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July 26 – 29, 2016 Minneapolis Convention Center Minneapolis, MN, USA REGISTER BEFORE JUNE 17

July 26 – 29, 2016

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DID YOU KNOW… • Winnipeg is Minneapolis’s sister city • Minneapolis is a hydro pioneer
DID YOU KNOW…
• Winnipeg is Minneapolis’s sister city
• Minneapolis is a hydro pioneer … home to
one of the first operating plants in the U.S.
(circa 1882)
• Minnesota was voted the best state in which
to do business

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VOLUME 19
VOLUME 19
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:

ISSUE 2

MARCH/APRIL 2016

VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:
VOLUME 19 ISSUE 2 MARCH/APRIL 2016 India’s Massive Renewable Goals Are they attainable? Solar: Wind: Waste:

India’s Massive

Renewable Goals
Renewable
Goals

Are they attainable?

Solar: Wind: Waste: Geothermal: Why CSP is flourishing in Africa and the Middle East. Innovations
Solar:
Wind:
Waste:
Geothermal:
Why CSP is
flourishing in
Africa and the
Middle East.
Innovations to
capture even more
wind energy.
Turning trash
into renewable
energy treasure.
How do you
finance exploration
and drilling?
p. 21
p. 26
p. 43
p. 39
trash into renewable energy treasure. How do you finance exploration and drilling? p. 21 p. 26
trash into renewable energy treasure. How do you finance exploration and drilling? p. 21 p. 26
trash into renewable energy treasure. How do you finance exploration and drilling? p. 21 p. 26
trash into renewable energy treasure. How do you finance exploration and drilling? p. 21 p. 26
trash into renewable energy treasure. How do you finance exploration and drilling? p. 21 p. 26
trash into renewable energy treasure. How do you finance exploration and drilling? p. 21 p. 26
trash into renewable energy treasure. How do you finance exploration and drilling? p. 21 p. 26
trash into renewable energy treasure. How do you finance exploration and drilling? p. 21 p. 26
trash into renewable energy treasure. How do you finance exploration and drilling? p. 21 p. 26
trash into renewable energy treasure. How do you finance exploration and drilling? p. 21 p. 26
THE PREMIER NEW YORK
THE
PREMIER
NEW
YORK
THE PREMIER NEW YORK STATE ENERGY CONFERENCE It All Comes Together in New York City Meet

STATE

ENERGY

CONFERENCE

It All Comes Together in New York City

Meet and Network with the Energy Sector’s Most Influential Leaders April 20, 21 & 22, 2016 at Jacob Javits Convention Center, New York City

Advanced Energy 2016 offers a unique opportunity for researchers, educators, executives, financers and policy makers from every area of the energy industry to exchange ideas, explore collaborations, and find inspiration in a truly synergistic environment. In brief, it is the one place to be for any individual or business involved in the growth and evolution of energy in America.

32 Individual sessions covering all facets of advanced energy, technologies and deployments

DR. ERNEST MONIZ United States Secretary of Energy
DR. ERNEST MONIZ
United States Secretary of Energy

United States Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz is invited to join an impressive list of industry and government figures as a keynote speaker at Advanced Energy 2016.

As United States Secretary of Energy, Dr. Ernest Moniz

is tasked with implementing critical Department of Energy missions in support of President Obama’s goals of growing the economy, enhancing security and protecting the environment.

Secretary Moniz is invited to address the 2016 Advanced Energy Conference with the strategic vision of critical national and international energy directions, policies and the underlying technologies necessary for implementation.

The Conference will feature an ambitious educational agenda, with plenaries, 8 tracks and 32 sessions that include outstanding scientific leadership.

21st Century Energy in New York State Chair Audrey Zibelman NYS-DPS Plenary: Reforming the Energy
21st Century Energy in New York State
Chair Audrey Zibelman
NYS-DPS
Plenary: Reforming the
Energy Vision (REV) Demos
John Rhodes
President & CEO, NYSERDA
Plenary: The NYS Clean
Energy Fund
Richard Kauffman
Chairman of Energy &
Finance, NYS
OPENING KEYNOTE
Gil Quiniones
President & CEO, NYPA
Plenary: The Future of
Transmission

Electric Utility Industry Plenary

Future of the Electric Utility Industry - Challenges and Opportunities

Moderator: Dr. Cheryl Martin (Harwich Partners) Panelists:

Mark Lynch, President and CEO of NYSEG & RG&E David Daly, President and COO of PSEG-LI Ken Daly, President of New York Operations, National Grid James Laurito, President and CEO of Central Hudson Gas & Electric

, President and CEO of Central Hudson Gas & Electric KEYNOTE Dr. Ellen Williams Director, ARPA

KEYNOTE

and CEO of Central Hudson Gas & Electric KEYNOTE Dr. Ellen Williams Director, ARPA - E

Dr. Ellen Williams

Director, ARPA - E

KEYNOTE

KEYNOTE Dr. Ellen Williams Director, ARPA - E KEYNOTE Roger Flanagan, PhD Managing Director Lockheed Martin

Roger Flanagan, PhD

Managing Director Lockheed Martin Energy

Demonstrate Your Company’s Energy Leadership

As an Advanced Energy 2016 sponsor or exhibitor, you will have a place of prominence in front of the people who make the buying decisions and influence energy policy.

Major Sponsors already committed to AEC2016

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BIOENERGY The discarded bits of leeks help provide power to a UK farm.

features

21
21

SOLAR

Why CSP Resurged in Africa and the MENA Region

In places where natural gas is not cheap, such as Africa and the Middle East, concentrating solar power is making a nice comeback.

Susan Kraemer
Susan Kraemer
solar power is making a nice comeback. Susan Kraemer ON THE COVER Our big question is

ON THE COVER Our big question is our cover story this issue. How Will India Meets its Massive Renewable 12 Energy Goals? Credit: Shutterstock.

43

26
26

WIND

Ray Pelosi

26 WIND Ray Pelosi 31 STORAGE The Technology Behind Liquid Air Energy Storage A new technology
31 STORAGE The Technology Behind Liquid Air Energy Storage A new technology that uses liquid
31 STORAGE The Technology Behind Liquid Air Energy Storage A new technology that uses liquid
31
31
31 STORAGE The Technology Behind Liquid Air Energy Storage A new technology that uses liquid air
STORAGE The Technology Behind Liquid Air Energy Storage A new technology that uses liquid air

STORAGE

The Technology Behind Liquid Air Energy Storage

A new technology that uses liquid air could potentially provide large-scale energy storage for the grid in a very big way.

Austen Adams

that uses liquid air could potentially provide large-scale energy storage for the grid in a very
that uses liquid air could potentially provide large-scale energy storage for the grid in a very
storage for the grid in a very big way. Austen Adams The Next Generation in Wind

The Next Generation in Wind Power Technology

Wind research and development is helping the industry harness more wind, more efficiently and at lower costs.

No Boundaries When it comes to deep-cycle batteries, no one goes to the extremes of
No Boundaries When it comes to deep-cycle batteries, no one goes to the extremes of

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features

39
39

GEOTHERMAL

A Rising Model: Public Finance in Early Stage Geothermal

Developers have more public financing options to support exploration, test and drilling phases.

Jennifer Delony

43
43

BIOENERGY

One Man’s Trash Is Another Man’s Renewable Energy

From garbage in a landfill to water that is flushed down the drain, useful energy remains in the items we discard.

Jennifer Runyon

departments & columns

47 NEW
47
NEW

5

Editor’s Letter

 

Hydro Here and Now

Renewable Energy Battles

Money Problems

7

Regional News

48

Resources

From the Global Renewable Energy Industry

48

Ad Index

12

The Big Question

49

Last Word

Our Cover Story this issue asks: How Will India Meet its Massive Renewable Energy Goals?

Why Pumped Storage Hydropower Needs More Attention in the Energy Storage Discussion

36

Data Points

 

European Energy Stakeholders Rank Important Issues

On RenewableEnergyWorld.com

RenewableEnergyWorld.com connects you to news, opinion and technology updates from the renewable energy industry.

Visit us on the web to:

• See what our bloggers are blogging about

• Check out our upcoming and on-demand webcasts

ogging a b out • Check out our upcoming and on-demand webcasts RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

TH 214-150750

Efficiency turns less into more. Siemens Steam Turbines. Powered by efficiency.
Efficiency turns less
into more.
Siemens Steam Turbines. Powered by efficiency.

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From the Editor PUBLISHER Stephanie Kolodziej CHIEF EDITOR Jennifer Runyon ASSOCIATE EDITOR Jennifer Delony PRODUCTION

From the Editor PUBLISHER Stephanie Kolodziej CHIEF EDITOR Jennifer Runyon ASSOCIATE EDITOR Jennifer Delony PRODUCTION ART DIRECTOR

From the Editor PUBLISHER Stephanie Kolodziej CHIEF EDITOR Jennifer Runyon ASSOCIATE EDITOR Jennifer Delony PRODUCTION
From the Editor PUBLISHER Stephanie Kolodziej CHIEF EDITOR Jennifer Runyon ASSOCIATE EDITOR Jennifer Delony PRODUCTION

PUBLISHER Stephanie Kolodziej

CHIEF EDITOR Jennifer Runyon

ASSOCIATE EDITOR Jennifer Delony

PRODUCTION

ART DIRECTOR Kelli Mylchreest

PRODUCTION DIRECTOR Mari Rodriguez

SENIOR ILLUSTRATOR Chris Hipp

AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT

MANAGER Emily Martin

AD SERVICES MANAGER Toni Pendergrass

MANAGER Emily Martin AD SERVICES MANAGER Toni Pendergrass W You can read his story here. We
MANAGER Emily Martin AD SERVICES MANAGER Toni Pendergrass W You can read his story here. We

W

You can read his story here.

We often hear the words “war on coal” or “war on carbon” to describe

the energy revolution that we are in the midst of. While I certainly

don’t think of myself as a warmonger, I do think that the comparison

to war isn’t that far off. In my video (above) I talk about a day I spent

shadowing a wind project developer who has been trying to get a per-

mit to build a wind farm in New Hampshire for seven years. That’s

how long he has been actively engaged in many small battles that will,

he hopes, eventually result in a 28.8-MW wind project being built. In

our interview, he used war terminology to discuss the project explain-

ing that when it was at first denied it was because the opposition won.

Just as the victorious in a battle come home and celebrate so too do

we at PennWell recognize the true grit involved in bringing a project from concept to reality. In April, we’ll open up our nominations for our 2016 Project of the Year Awards. I encourage you to submit your projects to us for con- sideration for an award. To be eligible, a project needs to have come online between August 1, 2015 and July 31, 2016. We are working with our friends at Generation Hub to help us identify projects but we only have access to project data for North America. International project developers, please apply! Editors review all the nominations and select winners in different categories. Finally, if you are currently fighting a battle in the renew- able energy revolution, please let me know about it by emailing:

jrunyon@pennwell.com. Maybe I can tell your story, too.

jrunyon@pennwell.com. Maybe I can tell your story, too. ◑ Jennifer Runyon, Chief Editor www.pennwell.com EDITORIAL

Jennifer Runyon, Chief Editor

www.pennwell.com

EDITORIAL OFFICES

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issues of the magazine, please contact:

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PENNWELL MARKETING SOLUTIONS

For assistance with marketing strategy or ad creation, please contact:

VICE PRESIDENT Paul Andrews

+1 240.595.2352

pandrews@pennwell.com

CORPORATE OFFICERS

CHAIRMAN Robert F. Biolchini VICE CHAIRMAN Frank T. Lauinger

PRESIDENT AND CHIEF EXECUTIVE

OFFICER Mark C. Wilmoth

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT, CORPORATE DEVELOPMENT AND STRATEGY

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SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, FINANCE AND CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER

Brian Conway

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rew@halldata.com, call +1 847-763-9540, or fax +1 847-763-9607. RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE MARCH/APRIL 2016 5

REGIONAL

news

REGIONAL news NORTH AMERICA Mexico’s Wind Speeds Below Average, Vaisala Says Many regions of Mexico experi-
NORTH AMERICA Mexico’s Wind Speeds Below Average, Vaisala Says Many regions of Mexico experi- enced

NORTH AMERICA

Mexico’s Wind Speeds Below Average, Vaisala Says

Many regions of Mexico experi- enced wind speeds up to 20 per- cent below average throughout 2015, according to performance maps released in February by Vaisala. The Oaxacan coast, where a majority of operational wind power projects are locat- ed, saw high levels of month-to- month variability, Vaisala said. As Mexico moves to add more wind energy capacity — as much as 10 GW over three years — insight into seasonal and year-to-year wind variabil- ity will be critical for operators, Vaisala noted. Vaisala’s performance maps show that in northern and cen- tral Mexico, Q1 wind speeds were 5-20 percent below nor- mal. The trend weakened in Q2 and Q3, but wind speeds remained below average. A shift in weather patterns with ele- vated wind speeds across much of northwestern Mexico in Q4 was consistent with the strong El Niño climate signal as well as some hurricane activity in the region, Vaisala said.

Hawaii Seeks to Protect State-Level Oversight of Geothermal Development

The Hawaii legislature is consid- ering a bill to ensure that regu- lations concerning development of geothermal resources are not subject to local restrictions. The bill would clarify that regulation of geothermal resources is exclusively reserved to the state, and would require rules regarding geothermal exploration and development be uniform throughout the state. Supporters of the bill claim the adoption of county-level reg- ulations can conflict with state regulation and interfere with the ability of a geothermal energy

EUROPEand interfere with the ability of a geothermal energy producer to safely and efficient- ly conduct

and interfere with the ability of a geothermal energy EUROPE producer to safely and efficient- ly

producer to safely and efficient- ly conduct exploration or pro- duction activities, leading to an increase in the cost of produc- tion or loss of investment in the production of additional geo- thermal resources. Opponents claim the state has a poor record of regulating geothermal devel- opment and local rules would protect residents. Hawaii Senate Committees on Transportation and Energy; Pub- lic Safety, Intergovernmental, and Military Affairs; and Water, Land and Agriculture recom- mended passage of the bill.

UK Government to Review Tidal Lagoon Energy

The U.K. government on Feb. 10 said it has commissioned an inde- pendent review into the feasibility and practicability of tidal lagoon energy in the U.K. The Department of Energy & Climate Change said in a statement that the review will begin in the spring, and that it expects the pro- posed developers of the Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon project, and other industry stakeholders to take part in the review. In a statement, Keith Clarke, chairman of Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay Plc, developer of the Swansea Bay project, welcomed the inde- pendent review, saying: “In parallel to the review, we have been

asked by government to clarify the financial and technical viability of Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon as the pathfinder for this exciting new indus- try. This is particularly encouraging as it signals the strength of our offer for Swansea Bay and our future program of lagoons.” The Swansea Bay proposal includes an energy- generating lagoon with a 320 MW installed capaci- ty and 14 hours of generation daily.

ElectraTherm Delivers Second Biomass-fuel Generator in UK

Waste-to-heat power generation provider ElectraTh- erm said in February that it has shipped its Power+ generator 4400 to a chicken farm in the U.K. Slated for a spring 2016 commissioning, the site uses a combination of biomass and combined heat and power (CHP) technology, and is the second Power+ installation in the country. According to ElectraTherm, its generator uses organic rankine cycle (ORC) and proprietary tech- nologies to generate power from low-temperature heat ranging from 77-122 degrees C. At this chick- en farm, the operator uses woodchips to heat a 600-kW biomass boiler to 116 degrees C. The boiler heats water to run the Power+ generator, and pro- duces clean electricity that is sold back to the util- ity. ElectraTherm said that the Power+ system also acts as a CHP system, and remaining heat from ElectraTherm’s condenser helps dry wood chips as part of the biomass processing. “The addition of ORC technology is a critical component of our operations, and the benefits of the Power+ generator are proven with more than 50 machines in the field and more than 500,000 hours of operational runtime,” Mick Jones, director of dis- tributor Woodtek Energy, said in a statement.

AFRICA AND MIDDLE EASTof dis- tributor Woodtek Energy, said in a statement. ○ Eaton to Offer AES Energy Storage

Energy, said in a statement. ○ AFRICA AND MIDDLE EAST Eaton to Offer AES Energy Storage

Eaton to Offer AES Energy Storage Platform in Europe, Middle East, Africa

Power management company Eaton and AES Corp. subsidiary AES Energy Storage have agreed that Eaton will offer AES’ Advancion energy stor- age platform as part of Eaton’s grid-scale, inte-

stor- age platform as part of Eaton’s grid-scale, inte- AES Advancion Energy Storage Array. Credit: AES.

AES Advancion Energy Storage Array. Credit: AES.

grated energy storage systems throughout Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA). “Together, Eaton and AES will be able to great- ly impact the energy landscape in EMEA,” Cyrille Brisson, Vice President of Marketing, Eaton electri- cal business in EMEA, said in a statement. “By pro- viding market-leading, innovative energy storage systems to commercial, industrial and utility cus- tomers, we will be able to mitigate the investment needed for, and the charges and emissions result- ing from, peak demand infrastructure.” Brisson added that the widespread deployment of systems enabling peak capacity, flexible genera- tion and grid services, coupled with the easy con- sumption of renewables, will help a smarter grid meet environmental targets.

REGIONAL

news

Altitec, Obelisk Form Wind Turbine Services Joint Venture

Wind turbine blade repair provid- er Altitec in mid-February signed a five-year joint venture agree- ment with Obelisk, a provider of infrastructure services to the global renewable energy, telecom- munications and power markets. Altitec said the deal enables the two businesses to deliver a range of wind turbine blade and tower services to wind farm own- ers, operators and original equip- ment manufacturers operating in the South African market. The South African wind ener- gy market has grown rapidly in recent years with 15 new wind farms totaling 1,200 MW con- structed in the last three years, according to Altitec. As part of the joint venture agreement, Altitec is training new South African rope access technicians to international standards. The range of core certified services delivered within the joint venture includes rotor- based inspections based on the principles for the monitoring of wind turbines, composite blade repairs, cleaning and monitoring of equipment and wind turbine tower corrosion protection and repair.

and wind turbine tower corrosion protection and repair. ○ ASIA-PACIFIC Australian Fringe- of-Grid Solar Project

ASIA-PACIFICand wind turbine tower corrosion protection and repair. ○ Australian Fringe- of-Grid Solar Project Receives Funding

tower corrosion protection and repair. ○ ASIA-PACIFIC Australian Fringe- of-Grid Solar Project Receives Funding

Australian Fringe- of-Grid Solar Project Receives Funding

The Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) said it is providing $8.4 million for Canadian Solar and Scouller Ener- gy to construct a 5-MW DC solar project near Normanton in Queensland, Australia, to demonstrate how integrating solar into the grid can improve energy reliability. “Like many regional Australian communities, Normanton is on the fringe of one of our major electricity networks,” ARENA CEO Ivor Frischknecht said. “Adding renewable energy generation closer to where it’s needed can provide more reliable and efficient power. This is a key ARENA investment focus for fringe-of-grid and network constrained areas.” According to Frischknecht, the Normanton project will be a test case for network provider Ergon Energy to understand the effects on network losses. The Normanton solar project will be jointly owned by Canadian Solar and Scouller Energy. The project is scheduled for completion in December.

Sunverge Energy, Mitsui Form Strategic Commercial Relationship in Japan

Distributed energy storage provider Sunverge Energy and Japan- based Mitsui & Co. on February 23 announced that they ha formed a strategic commercial relationship that would enable the two companies to collaborate on renewable energy initia- tives in Japan. “Japan is the second largest market for solar PV growth, which in turn is driving demand for intelligent distributed energy stor- age solutions,” Ken Munson, Sunverge co-founder and CEO, said in a statement. “Mitsui has been a pioneer in renewable ener- gy and has made early strategic investments in energy storage, and we look forward to working with them to bring the benefits of Sunverge’s advanced technology to more utilities and energy users throughout Japan.”

0 Environment
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Environment

New nuclear plants are necessary to lessen the world’s dependence on fossil fuels, to meet the needs of both developed and expanding economies, and to slow the amount of CO 2 emitted into our environment. NuScale Power has developed a clean, reliable, carbon-free Small Modular Reactor technology. It has the smallest environmental footprint of the technologies available today generating electricity. It will play a significant role in meeting future demand in the U.S. and other nations as part of a diverse energy portfolio. Environment: The Element of Nu.

energy portfolio. Environment: The Element of Nu. ™ © 2016 NuScale Power, LLC. All Rights Reserved.
energy portfolio. Environment: The Element of Nu. ™ © 2016 NuScale Power, LLC. All Rights Reserved.

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REGIONAL

news

According to Sunverge, it designs and manufactures intel- ligent energy storage systems that allow electric utilities to automatically execute demand response programs for individual

customers or to meet peak energy demand for an entire communi- ty or service area by linking them into virtual power plants. Japan was the world’s sec- ond largest market for solar PV

growth for two years running, adding a record 6.9 GW of capac- ity in 2013 and 9.6 GW in 2014 of nominal nameplate capaci- ty, according to the International Energy Agency.

LATIN AMERICASTI Norland Begins Construction at 247 MW Chile Solar Project STI Norland in early February

STI Norland Begins Construction at 247 MW Chile Solar ProjectSTI Norland in early February said it has begun construction activities at the 247-MW El

STI Norland in early February said it has begun construction activities at the 247-MW El Romero Solar PV plant in Chile.

The project is located in the III Region of Atacama and is under development by Acciona. It is expect- ed to be connected to the power grid by mid-2017 at which time it will be the largest solar PV in Latin America and one of the 10 largest worldwide. For the project, STI Norland is supplying its STI‐ F5 fixed structures,

STI Norland is supplying its STI‐ F5 fixed structures, Construction at the El Romero solar plant

Construction at the El Romero solar plant in

Chile. Credit: STI Norland.

the foundations

execution and the mechanical installation for JA Solar and Hareon PV modules. STI said that the project will cover about 280 hectares [691 acres] and

is expected to generate around 500 GWh annually. According to STI Norland, part of the energy for the facility will be sold into the Central Interconnected System, and part will be used to power the Google

Data Processing Center in Chile.

Enel to Use Bifacial Solar Modules for Project in Chile

Enel to Use Bifacial Solar Modules for Project in Chile Enel Green Power (EGP) plans to

Enel Green Power (EGP) plans to build a 1.7-MW solar PV project to help power the La Silla Obser- vatory in Chile. According to EGP, the proj- ect will be the world’s first industrial-scale solar array to combine conventional panels and bifacial smart modules that cap- ture solar energy on both sides of the panel. The company said that the combined use of smart and bifacial panels is expected to increase generation by 5 percent to 10 percent compared to a tra- ditional solar PV power plant of the same size. The construction of the plant will cost about $3.4 million. The facility, which EGP expects to complete in the first half of this year, will be able to generate around 4.75 GWh per year said Enel Green power.

complete in the first half of this year, will be able to generate around 4.75 GWh
complete in the first half of this year, will be able to generate around 4.75 GWh
complete in the first half of this year, will be able to generate around 4.75 GWh
complete in the first half of this year, will be able to generate around 4.75 GWh

[Editor’s note: RenewableEnergyWorld.com publishes news about the global renewable energy industry daily. Click here to see today’s news.]

SAVE THE DATE December 13-15, 2016 | Orlando, Florida, USA Orange County Convention Center North
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The Big Question

Stakeholders weigh in on worldwide renewable energy issues

COVER STORY

COVER STORY Avinash Burra Founding Partner, Green Millennium
COVER STORY Avinash Burra Founding Partner, Green Millennium
COVER STORY Avinash Burra Founding Partner, Green Millennium

Avinash Burra

Founding Partner,

Green Millennium

COVER STORY Avinash Burra Founding Partner, Green Millennium

What Will it Take for India to Achieve its Massive Renewable Energy Goals?

Last year Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced that the country would work to install 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022 with 100 GW of capacity from solar, 60 GW from wind, and 10 GW from small hydroelectric. It is a gigantic goal and some analysts are skeptical that it is even achievable. Then again, recent funding announcements and global partnerships are showing that the goal might not, in fact, be out of reach. For this issue’s Big Question, we asked all stakeholders in the Indian renewable energy market what they thought needs to happen to make that lofty goal a reality.

Read the responses below to gain insight on this issue’s big question: What Will it Take for India to Achieve its Massive Renewable Energy Goals?

WHILE THE FOCUS of my analysis is primarily on solar since it makes up a lion’s share of the tar- get, the broad principles touched upon can be applied to other renewable technologies as well. Solar tariffs in India have decreased consid- erably in the last five years and are on target to reach grid parity (approximately 4.5 per kWh or US $0.067) by 2018 according to some estimates. Currently, most medium-sized plant operators find

it challenging to generate healthy rates of return (IRR) at tariffs below 5 per kWh (US $0.075). One of the reasons for this is that India has a high prevailing interest rate environment (upwards of 12 percent annually for solar plant debt in some cases) and if you use a funding model in which debt servicing costs are factored into the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE), it has a very adverse effect on IRRs.

Cost of Electricity (LCOE), it has a very adverse effect on IRRs. 12 MARCH/APRIL 2016 RENEWABLE
Cost of Electricity (LCOE), it has a very adverse effect on IRRs. 12 MARCH/APRIL 2016 RENEWABLE
Cost of Electricity (LCOE), it has a very adverse effect on IRRs. 12 MARCH/APRIL 2016 RENEWABLE
Cost of Electricity (LCOE), it has a very adverse effect on IRRs. 12 MARCH/APRIL 2016 RENEWABLE
Cost of Electricity (LCOE), it has a very adverse effect on IRRs. 12 MARCH/APRIL 2016 RENEWABLE
Cost of Electricity (LCOE), it has a very adverse effect on IRRs. 12 MARCH/APRIL 2016 RENEWABLE
Cost of Electricity (LCOE), it has a very adverse effect on IRRs. 12 MARCH/APRIL 2016 RENEWABLE
Cost of Electricity (LCOE), it has a very adverse effect on IRRs. 12 MARCH/APRIL 2016 RENEWABLE
Cost of Electricity (LCOE), it has a very adverse effect on IRRs. 12 MARCH/APRIL 2016 RENEWABLE
In an effort to incentivize plant operators and mitigate some of these effects, India cre-
In an effort to incentivize plant operators and mitigate some of these effects, India cre-
In an effort to incentivize plant operators and mitigate some of these effects, India cre-
In an effort to incentivize plant operators and mitigate some of these effects, India cre-

In an effort to incentivize plant operators

and mitigate some of these effects, India cre-

ated a Renewable Portfolio Obligation or RPO

(similar to the Renewable Portfolio Standards or RPS in the U.S.) in 2008 to set a floor of 15 percent of total power generated as renew- able energy by 2022 and followed that up a couple of years later by creating a market based Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) mechanism. It was left up to the individu- al states to establish clear RPO policy guide- lines and enforce them, and as a result, there is large variation state-by-state in targets and enforcement. Solar RECs are currently traded on the Indi- an Energy Exchange (IEX) at a market price of 3500 per mWh or 3.5 per kWh ($52.23 per MWh or $0.522 per kWh). The lack of uni- formity in state-by-state RPO enforcement is illustrated by the stark disparity in buy and sell bids for solar RECs. In January 2016, there were 60x more sell bids than buys. While the REC market in the U.S. is by no means perfect, the EPA has comparative- ly coherent guidelines on how RECs are defined: for every MWh of electricity generated by a renewable source, there are two independently monetizable enti- ties — (i) the actual electricity itself, which can be sold at market price to the local utility and (ii) one REC. Whether the directive comes from the central gov- ernment or the individual states, more uniformity in RPO guidelines, enforcement and fines are required to decrease the disparity in REC sell and buy bids and ensure interest and engagement at both the plant opera- tor and investor level. If that happens in the near future, there will be a large uptick in solar power generation and adoption as it will become very profitable for inves- tors and operators and it will set India well on course to meet the lofty goal of 175 GW by 2022.

well on course to meet the lofty goal of 175 GW by 2022. RENEWABLERENEWABLE ENERGYENERGY WORLDWORLD
well on course to meet the lofty goal of 175 GW by 2022. RENEWABLERENEWABLE ENERGYENERGY WORLDWORLD

RENEWABLERENEWABLE ENERGYENERGY WORLDWORLD MAGAZINEMAGAZINE

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The Big Question

Vikram Dileepan Co-founder and CEO, SolarTown Energy Solutions

Vikram Dileepan

Co-founder and

CEO, SolarTown

Energy Solutions

First and foremost, India needs to develop a secure and sta- ble grid infrastructure, which in turn will create a reliable environment for large-scale renewable energy deployment. The immediate challenge is grid congestion and the grid’s inability to off-take power from either rooftop or utility- scale solar power plants. This is expected to be an ongoing challenge as more renewable energy is generated and the demand for power increases. Secondly, we need favorable tax incentives for both individuals and corporates; extend- ing accelerated depreciation benefits would be a good start,

as well as an opportunity for individuals to claim income tax benefits by investing in solar power. Third, and equal- ly important, is the availability of low-cost debt funding for solar power plants, which will accelerate the country’s efforts to reach its rooftop targets while also making it cost competitive.

its rooftop targets while also making it cost competitive. Dhananjay Sanas , ABB It does require

Dhananjay Sanas, ABB

It does require a vision to announce scaling rapidly to 100 GW of

require a vision to announce scaling rapidly to 100 GW of solar power. Defining time frames

solar power. Defining time frames and costs for existing utilities to evacuate power are critical. Single window clearance, government support to roof tops and utility-scale projects and incentivizing timely closure of projects are some more important steps required. Funds tend to seek avenues where returns are a possibility and once the ball rolls, 100 GW could be a distinct pos- sibility. Technology exists today for a smart, decentralized grid and India can leap frog to the next level of power connectivity with energy efficient, localized generation, distribution and consumption.

localized generation, distribution and consumption. Mel Badheka , Envision Energy India has great potential to

Mel Badheka, Envision Energy India has great potential to reach its renewable energy goals. The

has great potential to reach its renewable energy goals. The key is to have a policy

key is to have a policy environment that supports a free power mar- ket that can compete on a national level. As the costs of renewable energy drop and become highly attractive vs conventional energy, Indian IPPs should con- sider de-risking their investments by working with developers and OEMs at the pre-development stage and move away from “turnkey” projects. This will allow all stakeholders to perform at the highest levels of transparency and raise the quality of projects in the future. Quality of credit could also be addressed if there are equity investments from overseas markets where cost of capital is lower than Indian capitals markets. Prime Minister Modi has made great strides and the industry can support him by innovating on business models and breaking through the ceiling of turnkey, FIT-based renewables marketplace.

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RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

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The Big Question

Mahesh P. Bhave Visiting Professor, IIM Kozhikode
Mahesh P.
Bhave
Visiting Professor,
IIM Kozhikode

What India should strive for is each panchayat — all 250,000 of them — to have a fully functional, self-suffi- cient microgrid. It should support all applications — from lighting and fans to refrigerators and induction cookers, and solar water pumps to streetlights. The microgrids may interface with the existing grid, where possible, and more important among each other for reliability, resource shar- ing, and superior economics. Microgrids conceived in this way are a bottom-up solution, ideally managed by entre- preneurial startups with the panchayat’s administrative

help. Naturally, solar, wind, and biogas plus other renew- able technologies would be a part of the solution. Grid-tied photovoltaics are a well-established business model, a good first step. So also is rooftop PV. But eventually, given a) the end of natural monop- oly, b) lowered barriers to entry, and c) lowered unit costs independent of scale economics in Electricity 2.0, micro-electric utilities are the solution for the future. Neither economics nor technology hold back such deployments. The open questions relate to public policy — what foresightful initiatives will launch a movement toward distributed generation and local autonomy? Will a few progressive states take the lead aided by supportive national policy? Editor’s Note: In collaboration with Renewable Energy World, Mahesh P. Bhave developed and teaches a comprehensive, data-driven business course on microgrid project development for professionals. Click Here to learn more about the course.

professionals. Click Here to learn more about the course. BALAAJI CS , Vivan Solar In order

BALAAJI CS, Vivan Solar In order to realize the intended purpose of this massive RE capaci- ty addition, the following factors needs to be addressed:

1. Where is the grid infrastructure? Equal attention must be paid to

strengthening of the transmission corridor and flexibility in transfer of power from RE rich states to neighboring states /national grid.

2. Where do we have spinning reserve? It is high time that smart grid,

scheduling & forecasting of RE power as well demand forecast by the respec- tive DISCOMs is implemented to ensure balance and a blend of convention- al & RE power into the grid. Even at the present level of RE penetration RE rich states like Tamilnadu, Rajasthan has been going through a forced cur- tailment of RE power during peak seasons. If that continues, it would start churning out NPAs and in the process may turn out to a be non-preferred sec- tor by investors & financial institutions in the long run. Therefor the creation of adequate spinning reserve, R&D on storage technologies with a perspec- tive on the massive RE capacity addition envisaged to address the inherent

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RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

The Big Question

fluctuation/characteristics of RE Power. 3. Are supportive policies in place? Implementation of RPO, friendly policy for transfer of RE power between states too are also the need of the hour for sustained growth. Equal attention must be given to rooftop systems in the domestic and com- mercial sector because self sufficiency by this sector would greatly reduce the grid congestion and would offer the much needed flexibility in the march towards higher RE penetration into the grid and to reach the targeted capac- ity addition. We need to keep in our mind that this sector contributes around 30-35 percent of India’s power demand and must have a greater role to play in making India’s ambitious RE Target a reality.

to play in making India’s ambitious RE Target a reality. Sydney Lobo , TATA Power To

Sydney Lobo, TATA Power To achieve this massive goal, there are a number of aspects that need to fall into place. The recent bids for large scale PV plant power has been very competitive. However, how quickly these projects can come online remains to be seen. DISCOMS need to stabilize themselves

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The Big Question

to procure this power and also recover revenue from the end consumer. Although the grid is quite strong, surely storage needs to play a significant role in providing with a competitive LCOE to the DISCOMS. In addition, other aspects of power evacuation and strengthening of the southern grid with the rest of the India grid is the call of the moment. At the end of the day, this gigantic goal can be achieved, but will require innovative thinking and integration of technology to provide renewable power as prime power at a competitive LCOE.

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Bihag Mehta Director, OST Energy India
Bihag Mehta
Director, OST
Energy India

Working to such an accelerated development timeline will undoubtedly place major strain not only on India’s renew- able energy industry, but also on the state governments, utilities and grid operators responsible for upgrading transmission infrastructure. China is arguably the only nation to have integrated renewable energy on the same kind of scale in an equiva- lent timeframe, and reports suggest that the market con- tinues to suffer from export curtailments and delays as the

grid network struggles to match the rate of new installa- tions. In Brazil, too, we’ve seen fully operational projects sitting idle and unable to export power as they await grid connection. In India, it is essential that the sector learns from the experience of players in these other rapidly developing renewable energy markets. Despite the rush to construct new wind and solar, it’s absolutely vital that developers, inves- tors and state governments take the time to conduct proper technical due dil- igence to reduce risk and guarantee the long-term performance and viability of these early projects.

Raj Prahbu Mercom Capital
Raj Prahbu
Mercom Capital

Cumulative solar installations in India have crossed the 5 gigawatt (5.2 GW) mark as of February this year. There are currently over 10 GW of solar projects in various stages of development with another 8 GW to be auctioned over the next few months. Mercom is forecasting 2016 installations of approximately 4 GW, almost a 100 percent YoY growth. Even with these numbers, India needs to install approx- imately 15 GW per year from 2017–2022 to reach its 100

GW target. No country has installed 15 GW in one year so far. That said, the goal is not beyond reach and the gov- ernment, after a slow start, is demonstrating its seriousness in achieving this ambitious target.

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RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD MAGAZINE

The Big Question

To reach its goals, India needs some important things in place. First, there needs to be policy certainty and stability that the investment community can count on to make long-term investment plans. Even the government needs to meet deadlines and drastically improve its competence when it comes to execution, which will also boost investor confidence. The government must fix the finances of utilities and improve their credit ratings, which will help bring down borrowing costs and reduce risk. With solar auctions, cheapest is not always the best. Auctions need to be structured to avoid extremely low, unrealistic bids, which could lead to failed projects and, in turn, can have a chilling effect on investments. Renewable Purchase obligations need to be strictly enforced with penalties to get states moving. Lastly and most impor- tantly, consumers need to be educated on the benefits of solar and renewable energy sources in order for rooftop solar to take off. India currently has some of the most polluted cities in the world, even though it is still a relatively small economy with one of the lowest power con- sumptions per capita. Air pollution will only get worse without renewables. Nowhere is it more urgent and renewables so important for the future of an economy than in India.

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SOLAR Why CSP Resurged in Africa and the MENA Region In places outside of the

SOLAR

Why CSP Resurged in Africa and the MENA Region

SOLAR Why CSP Resurged in Africa and the MENA Region In places outside of the U.S.

In places outside of the U.S. where natural gas prices are not cheap, concentrating solar power is making a nice comeback.

SUSAN KRAEMER, Contributor

The U.S., with low-priced natu- ral gas, is an anomaly. In much of the world, gas is expensive. So in sun-drenched Africa, Concen- trated Solar Power (CSP) with its cheap thermal energy storage is competitive. CSP competes directly with

gas when it stores its solar thermal energy as a dispatchable renewable, with a high capacity factor (able to work more hours per year). Parabolic trough is the more bankable orig- inal form, but tower can more cost-effectively incorporate storage. Its thermal energy storage can cycle daily for thirty years, and if untapped; stays hot for up to two months. With no cheap gas, CSP is flourishing in Africa and the MENA (Middle East, North Africa) region. Morocco is well embarked towards its CSP goal of nearly 2 GW by 2020 — double the U.S. total. Namibia has put out

a request for proposals (RFP) to supply what amounts to 20

percent of its grid with CSP. Egypt and Algeria already have hybrid CSP projects, and have RFPs for more. All depend on imported natural gas. South Africa has a steady planned pipeline and the first half-gigawatt of CSP coming online. In these markets, thermal energy storage was a require- ment to replace more expensive imported gas. Morocco offers

a 15 percent premium for solar after sunset. Namibia’s RFP

U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon visits Shams I in Abu Dhabi. Credit: United Nations.
U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon
visits Shams I in Abu Dhabi. Credit:
United Nations.
solar requires 8 hours of storage. South Africa offers 2.70 per- cent of daytime rates

solar

requires 8 hours of storage. South Africa offers 2.70 per- cent of daytime rates in a carve-out for CSP with storage. Whether due to fast-grow- ing economies, decrepit coal plants, or underserved pop- ulations, these nations are also in dire need of additional generation. By 2030 blackout-plagued South Africa must nearly dou- ble its electricity capacity, and plans 42 percent — nearly 18 GW — from renewables. Its premium for CSP-with-storage has created certainty for the industry. Unlike the U.S., South Afri- ca is not looking at batteries; lacking the lure of cheap gas waiting in the wings to take over afterwards. The “largest

battery in the U.S.” at Tehachapi supplies just 32 MWh/day, and has a three to five-year cycle life. By comparison, South Africa’s first five CSP projects alone supply a combined 2,500 MWh/day of thermal solar storage, and daily cycling for thirty years. A recent report from Greenpeace and SolarPaces sees CSP supplying 12 percent of the 2050 grid globally, given the right conditions. “PV has had a huge deployment in the last 5 to 10 years, but CSP currently is at a much earlier stage of its deployment curve, so we expect costs to come down quite a lot,” explained Solar- PACES Secretary Christoph Richter. Richter works in Spain, home to CSP’s first wave of develop- ment. Within just four years, CSP supplied over 2 percent of the grid, but then Spain reneged on tariffs. No more was built. “Initially, there was a very good political climate, but it wasn’t stable; it was completely cut down after the financial crisis. That’s detrimental for technologies that rely on industrial devel- opment like CSP,” he said. South Africa looks more likely to stick by its policies, devel- oped by a broad group of stakeholders. A steady series of auc- tions fill specific megawatt requirements of capacity. Achievable and predictable permitting precedes each bid. Projects get built because professionalism is a prerequisite.

get built because professionalism is a prerequisite. SolarReserve’s Redstone tower CSP with 12 hours of storage

SolarReserve’s Redstone tower CSP with 12 hours of storage in South Africa sited next to their three PV projects, Lesatsi, Lesedi and Jasper. Credit: SolarReserve.

“In order to bid in South Africa you have to have a 100 percent com- mitment on debt and equity on projects you’ve permitted,” said SolarRe- serve CEO Kevin Smith. “Altogether we’ve put together a funding pack- age close to $4 billion.” SolarReserve’s projects are oversubscribed, not just the Round 3 award- ed Redstone tower with 12 hours of storage, but another near half-giga- watt of permitted bids coming up for Round 4.5 in 2016.

solar

solar Ivanpah, which was developed by BrightSource was heir to Luz, which was founded by a
Ivanpah, which was developed by BrightSource was heir to Luz, which was founded by a
Ivanpah, which was
developed by BrightSource
was heir to Luz, which was
founded by a visionary,
Arnold Goldman, who
imagined a world powered
with pure energy using
just sunlight and water.
Ivanpah uses a direct
steam technology. Credit:
BrightSource.

International Funding

International banking agencies, like the World Bank, OPIC, and the Ex-Im, have prioritized powering Africa with renewables. “There is a lot of interest in funding into Africa,” said Smith. “The key for them is finding good well-structured projects; we’ve got a good relationship with both the IFC and OPIC.” Gigawatt Global COO Weldon Turner agreed, saying that as long as a developer can put together a good financeable project, there is more money chasing projects in African countries, than projects seeking funding. The largest energy importer in the MENA region is Moroc- co; dependent on imported fossil fuels. It plans 42 percent solar by 2020. Morocco just unveiled the first 160 MW of the planned 2-GW Noor CSP complex at Ouarzazate that will be completed by 2020 at nearly 600 MW. ACWA Power has begun Noor II and III. A new RFP in January requests another 400 MW, combining PV and CSP with storage. Morocco put together $3 billion to finance the 2-GW Noor- Ouarzazate complex with the World Bank, the Climate Invest- ment Funds’ Clean Technology Fund, the African Development Bank, and European financing institutions. Once complete,

Morocco will own and oper- ate the project. In these nations, CSP is seen not just as a hedge against more expensive imported fos- sil fuels but as a big jobs push and industrial development incentive as well. “Morocco’s energy is main- ly imported and that got real- ly difficult to finance espe- cially when oil prices were so high,” said Richter. “So they started looking at what they have in abundance; solar and wind, and also they see a high potential for job creation in Morocco.” Equally dependent on imports, another likely spot for this kind of interna- tional funding is Namibia.

solar Engineers at its financially stable state utility NamPow- er chose CSP to supply a

solar

Engineers at its financially stable state utility NamPow- er chose CSP to supply a fifth of its current needs. It has put out an RFP for 200 MW of CSP with 8 hours of storage, after carefully researching the best options for supplying its 2 million people.

Boom and Bust cycles

CSP was born in the U.S. with federal support after the second oil price shocks in 1979. Federal tax credits enabled one visionary pio- neer, Arnold Goldman of Luz, to bootstrap the SEGS trough project. Its 354 MW devel- oped over time, out of finan- cial necessity, in a series of 9 smaller units. When oil prices dropped, the tax credits got cut, bank- rupting Luz and short- circuiting any more U.S. development. Next, Spain incentivised CSP development from 2004, but then reneged on tariff agreements, stranding a larg- er solar industrial sector. This left behind another 2.3 GW of CSP on the grid. A second U.S. round pow- ered by the Obama adminis- tration added 1.4 GW. Two projects were the heirs to Luz: NextEra Ener- gy had bought up most of the 9 SEGS units and gained the experience that enabled

Between 2020-2030 renewable technology will be competitive to all fossil technologies

LCOE, medium fuel prices (€/MWh)

240 CSP 250 MW OCGT - Open Cycle Gas Turbine 220 8h storage 2600 DNI
240
CSP 250 MW
OCGT - Open Cycle Gas Turbine
220
8h storage 2600 DNI
200
180
CCGT - Combined
160
Cycle Gas Turbine
140
PV utility
SCPC - Super Critical
Pulverized Coal
120
20 MW 2200 GHI
100
80
60
40
Nuclear Generation III
20
Wind on-shore
3000 full load hours
0
2010 2015
2020
2025
2030

Source: Dii

Desertec industrial initiative (Dii) comparison of cost reductions to build new renewables compared to new fossil plants. Credit: IEA.

them to develop and now run California’s 250-MW Genesis trough plant. The engineers behind SEGS regrouped as Bright- Source Energy, switching to direct steam tower for Ivanpah (390 MW). Abengoa developed two trough CSP projects totaling 560 MW, Mojave in California, and Solana with storage in Arizona, while SolarReserve built the first tower with storage, the 110-MW Cres- cent Dunes in Nevada. But at least that many more projects failed to clear permitting. By 2013, as investors feared ITC expiration before a three-year project could be completed, the four year run ended. This on-again/off-again support slows the learning process, making cost declines more difficult. Nevertheless, in just five projects; prices dropped from 19.7 cents to 13.5 cents per kWh. By contrast, South Africa’s certainty is bringing prices down much faster. Redstone was awarded in 2015 at 12.5 cents, a third of the price of the first project bid in Round 1, Abengoa’s Kaxu Solar One at 32 cents. And at Atacama last year, Abengoa bid a third of the price of its first Spanish project, Helioenergy 1, the lowest yet at 11.5 cents. Now backed by reliable global financial support and more con- sistent policy, the African resurgence of CSP yet looks likeliest to meet the Greenpeace prediction.

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WIND RAY PELOSI, Contributor Todd Griffith shows a 50-meter blade cross- section that could be
WIND
RAY PELOSI, Contributor
Todd Griffith
shows a 50-meter
blade cross-
section that could
be the basis for
50-MW offshore
wind installations.
Credit: Randy
Montoya/Sandia.

The Next Generation in Wind Power Technology

Ongoing wind power research and development will help the industry harness more wind, more efficiently and at lower costs in the future.

Unprecedented Turbine Size

Perhaps the most ambitious R&D is seeking to create a rotor blade longer than 650 feet for a 50-MW offshore wind turbine. That’s 2.5X lon- ger and over 6X more output than the largest blades and turbines now in operation. The project, led by Sandia

The biggest factors in boosting wind turbine productivity — longer blades and taller towers — are fueling much of the next- generation research and development push to build a more powerful, efficient, durable and cost-effective turbine. Other important innovations are emerging to make turbine manufac- turing easier and cheaper; create intelligent turbines that collect and interpret real-time data; and model and adjust wind plant flows and turbine configurations to maximize wind harvest.

The machine at ORNL that will 3D print molds to be used for manufacturing turbine

The machine at ORNL that will 3D print molds to be used for manufacturing turbine blades. Credit:

Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

turbine blades. Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Research is being conducte d on how to reduc

Research is being conducted on how to reduce the expense of transporting large steel turbine towers such as this one. Credit: v.schlichting / Shutterstock.com.

National Laboratories, uses Segmented Ultralight Mor- phing Rotor (SUMR) tech- nology in an aerodynam- ically-sophisticated load alignment that could substan- tially reduce peak stress and fatigue on rotor blades and make such a gigantic turbine structurally and economical- ly feasible. The light, segmented blades bend in the wind without los- ing stiffness. This reduc- es blade stress, so there’s less mass required to stiff- en them. In high winds, the SUMR blades are stowed and align with the wind direction so they are less vulnerable to cantilever force damage. In low winds, the blades fan out for maximum wind energy.

Manufacturing and Materials Solutions

The challenge is making larger and taller — but not heavier or costlier — turbines that are no less effective and can withstand the wind stresses that longer blades would encounter. “You need to ramp up the size of these turbines,” said John Larson, Direc- tor at Dominion Resources, an advisor on the Sandia initiative. “But how do we get the weight reduced and advance turbine performance?” One approach is to make the bigger blades lighter to lessen aerodynamic and gravity loads on the other turbine components, like the drivetrain, and lessen materials costs. GE’s answer here — building blades onsite by wrapping very strong architectural fabric around a metal space frame — could generate more power from slower wind speeds and yield much bigger blades. GE is using this same principle for a fabric-covered, five-legged lattice tower as tall as 139 meters. How to make the blades is changing, too. “By exploring ways in which 3D printing capabilities can benefit wind, we’re begin- ning to identify cost and saving options with manufacturing blades, while improving their design flexibility,” said Jose Zayas, director of the DOE’s Wind and Water Power Technologies Office. Specifically, DOE, Sandia and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating 3D printing to manufacture turbine blade molds,

Wind eliminating costs and time in mold manufacture. Today, it’s easier to trans- port towers

Wind

eliminating costs and time in mold manufacture. Today, it’s easier to trans- port towers by building them in segments made of thick, costly steel. But DOE is researching three simpler, less expensive possibilities:

using concrete; shipping par- tially unrolled steel and weld- ing it onsite; and fashioning corrugated steel segments onsite — which would require up to 30 percent less metal. A big barrier to taller tow- ers is that, at some point, they’re too big and expensive to transport by land under bridge overpasses. But the National Renewable Ener- gy Laboratory (NREL) is col- laborating with a company on a spiral welding process to build taller steel towers onsite and bypass the travel and cost constraints.

Gearbox, Hub and Foundation

Where other turbine compo- nents are concerned, NREL led development of new gear- box technologies that replace roller bearings with journal bearings — to improve gear- box reliability and lifespan and reduce size and weight — and use flex pins to increase load sharing between gears in a sun/planet configuration. The wind that hits the blade hub is wasted, but GE is developing an ecoROTR

the blade hub is wasted, but GE is developing an ecoROTR The GE digital wind farm

The GE digital wind farm uses embedded turbine sensors that gather and analyze data in real time on factors such as temperature, misalignments or vibrations. Credit: GE.

turbine with a dome that covers the midpoint to capture that wind and deflect it out to the blades. The projected 3 percent per- formance increase would add up across a wind farm. To improve offshore foundations, Sandia is studying how to reduce the support structure costs, including the development of floating vertical axis machines. Since most of the U.S. offshore wind supply is in deep water, where large fixed steel piles or lat- tice structures are impractical, several U.S. companies are devel- oping less-expensive spar-buoy, tension leg and semi-submersible floating wind platforms that maintain stability and motion control.

Smarter Turbines and Plants

Intelligent wind turbine R&D is centering on enhanced sensing for loads, turbine condition monitoring, wind farm controls and smart rotors with active control surfaces that use built-in blade intelligence to reduce rotor blade loads and turbine costs. “Mak- ing turbines smarter and able to sense and optimize energy cap- ture while knowing the state of the turbine’s health — if it’s sound or damaged — will become more important,” said Todd Griffith, lead blade designer on Sandia’s SUMR research. For instance, GE’s wind farm model pairs 2-MW wind tur- bines with a digital twin modeling system that can assemble up to

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Wind 20 turbine configurations at every wind farm pad for peak power generation. Embedded turbine

Wind

20 turbine configurations at every wind farm pad for peak power generation. Embedded turbine sensors gather and analyze data in real time on factors such as temperature, misalignments or vibrations and relays it to advanced net- works that make adjustments to improve efficiency. It’s not just the turbine that’s getting smarter. NREL is concentrating on what Dan- iel Laird, director of NREL’s National Wind Technolo- gy Center, calls “high-fideli- ty simulation at the wind plant level.” This uses intelligent plant-wide controls to operate the plant as a whole system, instead of on a turbine-by-tur- bine basis. “If you can yaw a turbine perhaps a degree or two off of its default setting, you could possibly steer the wake, or turbulence, between turbines in the next row with- in the plant rather than direct- ly at another turbine,” he said. “Your wind power generation might decrease slightly for that particular turbine, but you may increase production of a subsequent row in the plant.” NREL hopes to test the theory on a commercial wind farm. To better understand how the wind is blowing for a plant, DOE is trying to cou- ple regional forecasting and localized wind resource mod- els. “You would make the box

localized wind resource mod- els. “You would make the box The Carbon Trust’s scanning LIDAR technology

The Carbon Trust’s scanning LIDAR technology test was launched in February 2016. Credit: Carbon Trust.

bigger around the wind plant to really capture some of the inter- actions between the atmospheric boundary layer and the flow through the wind plant,” said Laird.

Offshore Wind Resource Assessment Without MET Towers

The Carbon Trust launched an ambitious wind resource mea- surement project in mid-February with a three-month test — the world’s largest ever — of scanning Light Detection and Radar (LIDAR) technology. LIDAR has the potential to migrate calcula- tion of a wind farm’s potential energy yield away from fixed steel met masts by giving a more detailed picture of the wind resource over a larger portion of the wind site. The economic implications are enormous, since wind measurement accounts for about 45 percent of an average wind farm’s overall project cost. “In information terms [scanning LIDAR technology] is the dif- ference between taking a still photo compared to having a three dimensional video with full sound,” said Megan Smith, Project Manager, Wakes Research at the Carbon Trust in a press release. Project partners include RES, Irish Lights, Leosphere and Lockheed Martin. By some estimates, global installed wind capacity could grow to 2,000 GW by 2030 and meet almost 19 percent of global elec- tricity demand. These innovations will certainly help the wind energy industry to get there.

ENERGY STORAGE

A Look at Liquid Air Energy Storage Technology

Large-scale grid storage is seen by some as the holy grail for large-scale renewable energy grid integration. A new technology has the potential to meet that need.

A new technology has the potential to meet that need. AUSTEN ADAMS, Metalcraft With traditional coal-fired

AUSTEN ADAMS, Metalcraft

With traditional coal-fired power stations coming to the end of their working lives, the challenge to engineers to develop clean, reliable energy technologies has never been so pressing. Renewable energy technologies such as wind and solar power both offer potential solutions but the unresolved issue has always been consistency of supply and how to store ener- gy generated for use at a later date. One energy storage solution that has come to the forefront in recent months is Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES), which uses liquid air to create an energy reserve that can deliver large-scale, long duration energy storage. Unlike other large-scale energy storage solutions, LAES does not have geographical restrictions such as the need to be located in mountainous areas or where there are reservoirs, which could render it more viable for a range of operations. However, many great ideas in the energy industry abound so

how does new technology such as LAES make the leap from the drawing board into reality and is it effective when it does? Highview Power Storage with project partners, Viridor, recently received more than £8m [US $11.4m] in funding from the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change for the design, build and test- ing of a 5-MW LAES technol- ogy plant that would be suit- able for long duration energy storage. The site will soon be operational in the north west of England. “Our liquid air energy stor- age technology stores liquid air in insulated tanks at low pressure before discharg- ing it as electricity when required,” explained Matthew Barnett, Head of Business

Transporting LAES tanks is just one of the many challenges facing this new technology. Credit: Stainless Metalcraft.

Development, at Highview Power. “Like all energy stor- age systems, the LAES sys- tem comprises three primary processes: a charging system; an energy store; and power recovery. However, unlike many other storage systems, these can be scaled indepen- dently to optimize the system for different applications.” Barnett said that the technology turns air liquid through refrigeration (down to -196°C) and storing the very cold liquid in insulated ves- sels. When power is required, liquid air is drawn from the tanks and pumped to high pressure, he said. “Stored heat from the air liquefier is applied to the liquid air via heat exchangers and an inter- mediate heat transfer fluid. This produces a high-pres- sure gas that is then used to drive the turbine and create electricity. With 700 liters of ambient air being reduced to just one liter of liquid air, the storage capacity this offers is significant, representing GWh of energy potential.” The technology is also able to use waste heat and cold from its own and other pro- cesses to enhance its efficien- cy. Matthew continued: “Dur- ing the discharge stage, very cold air is exhausted and cap- tured by a high-grade cold store that can be used at a

later date to enhance the efficiency of the liquefaction process. In a similar way, we can integrate waste cold from industrial pro- cesses such as LNG terminals. “Similarly, the low boiling point of liquefied air means the efficiency of the system can be improved with the introduction of ambient heat. The standard LAES system is designed to cap- ture and store the heat produced during the liquefaction pro- cess (stage 1), integrating it into the power recovery process (stage 3). This makes it a great option for applications that have their own waste heat source, such as thermal power generation or steel mills.” Highview tested and demonstrated a fully operational 350-kW/2.5-MWh LAES pilot plant at SSE’s 80-MW biomass plant at Slough Heat and Power in Greater London from 2011 to 2014

Storage vessels in the demonstration project are nearly 12 and a half meters tall, three
Storage vessels in
the demonstration
project are
nearly 12 and a
half meters tall,
three meters in
diameter, 13 mm
thick and have an
empty weight of
16,230 kg. Credit:
Highview Power.
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EnErgy StoragE – successfully connecting to the UK grid and complying with the necessary regula-

EnErgy StoragE

– successfully connecting to the UK grid and complying with the necessary regula- tions and inspections. Now showcasing the 5-MW pre-commercial demonstra- tion plant at Viridor’s land-

to hundreds of MWs in power for multiple hours. Avintrans’ Stainless Metalcraft business supplied the most important part of the system: the energy storage vessels. According to Kelvin Boyce, Technical Manager at Metalcraft, the company has a track record of “working with companies to bring new concepts to life.” Boyce said the vessels in the demonstration project are near- ly 12 and a half meters high, three meters in diameter and 13mm thick. “With an empty weight of 16,230 kg, working on vessels this size and bigger throws up a range of manufacturing chal-

lenges, not least of which is find- ing production facilities large enough to house the vessels and their protective scaffolding as they’re produced,” he said. A special welding skill set was required to build the ves- sels correctly since they were

1. Charge Off-peak or excess electricity is used to power an air liquefier, which produces
1. Charge
Off-peak or excess
electricity is used to
power an air
liquefier, which
produces liquid air.
2. Store
The liquid air is
stored in tank(s) at
low pressure.

3. Discharge To recover power the liquid air is pumped to high pressure, evaporated and heated. The high pressure gas drives a turbine to generate electricity.

Diagram of the LAES 3-Step Process. Credit: Highview Power.

fill gas generation site at Pils- worth Landfill facility in Greater Manchester, the proj- ect will operate for at least one year, providing energy storage as well as converting low-grade waste heat from the landfill gas engines from heat to power.

manufactured from carbon steel which offers impact energy absorption greater than 27J at -20°C, according to Boyce. “The high integral welds were non-destructive tested using radiograph techniques at our own, on-site facility, and the com- pleted vessel was also hydrostatic tested to 12.6 bar g, including allowance for static head as the vessel is around 12 meters tall.

The actual test weight of the vessel was 94,000 kg.” Boyce added that his company will be able to provide in-house training to scale up production “as the technology is proven and orders come in.”

Building the Supply Chain

While the 5-MW/15-MWh pre-commercial demonstra- tion plant is appropriate- ly sized to demonstrate grid scale storage, the supply chain is equipped to provide components that are scalable

Proof of Concept

After co-ordinating the delivery and installation of components from a number of suppliers — including GE, Heatric, Siemens, Nikkiso and Atlas Copco — the pre-commercial demonstrator is now going through the commissioning phase and is due to be operational in the first half of 2016. As well as generating power, the project hopes to demonstrate how LAES can be used to help balance supply and demand on

EnErgy StoragE

EnErgy StoragE the grid dur- ing its time in operation, includ- ing Short Term Operating Reserve
EnErgy StoragE the grid dur- ing its time in operation, includ- ing Short Term Operating Reserve

the grid dur- ing its time in operation, includ- ing Short Term Operating Reserve (STOR), Triad avoid- ance (supporting the grid during the winter peaks), and testing for the PJM regulation market in the U.S. Should all go according to plan, Highview Power hopes

Rendering of the potential gigaplant that Highview Power hopes to develop should the demonstration project be successful. Credit:

Highview Power.

to build an even larger 200-MW / 1.2- GWh that it is calling “The Gigaplant.” Barnett said that Highview is selecting com- ponents for this larger system. “There’s nothing in the world today available at this scale without geographical constraints and at such a competitive cost. We believe that Highview’s LAES systems will be the cheapest, cleanest and lowest environmental impact GWh scale, locatable storage systems available,” he said.

Austen Adams is managing director of Metalcraft’s Energy & Medical division.

EUBCE 2016 SOUTHEAST 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition Powered by: T h e l
EUBCE 2016
SOUTHEAST
24th European Biomass
Conference & Exhibition
Powered by:
T h e
l a r g e s t
BIOMASS
May 25-26 ï Atlanta, GA
science and industry
OMNI at CNN Center
GATHERING
Grow Your Business.
Grow The Region.
Solar Power Southeast debuted last year with
nearly 500 professionals in attendance.
Early bird deadline
18th March 2016
Join your colleagues at this yearís event where
you can connect with companies in the SOLD
OUT exhibit space and keep up with the latest
trends and technology that will help you grow
your business and the region. Educational
topics are now available online!
6 - 9 JUNE
AMSTERDAM - THE NETHERLANDS
Rai Amsterdam Exhibition and Convention Centre
www.eubce.com
Learn more at www.events.solar

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EUROPEAN ENERGY STAKEHOLDERS RANK THE ISSUES The Growing Share of Renewables in the Energy Mix

EUROPEAN ENERGY

STAKEHOLDERS RANK THE ISSUES

The Growing Share of Renewables in the Energy Mix

Energy Storage

Plant Modernisation & Optimisation

Offshore Wind

Transition from Centralised to Decentralised Power Systems

Decarbonisation of the Power Sector

Solar PV

Combating Cyber Security Threats

Onshore Wind

Biomass and Waste-to-Energy

Electric Vehicles & Related Infrastructure

Closer Integration of Heat & Electricity Sectors

Capacity Market Mechanisms

Big Data Usage

Smart Cities

Single European Energy Market

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

Solar CSP

Wave & Tidal

<5 Years

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Major stakeholders in the European power sector rank issues in importance today (during the next 5 years) and in the

long-term (5-20 years).

Electric vehicles, smart cities and energy storage gain in importance while plant modernization, decarbonization and solar PV fall.

✓
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Energy Storage

The Growing Share of Renewables in the Energy Mix

Electric Vehicles & Related Infrastructure

Offshore Wind

Transition from Centralised to Decentralised Power Systems

Smart Cities

Plant Modernisation & Optimisation

Combating Cyber Security Threats

Decarbonisation of the Power Sector

Solar PV

Big Data Usage

Biomass and Waste-to-Energy

Closer Integration of Heat & Electricity Sectors

Onshore Wind

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

Solar CSP

Single European Energy Market

Capacity Market Mechanisms

Wave & Tidal

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CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION 19-21 JULY 2016 SANDTON CONVENTION CENTRE, JOHANNESBURG, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA CREATING
CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION 19-21 JULY 2016 SANDTON CONVENTION CENTRE, JOHANNESBURG, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA CREATING
CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION 19-21 JULY 2016 SANDTON CONVENTION CENTRE, JOHANNESBURG, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA CREATING
CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION 19-21 JULY 2016 SANDTON CONVENTION CENTRE, JOHANNESBURG, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA CREATING
CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION 19-21 JULY 2016 SANDTON CONVENTION CENTRE, JOHANNESBURG, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA CREATING

CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION

19-21 JULY 2016

SANDTON CONVENTION CENTRE, JOHANNESBURG, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA

CREATING POWER

FOR SUSTAINABLE GROWTH

KEY POWER HUB FOR PAN AFRICAN STAKEHOLDERS

Join high-level decision-makers from government and the private sector at POWER-GEN & DistribuTECH Africa 2016 conference & exhibition. Supporting sustainability in the pan-African power sector, the event aims to serve as the continent’s premier knowledge sharing and networking hub for the power generation and distribution sectors across sub-Saharan Africa.

Hear from over 100 expert international speakers as they discuss the latest technical developments, benchmark case studies and important issues such as: Project Funding; Asset Management; Infrastructure Development; Integration of Renewables; Procurement Best Practice; Financing Models and Deal Structuring.

Running alongside the conference, the exhibition floor will showcase cutting-edge products and technologies by over 80 leading local and international companies including Eskom, Ansaldo Energia, Rosatom, Seimens, Steinmuller Africa and Turkish Renewable Pavilion.

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GEOTHERMAL A Rising Model: Public Finance in Early Stage Geothermal Development Developers now have more

GEOTHERMAL

A Rising Model: Public Finance in Early Stage Geothermal Development

Model: Public Finance in Early Stage Geothermal Development Developers now have more public financing options available

Developers now have more public financing options available to support the exploration and test drilling phases of geothermal development, where high risk traditionally has limited funding opportunities.

JENNIFER DELONY, Associate Editor

The physical risks associated with early-stage geothermal devel- opment are constant, and bar- ring some major technological advancements, there’s little to sug- gest that those risks will change substantively in the near-term. Analysts say exploration costs can account for up to 15 percent of the capital cost of a geothermal proj- ect, and the rate of success in the early stages can be between 50-60 percent. Despite the importance of preliminary sur- veys, exploration and test drill- ing in the project life cycle, pub- lic financing has been focused most often on later stages of development. That trend, howev- er, is changing. Access to certain financial mechanisms, such as commer- cial debt, which are available to other resource developments, is unavailable to early-stage

other resource developments, is unavailable to early-stage Olkaria Geothermal Power Complex, Kenya. Credit: Power

Olkaria Geothermal Power Complex, Kenya. Credit: Power Africa.

geothermal development as a result of the high associat- ed risk. Some companies may have access to public equi- ty, and private equity investors could contribute capital with a promise of a high return. The public sector, on the other hand, is becoming a secure place for developers to access funding through, for example, direct funding and loan guar- antees. Government development agencies also are a strong option in the current market. There are some promising financing developments for

Geothermal the early stages of the proj- ect life cycle because “pub- lic resources are

Geothermal

the early stages of the proj- ect life cycle because “pub- lic resources are starting to amass to answer the neces- sity of participating in ear- ly-stage financing,” Ste- phen Morel, climate finance specialist, Overseas Pri- vate Investment Corporation (OPIC), said. According to Morel, finance tools from development finance institutions (DFIs), such as OPIC, have evolved to help drive more invest- ment into geothermal, and a lot more public programs are now available as part of those tools. OPIC is the U.S. govern- ment’s sole DFI. Morel said that nation- al resources are changing. For example, governments around the world are demon- strating a stronger will to fur- ther geothermal development. “That has resulted in resource mapping in coun- tries where it didn’t exist before, as well as the avail- ability of fields to private developers,” he said. “There are a lot of success sto- ries now where public enti- ties under government have completed exploratory drill- ing and can offer opportuni- ty from the wells to private developers.” In addition, Morel has seen an enhanced role by public entities in providing

has seen an enhanced role by public entities in providing Stephen Morel. Credit: OPIC . contingents

Stephen Morel. Credit: OPIC.

contingents and concessionary products. “That has come from the strong will of those public enti- ties,” he said. “A lot of the will from public entities started with in-depth research from, for example, the World Bank and other multilaterals that want- ed to map where geothermal resources are.” Morel also said that he is see- ing a resurgence in geothermal drilling insurance.

OPIC Around the World

OPIC, which is a development finance institution that serves the U.S. government’s foreign policy goals, finances and insures U.S. private sector businesses looking to enter challenging econo- mies around the world and develop projects ranging from small agriculture, healthcare, and education to large infrastructure. Charles Stadtlander, a spokesperson for OPIC, said that the organization has seen “a pretty large uptick in renewable energy in the past five to six years.” He said that OPIC has about a $20 billion overall develop- ment portfolio in financing and insurance, supporting 500 active projects in 100 countries, in impactful sectors like clean water and sanitation, agriculture modernization, financial inclu- sion, affordable housing, and new energy access, including from renewables. “In recent years, overall new commitments from OPIC have ranged from $3 billion up to more than $4 billion per year,” he said. “Of that, about one quarter to one third has been in renew- able energy, including more than $6 billion in support to renew- able energy over the past five years.” According to Morel, OPIC in the early ’90s was active in the Asia-Pacific — Indonesia and the Philippines — and more recent- ly provided support for the Olkaria III project in Kenya. Olkaria was completed with a combination of public and private financ- ing as well as risk mitigation measures. “Geothermal is fantastic for OPIC because it really fits in the

wheelhouse of all the aspects we’re trying to get to,” he said. “It is one of the more interesting renewables to support these days because it is truly base load, which you don’t find with some of the other renewables that have become more mature and have more financing options,”said Morel. The ability of geothermal to act as a base-load resource has been important as a long- term energy plan for a lot of the countries that OPIC works with, he added. Stadtlander noted that OPIC can collaborate with other DFIs from around the world on large infrastructure projects. “We can work as co-lend- ers,” he said. “We’re part of a like-minded community that helps drive private develop- ers, private capital, and pri- vate equity investors in some of the world’s most challeng- ing economies.”

Promising Options

Morel said that the way the market is adapting is forc- ing a dichotomy on the pri- vate side in that there are now two types of develop- ers: those that can fund a project on balance sheet, but also those developers who have positioned themselves to navigate public resources

Geothermal

themselves to navigate public resources Geothermal — the multilateral banks, DFIs and regional bodies.

— the multilateral banks, DFIs and regional bodies. “Some of the more interesting public financing is coming in the form of concessional loans that have conditions more akin to mezzanine debt,” he said. “Given the conditions on those loans, funds are capable of being deployed at an earlier stage and with concessional rates. That is beneficial to the pri- vate developers that are putting a lot of their own equity into a project.” Also of interest on the public side, he said, are programs that are providing contingent loans, where funds can be deployed, and if a drilling program is successful, it remains as a loan; if it’s unsuccessful, then it becomes a grant. On the private side, he added, balance-sheet financing remains the most effective way to keep down required rates of return. “If they’re working with other equity institutions that require a high rate of return, then that makes it a challenge for them,” he said. “On balance sheet financing remains one of the most effec- tive ways to address that.”

Public-Private Partnerships

According to Pierre Audient senior energy economist at World Bank Group’s Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), public-private partnerships (PPP) are a growing option for supporting the risks of early-stage geothermal development. World Bank in 2013 formed the Global Geothermal Develop- ment Plan, which has raised $250 million. ESMAP uses a por- tion of that funding to finance identification and preparation of projects as well as other forms of technical assistance required to structure geothermal advancements in countries. The funding currently supports programs in seven countries. PPPs can stimulate private developer funds and reduce the risks taken on by government or a developer if either were to develop a project on their own. Audient said PPPs can take different forms. Under a tolling agreement, for example, a public entity can develop and oper- ate a steam field, and the steam field is later turned into a power plant that is owned by a private developer. As an alternative, a public entity and a private investor can create a joint venture. Under the joint venture agreement, all aspects of a developed project are co-owned and co-financed by the public entity and private investor.

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BIOENERGY One Man’s Trash is Another Man’s Renewable Energy From garbage in landfills to water

BIOENERGY

One Man’s Trash is Another Man’s Renewable Energy

From garbage in landfills to water that is flushed down the drain, there is quite a bit of useful energy left in the items we discard.

JENNIFER RUNYON, Chief Editor

in the items we discard. JENNIFER RUNYON, Chief Editor The practical benefits of an organic product

The practical benefits of an organic product do not neces- sarily end when it goes down the drain or into the trash. In fact, there is quite a bit of useful ener- gy left in the items we discard.

Using heat exchanges, anaerobic digestion technology, and waste-to-energy facilities, the projects here showcase impor- tant bioenergy technology that is being used right now to drive down traditional energy costs and increase renewable energy installed capacity worldwide.

Gateway (Theater) to the Future Uses Waste Heat to Lower Energy Costs

The Gateway Theatre is a 50,000 square foot multiuse public theater in Richmond, BC. In 2013, the city approved the use of a sewage wastewater recovery system at the theater to help meet its greenhouse gas and reduced energy consump- tion goals. There was a wastewater treatment plant near the theater, which made the project feasible. Essentially the system, supplied by International Waste- water Systems, takes raw sewage, processes it and then extracts heat to process fluid. The fluid is then sup- plied to the building’s low-temperature heat loop. The company said that up to 250 gallons per minute of raw sewage can be pumped through its SHARC system. The project was meant to reduce natural gas use and provide a renewable heat source for the facil- ity. Additional retrogrades were performed, such as replacing a boiler and couplings and a build- ing envelop improvement. The new technology and upgrades were projected to reduce natural gas use at the facility by approximately 45 percent, annu- al operating costs by $10,800 and drop GHG emis- sions by 50 tons. The system was completed in September 2013. The capital cost for the heat recovery system was $55,000 and when the design, labor, additional upgrades and replacement were added up, the total project cost

and replacement were added up, the total project cost Gateway Theatre in Richmond, BC. Credit: City

Gateway Theatre in Richmond, BC. Credit: City of Richmond, BC.

was just under $200,000 with about half of that met through two government grants. Based on the first

Bioenergy two years of operating costs, the avoidance savings mean that the project should have

Bioenergy

two years of operating costs, the avoidance savings mean that the project should have a payback of 6 years. It is expected to last for 25. What is the potential for this type of technology? The U.S. Environmental Pro- tection Agency estimates that about 385 billion kWh of energy is sent down the drain each year in the form of waste heat.

is sent down the drain each year in the form of waste heat. Leeks, Onions and

Leeks, Onions and Maize Power Allpress Farm and the Grid

While farmers understand how compost closes the loop on the organic growth of their crops, they may not be quite as savvy when it comes to harvesting the energy that is created when those crops

The Sewage Shark system installed at the Gateway Theatre in Richmond, BC. Credit: International Wastewater Systems.

decompose. That’s where companies like EnviTec Biogas, a Ger- many company with a subsidiary in the UK comes in. Allpress Farms grows leeks and onions for supermarkets plus wheat, maize and sugar beets for various other uses. The fami- ly-owned farm employs about 100 people and is run by brothers Nick and Patrick Allpress. In 2014 the Allpress brothers created Horseway Energy as a way to diversify revenue streams. Horseway uses biogas technology to supply power to the grid. The feedstock for the biogas is a 50-50 mix of maize and waste from the leeks and onions. EnviTec Biogas UK installed the 500-kW sys- tem, which today generates almost 12,000 kWh of electricity each day. The digestate, which is the leftover portion of the waste after it has been pro- cessed, goes back to the crops as fertilizer. Nick Allpress said the total cost for the project was £2.5 million [US $3.4m], which was financed through personal loans and private equity. All- press receives 3.8 to 4.3 pence [US $0.05 to 0.06] from the grid for each kWh of energy he gener- ates but the largest portion of the revenue from

The waste leeks and beets that are processed in the anaerobic digestion takes at Allpress Farms. Credit:

EnviTec Biogas UK.

the project comes from the feed-in tariff (FIT). “The FIT is a substantial contributor to the proj- ect income and is guaranteed at 14.63 pence [US

Bioenergy

Bioenergy $0.20] per kWh, this is also index linked for 20 years,” he explained. The project

$0.20] per kWh, this is also index linked for 20 years,” he explained. The project is expected to pay for itself within eight years of operation.

A Landfill-based Alter- native to Natural Gas

In shale-gas rich Pennsyl- vania, there is a lot of nat- ural gas being fracked and pumped through pipelines to take advantage of the robust natural gas market. With so much natural gas flooding the market and rendering gas prices cheap, it comes as lit- tle surprise that a market for renewable natural gas is hav- ing a hard time emerging. With the help of Renewable Natural Gas credits (RNGCs) developed by The Energy Co-op, however, that emerg- ing renewable natural gas market may get a little boost. Renewable-energy minded

consumers who live near the Marcellus Shale and may be opposed to fracking, now have a “solution-oriented option” available to them, according to Clay Bedwell, Director of Energy Operations at The Energy Co-op. The Energy Co-op has just pat- ented the first RNGCs, which it sells to natural gas users to off- set their use of traditional natural gas with renewable natural gas that comes from landfills. “We are looking to have a simi- lar effect as RECs. The real objective of the RNGC is to add value to those organizations that are productively using biogas in a way that offsets pipeline gas,” explained Eric Kravitz, Director of Business Development. He added: “Just like RECs add value to people operating wind farms or solar farms, RNGCs are a financial incentive for people to operate and further develop landfill gas operations.” Landfill gas has a lower BTU count and can be used directly by industrial users with modified equipment that can run on it.

Landfill Gas To Power in Florida

At the end of an 18-mile transmission line an Orlando Utili- ties Commission (OUC) substation in St. Cloud, Florida receives power from a 9.8-MW CB&I facility that is powered by land- fill gas from Progressive Waste Solutions. The gas comes from decaying garbage and would otherwise be destroyed by burn- ing off in a flare. HR Green designed the facility and specified all of the gas treatment, compression, and generating equipment, which con- sists of six Caterpillar 3520C low-BTU fueled generator sets. The gas chilling and compression equipment was provided by

The gas chilling and compression equipment was provided by The storage tanks at Allpress Farms. Credit:

The storage tanks at Allpress Farms. Credit: EnviTec Biogas UK.

storage tanks at Allpress Farms. Credit: EnviTec Biogas UK. Exterior intake fans at CB&I’s waste-to-energy

Exterior intake fans at CB&I’s waste-to-energy facility in Florida. Credit: HR Green.

Bioenergy Landfill Gas Specialties, a subsidiary of CB&I. According to Douglas G. Tholo, President of

Bioenergy

Landfill Gas Specialties, a subsidiary of CB&I. According to Douglas G. Tholo, President of HR Green’s Energy Business Line the total project budget was $18,700,000, which includ- ed the electrical interconnect with OUC. HR Green’s por- tion of the total budget was $13,900,000 and the project was brought in under budget at a total project actual cost of

$14,292,145.

Skip the Landfill Altogether

In late February, energy- from-waste (EfW) company

Covanta released its 2014 sustainability report that showed that the company has helped produce 9.8 million MWh of clean ener- gy and reduced waste going to landfills by 20.7 million tons. One of the ways it has reduced landfill waste is through its zero-waste-to-landfill initiative, which assists companies in find- ing ways to reduce materials consumption, re-use materials, recycle, compost and use anaerobic digestion and then recover- ing whatever waste is left through EfW facilities. In September 2014, Rochester-NY based Diamond Packag- ing achieved zero manufacturing waste-to-landfill status with Covanta’s help. Zero manufacturing waste to landfill is defined by Diamond Packaging as 100 percent landfill waste diversion through a combination of recycling and energy recovery solutions. In Dia- mond’s case it accounts for all waste related to the manufacture of folding cartons, including paperboard, plastic, metal, industri- al waste, and regulated waste, with the exception of construction and demolition (CD) waste.

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Elizabeth Ingram is managing editor of Hydro Review and HRW-Hydro Review Worldwide magazines for PennWell

Elizabeth Ingram

is managing editor of Hydro Review and HRW-Hydro Review Worldwide magazines for PennWell Corp.

and HRW-Hydro Review Worldwide magazines for PennWell Corp. Hydro Here and Now H Money problems And

Hydro Here and Now

H

Money problems

And the African Development Bank approved at least US $138 million in financing to develop the 147-MW Ruzizi 3 project between Rwanda and the Democrat- ic Republic of Congo. But, on occasion, a hydro proj- ect just works out to be unprofitable to develop. This was the case in the state of California in the U.S., when the Sacramento Municipal Utility District announced it would proceed with construction of the 400-MW Iowa Hill pumped-storage project. From initial cost estimates of $520 million in 2007, projected cost had risen to $1.45 billion in 2016 and SMUD said, “… it is likely there will be more economical alternatives for satisfying Sacramento’s energy stor- age needs in the long term.” Money is always going to be an issue, I suppose that will never change. And if the money needed to develop the world’s vast hydro- power potential, and help ensure clean electricity for its inhabitants, isn’t available through more tra- ditional channels, there is a need to change the formula. That’s why many countries are seeking to attract private investment funds. Unfortunately, that shift means the entire hydropower market must be even more focused on finances, to ensure the return on investment justifies the outlay. But if all of those important aspects can come together, I see a bright future for hydropower worldwide!

Hydropower worldwide

faces numerous challeng-

es, and most of these cross

geographic boundaries.

These challenges can range from

opposition to new development from

environmental groups and local

stakeholders to the need for reha-

bilitation of aging facilities to the

importance of properly managing

cross-border water resources. But the challenge I see the most:

Coming up with the money. For example, very recently the country of Georgia reached out to its neighbor Iran to invest money in the construction of hydroelec- tric plants. Only about 20 percent of Georgia’s water supplies are used to generate power, and more elec- tricity is needed. The money shortage is even a problem for hydro projects under construction. In Zimbabwe, work halted on the 12-MW Tokwe-Mukosi plant while the government sought to raise $60 million needed to complete the dam and pay contractors. This isn’t the first time work on this facil- ity has been halted for financial rea- sons; it happened in 2008 as well. There is money out there, as recent transactions show. The World Bank Group is providing a loan of US $22.5 million to help Nepal imple- ment its Power Sector Reform and Sustainable Hydropower Project.

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[ cont from pg. 49]

capacity) if little energy is gen-

erated from renewable sources. As opposed to thermal power stations, pumped storage power plants are able to react in the shortest possible time to grid frequency fluctuations, by generat- ing the required electricity or by absorbing any excess. Modern systems need only thirty seconds to start the pumps or turbines up from a stand- still. In the event of a black out, pumped storage power plants can support and control the com- plex grid restoration process through their black

start ability. At present, they are the only avail- able energy storage facilities that have undergone large-scale technical testing, act as flexible loads or generators in the grid, and make significant contributions to grid stability and therefore secu- rity of energy supplies. With the current state of technology, there is only one possibility for achieving the flexibility needed for today’s grid in an economically via- ble, large-scale way: with the help of pumped storage plants.

the

Last

WORD

Why Pumped Storage Hydropower Needs More Attention in the Energy Storage Discussion

Heike Bergmann

is a member of the board of management at Voith Hydro responsible for sales and marketing. She began her career in 1996 at ABB Calor Emag Schaltanlagen AG. After that, she became a commercial director at Areva Energietechnik until the company was acquired by Alstom Grid.

until the company was acquired by Alstom Grid. As most people know, the produc- tion and

As most people know, the produc- tion and consumption of electricity do not always match. Both in industrial and developing countries with a ris- ing need for energy, there are daily fluctuations in the electricity grid. In the future, as power generation by wind and PV increases, electricity generation will at times be far above the load (in case of strong wind and high solar radiation) and, likewise, far below the load (in case of weak wind and low solar radiation) in an increasing number of hours. In addi- tion, it must be expected that upward and downward jumps of renewable generation will be rising, especial- ly in the short-term time frame (cloud movements, wind fronts and calms, etc), which will be difficult to predict accurately. Pumped storage power plants are ideally suited to help even out these frequent changes between electricity shortages and surpluses, thus could significantly prevent the curtailment of renewable generation. The principle behind pumped stor- age is both simple and ingenious at the same time. Pumped storage power plants are an energy storage sys- tem and a hydroelectric power plant in one. If there is surplus power on the grid, the pumped storage power

station switches to pumping mode: an

electric motor drives pump turbines, which pump water from a lower res- ervoir to a higher storage basin. If the demand for electricity in the grid rises, water is released from the upper basin via a pressure pipeline to the bottom. The water causes the pump turbines to move, which now operate in turbine mode and are used in turn to drive the generators. Within sec- onds, electricity is generated and fed back into the electricity grid. Electricity generation dialogue today assumes that it will be possible to forego storage by focusing on grid expansion and the future increase of production and consumption flexibil- ity. Some experts propose compensat- ing for the volatility of renewable ener- gy by building controllable and highly flexible new thermal (gas) plants and by promoting the use of demand side management, disconnecting consum- ers in the industrial and private sec- tors. However, there are two impor- tant challenges which have not been considered enough. One is the avail- ability of sufficient flexibility in the grid when generation from renew- able energies is very high. And the other is ensuring the system adequa-

cy (reliable available

[ cont on pg. 48]