side in the

rst stage and condensed by releasing its latent heat into the feed

water for evaporation. Part of the condensate returns to the

absorber (stream 11), and another part passes into the rst ashing

box. Demisted vapor formed in the rst stage and the ashed vapor

from the rst ashing box are used together as heating sources in

the rst pre-heater to preheat the feed water to the rst stage. The

combined vapor from the rst pre-heater passes into the second

stage and is used as the heat source to vaporize the feed water in

the second stage. This process is repeated for all stages. At the end,

the generated vapor of the last stage passes through the condenser.

A portion of the condensed vapor is used as the refrigerant (stream

13), and the other portion (stream 18) is introduced into the

distillate tank. The cooling water (stream 17) is divided into two

parts. The rst part is used as feed and is distributed among the

314

Fig. 1. Schematic of the proposed combined MEEeABHP system with VCR system.

stages, and the other part is rejected back to the sea (stream 19)

[32,33].

The system presented in Fig. 2 is suggested in order to replace a

portion of the required energy for the MEE system with electric

power; the system combines the MEEeABHP system and VCR

system with two compressors. In this system, the refrigerant

coming from the evaporator is divided into two parts: one part is

compressed by the low pressure compressor and sent to the

absorber, and the other part is compressed by a high pressure

compressor and sent to the tube side of the rst stage as an energy

source. The high pressure compressor operates as a mechanical

heat pump for the MEE subsystem, which can reduce the energy

consumption of the MEE system and consume electric power

Therefore, the combined system with two compressors has the

exibility to allocate heat energy and electric power energy as

energy sources.

2.2. Thermodynamic and economic models of the MEEeABHPeVCR

system

2.2.1. Thermodynamic model

The thermodynamic properties of the systems must be specied

to conduct energy analyses of the MEEeABHPeVCR system, which

is usually done through modeling based thermodynamic equations.

This section includes the mass, salinity, and energy balance

Fig. 2. Schematic of the proposed combined MEEeABHP system with VCR system with two compressors.

the combined system to calculate the energy consumption of the

system. The models based thermodynamic equations developed by

Janghorban Esfahani et al. [33], Huicochea et al. [31], and Hong et al.

[34] are used in this study. Several simplifying assumptions made

in the development of the thermodynamic model are listed below:

The systems are operated under steady state conditions.

Heat losses and pressure drops in piping and the components

are negligible.

The water/lithium bromide concentration is zero in the steam

phase.

The water/lithium bromide solution in the generator and

absorber outlet is saturated.

The refrigerant in the evaporator and condenser outlet of the

vapor compression refrigeration cycle is saturated.

Each system has been modeled as two subsystems including

MEE-ABHP, and VCR systems, as described below.

2.2.1.1. MEEeABHP subsystem. The MEEeABHP subsystem components including generator, solution heat exchanger, absorber,

expansion value, solution pump, and MEE are simulated through

Eqs. (1) to (24) as follows:

2.2.1.1.1. G. (generator). Mass, concentration, and energy balance equations are presented in Eqs. (1)e(3) [31].

m_ 3 m_ 7 m_ 4

(1)

m_ 3 x3 m_ 7 x7 m_ 4 x4

(2)

Q_ G: m_ 4 h4 m_ 7 h7 m_ 3 h3

(3)

(4)

2.2.1.1.3. EV. (solution expansion valve). Mass and energy balance equations for the solution expansion valve are given by Eqs.

(5) and (6), respectively [33].

m_ 5 m_ 6

(5)

m_ 5 h5 m_ 6 h6

(6)

solution pump is given by Eq. (7) [24].

_ pump m_ 1 $v$PG PA

W

hpump

(7)

where hpump and v are isentropic efciency of the pump and the

specic volume of the solution.

2.2.1.1.5. A. (absorber). Mass, concentration, and energy balance

equations are presented in Eqs. (8)e(10), respectively [33].

m_ Di $Li m_ F1 $Cp Ti Tf i

i

m_ 1 m_ 10 m_ 6 m_ 16

(8)

m_ 1 x1 m_ 6 x6

(9)

Q_ A: m_ 6 h6 m_ 10 h10 m_ 16 h16 m_ 1 h1

(10)

2.2.1.1.6. MEE. (multi-effect evaporation). The MEE subsystem is

modeled in Eqs. (11) to (21).

Mass balance equations of the rst stage, second to nth stages,

and end condenser are given by Eqs. (11)e(13).

m_ B1 m_ F1 m_ D1

(11)

2

m_ Bi m_ Fi m_ Bi1 m_ Di

4yi1 $@m_ Dr

i2

X

13

m_ Dj A5

(12)

j1

"

m_ DCon: m_ Dn m_ Dr yn $ m_ Dr $

n

1

X

!#

m_ Di

(13)

i1

streams, respectively. Subscripts i and r represent the number of

stages and entrained steam, respectively, and y represents the ash

ratio.

The produced fresh water mass ow rate is given by Eq. (14).

"

Q_ G: is the heat requirement of the generator.

2.2.1.1.2. SHX. (solution heat exchanger). The energy balance for

the SHX component is given by Eq. (4) [34].

m_ 2 h3 h2 m_ 4 h4 h5

315

m_ 18 1 yn $ m_ Dr

n1

X

!#

m_ Di

"

yn1

m_ Dr

i1

"

yn3 m_ Dr

n4

X

n2

X

!#

m_ Di

i1

!#

m_ Di

"

yn4 m_ Dr

i1

n5

X

!#

m_ Di

i1

yn5 $m_ Dr m_ DCon: m_ 13

where m_ 18 and m_ 13 are fresh water and refrigerant mass ow rates,

respectively.

The salinity balance equations for the rst stage and second to

nth stages are given by Eqs (15) and (16).

(15)

(16)

stages and the brine stream, respectively.

Energy balance equations of the rst stage and second to nth

stages are given by Eqs. (17) and (18), respectively.

h

i

m_ 0 $L0

m_ D1 $L1 m_ F1 $ Cp T1 $T1 Cp Tf 1 $T

1

0

1

3

2

i2

X

m_ Di1 $Li1 4yi1 $@m_ Dr

m_ Dj A$Li1 5 i 1$m_ Fi1 $yi1 $Li1 m_ Bi1 $C$ DTi1;i

j1

(14)

(17)

(18)

316

of stream 0, and DTi1;i is temperature difference between ith and

i-1st effects, respectively which are calculated by Eqs. (19) and

(20).

system with the stand-alone systems are given by Eqs. (28) and (29)

[4,38].

m_ 0 m_ 7 m_ 23 m_ 12

(19)

COPVCR

DTi1;i Ti1 Ti

(20)

temperature difference between effects are assumed to be equal as

follow [4]:

(21)

have been calculated by the correlations from previous research

[35e37] which are presented in Appendixes A and B.

2.2.1.2. VCR subsystem. The VCR subsystem components including

expansion valve, evaporator, and compressors, are simulated by

Eqs. (22)e(26) as follows:

2.2.1.2.1. REV. (refrigerant expansion valve). Mass and energy

balance for the REV are given by Eqs. (22) and (23), respectively.

m_ 13 m_ 14

(22)

m_ 13 h13 m_ 14 h14

(23)

evaporator is given by Eq. (24).

(24)

2.2.1.2.3. Com. (compressors). The power consumptions of the

low pressure and high pressure compressors are given by Eqs. (25)

and (26), respectively.

_

_ com: m21 h16is h21

W

LP

hcom:LP

(25)

_

_ com: m22 h23is h22

W

HP

hcom:HP

(26)

m13 m_ 21

m_ 13

GORMEEABHP

(27)

0, 1, and the values between 0, and 1 indicate that the system

operates with a low pressure compressor, high pressure

compressor, and low and high pressure compressors, respectively.

2.2.1.3. Performance criteria. The COP (coefcient of performance)

of VCR system and GOR (gain output ratio) of MEEeABHP system as

(28)

m_ fresh water

m_ 8

(29)

systems with different products is given in Part 2 of this paper for

comparison of the MEEeABHPeVCR system with stand-alone

MEEeABHP and VCR systems in exergy point of view.

In this section we detail the equations that form the economic

model for the VCR, MEEeABHP, and MEEeABHPeVCR systems to

calculate the total annual cost. The models, developed by Janghorban Esfahani and Yoo [39], Alasfour and Bin Amer [40], Garousi

Farshi et al. [41], Nafey et al. [42], and Sayyaadi and Nejatolahi [43]

are used for our economic model.

The total annual cost of the system is given by Eq. (30).

(30)

where ACC and AOC are the annual capital cost and annual operating cost, respectively. The economic model equations that are

used to calculate TAC are presented by Eqs. (31)e(47).

The capital cost of the generator, condenser, evaporator,

absorber, and solution heat exchanger are calculated by the power

law relation given by Eq. (31) [41].

Zk ZR:k $

Ak

AR

0:6

(31)

cost of the component k at the reference year. Ak and AR are the heat

transfer area of component k, and reference heat transfer area,

respectively. The reference costs of the heat exchangers for the

reference year 2000 are listed in Table 1 [41]. The component costs

calculated by Eq. (31) using the reference costs presented in Table 1

are not reliable because the costs are valid around the year 2000.

Therefore all the component costs obtained from Eq. (31) are

updated to the year 2009, which is more reliable for economic

analysis of this study using Eq. (32).

where subscripts LP, HP, and is represent low pressure and high

pressure, and isentropic, respectively. The specic enthalpy of

steam is calculated by IPAWS-97 thermodynamic property function

built in EES software [29].

The RR (refrigerant ratio) from the low pressure compressor to

the high pressure compressor is calculated by Eq. (27).

RR

Q_ Eva:

_ com:

W

Zk;2009 Zk

CI2009

CI2000

(32)

component cost at year 2000 which is calculated by Eq. (31) and

Table 1

Reference costs of components (AR 100 m2, WR,pump 10 kW,

WR,Motor 10 kW) [41].

Component (k)

Generator

Absorber

Solution heat exchanger

Evaporator

Condenser

Expansion valve

17,500

16,500

12,000

16,000

8000

300

Table 1. CI2009, and CI2000 are the Marshall and Swift equipment cost

index at year 2009, and 2000, respectively, which can be found in

Ref. [41].

The heat transfer area of each component in Eq. (31) is given by

Eq. (33).

Ak

Qk

Uk $LMTDk

(33)

the component, U is heat transfer coefcient which considered as

1.5, 1.5, 0.7, 1 kW/m2K for generator, evaporator, absorber, and

solution heat exchanger respectively [44], and LMTD is logarithmic mean temperature difference which is calculated by

Eq. (34).

LMTDk

Th;i Tc;i Th;e Tc;e

(34)

T T

h;i

c;i

ln Th;e

Tc;e

inlet and outlet streams.

The heat transfer area, overall heat transfer coefcients, and the

logarithmic mean temperature differences for each effect, the preheaters, the condenser, and the total heat transfer area can be obtained by using Eqs. (C.1)e(C.14) as presented in Appendix C.

The capital cost of the pump is calculated by Eq. (35) [43].

Cpump

_

Zpump 308:9$W

pump

317

condenser of MEE subsystem. As the plant is assumed to operate

330 days, the pf (plant load factor) is considered to be 0.9.

The ACC (annual capital cost) is obtained by multiplying capital

cost by the amortization factor. The amortization factor is given by

Eq. (47).

CRF

i$1 iLC

(37)

1 iLC 1

where CRF is amortization factor. i and LC are interest rate and plant

life cycle which are assumed to be equal to 15% and 20 years,

respectively.

The AOC (annual operating cost) mainly includes the cost of

energy (heat and power), labor cost, chemical cost, and insurance

cost. The equations for calculation of last three terms of the annual

operating cost are presented in Table 2. The costs of the power and

heat are assigned based on the price of electricity and saturated

steam at pressure 0.25 MPa being 0.07 $/kWh and 11 $/ton [5].

2.3. Model validation

The simulated models were validated by comparing the simulation results of the MEEeABHP and VCR systems with those found

in the relevant literature [1,4,24] under the same conditions (for

example, the relative errors of the net power generation of the SIGT

and the gain output ratio of the METVC desalination system are

both within 2.75%).

(35)

where W

pump power consumption in the range of 0.02e0.3 kW, 0.45 for

pump power consumption in the range of 0.3e20 kW, and 0.84 for

pump power consumption in the range of 20e200 kW [43].

The capital cost of the compressor is given by Eq. (36) [42].

Po

hcom:

$

Zcom: 7364$m_ refrigerant $

Pi

1 hcom:

(36)

respectively.

The capital cost of the MEE subsystem is calculated by Eqs.

(37)e(43) listed in Table 2 [40]. Zeffects,MEE, and Zcon.,MEE in Table 2

Table 3

Initial operating parameters and thermodynamic parameters for VCR, MEEeABHP,

and MEEeABHPeVCR systems.

Parameter

Equations

Descriptions

Capital costs

Area cost ($)

CA Zeffects;MEE Zcon;MEE

(38)

Ceq 4$CA

(39)

Csite 0.2$Ceq

Ctr 0.05$(CA Ceq Cs)

Cb 0.15$Ceq

Cen 0.1$Ceq

Cc 0.1$(CA Ceq Cs)

Operating cost

Cl 0.1 pf$Q$365

Cch 0.04 pf$Q$365

Cin 0.005$CA

(40)

(41)

(42)

(43)

(44)

Equipment cost

(evaporator, condenser)

Site cost ($)

Transportation costs ($)

Building costs ($)

Engineers and salary costs ($)

Contingency costs ($)

(45)

(46)

(47)

Chemical material costs ($/yr)

Insurance costs ($/yr)

Units

10

10

91

Steam

40

6

30,000

0.07

C

C

%

e

C

C

kW

$/kWh

7.5

6

3

500

91

30,000

70,000

79.2

117.4

15,000

11

kPa

e

C

kPa

%

ppm

ppm

C

C

m3/d

$/ton

7.5

6

3

500

91

91

30,000

70,000

79.2

117.4

6

15,000

30,000

0.07

11

kPa

e

C

kPa

%

%

ppm

ppm

C

C

C

m3/d

kW

$/kWh

$/ton

VCR system

DTmin,Eva.

DTmin,con.

hcom

Refrigerant type

Tamb.

T14

Qcooling

Electric power price

MEEeABHP system

PA

Effect number

DTMEE

Pmotive steam

hpump

Table 2

Economic model equations for MEE subsystem for the calculations of the capital and

operating costs [40].

Value

Xsw

XB6

T1

T4

Qfresh water

Price of steam

MEEeABHPeVCR system

PA

Effect number

DTMEE

Pmotive steam

hcom

hpump

Xsw

XB6

T1

T4

T14

Qfresh water

Qcooling

Electric power price

Price of steam

318

The energy and cost analyses were conducted to determine the

energy consumption and TAC (total annual cost) of the MEEeABHPeVCR system with one compressor under the specied

conditions presented in Table 3. As presented in Table 3, the systems operate to generate 15,000 m3/d of fresh water and cooling of

30,000 kW, which are generated separately by the MEEeABHP

desalination system and VCR system, respectively, and simultaneously by the MEEeABHPeVCR system. Parametric and sensitivity

analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of four key

parametersdabsorber pressure (PA), temperature difference between effects of the MEE subsystem (DTMEE), temperature of the

strong solution from absorber (T1), and temperature of the weak

solution from generator (T4)don the energy consumption and total

annual cost of the combined system with one compressor (Fig. 1). In

the parametric analysis, one parameter was varied while others

were kept constant.

3.1. Parametric analysis

In the MEEeABHPeVCR system with one compressor, the effects

of PA, DTMEE, T1, and T4 on the net power consumption, heat energy

consumption, and TAC of the combined system were analyzed. The

variation range of PA, DTMEE, T1, and T4 are considered from 5 to

12 kpa, 2e4 C, 74e84 C, and 112.5e122.5 C, respectively.

3.1.1. Effect of the absorber pressure (PA)

Fig. 3aec shows the effect of absorber pressure on energy consumption, TAC, ACC (annual capital cost), and AOC (annual operating cost), respectively, for the MEEeABHPeVCR system with one

compressor at a xed DTMEE (3 C), T1 (79.2 C), and T4 (117.4 C). As

shown in Fig. 3a, the net power consumption and the heat energy

consumption increases and decreases as PA increases.

According to Fig. 3b, increase of the absorber pressure results in

decrease of TAC until a given absorber pressure is reached, and then

further increase in absorber pressure results in increasing TAC.

Fig. 3c shows the effect of the absorber pressure on ACC (annual

capital cost) and AOC (annual operating cost) of the system. Since

the annual capital cost and annual operating cost of the system

increases and decreases, respectively, with the increase of absorber

pressure, total annual cost which is the sum of the annual capital

and annual operating costs decreases and increases with the increase of the absorber pressure.

3.1.2. Effect of the temperature difference between effects of the

MEE subsystem (DTMEE)

Fig. 4a-4c show the effect of the temperature difference between effects of the MEE subsystem (DTMEE) on the energy consumption, TAC, and annual capital and operating costs, respectively,

for the MEEeABHPeVCR system with one compressor at a xed PA

(7.5 kPa), T1 (79.2 C), and T4 (117.4 C).

As shown in Fig. 4a, the power consumption slightly increases

and heat energy consumption highly increases with the increase of

the DTMEE. Fig. 4b shows that the total annual cost decreases with

the increase of the DTMEE. The reason can be explained through

Fig. 4c which shows the effect of DTMEE on annual capital and

operating costs. As shown in Fig. 4c the annual capital cost decreases while the annual operating cost increases with the increase

of the DTMEE. Since the variation of the annual capital cost with

respect to the increase of the DTMEE is higher than that of the annual

operating cost, the TAC, which is the sum of the annual capital and

annual operating costs, decreases with the increase of the DTMEE.

Fig. 3. Effect of absorber pressure on (a) net power and heat energy consumptions (b)

total annual cost (c) annual capital and operating costs for an MEEeABHPeVCR system

with one compressor.

(T1)

Fig. 5a-5c show the effect of temperature of the strong solution

from absorber (T1) on net power consumption and heat energy

consumption, TAC, and annual capital and operating costs,

respectively, for the MEEeABHPeVCR system with one compressor

at a xed PA (7.5 kPa), DTMEE (3 C), and T4 (117.4 C).

As shown in Fig. 5a the heat energy consumption increases with

the increase of the T1 because the heat energy recovery through the

solution heat exchanger decreases with the increase of the T1. The

power consumption is constant with the increase of the T1. Since

the outlet pressure of the compressor is constant with the increase

of the T1.

319

Fig. 5. Effect of T1 on (a) net power and heat energy consumptions (b) total annual cost

(c) capital cost and operating cost for an MEEeABHPeVCR system with one

compressor.

Fig. 4. Effect of DTMEE on (a) net power and heat energy consumptions (b) total annual

cost (c) annual capital and operating costs for an MEEeABHPeVCR system with one

compressor.

increase of the T1 which is summation of annual operating and

capital costs. As shown in Fig. 5c the annual capital cost and annual

operating cost increase with the increase of the T1.

(T4)

Fig. 6aec shows the effect of temperature of the weak solution

from generator (T4) on net power consumption and heat energy

consumption, TAC, and annual capital and operating costs,

at a xed PA (7.5 kPa), DTMEE (3 C), and T1 (79.2 C).

As shown in Fig. 6a, the heat energy consumption decreases

with the increase of the T4. The power consumption which is

summation of compressor power consumption and pump power

consumption slightly decreases with the increase of the T4. The

pump power consumption decreases due to the decrease of the

mass ow rate through the pump with the increase of the T4, while

the compressor power consumption is kept constant with the increase of the T4 since the variation of the T4 has no effect on pressure ratio of the compressor.

Fig. 6b shows the effect of the T4 on the total annual cost. The

TAC decreases with the increase of the T4. As shown in Fig. 6c the

annual operating cost decreases with the increase of the T4 while

the annual capital cost is kept constant. Since the TAC is sum of the

320

Fig. 6. Effect of T4 on (a) net power and heat energy consumptions (b) total annual cost

(c) capital cost and operating cost for an MEEeABHPeVCR system with one

compressor.

annual capital and operating costs, the TAC decreases with the increase of the T4.

3.2. Sensitivity analysis

The sensitivity analysis was conducted to compare the sensitivity of the system responses including net power and heat energy

consumptions, TAC, and annual capital and operating costs for

MEEeABHPeVCR system with one compressor with respect to

various conditions of 4 parameters including PA, DTMEE, T1 and T4.

the system responses, the polynomial regression was used to model

the relationship between each response and each parameter by

tting a polynomial equation. The polynomial equations for ve

responses with respect to four parameters are presented in

Table D.1 in Appendix D. The goodness of t of the models was

checked by the multiple correlation coefcients (R2). The values of

R2 for each polynomial equation are presented in Table D.1 in

Appendix D. For all the models the values of R2 are very high,

which indicates the goodness of t of the models. Since the slope of

the polynomial equation corresponding to parameter value shows

the sensitivity of the response to change in the parameter, the

polynomial equation's derivative which is a function to calculate

the slope of the polynomial equation was dened for each

response. Since the values of the slope of the polynomial equations

varies with the variation of the parameter values, the maximum

slope of the polynomial equation was dened as the sensitivity

value of each response with respect to each parameter by maximizing the polynomial equation's derivative function in the range

of the each parameter. The polynomial equation's derivative functions with the sensitivity values are presented in Table D.2 in

Appendix D.

The sensitivity values for each response were normalized to

better comparison of signicance of the each parameter effect.

Fig. 7a to 7e show the normalized sensitivity values for heat

energy consumption, power consumption, annual capital cost,

annual operating cost, and total annual cost, respectively. As

shown in Fig. 7a the parameters of DTMEE, PA, T4, and T1 have the

highest to lowest inuence on the value of heat energy consumption, respectively. Since the sensitivity values of the DTMEE,

PA, and T1 are positive and the sensitivity values of the T4 is

negative, it can be concluded that the effects of the DTMEE, PA, and

T1 are additive while the effects of the T4 is ablative on the heat

energy consumption.

It can be seen in Fig. 7b that, the parameter of PA has the highest

sensitivity value with an ablative inuence on power energy consumption among the parameters. Also the effect of the DTMEE is

positive, and T1 and T4 have no any inuence on power consumption of the system.

According to Fig. 7c the sensitivity value of the DTMEE is higher

than the sensitivity value of the PA, which means the inuence of

DTMEE is higher than inuence of the PA on the value of annual

capital cost. Since the sensitivity values of DTMEE and PA are

negative, it can be concluded that the capital cost of the system

decreases with the increase of DTMEE and PA. Also it is found that

the effect of T1, and T4 appear to be negligible on annual capital

cost.

Fig. 7d illustrates that the parameters of DTMEE, PA, T4, and T1,

have the highest to lowest inuences on value of annual operating

cost, respectively. The inuences of DTMEE, and T1 on annual operating cost is additive while the inuence of PA, and T4 on operating

cost is ablative, which means that the annual operating cost of the

system increases with the increase of the DTMEE, A, and T1 while the

annual operating cost of the system deceases with the increase of

the PA, T4. The effect of DTMEE is found to be larger than the effect of

PA, and highly larger than the effects of T1 and T4. Also due to the big

difference between sensitivity values of DTMEE, and PA with T4 and

T1, it can be concluded that the effects of T4 and T1 on the operating

cost are negligible.

As shown in Fig. 7e among the parameters, PA, and DTMEE have

the highest and lowest sensitivity values, respectively, with the

negative sign, which means the effects of DTMEE and PA are ablative

on the total annual cost. It is also found that the effects of the T1 and

T4 on total annual cost appear almost negligible.

321

Fig. 7. Sensitivity analysis results for the MEEeABHPeVCR system parameters: (a) heat energy consumption (b) power energy consumption (c) annual capital cost (d) annual

operating cost (e) total annual cost.

Table 4 compares the power consumption, heat energy consumption, total annual cost, and performances of the VCR, MEEeABHP, and MEEeABHPeVCR systems under the operation

conditions presented in Table 3 with RR values of 0, 0.5, and 1.

The results show that, to generate 30,000 kW of cooling and to

produce 15,000 m3/d of fresh water, 11,486 kWh of electric power

VCR and MEEeABHP systems, respectively.

As presented in Table 4, the MEEeABHPeVCR system with RR

values of 0, 0.5, and 1 can simultaneously generate 30,000 kW of

cooling and produce 15,000 m3/d of fresh water by consuming

4925, 6462, and 7999 kW of electric power and 38,896, 29,677, and

20,459 kW of heat energy. We conclude that the MEEeABHPeVCR

system decreases the heat energy consumption by 5.61, 27.98, and

Table 4

Comparison of energy consumption, total annual cost, and performance of the VCR, MEEeABHP, and MEEeABHPeVCR systems.

System

Heat energy

consumption (kW)

Electric power

consumption (kW)

Fresh water

production (m3/d)

Cooling

generation (kW)

TAC ($/yr)

GOR

COP

VCR

MEEeAHP

MEEeABHPeVCR (low pressure com.)

Comparison

MEEeABHPeVCR (RR 0.5)

Comparison

MEEeABHPeVCR (high pressure com.)

Comparison

e

41,208

38,896

5.61%

29,677

27.98%

20,459

50.35%

11,486

e

4925

57.12%

6462

43.74%

7999

30.36%

e

15,000

15,000

e

15,000

e

15,000

e

30,000

e

30,000

e

30,000

e

30,000

e

10,690,000

16,860,000

20,500,000

25.6%

20,340,000

26.17%

20,180,000

26.75%

e

9.19

9.736

5.61%

12.76

27.97%

18.51

50.35%

2.61

e

6.093

57.13%

4.64

43.7%

3.751

30.36%

322

and 30.36% compared to the stand-alone MEEeABHP and VCR

systems, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that with increase in the share of high pressure compressor to compress the

refrigerant, the heat energy consumption of the MEEeABHPeVCR

system more decreases while the power consumption of the

MEEeABHPeVCR system less decreases than the stand alone

systems.

As presented in Table 4 the total annual cost of the VCR system

to generate 30,000 kW of cooling and total annual cost of the

MEEeABHP system to produce 15,000 m3/d of fresh water are

10,690,000 $/yr and 16,860,000 $/yr, respectively, while the total

annual cost of the MEEeABHPeVCR system to cogenerate

30,000 kW of cooling and 15,000 m3/d of fresh water are

20,500,000 $/yr, 20,340,000 $/yr, and 20,180,000 $/yr, respectively,

for MEEeABHPeVCR systems with RR values of 0, 0.5, and 1.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the MEEeABHPeVCR system

can save 25.6, 26.17, and 26.75% in total annual cost compared to

the stand-alone VCR and MEEeABHP systems.

According to Table 4 the COP and GOR of the stand-alone VCR

and MEEeABHP systems to generate 30,000 kW of cooling and

15,000 m3/d of fresh water are 2.61, and 9.19, respectively, while

the COP values of MEEeABHPeVCR systems are 6.093, 4.64, and

3.751 and the GOR values are 9.736, 12.76, and 18.51, respectively,

for MEEeABHPeVCR systems with RR values of 0, 0.5, and 1.

Therefore, MEEeABHPeVCR systems with RR values of 0, 0.5, and 1

can increase the COP of the cooling process by 57.13, 43.7, and

30.36%, and increase the GOP of the fresh water production process

by 5.61, 27.97, and 50.35% compared to the stand-alone MEEeABHP

and VCR systems, respectively.

Correlations for calculating the enthalpy of pure water, lithium

bromideewater, and seawater are as follow:

A.1. Pure water

The enthalpy of pure water states including saturated water,

saturated vapor, and superheated vapor can be calculated through

Eqs. (A.1)e(A.6).

The enthalpy of saturated water can be calculated by Eq. (A.1)

which is valid for 5 T 200 C [35].

hf 0:141355 4:20207$T 0:000535$T 2

.

1000

0:000004$T 3

(A.1)

hv hf hfg

(A.2)

enthalpy calculated by Eq. (A.1). hfg is latent heat of evaporation

calculated by (A.3) which is valid for 0 T 200 C [35].

hfg 2:501$106 2:369$103 $T 2:678$101 $T 2

.

1000

8:103$103 $T 3 2:079$105 $T 4

(A.3)

4. Conclusions

In this study as Part 1 of two parts paper, new cooling and fresh

water combined system, which combines the MEEeABHP desalination system and VCR system, is suggested and investigated based

on energy and cost measurements. The energy and cost performance of the combined system are greater than those of the

MEEeABHP and VCR systems (which separately generate fresh

water and cooling) for three reasons. First, the condenser of the VCR

system is replaced by an MEEeABHP system as the waste heat of

the VCR system is recovered as an energy source for the MEEeABHP

system. Second, the pressure ratio of the compressor in the MEEeABHPeVCR system is less than that of the stand-alone VCR system. Third, the temperature of the compressor outlet stream is

increased by the ABHP subsystem and is used as an energy source

for the MEE system. The energy and economic analysis results show

that the electric power and heat energy can be decreased by 57.12%

and 5.6% and COP and GOR can be increased by 57.12% and 5.6% by

the MEEeABHPeVCR system with low pressure compressor

compared to the stand-alone systems for xed fresh water and

cooling production, respectively. Also, the total annual cost of the

MEEeABHPeVCR system is 25.6% less than that of the stand-alone

VCR and MEEeABHP systems.

hp; t

t g0t grt

RT

(A.4)

and grt are the ideal-gas and residual parts of dimensionless Gibbs

free energy respectively, which are given by Eqs. (A.5) and (A.6)

[37].

g0t

9

X

(A.5)

ni pIi Ji t 0:5Ji 1

(A.6)

i1

grt

43

X

i1

be found in Ref. [37].

Acknowledgments

A.2. Seawater

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation

of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (NRF2012R1A1B3001400).

valid for 10 T 120 C and. 0 X 0.12 kg/kg,

323

.

1000

hsw hf X a1 a2 X a3 X 2 a4 X 3 a5 T a6 T 2 a7 T 3 a8 XT a9 X 2 T a10 XT 2

a1 2:348 104 ; a2 3:152 105 ; a3 2:803 106 ; a4 1:446 107 ; a5 7:826 103 ;

a6 4:417 101 ; a7 2:139 101 ; a8 1:991 104 ; a9 2:778 104 ; a10 9:728 101

respectively.

A.3. Lithium bromideewater

(A.7)

sf 0:1543 15:383$T 0:02996$T 2 0:00008193$T 3

.

1000

0:000000137$T 4

(B.1)

(A.8) [36] which is valid for 0 T 190 C and. 40 x 75 wt.%,

hLiBrwater

4

X

n0

an xn T

3

X

bn x n T 3 d 0

n0

b0 3:293 101 ; b1 4:076 102 ; b2 1:36 105 ; b3 7:1366 106

c0 7:4285 103 ; b1 1:5144 104 ; b2 1:3555 106

d0 2:269 106

(A.8)

B.2. Seawater

where x and T are solution concentration and temperature of

lithium bromideewater, respectively.

In all cases of entropy calculation the reference temperature is

considered as 25 C [35e37].

valid for 10 T 120 C and 0 X 0.12 kg/kg,

.

1000

ssw sf X a1 a2 X a3 X 2 a4 X 3 a5 T a6 T 2 a7 T 3 a8 XT a9 X 2 T a10 XT 2

a1 4:231 102 ; a2 1:463 104 ; a3 9:880 104 ; a4 3:095 105 ; a5 2:562 101 ;

a6 1:443 101 ; a7 5:879 104 ; a8 6:111 101 ; a9 8:041 101 ; a10 3:035 101

Correlations for calculating the entropy of pure water, lithium

bromideewater, and seawater are as follow:

(B.2)

respectively.

B.3. Lithium bromideewater

The entropy of lithium bromideewater is calculated by Eq. (B.3)

[36] which is valid for 0 T 190 C and. 40 x 75 wt.%,

sLiBrwater a1 a2 a3 T 2 A4 x a5 xT a6 xT 2 a7 x2 a8 x2 T a9 x3 a10 x4

a1 1:01961E3; a2 1:101529E 1; a3 1:042150E 2;

a4 1:036935E2; a5 5:87032E 2; a6 8:63107E 5;

a7 3:266802; a8 3:16683E 4; a9 4:100993E 2;

a10 1:790548E 4

(B.3)

The entropy of saturated water can be calculated by Eq. (B.1)

which is valid for 5 T 200 C [35].

lithium bromideewater, respectively.

324

Appendix C

Table C.1

Heat transfer area, heat transfer coefcient and logarithmic mean temperature difference equations [4].

Equations

Descriptions

Area of effect 1

m0 $L0

Ue1 $T0C T1

Ae1

(C.1)

Area of effect 2 to n

Di1

Dr

i 1 $yi1 $Fi $Li1

j1 Dj $yi1

Pi2

Aej

Uei $Tvi1 Ti

(C.2)

Total area of effects

Atot

n

X

Ai

(C.3)

i1

AHi

i$Fi $C$ Tf i Tf i1

(C.4)

UHi $LMTDHi

AHn

n$Fn $ Tf n Tf

(C.5)

UHn $LMTDHn

Condenser area

Acon:

Dcon:

Dr

Pn1

j1

Dj $yn

$Ln

(C.6)

Ucon: $LMTDcon:

For effect 1

2

3

2:3186 106 $T0c

Ue1 1:9394 1:40562 103 $T0c 2:07525 105 $T0c

(C.7)

Uei 1:9394 1:40562 103 $Tvi1 2:07525 105 $Tv2i1 2:3186 106 $Tv3i1

(C.8)

(C.9)

For effects 2 to n

UHn1 14:18251642 0:011383865$Tvn1 0:013381501$Tf

(C.10)

Ucon: 1:6175 1:537 104 $Tvn 1:825 104 $Tv2n 8:026 108 $Tv3n

(C.11)

!

Tvi Tf i1

LMTDHi Tf i Tf i1

ln

Tvi Tf i

(C.12)

Tvn1 Tf

ln

LMTDHn1 Tf n1 Tf

Tvn1 Tf n1

!

Tv Tsw

ln n

LMTDcon: Tf Tsw

Tvn Tf

!

(C.13)

(C.14)

325

Appendix D

Table D.1

Polynomial equations for responses with respects to parameters.

R2 (%)

Polynomial equations

For heat energy consumption

Q PA 45353:7 809:574$PA 19:888$PA2

2

Q DTMEE 37166 83:7122$DTMEE 219:77$DTMEE

Q T1 5:049673E4 3:741358E2$T1 2:874453$T12

Q T4 288458 6089:14$T4 49:6028$T42 0:134949$T43

For power consumption

PowerPA 730:923 685:767$PA 16:9873$PA2

2

3

PowerDTMEE 4921:65 2:55595$DTMEE 0:975026$DTMEE

0:149924$DTMEE

PowerT1 4:94312E3 0:5272619$T1 3:70358E 3$T12

PowerT4 4966:85 0:673947$T4 0:00267495$T42

For capital cost

CCPA 2:52712E7 5:49809E6$PA 835247$PA2 58241:7$PA3 1530:69$PA4

2

3

CCDTMEE 5:58619E7 3:15783E7$DTMEE 7:51610E6$DTMEE

6:47956E5$DTMEE

CCT1 1:156886E7 8:134481E3$T1 59:79869T12

CCT4 1:220102E7 1:520654E4$T4 64:13320$T42

For operating cost

OCPA 7:27305E6 319198$PA 8275:65$PA2

2

OCDTMEE 8:93068E6 1:417006E4$DTMEE 3:517890E4$DTMEE

OCT1 1:106149E7 5:982119E4$T1 4:593880E2$T12

OCT4 4:906959E7 9:726187E5$T4 7922:78$T42 21:5542$T43

For total annual cost

TACPA 7:64892E7 3:741E7$PA 1:04432E7$PA2

2

3

TACDTMEE 6:44208E7 3:12021E7$DTMEE 7:41811E6$DTMEE

633158$DTMEE

TACT1 2:26304E7 67955:7$T1 519:187$T12

TACT4 6:17212E7 9:99347E5$T4 8:085095E3$T42 21:83293$T43

Sensitivity value

dQ

809:574 39:776$PA

dPA

dQ

83:7122 439:54$DTMEE

dDTMEE

dQ

3:741358E2 5:748906$T1

dT1

dQ

6089:14 99:2056$T4 0:404847$T42

dT4

39.776

439.54

5.75

11.69

dPower

dPA

dPower

dDTMEE

dPower

dT1

dPower

dT4

33.9746

685:767 33:9746$PA

2:55595 1:950052$DTMEE

2

0:449772$DTMEE

99.99

99.99

99.96

99.98

99.95

99.99

99.97

99.96

99.99

99.96

99.97

99.99

99.96

99.99

99.97

99.99

References

Table D.2

Polynomial equations' derivative functions with sensitivity values

Polynomial equations' derivative functions

99.99

99.96

99.97

99.99

1.952

0.0074

0:673947 0:0053499$T4

For capital cost

0.0053

A

A

A

dPA

dACC 3:15783E7 15:0322E6$DT

2

MEE 19:43868E5$DTMEE

dDTMEE

dACC 8:134481E3 119:59738$T

1

dT1

dACC 1:520654E4 128:2664$T

4

dT4

759,876

A

dPA

dAOC 1:417006E4 7:03578E4$DT

MEE

dDTMEE

dAOC 5:982119E4 9:18776E2$T

1

dT1

dAOC 9:726187E5 15845:56$T 64:6626$T 2

4

4

dT4

16551.3

A

dPA

dTAC 3:12021E7 14:83622E6$DT

2

MEE 1899474$DTMEE

dDTMEE

dTAC 67955:7 1038:374$T

1

dT1

dTAC 9:99347E5 16:17019E3$T 63:49879$T 2

4

4

dT4

20,886,400

2,517,000

119.597

128.266

70357.8

918.776

1881

2,232,000

1038.37

28,623

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Nomenclature

A: absorber

ABHP: absorption heat pump

ACC: annual capital cost, $/yr

AOC: annual operating cost, $/yr

BPE: boiling point evaluation, C

Con.: condenser

Com.: compressor

Cp: specic heat capacity, kJ/kg C

CRF: amortization factor

ex: specic exergy, kJ/kg

Ex: exergy, kJ

G: generator

h: specic enthalpy, kJ/kg

HP: high pressure

L: latent heat

LC: life cycle

LP: low pressure

MEE: multi effect evaporation

MSF: multi stage ashing

m: mass ow rate, kg/s

NEA: non-equilibrium allowance

n: number of effects in the MED-TVC system

P: pressure, bar

pf: plant load factor

Q: heat ow rate

Qfresh water: fresh water ow rate

RR: refrigerant ow-rate ratio

s: specic entropy, kJ/kg K

SJE: steam jet ejector

SHX: solution heat exchanger

T: temperature, C

TAC: total annual cost, $/yr

0

T : temperature of brine in each effect

T: temperature of brine after cooling

U: heat transfer coefcient, kW/m2k

v: specic volume, m3/kg

W: power, MW

X: salinity, ppm

x: solution concentration based on mass fraction of LiBr

y: ashing fraction

Subscripts

amb: ambient

A: absorber

B: brine

D: distillate

f: feed water

F: seawater stream

sw: seawater

n: saturated vapor

Greek

h: efciency

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