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Spiro N.

Pollalis

Case Studies on
Management and
Technology in the
Design Process
with
Alberto Diaz-Hermidas
Jan Fischer
Elizabeth Gould
Thom Kurmel
Thom McQuilien
Caroline Otto
Suzanne Thompson
Jane Wernick

Bouwkunde TU - Delft
I
lil

lIiI 111

I I

University
University of Technology
(31-15) 78 41 59
fax (31-15) 7831 71

TPO'p'UI"n~ JL""'''-''LL.LL.UU''........ I'O:''''"' Bibliotheek Den

the Design Process /

"''-u........ , ... '" / management of technology I

© 1993 N.

The model in the pen;pectIve


S.N. Pollalis and Lab1oratory
Design, Harvard Uni'v'erslty
Estate Management was created as one
"'IJ\,~""'.U"'.U.LJ""'U. v"~.1.V,.,,J in the School of
.....

of Delft, as part of its re-organization two


constitutes an interdisciplinary
CTA ..l"'IA'.... T

technology, finance, law,


..... "">.LhA.... ' marketing.
to both insight skins,
<:>rlr\nt~.rl case studies as
. l I . J V U .....L".LLL'VLL" primary
during that period, based

the last two years, our has worked closely with S.N.
of to C'T-r~·nCT·Tt"I""n international presence. This book,
of
,,"" ..... "" ......... A.h at is a result of this
very successful vV'JI-".,A.U"A.VJlA..

Architecture
tomy
work in this
1987. The cases have been
Harvard have Av,n",,,,,,cc':'rI
as of my 1"A<:lf"'t\'11"Il'r

Harvard

cases can in vacuum fr om the


alone, would insufficient to
.........., ... .n,,,,, ....
issues involved. The cases provide the framework to
""'U'"".Up.HOU>.

" " " •• .LJ-, ....... "" the relationships between technology, organization structure, and
..... "" .... UH.'U'.L.L in architectural, engineering and construction firms.
J.J.J.U.J.'U.J..LE,

Over a years, I had fruitful discussions on the case studies method and
how it is on and history, with Prof. Seiler
Prof. Ted Happold of Bath University, of
Howard Burns of I would like also to express my
appreciation to the many contributors to the cases who provided material,
researched, and documented these cases. Furthermore, I would like to thank my
student Alberto Diaz-Hermidas, who developed case studies 5 and 6, as part of his
doctoral dissertation on the lnfluence of Delivery Methods on Architectural
Projects: Case Studies from the Seville Expo'92, and who me in the
preparation of the graphics in the as my former Thom
Kurmel, who case 4, as of his 1""1"'.. 1""'......

of Technology in Hospital (1991). I


Ben Sam
preparatlcm of the r n .... nllc'r>l'l1nt"
NTE

List of

List of ................................................................................................................ xxiii

The Case Studies in

PART I
THE

THE
1.1
1.2 Planning the New England Medical
1.3 Historyof
1.4

1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9

THE CAFE .................................................................................................. 27


2.1 28
2.2 Cafe Voltaire in Lincoln, Massachusetts .......................................... .
2.2.1 Architect's Fees ............................................................................ .
2.2.2 30
2.2.3
2.3 The Consultant's Report ............................................................................ 32
Breakdown of 32
33
2.3.3 of Resources ............................................................... 34
2.3.4 Network Diagram
2.3.5 The Path ..LvuÁv,.......... ..
Á •

2.3.6 Gantt
2.3.7 Accounts
2.3.8 Quantified Bar Chart
2.4 The Meeting Frost. .................................................................... 42
ALPHA AND
3.1
3.2
3.3

3.7

3.8

PART 11
DUR/NG

MADIGAN ARMY MEDICAL CENTER ....................................................................... 59

4.2.8

4.2.10
4.3 Construction
1
.2
4.3.3
4.3.4

THE
............ 84
5.2 86
Design
5.4 Bidding
5.5 Construction ................................................................................................. 99
5.5.1 Earth 99
5.5.2 Foundations ................................................................................. 100
5 walis ............................................................................. 101
5.5.4 Exterior walIs .............................................................................. .
Interior Structure ......................................................................... 104
5.5.6
5.5.7
5.5.8 finishes ............................................................................. 111
Stnlcture ......................................................................... 113

THE PAVILION OF THE HOLY


6.1 The Building
6.2

6.3
6.4
6.4.1

6.4.3 structure ......................................................................... .


6.4.4 Enclosure ...................................................................................... 137
6.4.5 .......................................................................................... 138
6.4.6 Paving .......................................................................................... .
6.4.7 Exhibition contents .................................................................... 142
InteriOl' 143

PART 111
EVALUATING EX/ST/NG

THE GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE. .................................................................................. 1 51


7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 152
7.2 Suspension Bridges ................................................................................... 153
7.2.1 .......................................................... 153
7.2.2 ................................................................................ 1
7.3 The Golden Gate ........................................................................... 156
7.4 The Design of the .......................................................................... 158
7.5 Construction of the 159
7.5.1 The Site and Foundation ..................................................... 159
7.5.2 The Piers and the Towers ......................................................... ..
7.5.3 The Cables and the ................................................... 163
7.5.4 Further the Roadway ............................................... 165
7.6 The Fiftieth Celebration ............................................................................ 168
...................................................................... 175
8.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 176
8.2 of at Bassano ........................................................... ..
8.3
8.4

PART IV
RENOVATIONS

A TIMBER ......................................................................... 195


9.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 196
The House its ....................................................................... ..
Damage Assessment .......................................................................... .
The Detailed ................................................................................ 200
Some U"""''''r'>",,,,rl U'U.LU'..LV.L.L •.::l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

THE INTERlOR ....................................................211


10.1
10.2

10.3

10.4 Construction I-'rr\I~"'C'C'


VSMS as an
VSMSasa~~"Á~Á"~m'~~~Á~H
VSMS as a Recording Device .................................................... 237
10.5 .I."".LU.U.I..I.F, the Rest of the ...,.. ,..,.10.",.
xv

PART V
AND

Environment ........................................................... 248


Bridge Engineers' Use of
Considerations for bxlpanslO:n ....
! ..i " ..1rh "' ...

of '"-'VJ..UI-l .... "''-'.l ,"-,VJ."'''UL.UU..lJc"",'

.................................................................................... 275

FIGURE ....................................................................................................... 277

TABLE OF ........................................................................................................280
PART I
THE

THE
1.1.
1

1.4.

1.7.

Fig. 1 A CfCIss-sel;llOill
schematically) .
1.15. Transformation of a funicular truss into an arch
Schodek, 22
1.16. Arches and Schodek, 1980) .................................. 23
supports of the bridging structure ...................................... 24
The proposed "Mega-Truss" stluctural 0V.l.UU'VJ."

THE .................................................................................................. 27
2.1. The chart for Café Voltaire project on a
scale, as originally r\I<}-n-n~~rI ................................................. 34
The node arrow n"'TnT,r~n
2.3. The Network
Gantt chart the tasks as planned and as
executed ........................................................................................ .
two dimensions ..................... .41
the Café Voltail'e project,
42
ALPHA AND FACIUTY ............ 43
3.1. The ......................................................................................... 45
3.2. Elevation the slope of the ................................... 50
3.3. The schematic of the ...................................... 51
The grid the location ofthe
is shown ....................................... 52
3.5. 3
3.6. Alternative cross-sections of the .................................... 53
3.7. main trusses .......................... 5 4
nr~(,lt1icr of the

building ........................................................................................... 55
3.9. Alternative configurations of wind for the
exterior walls. 6
3.10. of wind bracing for the building's
roof (plan shown) .......................................................................... 56

PART 11
CHANGES DURING

ARMY MEDiCAL ....................................................................... 59


4.1. ...'~·r-""·"~" in the Conlmerce
62
team ................................................................... .
..lY ..u ........U.f;;.,U..L.L General Hospital design, approval, and

4.4. Isometrie ............................. 66


Conventional versus Integrated Building ................. 67
Building in the Engineering News
lp(',prnhpr 18,1986) ............................................. 70

,,,,1""'''1''1",,," contractor in the Commerce


1"1""\ ...

construction and Inrc.rr... ".r""rt


Construction and management team .......................................... 76
Imaging Network ................................. 78
<'11-.-nrn">",{1 and 80
Medical Center ....... 81

PAVILION ..................................................................................... 83
Plan and (Cruzcampo Pavilion:
Pavilion ofThe 73) ............................................... 85
Model of the Cruzcampo pavilion presented
,,,,n,,,,,~-nn,,"r 1989 ...................................................................................... 87
Beer plant schematic .... '-'u.... ""J. .•••

Lower basement plan ................................................................... 90


plan.
lJULJ""' ....... v ......

5.8.
5.9.
5.10.
5.11.
5.12.
5.13.
5.
5.15.
5.
5 .17. Exterior ducts and vents. East .L ..... ' - ' ,....... ...,.

5.18. Interior finishes. museum and bar .............................................. 110


5.19. Interim' restaurant area ................................................. 112
5 View of the structure ..................................................... 116

THE PAVIUON OF THE HOLY SEE ........................................................................ 117


6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.
6.6.
6.7.
6.8. cross
.L.J'V".'""U.U'-'JlHU.L "''-''-'U'VJ.J. . .

6.9. Transverse cross section............................................................ .


6.10. Construction of June 1991, by Dragados ....................... 132
1. Foundation and column bases .......................................... 134
6.12. Structure of the mezzanine ........................................................ 1
6.13. the curtain wan: September 1991 ....................... 138
6.14. of the
'--'<JU.J.j-" .. ..., ...L<J.LL wall: February
6.15. View of utility conducts ............................................. 140
6.16. Plan of the ground fIoor paving, dated October 1991. ........... 141
6.17. fIoor paving: late February 1992 ...... 142
6.18. fIoor 1 to 144
6.19. plan (roon1s and 145
6.20. 10to ........................... 145
6.21. L~'-'.L,.VUUJ.V of
6.22. View of the interior with the rnr""~l""fl 147
PART 111
EVALUA EXISTING STRUCTURES

THE GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE ................................................................................... 151


7.1. The Golden Gate Bridge ............................................................. 153
7.3. Use of deck ............................................................. 156
7.4. Strauss's for the Golden Gate .................. 157
Rush's proposal. ........................................................................... 158
Morrow's renderings his designs ................................ 159
7.8. '''a .....''nr for the Golden Gate ..................................... 161
7.9-10. of on the tower ................................................... 162
7.11-12. the f",,"n'I-"I'-'f' <.:.'11 <.:.'1"\,=>n<.:.'1

systenl ............................................................................................ l64


7.13-14. Roadway construction with a safety net.. ............................... 166
7. Opening celebration, 1937 and the Golden Gate Bridge
today ............................................................................................. 167
Fig. 7.17. 800,000 people (sixteen times the
arrived to celebrate the Golden Gate ~~~~'"'_
"1'-', ......-',.,, ." •••...•..•••.....•....• ".......... "....... ". ".......................... """ •. "" ........... ". 168
7. The the Golden
anniversary ................................................................................... 169
Fig. 7.20. The model of the as a truss and the appIied
loads at 173
7.21. rrAr"\1YH,t-ru of and the vertical
............................................................................................... 173
7.22. rr"'r~n-.~'tt"u of the bridge and the applied verticalload,
of the nodes 173

PALLADIO'S BRIDGE AT ..........-............... ...................................................................... 175


8.1. at Bassano ........................................ 176
8.2. ...................................................... 177
8.3. ~~~!..,~A.~A bridge ........................................ 178
.. ................................................ 180
The siting of the ............................................................. 180
8.6. The Palladian Bridge at Bassano ............................................... 181
Caesar's ............................................................................ 184
8.8. I-<'-"THn"'HT moments diagram for a uniform laad . .............. u~ 185 ......

8.9. Details the connections ......................................................... 185


8.10. The structural behavior of the arches ....................................... 186
8.11. Axial for a uniform load the
bridge ............................................................................................ 186
Fig. 8.12. Shearing forces diagram for a unifornl load along the
v .......... ;;;,v ............................................................................................ 187

8.13. The roof structure ....................................................................... 188


8.14. Displacements under loading ......................................... 189
8. The live loads acting on a bridge for vehicular traffic ........... 190
PART IV
RENOVATIONS AND

A
9.1. A
9.2. The <'001<11"\"

9.3. The LlV.l.lV.l.l.l'I..I.'-.lV

separation between the ........ 199


Fig. 9.4. The gap at the connection between
roof and the exterior walls ......................................................... 201
The of roof with and without 1 x f!

at .........
IJ.lVI.LVU A"'... " ' .... "

9.6. UV.lUU\.JH 1.1 (section) ................................................................ ..


1.2 (plan view) ............................................................. 206
'-'\.J ........H , H ..

9.8. Solution 1.3 (section and plan


9.9. u'",,,. 1.4 (section) ................................................................. .
'-'\.J .....

9.10. the for the horizontal


the roof to the .................................... 208

INTERIOR .................................................... 211


The scheduling for the renovation of
floors ............................................................................................. 212
The Gantt for the of the
26th 213
drawing of the renovation of the
v u .... '"""" ......... '''-A

floor ....................................................... ~ ...................................... 214


initial temp late for the of the
26th -'--'-'-,,-'-'- ........... .
The

A study to
extending the .... . . , ........ ,LL .... ....,

The control l.VAAJll-'-'-U,"V

renovation of 26th floor. ..................................................... 227


The temp late of October 23 progress), the
renovation of the 26th floor (continued).
The control at the completion of the renovation
of the 26th floor .......................................................................... 231
The control tenlplate at the of the renovation
ofthe 26th floor (continued) ..................................................... 232
10.9. The architectural drawing of the renovation of the 34th
.............................................................................................. 238
10.10. for scheduling
LVH..IIJJ.ULv

34th

PART V
AND

BRIDGE INC ........................................................................................243


11.1. Organizational chart
11.2. Progress chart for a typical

AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY ......... 251


map of the pilot project, linking the . . .u.... 'V ... J.JlU... L.HJH

2000 ................................................................................................ 256


.........".o/",-

map ...... 259

physical the 1900-1909


period. Buildings shown gray existed prior to
Buildings shown in were constructed or ' l ..... rlll1,,,ori

h",t,n;ro",'n 1900 and 1909 ............................................................. 268

Fig. 12.9. the space of


Computation
12. A drawing showing the relative sizes roonlS
the Laboratories ....................................... 270
1. announcement of ADE in the World,
November
PART I
THE

THE CAFE .................................................................................................. 27


The chart the Voltaire as
planned .............................................................................................. 33
Table 2.2. The actual allocation of resources for the project as
executed ........................................................................................... .
Table 2.3. The accounts receivable for as '-'L-'-!">-'--'--'-'........ L.J

planned and as executed ................................................................ 40

PART 11

....................................................................... 59
Table 4.1. Square footage program, 1979.
Table 4.2. Quotes from the industry on IB ..................................................... 68
Table Construction phasing and bid amount (Government

THE PAVILION .................................................................................... 83


Table Cruzcampo budget. ........................................................ 86
Table 5.2. Built surface areas (m2) ................................................................... 90
5.3. and actual
LlJ. ........UAJlF. (l,OOOs 98

THE PAVIUON OF THE HOLY ........................................................................ 117


Table 6.1. Built Surface Areas (m2) ............................................................... 124
Table Design, bid and actual construction (1000s ....... 129

PART 111
EVALUATING EX/ST/NG

THE :JEN 151


Table 7.1. The the nodes the
computer model. ............................................................................. 174
Table 7.2. The mechanical properties of the .................................. ..
...................................................................... 175
Table 8.1.

PART IV
AND

A ......................................................................... 195
Table 9.1. for the ""rn .... '·'i-o.·

members for the computer

THE RENOVATION A INTERlOR ....................................................211


Table 10.1. Productivity by task, v.:>o..J..U.jUo..vu.

........................................................................................................280
t""-:lr>h'lnrr is not sufficient to cover

donlains of Courses deliver


infornlation and knowiedge, such as history, theory, structures,
engineering, finance, ecology, etc., are offered parallel to studios. On-going
debates question the appropriateness of those lecture courses and propose that
they should be integrated studio. However, such arguments neglect the long
tinle required in each studio exercise. If studio were the only source of
information, the prospective architect would not to the required body
of in the few studios one can take hislher studies.

A third educational nlethod '-''-'J'h)~.l'"U'''''''''''


used in the of " ... ,~h,"",ro""",,,

process or on how a .... ....,.HF-,JL.l'-'..l

problems. These cases refer either to


,"I_"~'.d.L.L'-' or r>rtt-.t""'rY'I1",,, ... c:> .. ,r v ....,l..l ....... .l.lA"'.

However, especially for contemporary buildings, cases


omitting completely crucial U':>I../'-''-''-':> of the process, regardless how decisive the
been in these cases may onlit
of the built or environmental
for those cases
U.AU''-,",'''",U"

by many
.... '-' ...,...,.U.J.j.JUlU .....-'''""'-

case to ,...rH·.,tarY\ ....'n. .. ,...... ~1 U' ...." .... '-'- .......... I-,"',

r>"r'r>a,,,,r of the studio than the lecture courses.

study hunlan
on how to and in real world
Interestingly enough, he juxtaposes both schools with the '.''-''''',",,",UJ

where, observes, research teaching has deviated from actual


focuses on solution of problems with idealized and often unreal n-rn,nAl-h
parameters.

This book proposes to employ the case studies method in a highly structured way,
as a complementary teaching method to both studio and lectures. Accepting the
parallel between design and managenlent, cases in this book follow the
structure of the cases by the Harvard Business School. Like those
the student with questions instead of providing
answers. planned throughout the development of the
the case a has to be made. At
there are no and wrong answers. What in the actual
case is often irrelevant. students should understand the issues involved and
propose a account the data that have been
"",·~~",anTc.r1 in the case, or additional can case
n-"~~"""" to the case. Process is equally inlportant in the development of the case,
and consideration should be given in the environment that the decisions are made.
Similar to the cases of the Harvard Business School, the cases on this book can be
u. ....J'v ....
.:>.:> ...'u. In a environment within a short time period. Although students

1 Because Wisdom Can 't be Told C.I. HBS, Note No. 451-005, 19 October 1940.
need to intensively, as it is outlined
to occur within an 80 minute
..... ...",."-F-, . . ..., .....

for each case study is the di ametrie opposite of


single problem usually occupies several weeks. Furthermore, it is
than lecture courses, as it exemplifies decision making in a real world '-"""u.......'", ...

boosts class participation, and assists in the development of interpersonal

while the rigor between management and design cases


their subject is entirely different. case studies
__ .",....,.'" and the construction process, ""h
u ....." ................

the decisions to
of the design process, and should reflect
design process. Such a notion is particularly important, is a business
aspect in the practice of and case studies could easily shift towards an
entirely business case. 2

the intensive and short duration of the cases l'prlH1'rpc

available cases to convey a large body of knowledge over


of cases should focus on a variety of subjects, while
same well-defined structure.

The educational process of the case studies method has four components: 3
., individu al analysis and preparation,
optional informal ".... U. . . -z::.l

., classroom . . ..lu".. 'UClCl.l'V.U,

The should follow a student' s habits.


No for every student. the could
serve a student in for a case discussion in the
The student should browse over the case, to the issues raised
in the case and the information that is provided for analysis.
A careful study of the case should follow, concentrating on the major
problems that an answer. The student should try to identify with the
pers ons who problems in case.

2 i.e., the case on The Architects Callabarative, 1973, HBS, No. 9-582-961.
3 An Intraductian ta Cases by Benson P. Shapiro, 1984, HBS, No. 9-584-097.
4 Leamillg the Case Methad by J.S. 1980, HBS, No. 9-376-241.
The should make a note VVJlV.L'A'" on scratch paper and
revisit the case, sorting out the for each problem area.
Analytical tools should be as
• The student should develop a set of '-'V,JJ..U..UJ.VHu.'.... ~.nJ.h' supported by his/her
analysis of case data.

Each case provides information on the questions, which should


used as a guide for preparing for the
$ is the protagonist?
What are his or ....U U J . u " ' · ... ~ or explicit)?
make?

>Ju,",.... '-'- answer following

Wh at problems, opportunities, and do 1, as the protagonist, face?


$ What evidence do I to the evidence reliable
and unbiased? 11rnnrr\"p

alternative courses of
• criteria should I use to
What action should I
111 How should I in case and in the classroom my

/11 How cases and my own "live" V1,.~JV.LjlV.L .. ''"'VLJ

the individual student' s ...... c'n.-..·" ..,.r\n


students should data
VJ.U.J.J.VJLU, as if the group prepares for the
' ..U"'''''U''''''.L'U.L.L, wh ere there is no
the classroom

a student to open the


-tr<:>rn"'lU/"\rlr and the tone for the
environment, to
the important control. The
instructor may intervene with sm all lectures on either during the
discussion, or at the end of For .LlJ."'~,",.L.l"'- quantitative u'-',,,.,
LLU.'-'.L.L.u....

a preparation of visual AAL<"'''''''-.'-'''-'' such as slides,

5 An Intraductian ta Cases hy Benson P. 1984, HBS, No. 9-584-097.


TH"I ' ' ' " / 1 P ,",",,,,,,,-,-,--,-,-,.1.-'-,, material for "'H'.....
-n-........

should be raised ~~LLLLI->

to ask "what happened" in the case. In


"'"...,.... VU"LJ case
is not
.... ""'-'''-' "JI'-.l.UC since what happened may not
answer to the raised class.
ron/.rH'"," to what nal)pe~nelJ,
an

1.

stu<lles . . . . .v"...... "" ..... is demanding both students and


discus sion, rigorous analysis of
controversy. case studies
complements "''''''-'''''''''.'"''-', information, whether a theory or
in itself improves . . . u,'""!'..,..... " 11'\"'''''''''''''''' ability to act wisely under
conditions of responsibility."7

6 Case at Harvard Business School: Same Advice New Faculty,


Applegate, on the collective wis dom of HBS tea(~hlfLg faculty, HBS,
9-189-062, revised 1993.
7 Because Wisdom Can 't be Told by C.I. HBS, Note No. 19 October 1940.
When the design team chooses J ohn N evins, a senior
uv •. u .......... engineer with Simpson and Heger, proposes a viabie solution
to support the 8 floor high Floating hospital above Washington Street. This
structural solution interferes the owner' s and the about the
building and it is The case the
planing to making the of
building. In addition to .l.l.l ....l..v\..j,u.....,.L.I.J.F', 0"'U.Y.V.L.l"'0

design process, the case .lJ..lE,.l.l.lJ..5J..l'\.."

1. What is
for the

2. do order to derive to the design that she likes most?


How should she work with Nevins and the other decision makers?
3. What has been role of Harlow up to now? What should
if in order to reach a best solution for owner? What
constitutes a best solution ?
4.

PrrJITP('l:'nrSpiro N. Pollalis this case as a basis for class discussion


either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative
l.1l1J.«trntp
situation, a process or a design itself.
" ..... "' .... 'o-I"f- © 1987 N. Pollalis.
4

.1
"The most efficient way to support a
is to use the four-story
Engineering, lnc. ro.rr"\'CJ..~r structural for
addition of the new Hospital for Infants and
..--""1'1'01,1"" .LVULLJ.J.J'""

to the
'-',LUCL",,"L,",",,", Center Hospitals Boston. Nevins had
TJ,""' .... ,,""',"''-

its inceptiçm and was aware of its programmatic


He had carefully assessed ramifications of
solution with respect to the design criteria and found
the other members of the design team did
not agree with his conclusion.

Master the New England Medical


developed by The Architects '-''-'",LU-UVL

the Tufts-N ew England Medical Center' s

Infants and Children 1 was one of the three hospitals of


Medical
A-iJ.J.f,OJ. .....LJ. ..... Hospitals (NEMCH) with the
University Schools of Medicine and Dental Medicine. In the 1960s New
LJ.L.Lh" ..... ,""'-" Me,dical Center Hospitals and Tufts University
-'-''-''t.,'-.....,,'''-'' Medical Center (T -NEMC) to address the future of the n-\Cl>I'1'I'O

A three-month commissioned by T -NEMC in had ""''''''11''11''''11


rather than moving to the suburbs
hospital, it should remain in its existing location to 0J.U,J.UJ.U,UJlvVU0J.

other traditional role (which went back to 1796)


care in the inner city. New and a new
medical center to the
neighborhood was physically .... ...,"V.uLVJ.'.... L,UliF"

of center.

i,,",,"'J1:'''"'',u gained its name because it used a to get the children out onto
air.
1.1. The New England Medical nO~ïDll:alS area.

on~anlze;C1
Boston Redevelopment Authority had no
to
UUUC'-'.1.V the South Cove, so set up
office under the leadership of Hermann
!-'.1.UiJ.ii ..lJ.J.5 Based on large part
0I..U\..U V 0 Dre~DaJreC1 by the BRA applied for Planning which
of in consultation with T-NEMC and community
Plan the South Cove Area, which was

with the Tufts-New England Medical Center's


groups and theusers of the
the development of
to all

e Symbolically, l"Arl1·Ac,c>nr,,,,rI a
entity, still to
• Professionally, promoted social interaction and v.n ...n ......u.LF,'-' among
in different
V..L\.-,"'C>Jl'VH.U."O (physicians were more to meet
because their departments connected horizontally rather than
towers).
Functionally, the continuous floor areas permitted reassignment of
space garden courts through the
VJ..1.LUJ.F,V'-'-,

top two floors allowed all "J.v.u. " IJ "


over
without taking u ... !'-, ...... .uc ... ...., ........... v UU.\.u....lV.l.l,'-U

to build to great heights.


-rt:>.rll11'rt:>.rj

than the public


from the outside, people passing on
foot or by cal', would experienee a major public space seen
"Great , open to sky as a hollow through
"megastrueture", formed an arrival point with
hospital, the adult hospital and the other elements of New J..' ....-,u..L''''''·U .L.I.l.lF,.LU'.l.l\"'-

Center Hospitais. Washington Street would be widened to t'\t:>.r·An-,t:>.

street2 which would be a major approach to downtown and the --1YlAo-':.CT"l1

bridging Washington Street would become asymbolie gateway to the downtown


area the city.

, 1

1 I1

1.2. aMegastructure" proposed by TAC.

2 At that time Washington Street was a narrow one-way street.


surrounding
A.",",'-'lJiiJ.~ all hospital
area west of
Washington Street to be given over to retail
storefront activity for pedestrians. Walkways, open
the downtown retail area to the north, the theater district to the west, Don Bosco
School to the south and, over Washington Street by a pedestrian the
Chinese community to east. A subway kiosk brought pedestrians to
trains the new rapid transit tunnel which would run through the site.

experience of moving through


by car, was extensively studied
1968, the New England Center v'-'IJ... '~U..LL~ ..L ....

rights concept building over Washington


ImpraveInents Commis sion the City Boston,
designs and models.

to form New 1Ylo .. .,.c.ri


""""-''-'--'-''-'U-'- A-I.1.1.F,U;'.U'-'-

Hospital for
-'-'-' ....' .. i.LJL~ .lL.1.1............. '.. "

entity anymore but it to


plan, the Floating Hospital . . VL.I..I. ... '""' . . .

, extending from Tremont across


1.2). In 1970, the Tremont Street end of that site was
to parking garage, which would be accessible to theater district patrons (ta
the garage financially self-supporting). The Floating was proposed to
become an L-shaped forming rest of the edge of the
and down east side of Washington Street.

Floating Hospital (which it


VU.LH.UJ..L.F, a free standing building in Street,
for both schemes
of health

plans for
co st of the L-shaped scheme, a IJ-'-"-'-'->';''-U''''''
Street, based on a structural design proposed
structural consultants the master plan study.

3 The Boston UU;peJ1Salry the Ll'_~+.~.~ Hospital and the New bn~~larld Center nm;pwu.
1.3. design of the building proposed

a cutback in federal funding, the increased difficulty of fund-raising, the


extremely money market, and the quicldy-rising trend of construction costs
led to a general slowdown the development timetable of the medical center. So,
when decision was made to go ahead with the of the
Floating Hospital in the only major of the master plan had
been constructed were dental
(shown as unit IA on Fig. I

1
"""H'I'>TP of the Master New
decided that the

4 By 1974 the role of the Tuft-New Medical Center had dramatically shrunk. New
England Medical Center Hospitals carried out the design of the addition of the new
revised the
requirements for the new addition (Fig. 1 Harlow:
The scope of the of the present Boston Floating
Hospita1 5 , puIling into one structure in- and out-patient care for
fJ ..... at the medical center... It' s important to
Ul.lUC'L.l ... " that the facilities will
be a part of the total health care center and in the design of the facilities this
should remain paramount. At the same it is desired that the identification of
the Floating Hospital continue and a of the program is an identifiable
pediatrie facility which would be the Floating Hospital, its own entrance.

Ground 14,150 4.73%


1 13,150 4.39%
2 44,000 14.70%
3 56,650 18.92%
4 56,650 18.92%
5 56,350 18.82%
6 40,000 13.36%
7 18.400 6.15%
TOTAL 299,350 100.00%

GROSS SQUARE FEET

Pediatrie 45,124 57,500 20%


Operation Rooms 28,200 31,000 11%
Radiology 10,961 18,300 6%
Laboratory 26,388 30,500 11%
Adult Ambulatory
a. Clinics 33,081 17,000 6%
b. Offices 21,383 16,800 6%
Rediatric
a. Clinics 32966 45,100 16%
b. Offices 21,061 32,500 11%
Administrative and
General Services 30,836 36,300 13%
TOTAL 250,000 285,000 100%

1.4. Gross square teet per schematics dated October

After with selected architectural firms, the partnership of


to design the Floating
""h.JLF,LLV .... .L.L'UUUJ''''......

5 i.e. the LJU.L.1UUL M of the HI,,~hrlcr .LJlV"IJ.U<JLi.


The experience the interviewed tean1 in .LLVLJIJJ.LU.l

for assignn1ent 6 . The architectural firn1 made it procedure to


all parties concerned the
Áu.'",.I..U.'u.._v~ the communication an10ng the owner, the architect
and allowed discussions of the project n"' ... All,..,.hrH'
'"'".l.J.. .,., ...... "team think" by Elizabeth

1 The brochure for Perry,


force behind it:

"The supporting engineering are an integral part of the architect' s


team. We must have them on board at the very As the design team
begins to develop design criteria sheets, involving the environmental
arise. In with the Field method, structural and
mechanical must be asked and answered. We our to
..... ,... rh,,,,,, considerable evidence about systems within the plant, desired
eqluplmeint clJmpatlblJlltH~s and All of these that all
dU;Cl!)1111es be available as team members at the outset.

HOSPITAL US ERS

lnpatientiOutpatient

Certificate of Need

1.5. flow in the design organization.

6 The professional fees for the


commented: "They (the hospital were dealing with honorable people".
7 The partnership of Perry, Dean and Stewart was incorporated as Dean, Stahl and
on January 1, 1976. .
1

1
The land available the Hospital in was in two parcels: one was
west
i\J\..'U"'-,U Washington Street and was marginally utilized by the ..... ....,,"1-'.1. ........1..
contained a parking lot and a small (Fig. 1.6); the other ":HiJ.I.-I.J.J.'",-J.

the east side of Washington Street, adjacent to the existing


medical complex. In addition, the City had agreed to
building could bridge over Washington Street. soil analysis V'-' ...... <-"L.I.'-'.I. .• ..., .....

the was clay over a solid base of rock. The


and Aldrich, reported that a further analysis the ground v\JiiUil_iV~~c)
underground conditions. There was a
VVJLJ.C>"..LU.1..LJ..I..I..LF,

subway located at the south end of the west


old subway tunnel veered to the
under Washington Street and
on Washington at the site of the
IAf"''lT"':>.rI

community pointed out in


the medical center garage on 'Vv,. .I. ..... .I. ...A.V.l.U-',

Washington Street (Fig. 1.6).

1
and shape of
iV'-'I.-I.l-J..V.1.J. building was the agenda for
6, 1976 8 . An initial thought was to locate the
However, sueh a solution
,....t:>.,!yn"'r -n,~1"1'Yl1tt",rl nor desirabie a
also have tó be
Street part of the .... u ............... "" ......, ......

to the
eXlstlng subway tunnels
Washington Street was a to connect
the new facilities, though such a solution faced
architectural problems.

8 The sat idle for more than a year.


VUI.,LLU.nc site.

the was the available lot east of


adjacent building. Although this was
significantly smaller than the lot west of Washington Street, it did not involve the
design of a skywalk and would be a continuation existing medical con1plex.
George Harlow cOlnmented:
Structures should be developed in such a way as to tie in with
range structural on the site. Of is to
this time where a new bed tower for adult patients might be located as weIl as
relocated emergency This does not mean that additional
beds will be added in the future, but it is space
for some of the older bed areas be 1.6) ... The site
must be planned in such a way as to separate the various forms of traffic which
must be accommodated. These inc1ude inpatient, and service traffic.

In addition, the construction management team pointed out that erecting the major
portion of the building on the east side of Washington Street would be even more
expensive the west side. The lot was smaller than the west side and there
was not sufficient open space surrounding it. Thus, it would be necessary to hire
a crane order to comply with the BRA requirement to Washington Street
This idea also shared many of the of
L U ...' U.." .....L.UC"- the inevitabie of a rise building, and was th"" ...""i-n. ..".

WANG CEN'1'ER

1.7. The new

1
Spanning thc ~ULULAJ...,"VLÁ Street was the solution proposed the
TAC Mastcr Plan and The was to build a major
portion of thc hospital ovcr with sn1aller parts on the two
originally alloeated lots, east and west of Street. Sueh a solution
"'hHH.LL.;;;"vu'H

fulfillcd all thc objcetives: the lin1it on the ....u .•u.u.J'h was no langer an

the eonncction with the n1cdical was made and


Street
ULHHH.;;;;"'\../H an accessible thoroughfare.
were addressed throughout the design phase. Although N ew
purchased the air space from feet above
~~A~AAA"""~~'AA Street order to construct the building above the
Commis sion (prC) of the City had not vvJ..u. .I. ..u.\-v ..... ""iV''':>i'''Jl;:;;''

the street for construction purposes for an ~v .......... vu. V1!..

efficient construction scheme had to be "'n.nn'''' .... r.'-'"'


about construction: "My philosophy has
construction go hand in hand. It is very important that
construction operations".

span of 120 feet and the massive construction of


were the main construction considerations.
Barr and hired by hospital . . . ~. . U.l. ....L.l.U .............L'"'

design process from the very


management of construction. Wh en the '-''V'''.<'-''-''''''''

Street was presented at the "team


concern with the possibility that
in order to accommodate the . . . . . . . . v ... I-' ....... '-'''-'- vV.l.l.LIJ.LV..t>..iLH-,'"

problem was the limited


These constraints ""rI
1""'",r,n" ..

the street

The idea to span Washington Street


construction and design which now had to be . . . . . ,...... '-''''''' ...'. . .
"team think " meeting of
shape of the building cJlJuuJ.J.J..1.J.J.;:;;"

A building that went Street seemed to


..... ..., .............b ..."' ......

prudent solution. proposal


1.3) was considered, with ...................u.h to be constructed over and
on the east of Washington both and 'u. .L...I.l..l.'-' " "..

9 Barr and Barr was the construction management team of the Master Plan as wen.
disagreed with solution, arguing that it was too
the complex to give a sense of autonomy to
intentions this time were clearly defined. The building had to be ",,,,,,"\,,, ... ,,,1-,,,

A simple rectangular low-rise building over Washington Street


considered and rejected. George was not with this Uv •...,ULlClv

felt it, too, did not address sufficiently the autonomy of the
addition, a simple rectangle would have to be nearly twice as
Sll,!pe,a scheme and would cover approximately 200 feet along It
might overwhelm the street below, creating a dark, on the
pedestrian level.

The meeting of February 6, ended without <' ...... "',r"I"'r' ....... ,.." ".u;;;. ,u, ",,,,nr·lnC'1n ..~,,,

gave sufficient feedback to to proceed


design.

1
presented
..LI-'--'-'-'C"..Ul

of co st, aesthetics, function."


14 days with the other members of the
It recognized the need
aC'::::01nnl0(latea the various forms of
her showing

The building utilizes urban concepts of air and easements.


The spans across a street of Boston, a gateway to the
quickly re-developing theater district. The building makes functional use of the
space above the street while a new subwayentrance, a park with a
covered plaza, and retail space 1.10).

The scheme creates an exciting "'-','--',LJ-'-U'-'--'- the


the diagonal, dramatizing the new
for the city and the hospital.

10 Based on preliminary space requirements.


1.8. Two sketches the conceptual design.

1.9. The proposed building.


1.10. as "city space".

Hrl""i"'T\ ........ " " a r tfor a moment to all ow She was confident
made than any of schemes
the community succeeded
of complex, yet
.LA......' ........"" .......

stood apart from it with She


continued her presentation, v1"ltJ..L .....u ..u.J.J.F,

organization:
Geometric order as the basis of form is demonstrated in nature and art,
as in the logarithmic of the nautilus shell 1.11). The l1 ..... ,r!P.· ... ", ..... n-
geometric order of this is a 28 foot square: out of that, every
been n-Pl"'Pl"<'It,,·ri

Loft space for labs and rooms is a made of these' squares.


;:,peC1IlC IUIICtllOnS, such as the bedfloor, become circular a radius
from the grid point. The circular provides a maximum view and A.LLI".u u .....

for the beds while shortening circulation routes for staff. The
mechanical room required great and followed the 340 feet to
the extremes of the building (Fig. 1.12).

The stair tower on the southeast corner is the of the entire building. The
corner is where the building shifts from . . ...,,,· ....u.E>uu.u.... to to curve. It' s
where mass is dissolved as line and 1.8).
as farm.

mechanical (left)
(right).

1
Following Ericson' s pn~se:ntatlOn,
solutions to A1'Y'11"1nn,rl<::l1rp
O'i" ....

illlnmnal oVlertleaCl in construction costs.


"",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,'1"1 a set of trusses
the

11 John Nevins was the and The engineering


firrn was selected by architect. The hospital's enj~mleermg administration was glad to
approve such aselection based on a previous with the en!pmeering
firm.
that four trusses, "mega-trusses" as to their
size, would comfortably support the UJ.J.J.JLVCH structure
C'r\Q,nn-lncr 120 feet across the street (Fig. 1.13),

Proper selection of the of the trusses can assure that can easily span the
120 feet of Washington Street The trusses can be assembIed in
Their lower cords will be assembied and installed as a self-standing e1ememt,
supporting itself as a long slender beam. Then the diagonal and the vertical
members will be positioned and attached to the lower cord, above
Washington Street, while the street wi11 remain open to the traffic. The
construction of floors will follow, by the previously assembIed trusses.

Parking Garage

of 120 an
to the main direction
Fig. A cross-section of the
schematically).

The representative n1anagement con1pany liked this


alternative and U"'-Jl Vu,", VIJ'JCI"-'U CI'J.lUL.lV.l.lwas really advantageous with
respect to the

solution came so ~"C....1"T'"' about it there was


not much room N evertheless,
some additional views were . . ..,." .... '. . "n.rl

Robert Dean, a principle in the and Rogers,


proposed to examine use of firn1 was housed in the
Exchange building in and he always liked the exposed
....... ....,u vu'u.

dome above his two floors were hung by cables from the
dome itself. Dean ClU.f;;"F,'~O"'-'u..
A set of two or more arc hes across Street could support the
floors below with cables in a manner similar to the floors of the Grain '-'.".,~U""'jH5V
The structural arch and cables should be exposed. Such a
solve the structural problems and will be distinct in the manner described
Harlow and would create a gate on Washington Street.

reverse of an 0" ..........


r ....t-"'.rt on two towers, connected at
top with a heavy COlnpreSSlO,n .lLLV.l.lJ.LJV.I. proposed for The
Reserve designed by Gunnar
.LV.J.J.J.J.J.J.'-'UI-"V.l.lCl,

built in 1973, was a "'... o'"'orti",...... t- support of the 120


the Floating significantly simp Ier than the
had 330 feet of dear span. The two
be built at each side of Washington
connected by a horizontal compressive element at the top. After towers were
built, the cab les would be hung and the floors would suspended on
transferring the gravity loads through columns. The floor slabs would add 10
structural rigidity of the building.

the arch and cable structural were


experience dictated that trusses were a more feasible
problem. "Trusses work in a manner as the arches" said Actually,
the upper cord of a funicularly shaped tnlss could be considered as being
the lower part of the truss relieved the supports from hf""\1"1'7f""\,nT'=l

in tension 1.15). The cable structure could also seen as areverse


arch structure (Fig. 1.16).

(a) Funicularly truss for a series of identical and equally spaeed


concentrated Interstitial are zero-force members under
the Joading condition shown forces when the Joading
is a common type of bridge

(b) Transformation of (he truss shown in (a) in whlch the non-Ioad-carrying


interstitial members are eliminated and the function of the lower
(whlch acts as a tension tie) is replaced by buttresses. An "Areh"
structure results. Ir the Iinear of the structure shown are
oÎn-c;onnlecte:d. (he assembly is only under the loading condition

1.15. Transformation a funicular truss into an arch


1980).
(b) Cable forces. Only tension forces
are developed in a cabje. Maximum
forces occur at the reactions.

tll!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!I!!!!!!!!!!!!!I!I!1

(a) Arch forces. Only compression


forces are developed in an idea!
arch. Maximum forces occur at
reactions.

(after Schodek,

of a frame, to support the was


part of a neutral structural
not have a on the elevation
Street. John Nevins said the span almost prohibits such a C>V.LUL.lVH.•

steel girders or prestressed concrete possibly make it but


enormous sizes of members would structure grossly inefficient..
Nevertheless, Nevins promised to ..".n..... u.vu. and to carry out some

preliminary calculations order to U"lJ'-'~'~UHd."L,"""

1
J..U'-"vU.UF" J ohn N evins supported on
would be the best ''',..of''''........ "1-.. to span the 120 feet
This would give for a building that
the other proposed
"'-.LV.!.V..,.." C>VJLULJlViJlUO were also u.u.'_L.L'-',~,n,,'u.
Heger in an attempt to
solution.

trusses was ..,V.U .. !-,.LV,"-,U

is as a deeper truss in smaller


pro duce the "" . . . . .J, ................ moments. height of
specific floor; given the overall dimensions, Nevins the
triangular, four-stories the 120-foot-Iong truss a
looked quite
John N evins to use four trusses wide
structure (Fig. 1.18). Each truss was Four floors
were the truss structure, one was by it and two were SUt)DC)rte~d
above it. An average live load of 40 pSf 12 and an estimated 60
looked reasonable to the structural team for preliminary calculations and was
consistent with the building code, so each" interior truss would roughly 47
kips foot. The exterior trusses would be less loaded than the . . . . . "'. . . . . . '" . .
However, due to the design scheme, a portion of the rotated part
would have to be on Therefore their loads would not be
less than interior trusses. Each interiOl' truss would transfer "' ............... ,v1 ........ "'lra

2,800 kips on each side, to be supported the steel truss towers.


piles, each 19 fe et long and sunk into the bedrock, were designed to <'n ....' ...............
towers.

1.17. The supports of the bridging structure.

12 lndividual beams were designed for 100 psf, in order to accommodate the loads due
to hospital equipment. the main hearing elements surmortulg the total
area were designed for 40% of the loads of all contributory areas.
his asked an engineer in team to look at the
design. The search started
I-H.UL..LV..L.LU. a frame, with individual beams on every
floor. For the loads of 100 psf average13 and for a spacing of beams
every 12 the total load was almost 1.2 kips per foot. No commercially
available steel cross section can take these loads for a 120 foot span.
concrete would also be quite as it would introduce an 'Vu,.,,"u............uJ.F,
dead weight and would Steel and
then considered and
prestressed concrete '-'UJl'-'U1.UL1.VJ.J.L> ct1rHl"""n

co st would be
keeping
a length for

12' 120' 12'

1.18. The proposed "Mega-Truss"

The engineer also observed if any of would have


been used, the of the floors take almost 20% of the total of
the on the that would cost more than
space.

and one-way- slabs


J..I..I..l.JU.""".l.V'..LCJon the permitted depth
'OrY,"""1"C with increased

13 40 live load plus 60 psf dead load.


effective depth. These would resembie and can
spans.

they did not continue. Trusses and less


expensive to build and to position in place. 14 team did
not expect any maj or structural advantages

At March 20, 1976, meeting, John Nevins presented the


were four stories high, spanning the third to
was small in area and followed the rotated
~~~'~~"'I-> across the street. It was hung from the trusses and did not Á,. . . . . . . ' .... AÁ.VA

the seventh and floors were supported on top of the


~i-=~i-,... with the trusses either .
.. •• ,.,

.LLU,L;UILJV'"U .L.I.L.L'-"'''Jii "h''''LJi,VL''~VU. her concern on the design:


The proposed trusses will be visible from the outside and will create the
ten sion that we want, confronting the rotated direction of the building
another direction on its facade. the
trusses" introduce serious architectural in the of the interior
space. The size and location of the truss members will clutter the space. For the
floors affected the presence of the trusses, it will be quite a task for the
architectural team to the around them. Also their elements
will most probably be and block the open space and affect the
circulation. This will be a problem especially on the fifth fioor 15 with the
operating rooms where open space is crucial.

Upon np"'1"l11ICT the concerns of

Besides the need for open space in the rooms of the fifth fioor,
another major issue is the de sire for expressed quite vel1enaenlUy
program. The trusses would bloeIe valuable window space,
amount of natural in the As a children' s lIV'~lJi""U" ple,aScml,
spaces are a The of
patient' s environment would also be hurt by the presence of the trusses.

14 Cables form the catenary shape when unloaded and the funicular when loaded.
proper support the cable during construction is required in to achieve the
anticipated funicular
15 Third floor within the "mega-trusses".
1

After these new developments in the "team think" .1..L.L'-'V".LUfo'."

"""""",'-c.rt as a viabie solution. The team .L.LL"-'.L.UVVLU nV1n~ncc",,-i


rI.-t--t-", .. ".~i- structural solution

pn)p()se:d trusses. Nonetheless, it seemed to John


structural arid construction L>VJ.ULJ.VH.

come up with some LU."'....LU.ULJ.

challenge and
located in the Boston
pvr,prIPn/'Prl significant delays.
John Frost, one two nrln~l'nl~~C
on how to avoid similar problems
organization and management
scheduling techniques and is
1n1","Arln~,:>.'" the of allocation
of resources, business of
architectural v.V'J""",L.I..

1. were of the Café


Voltaire on Gamma Design?
2. What reoommeJnC1allOlllS make to the partners of .........". . . . . . ,......

3. should Kim Hasser make to '-' . . . l.....................'VnJlc:u. for


.."',-'Annnna.....rI<:>l'.rn.,'"

relationships with c1ients?


4. If you would plan the project from the b' <J""j-, ......u ........u .•

basic scheduling assumptions, and what resources you u..... v'"',"'-.. \.!
this job? Please present a schedule, as precisely as you can.
5. Please comment on of to <l.Y'hl·tA,-,,fll'"<l

practice.

All names have been Uii>}",Uiè'vU.

Associate Professor N. Pollalis prepared this case as a


rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective HUIl''-HH.",

situation, a process or a design

Copyright © 1993 Spiro N. Pollalis.


Gamma Design is a small architecture firm and around Boston.
Although the firm had not undertaken major design projects, John Frost and
George Crown had established a good working relationship as partners and were
pleased with the results of their designs. Neither of the partners felt particularly
comfortable running the architectural business, but byeach contributing some
.from their they managed to piece together a business
which has run relatively smoothly.

The recent had been mostly remodeling homes and In a


company caIled the Café Voltaire, Gamma Design had found a client eager to use
services in their expanding business. In fact, after a positive first project for
the Voltaire, the partners had been asked to return for three successive

Unfortunately, the firm had been consistently having difficulty meeting time
constraints on their projects. The delays had strained the firm' s relationship with
the as weIl as with the contractor and suppliers. The profits of the firm were
undoubtedly being carved away by these delays as weIl. John Frost understood
that working on unfamiliar with new can cause delays, but he did
not that Gamma Design was having on weIl known

Frost decided to ask a consultant, Kim to look over the firm's


in order to improve the recurring scheduling problems. Frost
nr"'narpr! on the project for the Café Voltaire to present to
.I..U.I..V.l.JLU.U.\..l.V'.U

Hasser.

In a coffee house in v .....'u.Jl,


.LJ.1.J.•

Massachusetts. was the owner' s sixth the Boston area, four of which
had been designed by these architects. Contractual negotiations began in
January of 1993, and the parameters of the project were defined soon.

project consisted of about 1,000 square feet (93 similar in si ze and


configuration to Gamma Design's previous coffee house designs the same
The circulation patterns, the method of entry, and the floor layout posed
no new to firm' s experienee. Because they had
Before meeting the client to negotiate the contract, met with
George to discuss the project and to come up with a rough co st estimate.
used two different methods to get a sense of the project' s and checked one
against the other to sure the estimates were comparabie.

Starting with the project's square footage and a rough idea


the scope of work, John and George applied known values for construction
costs to their sense of what the will involve. Inflation was then
factored in, to provide for a more accurate cost estimate. At this point,
Gmnma Design considered the degree of custom work they would to
be required: the more custom work, the higher this case, a 15%
was applied to the estimated cost of $175,000, to a
fee of $26,250.

Second Method: The -n1"rHA,"'r billable 1J ......... >3v.:>. and a


uu.,.,'"" of the
P""'.L'-".-'A..

15%
40% 10%
20%

were set,
would
rlr~1n:T1'n(T a total of to 40 hours to complete,
sheet would cost an average of $40 per hour.
Because coordination with engineers was expected for the Café Voltaire, the
higher hour time was used. This meant that Gamma Design planned
on producing each sheet in 40 person-hours, at $40/hr. In this case, 6
drawings were required, and a of $9,600 was worked out for
construction documents as a if
$9,600 equals 40% of the biIlable project, the total fee would be $24,000.
The figures of $26,250 and were close enough to feel con1fortable
assessment of project's scope. During their first LLH."''""' ......... .....

a fee of $24,000 .
iiV!"-.V ....u ..... v u .

firm to aIlocate the project' s costs


...,.L.l.Jl ... ...,'., ...... .LU.!.

according to the billing percentages discussed above.


IJJ.H",,,,vL!,

dollar amount company' s billing estimate


at an estin1ate for the total amount of
<:>rr''lTQ,rt

phase should This resulted in an estimate 600 person hours, or


if one person were to work on the Café Voltaire alone.

wish to
mid-

parameters
...u ........... , .........''-'

T"\1Y,\1",,"'1- to come in on time:


to a higher probable overall
to arise that would require

For example,
in others.
,.. .... a ..... "I"o.1'I

this special tile would have too


decided to place the order rather than
bid.
Changes in the as a result of the client' sinput after the
decisions were completed would be impossible. The partners were weIl
"',,","l1Clrh ..... with the client to know that this sort of intervention was
''">rl1HH·nt"o'rl

it clear at the outset that such would


J..!.iU..1.\.•.!.J..lF,

completion, the architects hoped to avoid as

from the occupation date of May 15 to


that the project would have to keep. Expecting
....I..I.u."' ....... U'.1.'-'

meant that construction should start by


2 weeks for contractors to compile their
construction documents phase to the
1 week for design

"""''''''U.L<;;..JLI. V'C,",•.U!-,UJlVU. their previous co st


.L'-'IJ.AUVJLL'- to the schedule just

stages.

past experience
'"A.U.'J ......." .

working with been


Gamma made it to the client that the project' s scheduling
did not allow any extra on the of the engineers. In addition, because the
engineers had been by the client not by the architects, '-'UJl.L.!""".JL" -'-"VUJt"'-"''''

would not be held responsible any might arise because of

The schedule was not executed as planned. Delays most of the


tasks of the project. pressures the Café Voltaire had to be considered
with respect to other projects in the After the contract had been Ui!"'..U.V''"'',

two partners went master schedule for allocating


to the different projects of At that they realized that
would to hire a temporary person to assist them in the construction
of the Café Voltaire. a new person require more
supervision, both because of an unfamiliarity with and procedures, as
the of the Café would inflate the
required per drawing.
In <lrl,"i'Î""nn
certain other phases of the project
more
Contract
was set up
....u ....'..., ..'LLLF,

* Construction Documents: occurred due to slow response


the
This phase two weeks because the
dient and contractor were
contract. involved meetings
architects (who ended up acting as J.u\...'u..a.... VJloJ

the dient during disputes over


meetings involving lawyers
Construction is not usually a
the architect simply vi sits the site every few or once a
the dient chose the contractor for his low not for the quality of
and this led to several difficulties. The contractor' s eagerness to
him to agree to a very restrictive bonus/penalty dause, and a schedule
he would not be able to keep. When the project was under
normal became extremely problematic.
"""."• .1.VJL1.,

a deal of time "refereeing" interaction between the dient


and contractor and more time than usual overseeing the actual work.

;;;U.JlU.L<U.U'V"'UC"". T \ l r n " , I"TY......' in the scheduling of the projects,


system 2 •
u-.- .... ..., ........ LA....... }-,

process to
examine what had caused the

The very u"" ..... '-''-...... ..., for a is to identify


the set of tasks must fulfill the
following '-'LU.V.U."",

111The
lilThe

2 See Pollalis, S.N., Computer-Aided Project anc,lf!elnelzt: A Visual Scheduling and Control
System, Vieweg Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1993.
resources for
""ar'H,,-ar! should be identifiable.
should constitute
each task should be rI,:.-tl11<:lhl
among the tasks should be ....
vv\.AJ.vLlv""ü "ne.u.." .... ..., ... ...,.

starting time and finishing time of could be established.


Each be subdivided further to subtasks. The subtasks of
should same criteria, as if they were of a project.

The process of identifying the that cornPI1se .........r"'''''.. is the task breakdown
'j"

project. After the task breakdown is v~n'.UIJ.L,,",L',",~. or more of the


following representations are employed for
Milestone charts.

2.1. The milestone chart for the as

PROJECT TASK RESPONSIBLE TARGET

Contract John Frost 8


2 Schematic John Frost Feb, 11
3 Design John Frost 15
4 Construction Docurnents Andrea Demarest 3
5 John Frost Mar, 20
6 Construction Administration Andrea Demarest May, 15

milestone chart provides the simplest of a


of the the person or organization responsible for
Table 2.1 shows the milestone chart
as finishing times of the tasks had been
determined by the interdependencies of the
implied but not UV'C!.LV~
.LH .... to simplicity , the milestone
""'""-V.L.LV.!.".!.J is
widely used, although ."LU."""""'"'" to a handful of In addition
to the text form, a milestone chart is ....... <~Qant-c'rI on a time scale as as is
2.1.

CONTRACT NEGOTIATION ~,

SCHEMATIC DESIGN T

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT ...


CONSTRUCTION DOCUM. ...
BIDDING ...
CONSTRUCTION ADMIN. ...
milestone chart for the Voltaire project on a time
as originally planned.

2.2 shows the on the employee


task. As shown in Frost spent 3 hours on contract negotiation,
which corresponds to 4% total time of in the office
John Frost's name and hours are n...,.,na"·,,
that \..J~~.L.l~H information is
..U.
allocation resources for the project as

Task Resource Worlc- % Effort Duration Days


Hours Hours
Contract 3.0 4 .2
2.0 5 40.0 5
Schematic Design 19.5 24 10
George Crown 3.0 7 42.9 5
Design Development John Frost 55.3 69 80.1 10
1.0 1
Andrea Demarest 0.8 1 75.0 9
Construction Documents John Frost 143.0 71 201.4 25
6.0 3 200.0 25
127.8 63 25
architect 47.0 29 162.1 20
Bidding John Frost 27.8 13 27
George Crown 0.3 100 0.3 0
Andrea Demarest 20.3 16 126.6 16
Construction Administration 41.0 6 683.3
10.0 2 500.0 63
Andrea Demarest 107.0 22 486.4 61

a project uses a node and arrow LL'U' .........""'U'LL

representation on how a '-'VJLUU'UI.\-,.l

Each

independent or
constraint that a task can start only after
one constitutes a on
to two actual constraints. First, when the
completion of a task for the the other
Second, when the resources dedicated to one must in order to be
for the execution of the other In many cases, a task could start
is still executing. can on a network by
task in two subtasks and
such a splitting of a task may be
..... "',........ , .. ,.,1"",,....
LlI..lVLULll:\." are not at the same level as the other tasks on the rI""1tulI",rlr
2.2. The arrow notation.

are two variations of the network of In the first


variation, the nodes the al1d the arrows connecting the nodes
represel1t the direct relatiol1ships of these tasks. In the second
arrows represent the tasks and the nodes the
tasks. the nodes represent the tasks of the project, as in a
cOl1necting arrow between two nodes defines a direct relation
between these two tasks. Thus, these diagrams are often referred to as
precedenee diagrams. Any two nodes that are not connected arrows
that the corresponding tasks are not directly related by a precedence relation.
Rowever, they may be indirectly related other tasks.

The network diagram (project schedule chart) for the Voltaü'e was
by Kim Rasser using MacProject Pro 1.53, as shown in 2.3. On a such a
is indicated with text. The starting time, the finishing time and the
next to node. Similarly, resources are indicated with text
at the top right corner of the diagram describes the
.... ,,"'''"''''-'.1'-''-' to each task. to that the information
.-.rr'""'"·'"-,,,,,, eX<:::ClItlCm of

as was
U V A A ' " ' ' '•••U .•..., , of each
task of the project and the Rasser
that the actual duratiol1 of each task, shown at the bottom right corner of each
task box, is not the billable time on that task, but the total calendar time
to that

3 Mountain California.
LEGEND
25 Jan 5 Feb
~ 25 Jan 7 Feb

2.3. The the Café

The critical (CPM) is always associated


presentation. CPM is a scheduling algorithm, is .Lu..... vlJ'vJ.J.'..... v ........

representations. required for CPM are the tasks that "'Ar........."·'''''''


their estimated time duration precedence relations
precedence relations are of tasks and in
task must be completed
"'IJ,",'''''J.''''.L,", can start.

methad sequence of the


that must be executed sequentially with na any two of them in
order to the total duration of the The summation of the
time duration of all critical path defines the mimromTI
of project. the starting and V.L.I.\.uUF,

task, under the assumption of a zero for all the on


starting and ending the on critical path
The tasks that are not on path have a float: can start
the tot al duration of the
..... .L.L'-',.." ........... Fo, The
...... ""'.J""'... ~ ..... on
u precedence relations. An early tin1e
and the corresponding earlyending time are specified for those tasks, which are
not on the late starting time is calculated as the addition of the
early starting time and the float. A corresponding late ending time is equal to the
late starting time plus the duration of the task.

Most often, a date to cOlnplete project is also a total


allowable duration of the project. If the time along the critical path is less than the
total allowed duration of the project, a float can be added to the the
project. If the tin1e along the critical path is more than the total allowed duration
of the project a float In such a case, the project should
either the time duration of the along the critical path or seek an
extension to finish the ...... r' .. r
a '....

In network representations, the tasks on the critical path are marked clearly to
distinguish from the other tasks of the project in order to attract the appropriate
attention. For the Voltaire, all tasks are sequential in nature, thus all lay on
the critical path.

The deterministic nature of the critical path method for a process that is highly
variable and uncertain is a major to specify the exact
of each task among the tasks is
the

In Gantt presented the scheduling chart that bears his name. The Gantt
chart is a one-dimensional chart with the horizontal axis representing time. The
tasks are presented on the chart as parallel horizontal bars of constant width. The
starting time of task is defined as the left of bar
the en ding time of
relative

2.4 shows the Gantt chart Each task is .. t.':.rI


A ...' .. A(''''' ....

two of the task.


,... ..r"."',.·, '""''''''

bottom bar, in as it had been


planned.
The drawbacks of the Gantt chart result from The interdependencies
of the tasks are not explicitly represented. ass:unlDtloIlS on how the are
the axis are not displayed tasks that ...-ar,n . . "","'.HHV,U" 'o,

are shown by the same J.J.'V"'.... I.,JlU'.Ll

is a tendency to include
tasks. Such a practice aften is .u,A.A.U.I...., ....... JlU,!'-.

Name 25 Jan 22 Feb 22 Mar 19 Apr 17May 14 Jun 12 Jul 9Aug 6Sep

_~~;!~~~on §
Schematic Design J~EGEND

~esi&n
o actual
0 o planned
..
Documenls
Bidding c=:::J

Occupancy <I>
<I

2.4. The Gantt chart showing the tasks as as

drawbacks, the Gantt chart is in r"-'ll"""Pt::l more than any other


It is a powerful communication the easiest
by the non-specialists. the
even if more detaHed are
employed.
2.3 shows accounts as it was planned
and as it was actually "-'A.v'"'\..""-' ...... is made on the assumption that
Gamma Design billed the that task had been '"'V~~~IJ~V"V'u..

2.3. The accounts receivable as


originally planned and as

Week Plan Income Actual Income Plan Actual


Cumulative Cumulative
8 Feb 3,600 3,600
15 Feb 3,600 7,200 3,600
22 Feb 7,200 3,600
1 Mar 7,200 3,600
8 Mar 9,600 3,600 16,800 7,200
15 Mar 2,400 19,200 7,200
22 Mar 19,200 7,200
29 Mar 19,200 7,200
5 Apr
12 19,200 16,800
19 19,200 16,800
26 19,200 16,800
3 19,200 16,800
10 4,800 24,000 16,800
17 2,400 19,200
24 May 24,000 19,200
31 24,000 19,200
7 Jun 24,000 19,200
14 Jun 19,200
21 Jun 19,200
28 Jun 24,000 19,200
5 Jul 24,000 19,200
12 Jul 24,000 19,200
19 Jul 24,000 19,200
26 Jul 24,000 19,200
2 19,200
9 24,000 19,200
16 Aug 24,000 19,200
23 24,000 19,200
30 Aug 24,000 19,200
6 24,000 19,200
13 24,000 24,000
In a quantified bar chart, each task a project is represented by a quantifïed bar,
an object displayed in two The length of the object the
horizontal axis .U.H-l.LvUL\.h~ of the task and the the
object along the intensity. The ,.0 lYct.{"\1"Y\,At....

indicates quantity, as the of intensity and time (Fig.


1"\1"f'.r111,r>T

1 + - - - - - LENGTH ----~I

STARTING FINISHING
TIME TIME

2.5. The quantified in two dimensions.

2.6 shows chart for the Café Each is


presented both as it was IJH....LLL.LV\..L. with the of person-power,
U.l.l'JV u, ... .Lv.u.

versus the it was with the of Design's


project.

4 The quantified bar chart is part of the Visual Scheduling and Management system (VSMS),
patented to Prof. S.N. Pollalis and Y. Ueda by US Patent 5,016,170 of May 14, 1991. This
is presented in: Pollalis, Computer-Aided Project Management: A Visual
;)cr!eal~lllr!R and Control System, View eg Verlag, Wiesbaden, 1993.
Name 25 Jan 221,'eb 22 Mar 1'.1 Apr 17 May 14 Jun 12 Jul '.I Aug 6 Sep

i ~~~!~~~:on i---'

~JL
LEGEND
D octual
Schematic Design
D planned
r--------- f--- t-

i !?esi~n
~r~ --t-

i Uocuments nli .>'.

.6idding
n

Occupancy <i <i>

bar for Voltaire


personpower.

With this information available, Kim Hasser has identified potential problems in the
project organization. These problems concern particularly the scheduling of the
of milestones for the of the
.............,..L..L ....U.H•.,U. ...JLV..L.l

a driving 'V".u.u.·.....u ........ ,

u ..u\J.u.vu'....LV.~.l0,
not just because of an occupancy of
Gamma s involvement in unexpected mediation between the contractor
and the dient. This extra time often results in cutting the firm' s profit margin.

For future projects, Hasser can also recommend adaptations within the computer-
based scheduling These would indude more flexibility in changing
schedule if half-way process and the
use of ",""~'o.rlln
has arr;an~;ed
'-'U~LV'-'''') at Dariza Design wanted to expose structure the new factory
were designing in In order to make the
of the overall """.'l"-F.Jl.L, worked closely
"".LU.... ....,"""...,

the "VJ.''-',,",l-~V.l.l most appropriate


f'A,r\n'''''''J,t.r>n of architects and

On

1. How were the set for most of the How


did they follow program requirements?
2. you characterize the architect and the
outcome of
3. Qualitatively, discuss the and cons of options 1 to 4 for the selection
the structural system of the building 1).
4. Present a for the structural system (grillage, and
columns), stating your and indicating most ......ul-''-',." .........
cross-sections and connection
5. the building, VV.l~~IJ"L"""J.l'-'
with yonr reSDOll1Se

1 All names have been disguised.

FelloH' Jane Wemick and Associate Spiro N. Pollalis nronnl"on this case
as a basis class disClissioll rather than to illustrate either effective or 'I1LJ1'To""t11'O
handling an administrative situation, a process or a design

© 1989 Jane Wernick and Spiro N. Pollalis.


develop software.
equipment from
1980s to be an ' . . .
TC."'"."

Alpha
Having acquired an umle,rel<)oe:C!
attractive headquarters
image. It was equally important, however, not be v,,,~'v.ulCulCnJUè'J
out of character with its surroundings. The scheme also had to allow
expansion. The factory would employ the most ~.l.lV'U.V.L.!..L pnlll1t"'rrnt:>nt
.U"HU.LU..LLL'-'l.U..LJ.J.J.F',

and techniques with computerized


distribution of materials around the building.

Located to the south of


rolling and wooded countryside.
been obtained on appeal to the Secretary of
of massing and color.

The architectural firm of Dariza A..JV8 .. CC.U.

Technology because of their in LVV.LU.L'V!.\..!'F',!.'-'U.U

and their emerging Tech architectural style.


Partners, an engineering firm with international 'V..L ........ V V 8 .

with Dariza Design on many and


overseas. Both teams were involved to become with the many
rpnlll-it'prrIPnh~ of the and encouraged a team approach to design.

The hilI top site 3.1), is sheltered by mature trees to the south west but is
eX1Dm;ed to the north and east, views A -nre:'''''--'''H'
site investigation, supplemented by later trial revealed a SU(Xe:SSlon
of fill and topsoil glacial Except for a slight seepage
wet was observed. From west to east, the site slopes
To the west, the is nearer the
surface, covered by only about of topsoil
the bedrock is overlain by about 3m of glacial
occupied by a derelict house with a garage and a AH.')"'..LVv ......' .....

garden was surrounded a stone wall.

3.1. The

One of the most ,""" . . . ,...,.1'..,. ... 1' v'v ...,u" ... '-'-....,................,..h,
with the role that automation was to play
work-stations would be supplied with materials and
automated warehouse, using computerized retrieval systems and ..........,. .,... . . . . ""...,. ~u. ... '-.v .....
This system would also deal with the receipt of incoming . . u .... " ......... ".,,'"

v ......."' ...... of finished products.


.... ..LU'

The complex is comprised of a main building linked to a warehouse. The is


as the head also provides areas for research and development
quality control, and demonstration areas. In the
.Lv""" ...........''-'- on of the main aisles, along each of which
The crane runs on a rail and is secured by a
to the The cranes '-""""''''''Tn

can be
efficiency based on the horizontal and
cranes. In general, a higher warehouse is more efficient.
warehouse then depends primarily on the storage capacity required. Other
C'O"'Ull"'O the 1""01""1-l"1>r'''7 and the
among
to ,,"'·vu.,.. '-'V' • .L"......, ........ .L"'F-. u...,,'-'-'!'

The correct by the


firm's business. Inevitably, such are
probably a little beyond) to ensure that the best
and most advantageous arrangements have been selected.

The warehouse building join through a where goods are transferred


from ..... "'.~'-'.u.... "'".• "" guided by nleans of a conveyor system.

terms a
particularly on a as it is ....... uu.u ....... LJ .• "'''''' ..... ,

it not need windows. ~0AJ.r>J.~:J';:,Jr''': it need be no more


...... 1- ..." a
team at ....., ....,·u ......,.LA. sought to lessen the impact of such a UUJU.u.J.J.J.fo',

compromising on the and by it a backdrop of ClU.L.LVUU.H....UJ.fo',

trees.

is close st to the ground a solid foundation is


slab that supports substantial loads transferred through the feet
............,...........1-> system.

Budget and the project was on a tight budget, the client planned to
take advantage of government loans that would be available to him if
construction were started by November 1985. The design team was appointed in
1985. In order for
n ..... n n ...'" contractor to start in the bid had to
by the of and the contractor
..., ................ I-'A..... " ..... '-'-IJIJV"'U'-'-'''''

by the end of VVJ.L'j..IJ'V'-'-'''''


.... ...,._'-"-'- ...-'- elements were well
use of ceilings to a minimum.
roofs. 1

Perimeter around the building would be


V.Lu. .......... 'u ... p;., line of the main building from the

of the Sondek LP 12 in "living


IJ'"'-'--'-'"'-'-JL ...........'U."''''

stipulated that the room must be


..... v'-JUUU"'JlU ......

'"'jJ"'...... ''-'-''' ....... concrete block walls supporting an acoustic


... .I. ........

.. an""l'·01'Y'.ant<" of the block walls were to minimize the influence of

floor of the main building.

Foundations. To down, the amount of rock excavation and


structural fill were to at a minimum.

Period. The foundations and the majority of the


constructed during the

The
to use of space re(~Uirelnents
vVJLLL\"".L.l.J..LV\...L

addition, a concentrated 8
applied to those locations which produce
elements. The design live loads were used for the . . . . . . v, ,LJ"-.....................

the main building, and the link. The roof is inaccessible: therefore, for
live loading condition on the roof is less severe than the snow load.

In the warehouse the design live for the concentrated areas on the
level was to be 50 KN/m for the total building height of
2

According to the Miller & Partners, an initial estimate for the maximum load for a
steel roof 14.4m both ways, including roofing and suspended
and only is 3 A minimum weight, however, could

2 In Britain, single story UUUUU'j"-," do not need to be fire n ...n1rpl't,o.rI .bXI)Os~~d steelwork is
therefore acceptable.
3 125
4 The provisions of the U.S.A. BOCA National '-' .. ".F, code are used in this section.u ........
be as low as 1 KN/m 2 • The initial estimate for the n1aximum de ad of a
concrete mushroom slab under the same is 10

an ....'.
H ..U ...LVU .... .L

....lLH.. "F,<.a.eu. with the maximum magnitude " H. .l.lU.VU..I. ....... v"

.................... ,,,rY'l of zero at a distance of 4rll 5


The drift could be

and for a rural location is


the flat roof the vertical walls,
is to the plane of the walls, is estimated to
V ..U ..'.LVJlLVV wind pressure, or 0.70 maximum pressure on
is estimated to re ach up to 80% of the reference wind

suction pressure on the


of its stability, the wind farces on
and cladding should be increased to reflect the wind
" " ...... Ju..Li-"'-' ..... 'V.L ..... u

and turbulence around the building. Thus, cladding and f"'r.rn-n(~-np-nTC'


100m2 area should be designed for a 50% increase in
wall panels should be designed for a pressure of 1.2
KN/m 2 and roof elements should be for an ll-n'IU",,~r1
force 2
KN/m . Further, the of the roof or the
components should be decreased by in for
counteracting the uplifting wind force.

Located in a seismically inactive area, the o,., ..'rnf--.l1'C"TO laad can be . . . ....,f" ... ....,'...- ......., .....

The expected temperature


building components is -20°C to 60°C. The coefficient of for
steel is 12 xl0- 6 /°c and for reinforced concrete is 10 x 10-6 IOC.

5 In the geometry as presented in Fig, 3, the width of the additional sn ow load is 4


times height of the snow accumulation due to drifting, which in this case is 1m.
6 90 mph.
As the warehouse operates automatically,
maintenance and rep air work. Therefore
minimal. In plan the warehouse is
columns. The height was eventually settled at
have been more efficient but would not have been . . r-r·"" ...... t- ....

authority.

The resulting design dimensions an A box building


with a height of 16m provides an enormous resistance to which is the
loading condition. For wind
..... V ' . U ...... 'L............. long axis of
building there were few options. by walls,
spanning between the ground the then would act as a
truss to carry the loads to the end walls
.UVJl"',,",'..!"'''''.''-'-''' were cross braced. At
adjacent to the link great care was required to ensure
fit the bracing. An alternative system would to carry
with a series of frames, each 16m It was soon
would have much more steel and deeper roof IJV.A.LUC>.

the chosen massive overturning


very concrete footings were required to hold

system was used, although


U ... U d.............. was much
!-,V,::U.L.l.V"'.l.UJ.F, of the cross Various spacings for the
were
IJ'-'J.... " ..LV ....., ... V.U ........LU.lA() the restrictions on height, a
n1inimum structural was 1"""rnll1t'",rI for the roof structure. This influenced the
choice of column spacing and of the in roof.

The for warehouse concrete ground slab


were laid directly on the basalt. were c01nplens:ate~d by lean
concrete rather than structural because of the very

In contrast to the v ............ ULJ'"'. the design options


for the building were from very
simple structures, not '"''-' ........ 1-' ......." ..solutions derived
from previous projects by Dariza Design However, the
more V'-'JLJU_I-'_'--LV ..... ~ ....''-'- that
would

From the site it


at the top
amount of structural could be
minimized by serm-IDasern.enL at the end.

Compacted til!
Glacial til!

3.2. Elevation showing the slope of the site.

Fig. 3.3 shows the main building that accommodates the program and its
relationship to the link. A 14.4m module was established Dariza Design with a
4m floor to the and a floor to roof ~~VJlF.~JlL.
u .... a to be placed in area shown in
'''V.LJLHLJLV .... U''...,

ways of pro vi ding a structure. It was


would of concrete. On advice of

I J "'LUon COJmp'aClcea
"-'dCp;;..

down to
paths of set into grooves cut into the concrete cover.
required finish the concrete was
PLAN Main Building

ELEVATION

3.3. schematic design of the huildings.

were several possible to the construction

concrete columns supporting


and wind loads.
'-'LUL/.LU.<-)

2. concrete columns support concrete primary


support a ribbed slab in the other u..1..1.vv',~VJ.J..
be provided by franle action . . . u.~u.~~,..,~
by walls in direction.
3 Steel columns trusses could be placed 14.4m on
cnu........ ,.-..·.. h ..... turn
supporting at on center over which a
and is provided by cross
bracing.
4. Steel columns supporting trusses at on center in both directions
which support beams in both '-U~VV'·Á'V"'" on center. Stability and
lateral resistance is provided by cross "' ..",ro,..,,{\"

For the steel solutions various types of were considered. Trusses could
also be at double span i.e. of 28.8m span.
Because the c1adding line was to
vVjlU.~J..lJ.h' the amount of bracing that was was to be rYl1rnrY'lFl,,,,,rI

discussions between the engineer and the


most promising and appropriate for
That introduced a two
secondary system of beams on the main system of the trusses. All
members and their ,-,"'1,\ .... .:,,,,1-1 exposed fine details
The architect and the V i i j:;;' i H ..........n" nln. .... lrc'.rl

a consistent language to be used

A two-way system beams to be supported on the main trusses.


..... AL''"........ '"''

The of grillage are and joined with moment vVJLi.Li,,~v"jLVJ.lLl.


Dariza Design considered .... i"'........"' ...... i for the
VVJLU.Jc.F.U.LU.,""J.VJ."J.'"

with the most ".." . . ,.,--"...,.....


F>JcJcJ.J. .... ,F,v,

The basic planning grid that Miller & Partners proposed was 1.2m x 1.2m. Thus,
there were 12 bays any two columns in each as
shown Three were studied the I->.L.L.L.L~I->"""
a grillage consisting of 3 beams as shown in
a grillage with 4 direction and 3 "'v'-'vuu,"u
beams, as shown Fig.
a grillage with a as shown in

cladding line - 14.4m

W
1.2m typ.

planning grid for the grillage location of the


LUU·UUJLl:" line is shown schematically).

three configurations were according to:


• optimal
number of moment COIlneCt1()ns required
\Ij

optimal span
\Ij (practically, 3.6m limit)
of cladding
'-'I-" .......... i'....... .. 'U'VU .... '"'.Li

""'<:>,1'"\1'"\."..\(... of services
* attachment to primary trusses
the 14.4m grillage had to be broken down into pieces
transportation.

a. b. c.

3.5. Alternative configurations for the grillage.

cross-sections of

various cross-sections of the beams were considered, as shown in


The engineering criteria for such an inquiry were set to be:
efficiency of the section under compression bending moments
ease of connections, which could be either site welding or using high
strength friction grip bolts
* ease of attaching roofing and services

The architect, on the other hand, requested that the selected section of the beam
should the top chord of primary truss.
o"c,ra."" was was with the aPlJealraIlce

The primary trusses, supported on columns, should provide the support for the
beams. The configuration of those trusses selection
the location of the IJV'~UL'>J.
of
could be set in from the perimeter. Thus, an optimal depth should be established
so there would be sufficient for penetration,
the of the 3.7 shows
and an C>.-v'tcu'nnF,'-'-.'-J.u.F,V

'i- was to match , the cross-section of the


. . o r H l 1 ·... 014na ..

cross-sections of the beams.

cladding

Columns

a) Vierendeel:
o Moment connections
Point loads from secondary grillage More Steel
e Easier services penetratIon

b) Truss:
Easier connection (pinned)
$

Less steel
a) .. Poor for services perletratlClI1

c) Deep Truss:
b) .. Pinned connections
Less headroom

c) d) Truss with bottom chord stopped before support:


o Allows bulkhead for services

e)
• Allows cladding to through to
d)
underside of top
e Allows more services penetration
e) \/ \/ ~\/
t) Short Truss:
e As b) but allows to pass through
t)

3.7. Alternative configurations of the main trusses,

considered. could be
the connections in each truss

the also be studied.


the lateralloads (paragraph the
LlV .... VJ.JLl,or both booms of the truss. The
connection of the secondary F-,... .A..u. ..... I-~'-" to the trusses could either with single pins
or double bolts.

trusses, and grillage could not provide sufficient strength for


" " ' " ..........uu•.U J .

bracing of building. a separate structural system was


necessary to provide lateral resistance in both directions, and it should stiffen the
to act as a diaphragm, as shown in Fig. 3.8.

PLAN ELEVATION

3.8. Structural requirements wind bracing of the building.

Those connections could be


or Furthermore, the turnbuckles had to be
issue to be resolved was whether castings or fabricated fittings
would be more appropriate for the building.
Elevation - Each Wall
Most hracing
Ic~L"t seclion for each brace
- even spread of load
onto foundations

Le,L"t bracing
- greatest eoneenlralion or load
onlo foundations
- many <UTtUlgemenls possiblc
allowing more pcnetrations

3.9. Alternative cOl~tlgllratiol1s lvind bracing for the exterior

Most Bracing Least Bracing

3.10. Alternative schemes of wind the huilding's


(plan

options, started to determine


conception of the building.
<:I."'1111,"''',C
1. What decision should be made for implementing the DINS "...,..."c........ 'U... '-'F-,

th at the construction of the Generall-ln" ..... ·l:'n

2. How important is built-in A .........' ..... u ......... "

key factors that dictate Y-V\.-'-'0.J.'U.J..J.LI

3. What is
the lengthy process of design and construction of a complex .Ul...."Ul.'vUl.

What is the best strategy?


4. To the Integrated AJU~LUIH~J:: V'V.L.LVVIJ" the
design of medical facilities? How applicable it
buildings?

Doctoral student Thom Kurmel and Associate Professor Spiro N. Pollalis prepared this
case as a class discussian rather than to illustrate either effective ar ineffective
handling situatian, a design pracess ar a design itself Original
research was canducted as part af the doctaral dissertatian af Thom Kurmel an The Impact
Technalagy in Hospital Design.

Copyright © 1990 Thom Kurmel and Spiro N. Pollalis.


The authors acknowledge the assistance of Colonel Sargent and Lieutenant Chris
Borman of the Project Fort ashmglton; and Lieutenant Colonel
Jim Simmons of the of the Army "':,"'cyaf'\n '-'".d ...,,·...U, D.C.
is one of the most training reservations in
.... , .......... u.F,,,,J.I.J.,

and serves over 150,000 active duty soldiers,


Located 11 south of Tacoma,
was for Captain Meriwether Lewis who
States on the 1 1806 Lewis and Clark
Lewis was activated over a century in
County purchased and donated 70,000 acres to U.S.
Government. In 90 days, the constructed 1 buildings and 422
structures (at a cost of $7 to house and train 60,000 men. Part of
1
cantonment was the new station hospital.

buildings of the were modernized


1941-44. On September 1944, the hospital was .L.l.U.LJL.!.VU.

.I. ........ ,.uF, .... .I..I. named after


....... '-'.I.,,'-'.L,... .L Patrick a noted
..l.JL"-JLJ'iJ ...., .... .1.. ,-,'-'J.J.V.1. .... .1.

neuro-psychiatrist. The Madigan General


to a teaching and medical center in ...""' . . . r". . C'

and the needs of wounded soldiers and


East.

the complex that


was under consideration for
buildings, the patient wards, diagnostic and treatment LH.J(..lvVêl. VJL ......U . v u .

administrative areas required


Although the wood and concrete structures served weIl for age, they had
become obsolete. Some were even to the staff the
patients. Providing an aging square
foot acres was costly for the US Army.
with its reputation as the military's
was in jeopardy. The modernization of
the contemporary health care to a
and their families in

1 Term used for a series of constructed "temporary" buildings. one or two


storîes, they were built of wood, concrete, or other locally available materials. Some, like
hospitais, were connected extensive covered corridor systems.
2 :SaIlctllOnmg awarded to based on inspections by the Joint Commission on
~ccI'ed11tatI(m of Hospital (JCAHO), IL.
Initial space pn)gramlm]mg estimates prepared by plamners
General showed that new hospital should be a a
teaching hospital, and a center. It .,,,,,Ju.,,..... be capable of a
expansion during At 1.2 million the program had
increased more over its No plans were
conceived to renovate or to existing complex, was chosen
about a hospital.

"

care
during a fire.
be hospital occupancy, while most
considered to ambulatory care or lJ"'''~.U.J.''-',.>c) vV'VU.lJUJ..LV

of fire protection determined by a V'VJ..LLU ... J.H....... ' - ' ......

configuration and the of the combined


occupancy. The sizes of buildings
General Hospital
............... F- ...u ....

program, are shown in

4.1. footage breakdown, nn;WI1:n program, 1979.

BUILDING TYPE SI ZE
OCCUPANCY 101)

Inpatient Nursing Units 198,000


Outpatient 368,000
Diagnostic and Treatment Ambulatory 547,000
Plant & -'-'V,~l')I'.Lv" Industrial 87,000

TOTAL (Gross square feet) 1,200,000

3 Level of patient care provided based on staff and facilities. Most medical centers are
tertiary care facilities.
4 National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Massachusetts. A national UUL.LUHLl:'.

organization dedicated to the public through fire and building safety L"-';:;h".lGlUVl1.
U.S. Department of Commerce 19 July 1981
Commerce Business ~ No. 134
...:"..,''"' .... r ..

433 West Van Buren, Room 1304


5'-" Illinois 60607
...... H .. " ' ....

of the Army, Sacramento


1~ .... C>,.t''Y1''''nt
Mr. Edward C. Jones, A-E IJ...,..., "''-'11 ,
650 Capito] Sacramento, CA 95814

R - - \.rchltect:-bngll11eer Services.

A-E services

will be between 1982 and 1983. If portions of this are


in multiple fiscal years, additional time wiH be available. The estlmated
construction cost is in the range of over A-E firms having for
their work are invited to submit a single, Standard Form U.S.
f\.rCnJlte(~{-l::<'n!2;meer and Related Services for Project to the office
shown bel ow not later than 21 days date of of this synopsis in order
to be considered for selection. All firms which do not have current SF 254
on file with this office must also a completed SF 254. Firms having a current SF
254 on file need not submit an additional copy. No other notification to firms under
consideration for this will be made and no further action is This is not a
for N otes 62 and 65.

US ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT, SACRAMENTO


CORPS OF ENGINEERS
650 CAPITOL MALL
SACRAMENTO, CA 95814

OFFICIAL BUSINESS: GOVERNMENT RATE W.R.BUSBY


LA 1021 4038 80101 Procurement Branch

The anno~tncement design in Commerce Business


The any design scheme was .·.u.................·.....
'-"u

the Government. budget approval for


vOCHVJLLU..l

not be "'.. ." .... T.:'., the conceptual ~'-"u~ .... u,

a more accurate estimate ........ '""~T1lri"',rl design


team.

N01E: Thick Hne: Contract Relationship; Thin line: Functional Relationship.


Numbers in lower right corner indicate number ofpeople.
OASG: Office of the Army Surgeon General
COE: Corps of En,~l!l(~erS
SS & A: Sherlock, & Adams

4.2. Madigan design team.

contractor for the


. ., . .,. . ". .'..............."". services new Á'L~~.Lh.~AA. public
from the Commerce Business is shown in
a lengthy selection process,
partnership of J ohn Graham of
'-'1.1.'-'1. .1.'\_"..-","-, Smith, and Adams of Montgomery,

as the contract agent, the Office of the


as the owner and user, and the AlE team work
Septen1ber 1 1. Fig. 4.2 shows the
management schen1e
I--'~~,UU,"-'AU and the architectUl'al and engineering firms.

BODI BOD 11

NOTEJ

Congressional Congre ssiona 1 A nn"ntwi" tin""

~
Pllase 1 Phasc 11 Phasc 111

Construction Site Prcp Main Building Fol1ow On

NOTEI: Schedule lag due to Congressional reduction, finalization of contract


documents, bid process and Phase Icontractor demobilil.ation.
NOTE 2: Phase TI contractor demobilization and bid proce.,<;s.
NOTE 3: Beneficial Occupancy Date I and TI a phased move-in and lransition
period.

4.3. Madigan General Hospital approval,


construction schedule.

and building a major medical


J. ...UJLLLLJlJ.F" ..... v.J.l.F,u,U.l.F"

and construction ....... ,"\1I"I"t-Q

as every step must be approved by


~~'JA,,,,,,U, and construction milestones to the
cycle. Considering labor, "''''''''''~''-'''',A~U
would be a factor in the ultimate co st of any U ... JL...... JlU,F,
more the multi-year and construction of a J.J.H..U.L.L-U.!..LL.LJlV.U dollar medical
center.

Early in the design, a Llv.lJlVU-U.l.V was ~U"~<J>L"U".'''''''''''''


of design, approval, and occupancy.
abbreviated version of

was completed in two


'-<,",',:J.LF-,.I..1. 4 years and 3
was a site preparation and Phase II was
of buildings. Nine
............ UA ..... AA

by conferences
Over 150 "1",..,h1r~~f't", consultants,
.I..I.H." .... .I.'''''".I.

'"nn01"'" were involved


was approximately

VI,"JLlV·u. hospital was a area of the military . . . ""LU.!--'.......n ...

Sound and prominent Mount . . "-.. . . dominate the views to L U ........, ...

fir and dense, native


.LJ"-"'-'-"-.l."" typical in the Northwest,
as a positive contribution to
""'\J'C1"' .. ·.......n.v ..... access to
U.S.Interstate highway.
Tlp'..Irn"

design process, the Army of


the AlE team of the in the Integrated
used on major hospitals the U.S. Veterans
Veterans Administration had report
Administration System
on the use of on new
...u .... V.l..u .......''-'

were made by members the


to the After
concept for new oJ.lU..U.H..U.

5 Later renamed as the of Veterans AffaÎrs.


6 Building Systems Development and Stone Marraccini and Patterson, U.S. Veterans
Administration Office of Construction Research, 1977, VA Hospital Building System
(VAHBS).
mind the functional needs of new medical ,-,,-,,.,,,,,,,,.1.,
the budget low, the hospital was
re(lUlrelnents into zones. As a result, a four
isometrie sketch in 4.4 the

[4] Warehouse and Physical Piant


(Industrial Occupancy)

Base
(Amlbulaltory Care Occupancy)

[1] Nursing Tower Shafts


(Hospital OccuPaJ!1cy)

[3] Medical MalI


(Business Occupancy) ,/

4.4. Isometrie of the Madigan sehematie

inpatient bed tower is zone 1 constitutes a


occupancy. The base is zone 2 and constitutes an u..U..l.U\.U.ULV.L

care occupancy, connected to the clinic or medical


zone 3 and occupancy. the
and physical zone 4, an industrial 'Uv,,,,,-,-."" .."".J'''''
allows a more efficient functional
It also promotes an efficient layout
communication systems .

(IB) had been


...... .L ......., ... " .. F, 1rY\r"\IArnA11ITAri

The concept (derived the VAHBS) a re-


F, .....U.LL'U ...'.V.L.l of con1mon building elements
sized functional areas. functional
by utility placed outboard ease of access,
maintenance, and for Fig.
Each functional area is into
functional space and the space
spaces are separated by a walk-on or utility
the structure. The deck is built structural floors
the (see Fig. 4.5).
refers to the ....
C"H(,tOleY\ .1..,1v.I. .I. <-' .......l'-1 .....

communicati 011,
and are designed to
future changes.

With in building especially


in floor-to-floor heights
'nr· ... ':"::1"''''

led this trend. Integrated LJU.1.n..U.JliF,Ll'

This feature
but by only a over conventional 'U-V"'.I.fo',.1."0

~'A.'-".~U the concept of IB as compares to a


L ' L '...

show sections of a floor-to-floor ""''',,..·.·.,rr'''~,... ...


between the functional and distribution areas.

Conventional versus Building CUJrzCt~[Jl.


4.2 from the industry on

General Comment:

"It is not a rln,oen,,....n if it is better in a l1V"I-'HtU. it is necessary."

Cost Comments:

an elaborate pre-bid conference and full-scale you will


of the potential estimators will just use their square-foot
and unit costs."
"It costs money to build but it saves money for the mechanical trades."

Comments:

"Draw fuU reflected


"Make sure [IB] floor
"CAD system use in can be extremely beneficial for
"Do not use zone for functions other than
"When direction or ducts)
"[IB] forces to utilities on the rl",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
"Establish zones (in the IB space) for various
"Coordination of all work within the [IB] space is important."

Construction Comments:

"Process of construction is different."


separates the trades naturally ."

:ScJtledluljlng Comments:

"I have with two identical one [IB] one conventional. The
hospital 24 months and the conventional taak 36 months ... "
"[IB] forces "
"Activities outside [IB] are on the critical
"Fast-track is a natural with [IB]."

In systen1s
'-'.I>.'.......... JLp""VL>, vu..U.Y.LJ..J..F;''' success in
11·m'·tart

""-'U..l.lU'U U. ,but comprehensive were not available.


additional co st of the r"'TC,t-~ ........
....:" ... n-".r..n General as the owner

as through the With


type of building o.V'-"'.. o...u.'V.I.'V","

building with

7 V.l>.'~vLI.n'-'·"" from "Madigan '-"UIH.. <:-,,,,' Design Submittal," John Graham and
Sherlack, Smith, and June pp.99-100.
building systems to the estimate. The cost projections not only
conventional costs, but went over the Congressional co st "''-'..........,' . .
"''-'>.u. ..., .................. .L'V

for the project.

The real benefits of the Integrated Building Concept are constructability and long
term Experience in Canadian IB hospitals claimed savings
time. is indeed remarkable considering that the building
more materials (structure, piping, etc.), more cube footage, and is slightly
footprint due to redundant utility that
are in hospitals due to the
'-'>.H..'>.>. .... '..-" layout
in the distribution zone. It also facilitates servicing without disturbing
zone, which can operate continuously. At the time of the design of the
uJ.J.'..,'-J.'Jl.H......

New Madigan, no hard economie data existed for long-term use of the IB concept
any building. 8

data on benefits of IB (initial premium cost not withstanding) were


solicited both from previous studies and the design and construction
industry. A sampling quotes, submitted to the owner by John Graham and
Associates, and Sherlock, Smith, and Adams, is presented in Table 4.4.

In and constructing a technical building like a medical center, it


is to of long building life. Instruction given to the team at
pre-concept placed the service life of Madigan at 90 to 100 years (most modern
life does not exceed
LJUJlJ. ..... Jl.Ufo', years). Even with medical technology and
practice advancements in mind, it is difficult for designers to predict what the
hospital (or other building of the future may look like. Integrated Building
may be one solution, but as the article in shows, it is not a universal one.

The distribution subsystems plumbing, communications, and


were brought vertically through a series of regularly placed mechanical
shafts, then distributed horizontally in the distribution zone. Branch connections
were then made to individual patient and clinical areas. Following extensive
analysis during concept design, the to use IB for
the entire hospital,

8 Several studies were conducted in the late 60's and but na substantive jtlnCT_Tl"Trn

use data were available at the time of


Associa(es, Seaule, (he dc-

4.6 Article on lntegrated Building in the Engineering News


(ENRI Decenlber 18, 1986).

Implementation of the concept


Conventional designs rely on
subsystems during construction. However, in IB
responsibility of the AlE to major and
This re-thinking of the conventional process
additional design effort, and cost to the final
environment since not U.LUU.L ..ULF, ~.U.'J ........ .LA

according to the jov'errtmémt, to award the


... .L.O..... '"'.L....,."

iU.L.UiV'A.L dollar contract.

According to resistance
and "'VJLL":HL>'-""U The frame
of of

rooms. i.UA"""h'C.L.Lh

Private Automatic Branch


""rof· .. "...,,...,,,,

Area Network, 21 elevators, 4 escalators 4 dumbwaiters.


automatic transport system based on robot technology, was designed to
deliver retrieve bulk materials and food trays; a 47-station Automatic Box
Conveyor (similar to a large electric train) with 2 cubic foot wagons was designed
to transport records, and supplies; and a computer-controlled Pneumatic
Tube System was designed to deliver materials that can transit
in a specia16-inch diameter carrier.

9 Traditional Govemment prclce(lun;s Dlreclude this process. However,


do nrpU'Ol'lC nlrOl~'f'tc and many experts to obtain
accurate estJlmates.
of the mandated
'--'V.l.l,l:;J" vLl,:>.lV.UU.l .. e n , . ""rH

of two units. Thus, the '-''' . . 1..,''..............


scope of the beds (expandable during Illobilization
to 618) and """ ..u.,-..,'u. in the of one complete fioor frOln the inpatient
1). The scope reduction was poorly timed since the design was 100%
documents were issued to prospective
and specifications were recalled, and re-
the bidding.

to 4.3), a cOlnpetitive
was awarded on December 11,
of Bellevue, for million. W ork
... a .. 1"n.lllt-1nC'r infrastructure and for construction of utilities, road
'V.i".u-'" ......... fo',

offices. A convenience store was n10ved to prepare the site,


grading begun anticipation for main building (Phase Ir).

to the construction industry on Dn~sente~C1


Bids were received from contractors all
million to a of $350 million. The
Blount Construction Group of Montgomery,
a million dollars less than the Government estimate. At
speculation was raised about Blount's bid (and the
especially among Government construction There was a
that Blount might use Government as a lever for
imposing changes in the contract. Blount had IB h'-' in the l J u ............ JL ...

trepidation, the contract was awarded to the on June 30, in


the negotiated amount of shows the national attention
that the had ",pi',pn;"",rt

The entire contract was to be COrnDJ"ete:Q as shown in Table 4.3.


The contract was " . . . ,U ..... U.U.,u.
on

Seattle, WA 22 October 1985


U.S. Department of Commerce
Commerce Business
Chicago, Illinois 60680

Seattle District Corps of PO Box C-3755, WA


Madigan Medical 67-86-B-0001
Bid Opening - O/A 10 86
Samuel G. Walker, Contract Specialist, (206)764-3515.

Construction of Medica} Center Fort WA.


Work includes construction a 478 14 Treatment Room (DTR's), 1,200,000
SF hospital with ancillary and support areas, but not limited to
interstitial space, oxygen and medical gas facilities, infectious waste 1l1c:1l1f~rat:or, "t"1"\<lrh"""""
and parking areas, vehicle roadway network and the enlharlcementlup:gra,dülg
of existing steam boiler The estimated cost of the n1'r.nn"",rt
200 mil1ion dollars.

-- JOB IFB DACA 67-86-B-0001. -- Tentative issue date is on or about 86 JAN 10.
There be a non refundable of $1,600 for the set of Spt~cljtlclltl(mS
and drawings. Also available are of and for following
non refundable charge per individual Mechanical Electrical $650.00,
Architectural $400.00, Structural $130.00 and Civil $70.00. Bidders individual
sets discipline are cautioned that total by for a project is not
100% achievable. It is advisable if individual that plan holders
examine other for relative data. response is NOV 22 in the
form of written communication advising how and
draWlIH!S. and/or how many sets of individual and drawings are
with checks made to the Corps of is reCIU11~ed
~' H"~H~ will be
' - ' ..... ... Phone requests will Project is
and smal1 see Note 65. A pre-bid conference will be held
The conference and place will be addressed in the IFB.

DISTRICT ENGINEER, SEATTLE WA TWX 91044421266CE-NPS-USAED

tor construction contractor in the Commerce


Business
Madigan Army Medicai Center wil! ba Ihe largest military hospital ever built in Ihe U.S.

ENR article on contract award (ENRI August

The construction of the ........ r''''''~i- steel


frame were completed, the "". . .L ............ I-<.L .....
Qn(YCT""~T1nCT that
the contract might be vVi.HIJJLv ......' .....

was the walk-on


Speculation
4.3 Construction amount

PHASE Work to be Arnount Contractor

I 7.2 M Pacific Ventures


II 259.4 M Blount Const. GP
III Follow-on Package 11.3 M Not selected yet

Total $ 277.7 M

Con ven tional Constru ction Substantial

Integrated Huudmg Construction S ubstantial

NOTE 1 NOTE2

NOTE1: Construction of interstitial floor considered time negligible.


NOTE 2: time difference: 6 Months or 15% of the contract.

conventional construction

On ,.,.~'''~.ov ii."~""i'''''',.U. L" .../....... u~ .... , many of are net~ae,a


Some examples are on-site and
engineering, f'r>lt'\ctt"l1r·hn,n nlarLag:enlerlt, quality control, medicall':"'''',~Tt'. .1J.L'':' ' '1...' 1,-~ ...rljl!t_,,;, and
transition 4.10 shows construction
both the contractor the Government for the

N01E: TIlick line: Contract Relationship; Thin line: Functional Relationship.


Small numbers in lower right corner indicate number of people.
NOm 2: The main contract is wilh Seattle District COE.
The Contracting Officer's Representative is at thc Project site.

4.10. Construction and team.

10 After is cOlmpleted, agent) and OTSG (owner) retain on-site


teams throughout The "team" is retained by the Government to provide
one full-time archItect as a design consultant.
A Congressional mandate of no cost is the watchword for
f'Al,,,i,,,.,lt'·hn.n management. No co st growth means that no changes, eXIl:elJL
necessary for engineering or for a or
reason are allowed. A small construction (cushion) exists but
must be held to 5% or less over 1 Realistically, it is
to avoid cost increases on a
..L..L.UfJ'-"JUJ.'U'.L'-' of Madigan.

to the original contract are not unanticipated.


the follow-on contract, reserves a portion of the total budget to
V"'.I. ... U H L .....JLl.J.F,

that would otherwise


v u ..... HF;;,....,L> cost or of the main In
words, all substantive $12 million or about 5% of
contract) are held This flexible
evolving medical or or~~anlzatlOnal
for latest medical I-VV.lLU'V.l\.J'F,.l\-'LI

As shown in Phase III will


move into of the new building.

and construction of Army was


and development known as DINS or Digital
'-'u ....' ....... '-'J.J.

12 DINS was conceived by


harness and eliminate traditional x-rayon
x-rayand is similar to common black and it is
labor intensive, takes up space, controlled
Research underway at two medical centers 13 was
digital that would eliminate x-ray

A typical digital J.J.J.H.l.F,U.J.F, "a1hu,.,. ... lr of several medical and f'A1~-nnt-"...


technologies. It consists computers for processing 1~"'''''''''<.'
an advanced workstation with and a storage

1I Part of the cost estimate inc1udes a smaU contingency for during the
project.
I2 Also referred to as P ACS or Picture Archiving and Communication
13 Studies were being conducted at Georgetown University Medical Center and The
University of Washington in Seattle with funds provided by the Research and
Development Commando
x-ray '"''-1 ...... 1.......... ''....,...,.... ,

vuu.vvu Up to 60%.

gray matrix for recall at any


For most replaces film handling, the darkroom,
developing, temperature mixing valves, pass boxes, storage, and
functions.

Imago Ac~ulolti.n &formatt1nq S"b'9~t.m

Network Highlights

Software:
Customized is needed in each sutlsystelIls for example: an Archiving
in the Archiving Sulbsystem image requests from

Typical Digital [maging Network


tomography or
areas of
optics, workstation power,
research to advance at a fast pace. As aresult,
x-ray the clinical setting were
.LUJLH.-'-'..AJ0 made, and several
considered for possible full-scale implementation.
Madigan.

anVA'""V"\.--,-

C0I1SlClenHlC)fi of DINS in the new Madigan.

no to
is so new that space programmers in had no way of
predicting types of advancements. One advantage available to decision-
makers was Madigan's Integrated Building System and its ability to adapt to new
technology. Other being made in
industry, promising better

Madigan Digital
General Offker in Process
Executive Summary:

At issue is wh ether or not a Digital (DINS) for medical


imaging should be incorporated into the new Army Center.
This IPR (General Office IPR 1 -See figure below) will ex amine the technc1log:y
the for DINS at Madigan and recommend to the Surgeon
toward development of an acquisition application or not.
The post IPR implementing actions for DINS are to form a special AMEDD
multidisciplinary acquisition team and to AR40-65 DINS analysis
for Defense Health Council review. action is to implement a
conventional film-based department in lieu of DINS at Madigan.
The IPR will be chaired by the Commanding General, Health Services Command with
the General of Madigan Army Medical Center also in attendance. Other
from the OTSG, HSC, Madigan, and Medical Research &
Develommelnt staffs wiJl be present to provide input into the
The briefing organization will follow AR40-65 format for requirements justification.
Oral presentations will be made on a panel basis by matter experts on each
topic. Presenters wiJl be both military and from the -sponsored DINS
contract.
The IPR will occur on 14 1989 from 1300 to 1630 at the HFPA conference site
in San Diego. LTC Goeringer USAMMDA is the IPR project officer.

DINS Implementation Timeline for Madigan:

4.12. Executive summary and decision meeting.

U.J. ....-'-'O-JlJ.J.j:;. generm:ea much discus sion and n)')ll~;ed on current state of
and benefits of acceptance medical
UI..-',-,I..-l.I..-.U:.t.LI..-U construction schedule.

ImOa(~t on the facility were nr",·no::l"rprI


pre:llTIUnary figures indicated the co st for Imple:mE~ntlitl(m
construction.

lnotion. research and


DINS system, and the
implen1entation of the new
construction.

The advancements in medical would have a on the


building and its systems. Initially, 123 advanced along with
processing and storage computers, would needed for the network.
workstations would not be contained the Department only, but would
<.'nç,,,c':'rI throughout the clinics and nursing including the Intensive Care
every building and every floor where patients are seen would be
All stations would need to be connected with a new fiber optic
the to the
'-'.l'-IC"'UU.U.<F-, and delivery suites
would fuIl of advanced
lnedical both

r."",.,..,. ....,,,i-,,, ... room for would


processing equipment in
would have to be

on
images over cables would
transport systems and stations already Qe~aglleQ
_~_'_~A~_~'A. '-'-ó"'"U''"''iS, emergency power, and other
rpnIH11"'pn1iPntl:'

priced. The construction team estimated the impact on


would require demolition and Most affected, were
utility systems like supply, emergency power, structural (for
floor in the new computer rooms), chilled water capacity, and others.
the change necessitate and re-building recently completed
construction.
of the $17 million Cruzcampo for
of during constructÏon.
building materials were
1.U...,UU...,0,

record-breaking system, the most


the design, was left In addition, the general contractor "".L<.JU.U.JlVU

as a result of delays and cost overruns. The case the


construction process, and causes the changes and cost overruns.

1. As the owner of the pavilion, response be to


to the structure the roof of the building? to the
2. How could the architect the changes?
3. How could Dragados have had the more efficiently?
4. Hoe you describe the power structure the architect,
and the contractor after the constructÏon contract
What is the to make decisions on design
T1·~I~OnJA~·~to on
'''''-'UH.L..,'.U nt'A.,lon-lC' during construction?
5, and relate to overall VU.:!LLl',","'", plan for the

Doctoral student Alberto Diaz Hermidas prepared this case lillder the supervisioll of
Associate N. Pollalis as a basis for class discussÎon mther than to illustmte
either of an administrative situation, a design
research was conducted as part of the doctoral rJTl:l:pr'tntlnl1
Alberto Hermidas on the Injluence of Delivery Methods Oll Architectural V"'rI"O/'T"
Case Studies the SevilIe Expo'92,

Copyright © 1993 Alberto Diaz Hermidas and N. PoUalis.


The allthors the assistance of Migllel de Oriol, \">11;;111''-'-'1 Antonio
and Jose Carlos Gutiérrez Blanco of L'l,U;;LlUU",
The Universal I-<v,"",..,."",h
Centenary of the
$7 billion) go'V'ernmeltlt

'-'U .....U.Jlj;;;. -'"' ..... "'~v construction technologies ..... VJLJ.~~~H ... "Jl~~5
builders of the pavilions.

themaster plan for the site


accommodate a continuously increasing number
"..................'.,., arearequested by the participants ..... v .....n ....' ..... U.lV,-,,,'-.1..1...1..1.""',.,,,,

to widespread delays and . . . ,.I..I.F" .....)


.lu...

ll ......"'\ ... aroarla .... 1"ort accumulation of ror\1'\c1"... nr-1".n ....

number of participants a record-breaking number


of 108 countries. The reache~d 650,000 m2. The co st
construction, after four 1nf"' .. at:l'CAri by more than 30%, to 130
The ..n.F, ......u.1.LJ .... '-.l.vu..... '.. ..,.....
UUl.V .... the overruns to
participants

In terms of number became a great success, exceeding all .,.,n..IJV'-'''..... ',


per day. The universal vn.~.IV".L",H-,'J.'
C01[1S1IUeI~ea as a great technical, cultural and
and the Spain improved for most
view of Expo'92 (Cruzcampo Pavilion:
Pavilion ofThe Holy See:73).
of 1989, the beer brewery La Cruz del """"<-U.. UIJV

one of the official sponsors of the .L.L"''-'vu.


I J v ..., .......... .I.'" .!..I..I..I.;:;;;'

...u one of the largest


........•......I..I.J.j.J'-', u.,"'O ""'.n.l.J.j.J'.......

market, the 9th. in


contributing with 1 billion
the monopoly
nt:',rrn·<JIrH"'ftT pavilion.

ever built in Spain during


would include a tavern-like
After the event, the
\-'u .....• ...........' ...... center for the company.

V..., ...Jl.l..I."'Jl.l. ... of Cruzcampo in Expo '92 was 1,750


would rla .. rnr".rt to construction of

Cruzcampo

Official ~D<ms()r
Construction costs
Operation expenses
Total expenses
Revenues (million pts)

Value building after


Total revenu es

Miguel
V.I..I..I.,ev,",", of
most prestigious architects
of the Spanish
......... ...., ............... '''-'.1.

October 1989.

" a miniature
space to explain the beer
to offer a corporate, . .v v.... ,U.l.v.l.'I..,F. ...,"' .........I.y
and local pride of the company.
...............1."' .... ..,
In the presentation of his schematic design, Mr. Oriol proposed a
copper-shed volume. Open to the south for access, the building was
north, by means a north-light roof and a huge, movable bay HT1"'rI,......" , "' ....,.."nrun .....
whole north facade. Mr. Oriol described this feature of the project as
coincidence of our visual objectives [the lake] an orientation
is hot nor " In the the beer production
public, doubled as exhibition and brewery. Conventional space was
J.J1aJllIleu. In to the use of the land, the plan of the building r""", ..... r.1nrt,:.rt
The resulting rectangular are as
functions. The rectangular area would be used for
V.L.L".• u " ....' .....

exhibition space; sector contained the restaurant.

The of the brewery and exhibition space, orthogonal


the restaurant: an open, amphitheater-like space where cT""·n..... t:'rI_It"\"' ....

platforms overlooked a lower stage and the lake the h<:>,..,V.,.rr.llnrl


featured a conventional structure. The restaurant, hrHU"";TAr
view ofthe had no visible supports. InctA'llri
40-meter-high towers ...,P.LU.Lb .........b vU'CcJ.L'-'V

was covered by a north-light roof.


UUJL.....u . .L.LF,

5.2. Model ru;~camp'o YV·''''''J'lYf nresen:iea in November 1989.

With no supports along the outside VV.l.H.H.'","VJ. proposed roof


cantilevered a record-breaking 30 meters. .......VLHJ.I.'.. V restaurant hall, the
interiors, finished i~ natural wood and handcrafted resembied the 1"... ..,'"111"1.___ -.-."

warm ambiance of the local taverns in Seville.


Mr. Oriol presented his
pleased with the structural c·uclrpn1
the pavilions ofthe Expo'92 f"'Al''f"\Af'-:otP "'V'-.I.I.J."'VJl'"
Mr. Oriol's UV'H.F',.lJ........ ...,U.L ... ..LJlV ....

an alternative use for the


a colorful puppet named
presence visible from historic
Oriol was asked to include it in future
development of the design during the rest

of the traditional company


v ..... Jl.l"Jl .... V.l. ..., .... a merg er with a larger European
Mr. Oriol was ordered to slow
1990,
t~v·PA,,,Pl'offcrfromilie~~.HLUU

constantly increasing enrollment


to modify the of world's
of 1990 that the Expo' 92 org;amzatlon .... V.LLU. ... '.'_'-'-y

u. ... .I..uv...... "' ... ,J.L.LLJ of the Cruzcampo site.

Cruzcampo secured a 400 million pts


a liter/day beer plant for
collaboration with a specialized sut)ccmtI:ac1tor,
and guarantee the performance
5.3. Beer plant schematic design

The beer plant manufacturer supplied the architect with dimensional and supply
specifications of the facility, to be considered during the design of the building.
Cruzcampo asked Mr. Oriol to have construction documents of the pavilion ready for
bidding by October 1990, in order to start construction end of the year.
Cruzcampo to the public in August of 1990.
IJ.LV0VU,\.VU

built surface area m2 (the maximum by


~LHJ'''J~<.LL'''-'u. ratio of the site), ....... 0U,I,'-"..... \.-' ..... (Tabie

areas (m 2).

FunctionlFloor Basement 2 Basement 1 Ground Floor Top Totai


Beer Plant 238 525 0 0 763
Storage 752 0 0 0 752
Services 343 439 0 95 877
Kitchen 0 143 119 119 381
Restaurant 0 0 858 300
Bar 0 0 472 0
Circulation 231 33 114 33
Museum 0 0 0 334
Total 882

Lower
5.5. Upper basement plan.

UU.Jl ........ A..U.F-, through the lower basement,


space and . . . PT"cr\rlnp, .LU\,.'.I..UI,.I. .... LI (Fig. The upper ....,'.nl .. " ..............' .....
h'lcP1"npnt-

brewing space (Fig. 5.5). The beer plant,


be by the public.
bar at ". ..r,,,...,,rl were accessed by the
and 5.7). The bar and ".U.V..I...I.H."LlV'''U. ..I..1.

c011vemH~ntJly wide,
were visible directly from
..., .......... "" ....u b ' an amphitheater-like,

area, an indepen-
be accessed

I J IJ'''J.J.U.'''.!..!.;:;;' all across the north facade, a huge window uninterrupted view
the restaurant. interference of
'"''V.u.............. ,,,, the
V r:.,
.... JL ...... JL .... two
L-section concrete towers

5.6. Groundfloor plan.

Artificially aged copper and "bronze" glass were the only materials V~IJV"'VU
the exterior of the building. The concrete of the towers was pink to match the
reddish copper bron ze of the facades. The such
colors to the of

and a more environment."


and counters were in local, hand-crafted tile for
easy and maintenance. use of wood and tile, combined with the
performance of local artists, endowed the pavilion with the ambiance of alocal tavern,
in keeping with the traditional character of the company.
PLANTA NIVEL .3,45.

Top floor plan.

South elevation.
the presentation of the Cruzcampo promised ' - ' V ' H fo','CO< ,

mances by artists, and privileged nnl~"'1"'UQr1nn


lake for pavilion.

Given the complexity structure, Mr. Oriol "'-e''-''ib ....'''' .....

consultant
"''''''('1"1"",,''''''1''1'''''('1" also in Madrid- to
tions and the structure. The hot summer c1imate of and the hl''::'Ul<''1'''U

kitchens HVAC and electrical ",,,,,t"o...-.-.,,, ass,lgrlea them also


to a '-'tJ'"'v..... architect's own
"'J..u,,"" ...... VVJLlUOLU.lfJl .. .l.L. the rest of the design.
All reviewed and
rlr.r- . . ....-.'''' .... TC'
by the architect's office. "H.UJ..Uj..."..' ......

5.9.

consultant a +,..,." ..... ri'.,.h''' ....


and a 30 cm-thick bracing concrete
as a waterproof
h",I"l':l'T",rt ....,.!. U."",L.l.l.l."~L VV.l.J.L".l.J. ..

20 cm below the excavation <..,.1.."'" ... structure was a .l.l. ..... system
of concrete columns "'<-"-IIJIJ'-''''''' back platforms the
area of the restaurant. For the roof of the pavilion, .1. consultant designed UV •• L ........

a structure of trusses and beams. In the area of the building, parallel


VVLLL.I.J..::.U.L ........
supported evenly distributed columns.
was roofed by 9 radially disposed triangulated trusses.
hnlUP'''Pl"

trusses was cantilevered between a curving, square-section truss


.L.L.U.<'U..LJLE,

two concrete towers, and two cables springing from the top of each tower
5.10, and 5.1

5.10. Cross-section restaurant.

Within the roof structure, an unusual Glass Reinforced Concrete panel north-
light roofing system doubled as both weather protection and naturallightning system
5.10 5.11).

Complex HVAC and electrical systems were designed to respond to the demanding
requirements of the kitchens and beer brewing in addition to provide with
to
'-'Vl.H".LUV.UJ.J.JlF,areas. The of restaurant, in
order to to 600 seats.
beer plant and museum.

schedule, the final construction rtn'''l1l'Yla·... 1"C'

October were not thoroughly 'U-V'"".U.'-''U-.

aV1nn<"art ............. "...,............ "', surfaces, and furnishings C:X:l:cn'81·<70 ,," to ensure
uniformly designed environment. mechanical, and
drawings, submitted align-
ment, physicallocation and VVjlJ..l.... J~Uj."".I..v...... those systems was
to the general contractor. is not unusual in Spain .
.....,"" ........... ""' ............................,..LU, have an active role in the construc-
allows them to control the final outcome
construction documents package was not totally VVjLU.IJ .... ...., ......,.
The Cruzcampo takeover by

After a period of negotiations, Mr. '-'~"~~"H.J"'"


construction contract to The accepted bid, dated December
amounted million pts. Since Cruzcampo's business plan allocated 1,750 million
for construction, the company a 212 million pts for contingencies
during the construction (Tabie 5.3). proposed by the
contractor was 11 1991, which
of
,",VJ.J.J.IJJ.'-'''JlVJ.J.
5.3. Bidding and actual construction budgets (l,OOOs pts).

Bidding Budget Actual Costs Overruns (%)


Dragados
Earth works 16,151 28,200 12,049 75
Foundations 94,972 144,800 49,828 52
Structure 221,212 309,100 87,888 40
Drainage 1,936 1,500 -436 -23
Brickwork 73,381 71,700 -1,681 -2
Rooflcopper plate 83,988 60,100 -23,888 -28
Paving 37,135 69,900 32,765 88
Woodwork 118,004 39,800 -78,204 -66
Metal 63,044 103,200 64
Glass 19,439 27,000 7,561 39
Paint and finishes 8,243 27,700 19,457 236
Decoration 37,988 37,900 -88 0
Elevators 35,388 39,400 4,012 11
Plumbing/gas 23,438 21,700 -l,738 -7
Fire Protection 18,650 19,000 350 2
Additions 0 54,300 54,300
HVAC 149,557 111,600 -37,957 -25
Electrical 135,528 13,100 -122,428 -90
Total Dragados 1,138,054 1,180,000 41,946 4
Other Contra cts
HVAC
° 97,000 97,000

400,000°
Electrical 71,600 71,600
Beer Plant (GMP)
Total Subs 400,000
400,000
568,600 168,600
0
42°
Total 1,538,054 1,748,600 210,546 14

building completed and fully operative by April


In its observed that the was
seasons. In order to avoid
on time and all
Miguel de Oriol, assigned one
the job. He would ...,'-'.LOJ'V.LHA..LI..

:rU:ZCElmlPO, assigned Carranza as a


.U.L'-'UL>U~<.U facilities, Mr. Carranza was
beer plant.

Actual construction works finally started in The first two segments


of construction, earth removal and executed by the
general contractor.

In 1991, while earth removal was


discovered in the construction documents.
(provided by the organization) "'1-' ...., ..."."....'-..'-...........

'-'n."'OHO~ the access street as built had a


ofthe site.

As aresultofthe r-h~~nC1rp"',V,",'H'<l,h

level, above the water


the building was taken. Besides 1nr-..p<;lCpn earth removal quantities,
a 2,500 a mere 1 meter was very

the slurry wall enclosing the


of France cracked at level-
burying expensive earth
1.5 meters, damaging
of

watertabie. Mr. Oriolandhis<,t""'~f"'f-n ... f"',..,. .... ""If-'llnf- n,r.u,,,,,,,xr ,r,,,,,<,1'ort


'l

of the original design and refused to ""~""'LH.':;;,.U.


the excavation was open, and severe
Cruzcampo pavilion several times, causing constant delays .

...F.,........'-"" a

continuous, l-meter-thick, H'r}.t"'. . ·n... f"\.,..,..f·

The general contractor was C>UL .....:..... JlV ......

newly designed slab could be built HT11·h,..,.,""!"

would bring aboutmany change orders. 1-1,..,.·... 7 0 ' ' ' 0 ...

shocked. In Mr. Oriol's words, is the


of my has been rejected against my "
In a letter dated April 12, 1991, Dragados architect a
extension of the construction schedule as a ..., . .u . redesign delays.
.I.'-'"'-'....... '--".I..1.

Despite the impact of the delays, however, the was still under
control. The new thick slab system was less !"> ... pile foundation.
'V ...... .!. ... '.......

In the contractor's overhead, at such an of construction, was


The owner agreed to the contractor's "an,ne""t- and the
the delays. The foundation slab was finally May
5.12).

5.12. Foundation slab.

coordination of new foundation


...u ...... problems. The new foundation system
"'-!-,...,....,,,..., .... Uv.J.u.l.'U.Lu .....' u

waterproof caisson. However, the designer


50cm walls in his proposal and the original,
HA ... ',., .......'"" ... ,

documents. The general contractor could


'-''-'JlJ.U'-.'' ......,'-.. 'OC,.... A.

l"""t'llnlncr walls until the two conflicting designs were coordinated.

curvature.

The execution of the final retaining wall U.VLYA.fo..JLJ.,

became very complex, with more than 90 "",",vUVJ.h) and crowning sections
around the building 5.13). costs increased, because
linked to the foundation slab below ground and exposed above, had to
times with concrete of different colors. In addition, efficiencyexecution r!p,--rp<::lc>,::'r!
due to unexpected changes (such as requests . openings) during the pouring of the
wans. Particularly critical was the delay in the definition of the area of the garage ramp,
which provided access to the basement for the execution of other tasks. Eventually,
the retaining were not finished until early The overall impact. of the
retaining wall segment on the project schedule was a delay of 14 days. Direct co st
retaining wans was estimated by Dragados to be more

costs .
..... rh'V'l,~,."'t ........ t·i,T<:"

drain for general contractor. In


. L . u .. '..........., ........L rescue
Dragados a new chief ofthe works: who entered the project late
in May 1991. Unlike the previous chief of the works, Pedro Alanîs was within
Dragados as a tough negotiator. In harsh terms, Alanis indicated to the owner's
representative his intentions of litigating to recover the delay costs, unless owner and
architect contributed to lower costs in the remaining segments of the project.

U'-".. dOJlV.U. to
construction
of connections of the facades to floorings
retamlng walls. Complexity in execution increased, because the new concrete
'-'V.lH.l'-''-'t-.l\J.uo .... arn"'~arl framework, and because some exterior walls featured curving

shapes, to form. Furthennore, since none of the new concre~e walls had been
defined in the initial structural plans, additional form had to be .....u.'.n>.l-'...,v~...,
........

procured and manufactured.


total time overruns resulting from and were
estimated by the contractor to be 28 Additional direct costs accounted for nl0re
than million pts. Visually, the _~~.~~~,..,~ in the of the was the nl0st
severe modification to the the 5.

5.14. Concrete walt facade.

the retaining walls and the .u.~"''''.L~'-'.1.


1991. The structural VV~J.'" UH.......... ...

'rJ.l;!J--LJl.u.U' concrete structure for


01"\1"""",,"..1
the structure was regular in areas of the the exhibition. In area of the
restaurant it formed stepped back I-'J. ..... .l.'-'~
.......... u The spans and the of
interior structural elements were throughout the building.
simplicity of however, Dragados detected numerous
errors and structural plans. some of the design
had been caused by the
walls, most were simply the result rlo"t·'r'lC.rl construction u.v,."LU,uv.lH,L>.

5.15. 1T"""lrlf'" structure.

The general contractor produced UÁL'vÁJ.JLUH solutions, faxed them to the structural
consultant and called IAnóTrI1D1"nnr'o proceeding with any
portion of construction. architect before approving any
changes, and its response was since the feedback of
.... ""~ . . .,......'. . . information from the site the detailing and
Mr. Oriol and OTEP were "'A1'~C'1"r,n1"I"'T ..""... na.,r1~'" changes, often
when structural elements were already or even IJ'-'\.u.v'.... Between May and
;JVIJL,.n,UIJ'VÁ of reported as many as 19 "","""nU.lh\.n,.l.v",v>J

rework. An10ng others, the problems ,u... '"" ... ""'-.."'....


"n/"hr,,·,r.óT ."'''l'Y\OH1A1''lr in floor slabs, omission of . . .l'""'-' ..
<..I• .I..I. ...

'-LÁÁJl,LVÁUH'-J.UU and heights of floor slabs, modification


walls. One of the costlier was the
floor slab to support the large and heavy HVAC
1

system supplied the restaurant. In the construction documents the was,


unrealistically, hanging from the of roof

Eventually, structure-related delays (inc1uding .!.V~'~.LLLLLLF, concrete wall T .... n, .... "'''''''

and structural elements) added to a total of days. The orO.f'"r\11 ofthe roof structure
did not begin until mid September, nearly 4 months schedule.

despite the savings achieved earlier by simplifying the foundation


construction costs, as a result of the owner' s '-'L'-'-'''-'...,...... .1.U.f'',

expectations. Dragados estimated 1 million \lp.rnp.~lfl costs -labor,


als and equipment, general expenses- in the structural C"<TC,tOln-1

On September 16, 1991, Mr. Alanîs "". . u'.l.Lu.•_'-vu.

million pts in costs of rework, and


days of structure-related delays. Mr. .I...., .... '-'<.<Jl.!. ..U .

contingencies, half way across constnlction


by more than (from 212 to million pts).

to the requested amount to the general contractor, Mr. '--' ....'u............., ....
Qe(am:~u to two cost-saving management First, he would
subcontract and supervise the electrical and HVAC
known as sub-bidding, allows construction managers to save in contrac-
tor coordination fees and secure lower he would
additional pressure on the
Mr. Carranza intended to
contractor in compensation of

the consultant had designed a structure


..:........... "'._ ..... .L .... .L

trusses 01l1.... "'("\1·t111lT Reinforced (GRC)

)ra~!ad<)s
approached its subsidiary GRC J..l.L"l.U.U..LU'-'L""'.L

system. After reviewing the plans, the


that the north-light panel system proposed by Mr.
......."'1-,.,.,01""1'01' l'o ..... {"\ ...1"c:>rt

OTEP was not feasible. GRC


0.".. '''''' TI ,001' VUU.V.l.O,

rac;ao.es, had never been cast in large curvature shapes as those


restaurant's roof. Moreover, the systenl would not be safe
ma.1ntemmce, since it relied on the GRC as elements. In uU\.J..LI..L'VJ.J.,

manufacturer noted that the proposed detailed and executed,


would stiU probably suffer fron1 waterproofing problems, the numerous
required and the large expected.

5.16. Roojïng.

Once again, the structural consultant considered the demands of Dragados


the redesign of the GRC system unnecessary. the general contractor was
that the roof
, , ' V ........... u Jointly, its subsidiary
n1anufacturer proposed for the
structure. In the new ... 'VLHJ-,'.... '
contractor.

of
Clrcumsltan(:;e of ..,...,.....H" ......"'..

space is tight) as opposed


an unexpected problem.
..........' ..... " .............. "-'I"\'1'l1'<:I11'l""'1" plans
fY"",rl':>1"<:1,T""'''

designed for a spacious industrial


not space for utilities around the plant.
v.U,jL"v,~" allowed 50 cm of empty space in all directions, an ample value for
architectural utility standards. However, such space allowances were too tight
industrial plant, which required allowances of 1.5 meter. When the ~uU·""",."".,v"
of the beer plant started, in November 1991, the building's ,~ u".. ....... '.....

conflicted with the utilities of the plant. The German subcontractor, on a


contract (and therefore unwilling to experience any delays),
conflicting order to ducts
Mr. the HVAC and e1ectrical
v .... v·U.L;-,.uv ....

systems U.U.UL"-'.L.L, consultant. The redesign


process extended vv uv,. '-,VH .L/Vvv.lJ.HJ'v.J. 1992. In order to solve the
conflicts
.L.Lvv~,-' large HVAC
v .... .....

5.17. Exterior ducts and vents.

The most were located in late The


was However, he since it was obvious
the interior space was insufficient to accomnl0date all the necessary conducts. The
alternative layouts reduced the totallength conducts and the auxiliary construction
necessary to conceal them, thus being more economical than the original designs.
Thanks to the savings in materials and the benefits of personally subbidding the
systenls, Mr. Carranza nlanaged to save nearly million pts, which he offered to
Dragados as compensation for earlier overruns.

After the supply and drainage systems were recleslgrtea


structure, the Gernlan subcontractor completed the beer
110

the German subcontractor .LLU.-'-u-'- .• ...., ....

elements of the plant, specially the


t:>V ..... A0t:.r1 was
owner and architect. Weldings and surfaces were
contrast with the building's U,",i-U-.U.'-'U __U.J.I-V.l.-'-V-'- -'--'--'-.l--'-0J.J.V0.

aesthetic requirements had not


contract. In his design, however, had vUjL.!.Ll-'-·UV... v .....

U-JlUUIJJLV object and


V."-J.H.U'.J.I..LVJ.-'-

more, a large floor opening allo wed the


.of the brewing process -the mixing, .J.i-'-""'-'i-'-LJLh

5.18). Immediately, Mr. Carranza to assign a crew steel


to refine the finishes of most elements of the plant. The work,
with other finishing
'-'-'--'--'.... 1--'1--'''-''-'- did not cause However, it had
a substantial on casts.

,"'-.-,?V,/, ... I.II'.I.. "/.F..'. museum and bar.


During the SUll1mer of 1991, searched for a r":If'tn~~ ..
operation the restaurant dUl'ing the six nl0nths of the
candidate was an restaurateur. The Swiss
the first time the the '--'.L 1_1"-''-'U,J..L,liJV

In his in a were the affluence of is nlassive and lines


unavoidable, the clue to success is reducing customer by serving food
fast. The SwÎss reviewed the building's 0Aln;~~;c·~the~~~·h1;a~;

to comment on operation-oriented
concerns was the restaurant hardwood finish. environment
by the wanl1, noise-absorbing hardwood would contribute to a
reduced customer turnover. On the contrary, a noisier restaurant environment,
more in with the fast-food concept, would help to revenues.

the early summer, the architect had pressed by the owner's


to the of nlaterials in order to reduce
impact of cost overruns. The hardwood was one of the costlier building
-118 million pts., or ofthe total cost of (See 5.4).
the restaurant specialist exposed his about the wood finishes,
Mr. Oriol turned to the owner's representative to discard the use of
hardwood in and walls. Eventually, hardwood was only used in reduced
of while walls were finished in tile and pink
~, obtained an approval to substitute the original wood
__ ••, .......>u

less costly coated aluminull1 in a In Novenlber,


"'''''H/I,,''' the "industriallook" of the roof while it was completed on the
rectangular part of the and agreed to the ceiling
completely and leave the GRC and steel structure exposed the building.
The elimination of the saved an additiona125 million Carranza
reimbursed to the contractor. The nleasure, ., r.,,,,,,,,, ,,:>,'
implications. The structure had originally been to be concealed above
the ceiling. When finally erected in December 1991, the nU'ving of the roof
revealed a rather disorderly of trusses and braces 5.19).
5.19. Interiorfïnishes, restaurant area.

measure contractor and authorizcd by


.u"n",,",~
..., . was the elin1inatiön of areas, The original interim'
cavity walls, in were v.U.JUIUlIUlvU, and the load bearing concrete
exposed.

east flanking the restaurant was also deprived of its cavity wall and
smooth stucco This particular issue was controversial. The
the building's exterior was already erected when
elin1inate the interim' cavity Given the visual prol11inence of the wal!,
The generaicontractor, however, del11anded additional funds and
>.-........ ,,'"',"" ... '-',...... u'-''-+.

time to anchors for the in the construction docul11ents and


necessary for a wall of such the owner's
intervened and Dragados was the concrete wall vf>.IJ'-hJV .....

ally, the rough concrete the wall remained in contrast with the rest of the
restaurant, finished in '""'"' ..... . ." . . . ,,""'
Instead, in late
Cruzlago a
Cruzlago
as 8,000 daily

,U.V<..... ,UlF, on demand during the day. Mr. '-'",'.U.U,",",,"," V,"-,L,''-<V·'.IÁ

of
..., ........'uJ-!"." layouts and the sel'eCllOn
whole building would
"' .... "'n".'" Sl31e,ctea low-cost, low-quality .!.,,-,- ...'v.o.n.'.!." .L ..... ,u.,.u....,u..A,u'
only months of operation.
savings were contractor. Furniture installation started

and design modifications A!:'t">lu·..... n ....

'"','""LAL ......... ' uv .. construction drawings ,-,"""''''''''''';0-,


'",I"I. ....'\..!,

Paving and layouts, LUJ.,U,LLU.LV

arrangements, surface textures subjects to which the


.l.i ....)......"........,.."',

paid his greatest attention, accommodate vJ, ....uJ,f:,.u.'"F, 1. "."--,,,1.'"

utility layouts, and construction .. In sense, the role of Mr.


,u, ..., ... v .......... u.

the architect employed by Dragados, was


.... ".L'-,.L.L VL>, Much of the required new
was defined jointly by the
'-'...,L.U..L.L.U.LJi'., contractor on the office
The presence on site design full
contractor to decisions that the .,. .. .-.11.1"0",1" aft1r.·<TCLrt

save time and money. The


vv.v""..·..... by Mr. Glitiérrez for

stairs, railings, furnishings. young


p.1p.rY"Ip.ntc such as an auxiliary structure for the bay

window in double-hinged columns


introduced to support the

The ~AA~AAAt-l concrete towers reached


point in October .LUJ,U1.J.llF, ceremony -l:eliebr'ate:d when construction
of the top the u ..........I. ...U.l.lE, is 1"p<;lf"' tH"rl _ _ was held 4 months behind the '-'J...l.I">J...I.1.'.......

construction suspended structure, the general contractor


of recalculating all unusual structures- studied the
towers and proposed by the structural consultant. In addition,
.., .........'...."' ....... concrete of the towers had to cure for 28 days before able to carry
speed up the construction process, a series supports
U.l':>IJV.:)vu along the perimeter of the building to allow for of the roof

system, the general contractor the


..... J..J..~:;...I.J. ....'-' ......L.uJ.'" subsidiary ofDragados based in Madrid. Je.U,,"""""''''-

revealed that the structure was unsafe. According to .L.I..I."''"''"'':>''-,

made the roof much


..... "" .......... jL ....... hprnTH"'"

"''-'. . . . .'''.,..........,..... that the originalloading


trusses nor the towers could stand the
unacceptable deflections.

consultant, however, insisted in soundness of the structure. OTEP


Dragados that it was the structural
..."" ......'i1n'rjArl not the "'~nt' ... n"t'A ... Ç>Tl'nTl,p"" .... MVA.LV ........ -'.

who assumed responsibility for structure. In 1"AC'r\r\l~C'A


Dragados was unwilling to build
to safeguard the reputation of

the consultant refused to redesign


of Dragados commissioned to
structure of the
the redesign of the TrHl"Ar._l"!:InIP VVJlUJ.'-"'-''-'.'V.U.''', ""~V'V"'J."",
c011ceale:C1 double-hinged steel columns
the towers and cables structurally
pn~se:nteC1 Intecsa's design proposal to the architect and the
a meeting in early December 1991.

reH~cte~C1
the proposal of the general contractor.
UJ.vu.......''"'''' ...

building' s acc1aimed record-breaking


design his structural consultant and assume
structural system. He denied Dragados ......... J..n,nLJ."-' ..uJ.'V ... ...

architect interpreted the redesign proposal of .......}-, ....... as "an unnecessary "JU '-'.LH"-U'F-,V

order intended to costs the of the contractor. " Mr.


resources to
-'-l-nnl."rr solutions to

Less than four rYin..... 1"t-'''' ... ,,'rnICll";::,r!

was Cllc,nt:>,nrlç'rI

roof, a suspended system would ... v.·,,·~r._


and require more complex, movement-capable
u.u.'"'".-"'-.... the structural consultant had anticipated an flexible joint "u. u'-' ......... " ...

between wall, solutions the of the cables


had not been developed. Moreover, and leaking of the GRC panel joints was
more likely a constantly llloving, suspended roof.

Mr. Carranza considered that both and schedule were too tight to allow for the
development of complex joint solutions or to afford extensive leak rep airs during the
winter. As a result, he authorized Dragados in December of 1991 to reinforce the roof
trusses and introduce the columns that invalidated the cable structure. Mr. Oriol,
however, persisted in opposition to the measure. In order to obtain approvalof
the Mr. Carranza added a to the contract which the
modification of the structure was tbe
schedule" and

Eventually, during the concrete towers bent and


cracked. u'"'",....... "-', if
built,
H
rnr,1"111,1f lI"1r,n to the construction contract that liber-
the columns after fair.

Mr. Carranza was satisfied. the differences between the original


structure were ÎInperceptible (Fig. 5.20). The slender supporting columns had been
concealed within partitions, and only one remained visible. The architect, however,
could not help being concerned. The structure of the building was no long er the highly
innovative, record-breaking system that the architect had so proud of all along.
Furthermore, from a distance, the cables to curve slightly their own
Mr.Oriol in to the order to
5.20. View OV1",01"'/)1" structure

the last half of the owner avoided additional n',"/Tl'~'"


contractor by authorizing l'irH1TnC"Tt"'À,I'i"'Iè to the design and to
In
.1..1..1."', ..""............. " ' . Dragados requested an UU\-'1.uvuu..<

.. n~~....,.L.L'~'" structure,
the new columns. The . . " .. '11n-111

process had
'-''''J,1.'' ..!LU ....·.., .......,1.1. costs near the
.......u.u ... v· ...... pts, and Cruzcampo could not afford the additional

have enforced the by the works, but the


exposition recommended to finish the building on tiIne
The modification of structure was executed, and the was
.......U .......... 'LV .... on the Expo'92 However, the
. . . . . . . . . . '"" . . . pts request is still P'""''''.. u.J.J.F-,'
For the pavilion a ..... ....."J .. F<" .... "" ....

glass and steel structure ........ structures.


,~","'-',U.L..... '-"U. ..... A,"" ......

Two months the construction of the pavilion


result of
construction contracts.
for
,LU,'J,U"J.H> r-f"\1'Y'1nIAT1

late during construction, threatened to

three contractors in the design, management and


Holy See How did the terms of
financing affect the relation two contractors
owner?
2. were the as a

3. how would you . . . ~. . ,,,. . . . '"'


pavilion? What
unpleasant effect?
4. As the owner, how would you resolve
of the uu,' ......u,uA
,UH,VU, .... U',H'"

5. What would be the best approach to finish the


the opening of the Expo' 92?

Doctoral student Alberto Diaz Hermidas prepared this case under the supervision of
Associate N. Pollalis as a basis for class discussian rather than ta illustrate
either handling administrative situatian, a design pracess ar a
research was as part of the doctoral dissertation of
Alberto Hermidas on the lnfluence Methods on Architectural Prajects:
Case Studies from the Seville

An,,'rlcrlnr © 1993 Alberto Diaz Hermidas and N. PoUalis.


the assistance of de Oriol, Manuel Valdecantos
Fernández and José Cm'los Gutiér-rez Blanco of Dragados.
In 1989, the State of
Spanish gQ"'\{ennment
in Seville
of
"'f"'rt.'Tt3Y"<l

COITlm11tme:nt by the
1'"\.::"1A11I1"1 the duration of world's lnt!ernlatlonai pavilions in
of the pavilion of the Holy cleared for the future
1"t3c'pO::I1t'r>h and development 1../.1.'-"IV ...' ....

Construcciones
an indefinitely
nA.~t- ""."....::u...... schedule. The contractors were lnt.:... ac.tarl
.....r.nc.rl ........ a good long-term
the Spanish Church, agreement was reached
Dragados, the ".L",.....Lu.'UJ..I.•.u. general >JIJ<.U ...... L'.U r>AlnT .. 'Clr>r,,..,. .. 0

would erect those systems by a general contractor:


foundations, structure, . . u ... 'u'V ....... a specialized utilities "' .... ... ..., ...'.u.J-.'-' ..... , ..,·VVJ.J.

tractor, would undertake One conditions ofthe ",,...,,,,,,1'·..,,,.-,.h


h,.,.,[uo'lTa .. was that owner should appoint Servicios 93 (a ",.. . L"-.l.l. ....U. ......

and two more contractors) 'C'1' ..


"-u .....'1..<l"."" ...... ,u .... "'A ... nr>T1Afl ............ ,F, ........

of 1990, Mr. Tagliaferi COI1nm:lsslonE~a


next to the

'A-VH,t-l/ll, ofThe Holy construction.

zoning regulations required a m. and a maximum


ratio 1, thus limiting the footprint to 50x20 mand the built surface area to 1,800
. Building height was limited to m.
ence expected to C11s:as~~eIlabJle
use. Thus, the use
design it was by combining
traditional and nn..-d-o-......."',,-.. ....... ...-.r features, f-.-n-"'''"t'Y\.f--l-ari of the everlasting
presence in the world, ~'LJiijlj;..
1-' ..... UJL'-'-''--<<;;'JlJl the era of the discoveries
until our

PABELLON DEL VATICA


EN LA EXPO'92

on~c;elnU/'lL design.
Servicios 93 invited u..L.L,......L.LU''-"'.L

for the pavilion, among

of vaulting brickwork.
1-'<'<1,'-"",1.1.1.

with the constant pursue of spiritual


IJUJlJ.'..U.1.1.F,

In addition, the use of modern materials in


the nightly of the glass enclosure were intended as a
continuous presence the Church in history.

~ ...."u.,..
U.A.A.h water pond a garden outlined a exterior space.
enhanced the lightness of the glass and endowed the volume with· a "floating"
character. The interior was a brightly lit, uninterrupted open with an elevated
mezzanine. Despite the lack of partitions, clusters of columns and openings in the
mezzanine limited different interior and a large court.

overall schematic design of Mr.


hr"".,..,n,,,~1-II"T Mr. Oriol was to
V:rSTA SOR - OEST'E

the SOLLtn1;ve.~>t.

A thin, continuous
walls and vaults.
Graund [laar plan.

EXPOSICION

EXPOSICION

6.5. Upper [laar plan .

....,."•.L ..... ~-".t.L.V' .... area, and two VlC!eC)-OrOleCtlOn


at ground
Fig. 6.6. Intermediate fioor plan

A shallow water pond, a tropical garden, and a


exterior exhibition area, could
ofthe pavilion. The total built surface area was
.L.L.u'v.L.L'J.L UUI'\..I.':>I.'-'U rn -:',"'1 ryn 11"Y\ floor
site 6.1).

6.1. Areas (m 2).

Ground Floor Mezzanine Top Floor Total


Usabie Built Usabie Built Usabie Built Usabie Built
Exhibition 830 852 95 99 515 528 1,440 1,4'
Administration 45 49 0 0 0 0 45 49
ControlISales 36 39 0 0 0 0 36 39
Restrooms 0 0 33 38 0 0 33 38
Video 0 0 35 38 0 '0 35 38
Utilities 43 49 0 0 0 0 43 49
Circulation 0 0 23 23 0 0 23 23
Total 954 989 186 198 515 528 1,655 1,715

on preliminary structural and control


rOlm(]l-st:~cn.on
structural steel members, following contour
wall enclosure consisting of a white ".l. ..... .I..U.l..u. ...u ..I..1.

panels. However, since therm al glass was not


enoughto ~.LU'C.LVjl.L, most panels were insulated with
.L" ....

fiberglass cloth, sandwiched net1wef~n and a interior . . . "r...""n·......


panel. The remaining across the building' snorth,
east, and south _LO......' .......... ·VU structure mezzanine,
round -section slab, provided horizontal C't'11rTn,a",,,,

the and ü.L'-'.L.LU''-'J a-v1"",... ,rH· 01r.·,.,,-.h,, ...... ! and 6.9). Foundations were
wall.

Interior were also defined. The rr ..r"'''','-' pink


concrete floor with black glass trimmings. was simply
n1etal railings were standard, and no further .LHL'v.L.L\Jl. uv'-"J.LU.Ll.V_Uwas
fied. Exterior paving was also site-cast concrete.

SECCION LONGITUDINAL

6.8. Longitudinal cross section.


Transverse cross section.

In addition to
and contents.

ba1cony the large circular court was


four areas, corresponding to the four viceroyalties the Indies.
third itinerary, at gt:ound level, displayed European artwork and documents
representing the European prior and during the era of the discoveries. In
the center the court, a large piece served as the symbol of the (Mr. Griol
proposed Tabernacle of the Cathedralof Toledo). The three rooms at the back of
the building were for a small chapel and two video rooms. The chapel could
OOI3ne~C1 to of the building for the celebration Mr. Griol suggested
",~v\.IJJ"'.lJL""with the
one on
ordered
rn".nTt""

. The construction documents


3 months. Expecting an additional3 months for LH ...........U .•lF,

scheduled the commencement of construction works

November 1990 the


the
I-'U'-'.l'\..IJ~j:;:,'-' ."",.,.h"'1,,,rl

V.L,""1LII.JL~VAJ.L ..... V""""'.lJ.JL'-'J.J. .. O were

Two An{'rln,::loArlnrr '-'VIIOUI .. UJ. .! .. "" and UOO.1."' .....' ..... Oriol
with the "',...,..,,,' .....,,,"' ....

columns
continuous pink concrete section.

The consultant
electrical, HVAC and
could be lnet with simple utility systems.
provide enough conditioning power. Given the mostly daily use
the openness of the space, lightning requirements were minimal.
work was limited to the rest rooms. Due to the configuration of the roof, gutters were
not necessary.

and the construction manager decided to assign the final detailing


the of the building to specialized contractors, who would build
reasons governed their decision.

the design schedule was tight. Since construction of the utilities systems
could not until 1991, it was not critical to have complete construction
of the utilities
".n."-'LU.L.LVHLL> 1991. In networks, simple
building segments and
one of the collaborating
.. v ....'u;::;.vu..

V""'JU.oJ"'JL ................................vvu, .............'iu.oJ of the during the

to the structure that,


and ..... VLLLF,J.J.VU

...., ..................... F, "Torre Madrid. The architect


was very on the lack of time and the success
story 93 awarded the and
construction of the exterior curtain wall structure of the pavilion
same steel subcontractor. the more
consultant and, at the same time, guarantee a maximum construction co st. Mr.
and Servicios agreed.

the approach would


the most efficient ,."-,.,,.,,,t-...... ..-'t-ir....... methods
the vaults in construction documents were . . . u,"'...... !', ..........

polygonal form, to improve the constructibility the curtain wan


the architect did not need to produce thoroughly defined contract documents. In
the architecfs construction documents were basicany the same document
presented late October with the addition of a structural analysis by schematic
diagrams of the utilities by Goymar, and the above mentioned modifications to the
geometry of the curtain wall. The architect signed the documents and included a
quantity survey and a set of CJ...., ...,v.u............... U'L' ... HJ.

documents were and to the r>i~iT".,." n " T ....

J anuary 1991. package included a construction budget of 300 pts or


pts/m2 • As often in Spain, the budget was not arealistic estimate of costs, but
a legal document deliberately scaled down to yield smaller construction permit
design which in Spain are based on percentages of construction costs. For
example, the the frame of the curtain wan, and the exterior officially
budgeted in 180 million pts, had been contracted to for a fixed of
236 million pts (Tabie 6.2).
6.2. Design, bid and actual construction budgets (lOOOs pts).

D. Devprnt. Bid Actual

Earth works 1,000 2,000 2,000


Foundations 6,000
Drainage 1,000
Interior stmcture 31,000
and finishes
Doors and windows 1,000 4,525 4,525
Paint 10,000 7,520 7,520
Plumbing 5,000 9,000 9,000
Decoration 5,000 2,500 2,500
Elevator 3,000
Miscellaneous 435 435
Gravel grass 700 700
Tota! 78,000 103,000 115,289 12,289 11.9
Folcrá
Structure 30,000 39,234
Curtain wall frame 90,000 134,246
Glass 60,000 59,872 59,872
insulation 32,951 32,951
Shields 1,820 1,820
1,882 1,882
3,093
1,148 1,148
180,000 266,303 273,098 6,795 2.6

Fire Protection 4,000 2,319 2,930 611 26.3


HVAC 14,000 24,107 26,125 2,018 8.4
Electrical 18,000 39,000 3,524 9.0
Sound and video 6,000 4,574
6,438
42.000 70,000 12,591 18.0

Total 300,000 11.8


was initiated in February owner to
.nr1A1:"'.Annaln1:' contractors and two different financial arran~?;ernel1ts.

Two Clficmllst:anlces ..,.1''À·H'À1~Arl


'À.,. •

of constnlction that were not


c",o'rnp·n1"c .u......' ............."" .....

contractors. plumbing and


enclosure systems were two ex.ample~s the complex dynamics of the n a .... I"\1:'. <:>1:'1

process.

two partnering contractors


to the rest rooms, the plumbing
JL..I..... J..... ,,"" .....

the negotiations, the question


plllm!b1l1lg c,",cf',prn was The representatives ofboth . . . . . . . . . ,,'u F-, .........

contracts. argued that the plumbing


contractor, however,
UUJLlU\... LJ

by the general
to

Since the enclosure system was Folcrá was


to produce working drawings for the v ......,,,;'-"'""u...
ment of the during the negotiation phase.
produced extensive and very accurate "Ylr.l'lr,.n ..... nr·~'''n·n ......'
of all The thoroughness of the
auxiliary elements required by the been '"'u.............. .....
f'h.::...... ~'a.I~ ....... ,·n...,~... T+,VQ.rI_1PIr1IC('~ aE~reE~mt~nt. The steel contractorclaimed that 32 .I..LU..L.l.J.\J'.U.
elements as ladders,
U ... .u.u;:;"", .LlJ.U.u.J.i-VJlJ.UJ.J.VV

material within the glass panels) to the fixed-price


contract.

After three months of negotiations, an 'lfTl"P>P1Y1Plnt

structure and enclosure uv".... ;:;,.l.lV~


whereas the rest of the ,..,"',,"'.,t-.... ',.-'t-,r' ...

owner would
additions to the contract (32 J..U.LJU. .LU'U.

phase. The construction ~~,__ ,~~

There was a common owner and contractors to


construction costs. The owner, although the payment to
had been postponed to pay for the
future, Fo1crá was under a contract. Neither urag:lQ()S
gum'anteed a back uvu.v ..... , ..... '"'.

Therefeore, the three contractors were


TV.llrl1f'''rt'->n. pnf'All'1"-:l(TP>rt

design alternatives procedures to reduce


as possible.
approach, construction contract
.....n u....... "" ....' ............, ...... '"

Servicios r> ... ...,."'~...n,..,.hr.. .... rn'~n'lCY~>'"

'-'U.'.'-'-''''''-, Miguel de construction manager had to


independent construction contracts.

3/91 4/91 5/91 6/91 7/91 8/91 9/91 10/91 11/91 12/91 1/92 2/92 3/92 4/92 5/92

i
I I
Fo ndatiom (Draga~os)
30DI

Exteri( r Struct re (Folc a)


1 1 63
Expo'9
Int rior Stro ture (Or gados)
I 75

1
Paving Dragado)
I 45

Masonry (Dragadc~)
I
I 45

Uil Ities (Ab goal


il 45

End osure W lis (Fok a)


I I

Fini! ihes (Dra ados) 45

Ende isure Vat: fUS (Fok al


I J 45

Planned
Exl ibition I isplays ( pragadol!)

J~
1
Slack
xbibitio , Conten fS (Speci. list)

I
Construction 1991, by Dragados.

negotiation process
-----=---J the commencement of construction works,
contractors were forced to proceed under a schedule. The works
on June 6, two months behind the The construction team
of the works from the 3 architect, the
only the chief of would be
construction process. a schedule and
""''''L.'-'J.''' • U.'-'
vVJ1.l0 .... proper coordination of construction operations
...,V •..H .... 1-0 ,

However, . . . 93, who used to subcontract


p·r1dll'lr\'-' construction
commissions to its parent """-'J, ...... did not have sufficient construction
IJ .... UJl\"'''. <,r>!-'artl" I1nn-

and coordination resources. of construction the


U>;:"C-tuv..:>, José Fernández, the (not the responsibility) of
the construction works.
E'Or.. ....... ,.,,, .... ,,.,. ..... ,,.

Mr. a comfortable construction program for his company. The


Dragados were allo wed long execution periods,
whereas other subcontractors were required to comply to tight schedules.
ra.rl1111~a.r1 at least 7 the erection the building enclosure, including the
the enclosure of the and the enclosure of the vaults.
contents needed 30 before the
VJlU.A.LU' ..LU.'--'A.A. opening.
slots of 30 and days for the foundations and
"J',,-HA. displays by Dragados, but he assigned the n1inimum 7 months
.U.l..' ... " . L............ 'U' ...... 'J.L '-'.'>'U. .LU'A

and the installers of exhibition contents. Since the


was the critical path project, other tasks to be
during the erection the enclosure (interior structure,
'r'll'r'lrl''\''

enjoyed ample margins contingencies (Fig. 6.10).

Duetothe
in second half of
subcontractors of pre-cast piles were
to up with and execution for
subcontractor delayed the commencement of work on the foundations by
any delay in the foundations would delay the whole project, Dragados
of foundation to a site-cast pile system, so the general
contractor could use its own machinery and labor. The system was \./A....'-'U._'-'u •
to savings time and cost. The change in the
.L...., .....'-..L.L.L.Lh

affect the site-cast concrete slab that braced the piles, executed as y l J... .Lj"'>.u. .L'.....L ...

designed. early the foundation was Costs and schedule estimates


were met, and Folcrá was able to the of the structure as
scheduled 6.11).

In the design developn1ent documents, and


a tropical garden LlU.I..I.'-.JUU.........u ... Fo. the
glass enclosure by a.n,'AtU1n
documents by the
concrete and ru"t""...'....... r.,.n.+".rl
controversy during the stages of
"l"iirn1'"n1"t1llY pool subcontractor, discovered that

C011SUitlnJlOf anetworkofpipes, a water pump,


from the construction documents,
"t'YI. ,"',....., rr

one, the
A"t"CI.A .. " " . . the building were already crowded, there was no room
for any Dragados requested from 93 that
pond and the strip of grass. The owner . . .1-.',...,..., ......
the proposal, but the 10ss of the "floating"
intended the LJUJ.H..U.J.J.F,'

Foundation slab column

Due to the elimination of the water pel~lPtlenH concrete wall


had to be redesigned. Dragados pressed rer)re~~entmlvetocomeup
The construction a
in a concrete mix is achieved
additions. As a re sult, concrete is a 01-1\../"""'. U
than the mix. Due to the wall,
concrete to of less than 1 m 3,
of the available concrete trucks was 6 m 3• Procuring the
01-'\'./"""':'U pink concrete in small skyrocketed unit costs. In order to
costs down, construction of the wall with other tasks and used
excess pink it was structure neighboring
Cruzcampo project. Pouring of the peripheral wall of the pavilion lasted more than one
month, untillate 1991.

""'"",b ........ of the structure of the ' . . . r."' ...".,.... n~"''7·'7<:llr\111,'"


vu . . . . . ...,uby
proposed ..., . . . ,'-'-. . . .
'-'-b

plate a ... '-''-'--'--'-j-, .....-'- .......-'-'-,'-'-

common in Spain, since it is more cost-efficient to use ceramic caissons to .L.L!",'U"'' ' '.L.L
slab and make a formwork of wood planks supported on a scaffolding of telescopic
steel posts. However, the proposed system made sense in the specific case of the
pavilion See. The folded steel plate much fasterto erect, and
the elimination scaffolding allows the contractor to other activities below
the slab while it hardens (Fig. 6.12) .

.LJV01-1.Llc. . . the simplicity ofthe system and the in time allowed by the unconven-
tional construction procedure, the interior structure suffered substantial delays. In
order to keep up with the tight constructionschedule, Dragados had to overlap the
construction of the foundations with the manufacturing of members for the
interior structure. The of the and rlc'-" ..... '1ro

limited number of construction


tion of working drawings. On the
balcony was very complex. The steel.L.LHJ,.L.Lu.u. . . . ,.. U.L

to produce valid worldng


consultant OTEP.
consultant for a fuIl ..ar, CT"" a",·,
the request of Dragados was not answered. In order to save
'-'-""'.H."'-"-) ordered the steel manufacturer to redesign the stairs. The manufacturer's
docunlents was submitted to the consultant for approval.
-nl"-""'C'of'i with the of the stair was obtained in

6.12. Structure of the mezzanine.

In the the main girders of the steel structure of the


mezzanine were the round-section columns of the exterior structure. The
exterior structure was detailed Folcrá in the steel
n1anufacturer to detail supply the
1991. Once the detailing was ready,
girders by the manufacturer matched
structure and authorized their manufacturing.
the steel erection crew of
consistently 2 cm shorter than
However, Dragados
problem was not an error
diameter of the columns I"1P('1 fl"l'lPI"1

In early 1991, Folcrá' s design department IJ IJ ..'VA..L..LV .....

the columns of the exterior 01' .... 11"'1'111 ... '" AV1I"\Ar·h1'l,ty

delays the building's development


manufacturing until June 1991. As a
construction materials in the hectic 1991
available in June, and Folcrá, 1I"\"'''''00.:.rI

a smaller diameter steel pipe for

was free from liability.


was forced to
ro,..., ..,,,,rr,,,,t.,...,n 1tY'I'l,n<:>,rrar

v l..u" ........,'-'-'".',-"-""',,,. In addition to the costs, this problem led to a delay

the subcontractor
ov1:-a ... " .. C'f" .... " · ' " , ..·""

documents
the aluminum frame and
,",,,.,,,,1:-..,,,-,1"1A1I'>

Waterproofing requirements
IJ <,u"",-,"'-"..LF,.

tolerances. The curving geometry of


rlO1'Y'I"',nrlc.rI "U"..L"""","H"","'''U

system. Earlier in 1990, in order to UL"U"LI-'..LLL

proposed to the architect the use of polygonal 1.1.1.0\,"'''"\.1.

elements. Visually, the change was barely noticeable, and


"",,HL'''''''''''''''" agreed. Folcrá produced an exhaustive set
including full-scale working drawings of
The <,>""arY\hh:r .L.U"'."'.HA", was in the path in the
6.10). thanlcs to the accuracy of the
the assembly of proceeded as planned,
rest of the works. Since the curtain wan was vf)..,_v.LJ.V.L,

construction were minimal. Following


J..Uo..'\,,/LL\JJ.

,",.cL~VL.L'U'.L structure, the assembly of the wall


planned, the enclosure of the
later, by early February 1992 (Fig. 6.14).
.U.J.""'A.AI..LA"

architect expected.

Assembly

In the utility diagrams, .LiJ.'-'.LU.\"~V\,.J. documents, the utility


networks were not f"'r ....... roa<> the building.
to cover utility conduits would interrupt the
by the Since the section of both
the exposed utility
LUY'.U..l\.,vv\" vdlJvvLv'-'-

structure.

curtain wal!: February 1992.

the J.J.v,::"VllULJLVH

the pavilion, lJU\.",;;,vLvU r>A.l'~Tr<J."T<J"rl the electrical,


lighting, fire the design department
of Abengoa. The projects of the were the sum~er of 1991.
In order to avoid with the space,
pipes below the fIoor slabs. HVAC
to structural elements along the
ULL'U.v.L.Lv,-,- v .... .L ........u.Lh

Since all the utilities were exposed and the were conventional,
installation was easy. Abengoa assigned each of the to a subcontrac-
tor. The utilities, built between December 1991 and March 1992, were completed on
budget and on the utilities were not
Based on designed arather '-''-'J.U.'-<'UUAF"

tory crisscrossing network of cables, pipes, and attachnlents

View

caused the most substantial

was part of the contract of


~J.L~'V~~'J~ structure. Completion of the structure
summer of 1991,
concrete paving, in order to start as
soon as the In response, Mr. Oriol requested Dragados
to build a series of of different floor layouts and In a
final floor plan, dated October 19, 1991, the architect a combination
of layout and materiais: a pattern of pink concrete slabs black joints
in 45° and 90°
6.16. Plan October 1991.

studying possible construction


vA'...-'VU'''.lU'.l.l problems. there were
....u • '.'-1.1.;<:;,-,-,-,,:>, The intersection betweenjoints was
.LV.L'..... UL -'-'-.H.I."'-''''''

and secure the tiny pieces


concrete polishing process would
glass aftel' the concrete

construction
..... 1".", .." , .. work would

concrete.
two behind schedule .

..L-'VCJIJ-'-L'-' the modifications introduced by ~ LJ.L'u."", .. ...... ,-,,-,,

still time consuming. fiool' of


LJU".U.U.L<::' was very As with the peripheral wall, the
of pink concrete for each pour, 111
order to Dragados delayed the sessions until excess concrete
from the Cruzcan1po pavilion becan1e available. Eventually, the slowexecution of the
concrete paving delayed all the interior finish worle, including partitions, painting, and
the assembly of utility Two n10nths behind the original schedule, by late
February1992, the fIoor was still unfinished 6.17).

LOmlJ'lelWn of groundfloor paving: late

Since the summer of 1990, a team of American of the


worked on the of the exhibition contents for the
was assigned to
to the development
labor of the '-~I'LU ",,·u
owners and museums, h-'<:ln,,,nru·t<:.tl1"',n
p " " i L U . . .,"-',
commissioner
".-'-'''''.HUJL''''V''''' contents was far from being taken.

provided an VA"~VIJ""V.LlU." VVJL1V\"U'-'.H

,LL' as weIl as a
" - ' .... " U " " ' - L ..... """,ar>T1n."I'\

of Toledo proposed the t.U.v.UJ.LVVL

Other pieces of artwork


museums worldwide, with a U~"''''~.L''''.L V i. .LLIJ"'<LUJLLJ on indigenous American cultures
labor in November inc1uded
as many as pieces, grouped in 14 themes described the five
~~A.A""'A.A.~U of history of the Church

It was very important for team


vU.V.L'-"'-"'~""" at the time by the ('"",,,,'nr'..
~1UA.LV"H'-'A.A. intended to clarify the rf1tlr·t:>r,,'nr>,:.c hf~tw!een
tw,an~~e1:lzat10n, focusing on the One
preoccupation of the Church for
of the exhibition contents finaIly .:)". d.",.,VLI..AJ-
LHU'''"F,J.J.L

that Mr. had ""'1'r'1"\r\ct:>rI

Once the contents were approved, the layout of


~HAA.LVA'U'-'.H In early 1990, the Spanish tDlSCOD,(ll
•• sponsor ofthe
,"-,VLLJlV"'",.LlVV, JJJlLJ.H-'LIJ,eu

commissioned interior for the


"The V1>.L.UV'lLi'ViJ.
inlportant cathedrals of the country during 1990 and 1991 with
November 1991, in response to
awarded the design of the exhibition
assigned to distribute the 274 selected I-",u........... '""", historic '-"~'V'-HH'-'HL'-'
religious way, to the 14 I11ain themes in which the
had been . ., ..... "'''' ....... . ., ....

Mr. Puente realized that the original


to support the exhibitioI1 contents.
Transportation of the large and
arranged. The
foran
open, not
politically correct
discovery
historians
pavilion. Some
themes or historic periods.
for display was impossible, due to the
would provide for the glass
a level of sun radiation and day light inside the building that was not
the cOlnpanies.

L _____ ,
6.18. Modified groundfloor plan (rooms 1 to
rl/t,,"t7/J'/t in termedia te floor plan Band

"'""1-',,,,,,,,,,-,',""""'" by v'V' ...... ,........r:L"'_r>'rf"\~l<7nç"""

6.19, and 6.20).


facades were blocked.

Modified (rooms 10 to 14).


the situation on the constluction was extremely compli-
one the construction by Dragados and Abengoa was far behind
After a two-month delay caused difficulties in the construction of the
structure and the concrete paving,
......... ",...,... .I.\J..L

paving segment. For the same reasons, Abengoa still


the electrical, HVAC and fire networks. The
Dragados (painting, railings, . . . U.J..!-'VH ...... Jr;;.., J

paving was In uu,...... " ... 'v... ~.


Dragados) had to
over, the exhibitors . . . . . . u ....., .........·.........

install the exhibition contents on

r .... .," .. ··.,,, .... ·, ...... ,............ ·.. ····· .... ·..ii ........ •.... r"·· .. ···· .. 11 ........ •.. ·g· .......... • .... ' ...... I .... .,' ...... II· .......... ·r ...... .,"··1·· ...... •.. ·1
Program
May Jul Aug Sep Oet Nov nec May Jun

Foundations (Dragados)

Exterior Structure
(Folcra)

Interior Slructure (Dragados)

Paving (Dragados)

Masonry (Dragados)

Uilities (Abengoa)

Enclosure Walls (Folcra)

FInishes (Dragados)

Enclosure Vaults (Folcra)

Exhibition Displays
(Dragados)
45
Exhibition Contents
(Specialist)
30

SCJ'lel2U1~e as 1992.

On the other hand, the totally different concept of exhibition


substantial architectural modifications. First, the in the
interior with the,modified lighting system.

insurance companies.
broadcast station and ordered ':>n(T1"Çi~iTPr1
Abengoa 30 days of wode for the required additions and modifications to the
utilities and the curtain wan enclosure.
in charge of the cOOl'dination and scheduling
V.L.L ...... u ..... v,'-',

responding to the schedule demands of


remaining two months prior to the dealine of the

Forthe architect, the situation was also althoughforotherreasons. Mr. Oriol


had relnained unaware of the modifications introduced the independent interiOl'
designer until the new layout was under construction. When the architect eventually
realized of the implications of the new interior layout, he was The exterior
exhibition space was The was so thoroughly partitioned that the
exposed curtain wall and walls could hardly be seen. If the glass panels on the
visible were the that building used to cast to the
exterior during the night would disappear. The transformations to the exhibition
threatened to distort the architect's metaphor of an uninterrupted, bright interior
and a glowing glass box of light in nights. Mr. Oriol
wondered whether a different approach to the design could have avoided the
now seemingly of his architectural
vVJu.........,IJ ....
After the

3.

4.

5. would you <:I1"\1'"\1:"I"'\"1.."rr the use of


a

Associate N. Pollalis and Master student Carotine Otto,


Harvard University, prepared this case as a dass discussion rather than to
illustrate either effective or ineffective handting an administrative a design
process or a design Original research by Hembre, Carotine OUo, Jennifer
Payette and Geoffrey as a project for GSD6201 Analysis and of
Structures.
Copyright © 1990 N. Pollalis and Caroline Otto.
an Ull1Jre,CeClented lnCTe~lSe
structure, are designed a specific maximum working load which
is not expected to be exceeded during the lifetime the bridge.

Gate to the live load with a ... o ..., , , ... t-o,ri

......"n. .L....,"'''.... '-','-.. of its roadway of almost 10feet at the midspan. according
supporting the roadway were stretched as tight as

seventeen hour winds blowing


are vulnerable to wind loads and,
... v ..' ' ' ' .... ..., ......., ..... Lne ............ " ' ' '

was to side because of the winds


heavy live load, near panic conditions resulted. People were
nausea claustrophobia in the density of the crowd, making it
1nr'1"'p""1:'1'nfT!!U difficult to alleviate the situation by directing the people away from

uv,.....v"', intrigued with the photograph of the deflected bridge on the news,

decided to employ her as a young architect to determine how the bridge


had by ca1culating the stresses resulting from the excessive live load and to
verify the deflection at center of span. It was difficult to believe that the
deflection was actually 10feet, as it was reported. To obtain the necessary
for the analysis, Puenres started reviewing background information on IJ ... ",....,'"'.L .. u ... ....,.L.L

bridges and the Golden Gate Bridge documents; also arranged a .L ..........,'-'u..L.LF-,

her friend Dimitri Kilakos, a structural engineering consultant.

2 A newspaper estimate, not all were on the at the same time.


Suspension bridges made from rope
in military strategy. Rope's
of bridge, but its lade appropriate
arch and beam . n ............... '"'.... durable stone,
became norm. Wrought to
material to make modern suspension nrl,rt ..... t:'C' possible.

In many early bridges


suspension chain the
of the lack of stability and __"' ___ .. _.1

began making bridges with a flat


its characteristic modern

The in construction, the new materials and Ort "nn,aor,

breakthroughs of the nineteenth was also causing a


The long attenuated of new
like the Crystal
............... .J..LLt.,U would expres sion
....... J-., ...... '-'u ...

7.1. Bridge.
The new however, also led to new problems.
was a more flexible structure and caused problems, v U ...' V .....LUJ...1.

age loads
for the flexible suspension bridges,
Vl.I,LV.UJ."""JlV

used for railroad


uvJ.'u.>J.LJ. ... unless the rrVlrn'OO'TC'

suspension design, made from pieces of iron . . Vl.U.H_''"' .....' ......

chain, reached its peak in the early 1800s with


feet long. The nominal u ..... '-'.L.l"-'C.l.l

iron suspension bridges from


strength cable with a nominal
spans, such as the Golden Gate',s, '-''VU'''''''V-'-'"'

VVJL.l.l. ....''--'U.v.l..I.'hJ of steel suspension are:

tower

towers

roadway as a continuous beam,


structurally .., .... '-"1-''-'" ... '-.1. ...''-'- vertical cab les carry the load of
the roadway in which the loads to
towers and
.......... .L"' ........ shape of the suspension cable for a
''-4-'-

cable leng th is a If the load


is along a projected lirie, such as the then
the funicular shape of the suspension cable is 1-'"-'_"'-''-' ....... ...,.

3 The funicular of an UnlOaClea, tre€~-hlmgmg chain.


for a suspension bridge under a

always occur, hrH..,""" ,""...

and the roadway must have the necessary to act as a vVJ,jL,U,H,H,/ULI I"'I'>'rTlA'nT

to excessive deflections as heavy loads pass along the ' - ' , L......... ...,.

The is also subject to as


wind or earthquakes. The cannot any
consequently the roadway is the only structural element to withstand
torsional loads applied on a sus pension bridge. Wind loading causes an
called Strasse, which is rhythmic variation of fluid pressure as a fluid
passes an obstacle. It is this phenomenon that causes reeds to sway back
forth in a flowing stream and to flap in the wind. danger this effect on
suspension bridges was dranlatically demonstrated by Tacoma Bridge
collapse of Harsh wind conditions caused the rhythmic twjsting
V,L."'U-""'''''' whose deck did not have stiffness, and to its collapse. The
problem concerning railroad lies in

as any other
..... .L,L""}-,'-'U.

which is ca1culated as

4 loaded and unloaded spans.


5 Railroad traffic results in heavily concentrated loads over the with most of
the bridge either unloaded or a lighter
6 Thus, the will not suffer any permanent deformations after the loads are removed.
LlJ.~..a..l.LL.H"..l..lJ.
.. woiking
the structure
wiIl fail, thus ~".""."'''''''''''''Lh rl1t-+o',."' .... ,,'" between

the working ~~~_.~r>-._- of the bridge'sload


bearing vu.~J"V.LI..

Ca) Dead load of the structure is


uniformly distributed. Cable
assumes parabolic shape.

(b) Live loads are movable and


often concentrated. With a
nonrigid deck, the cable
and bridge change shape
under live loads.

(c) deck

on the
support cable caused by a
concentrated load are more
uniformly distributed. The
cable and deck shape
constant.

of rigid bridge

been considered but


a journalist,
...,u ........ ...,u.~u as weIl as its
after authorities

development north of San


7.4 Strauss's .fïrst design for the Golden Gate Bridge.

The creation of the was laid on


the task for which he should be

however, continued politicking and soon '-'LU.LLJ ....' ' " ' ' that most of the e>" ..., .... " .....

for tbe project would come from the counties north the bay, not
Francisco. By 1923, he had gained enough support to his real fight for the
bridge.

Strauss first navigated his way around the Departn1ent, the


department ultinlate control of the bridge in the event war and promising that
any danlage dUl'ing construction to the nlilitary installations on either side of the
bridge would be paid for by the city and 10ca1 governments.

The next great challenge was to finance the project. A considerab1e amount of
court action was taken as the city and counties sued and counter-sued each other.
Finally, the Golden Gate Company was fornled in 1928 and Strauss was
chief
UUIJ'-Hll".,\...1 in 1929, ten yem's he had become involved with the

7 N. Y. Tillles. 24, 1987.


for a
that everyone,
V....,~fUL.L. or advocating the construction of a
..... UL"'I-/,,-,.uu.eVL<

~.L.L n.''''L appointment as chief


... , .. and following several
",...""",,, ..,,, with the board of consultants, Strauss also came around to the idea

7.5.

A talented young by the name of Charles Ellis was selected to be


Strauss's representative in San Francisco. along with architect Irving
Morrow, can be credited together with Strauss for the present design.
and 7.7) two proposals for the bridge (Strauss's and Ellis's) seemed to be long
to different centuries. The first was massive and complicated and had a fussy
nineteenth century sensibility. Mr. design was lean, light and sinlple, of a
different higher order. It spanned the channel effortlessly."8

In 1930, with increased public support for the new design and with an eye on the
economic benefits that the construction project would bring, a million bond
issue was approved. Construction began on January 5, fifteen years after
Strauss's original proposal.

8 N. Y. Tilnes, May 24, 1987.


7.6 7.7. Morrow's renderings of early

proportions and lightness of bridges are often


by their dran1atic sitings. This is
...... VJlF,U.... V..l.LV ..... true of Golden Gate
The some unprecedented in both its
exaggerated of its seven and a that sweep

9 The entrance to the San Francisco Bay.


the IJU.Ll'LlU.j:;~'-'
r"",·,r,,,C'.n times a day. features would make the bridge one
of the most ,'-'u............. '"' ........... '-'........ f':!ln.e{~rlrtg problems ever undertaken.

Strauss made two important decisions. First, arguing that the age of mass
was over, he decided not to include a train service on
he decided to north tower on a stone off the
shore, despite the opposition's fears that the tower would
great crevass. During construction, an
and Derleth, one of three

tunnel two feet of water standing in


of the Golden Gate, the tunnel was ....... c>.u .....VF,jl ..... " •.." .....

uu.,,.,J. ......, ... u.F,v, though exposed all these years, the in the
was clean and intact and still showed the rnarks. There is no evidence of
softening. 10

Although placing the north tower there


bridge, it would also avoid
problem building the south
to

four twenty . . . . . . . u ......._'-' out to sea


the entire trestle crane used to Cone
recalled:

trestle and crane were retrieved


Eventually, the foundations were set
begin (Fig. 7.8).

10 The Gate, p. 175.


11 The p. 189.
7.8. Blueprint lor the Golden Bridge.
The the towers represented the work of both the engineer,
Mon·ow, the architect. Ellis a way to the towers without
bracing, while Morrow worked out the architectural details. Morrow
'-L.LU,/;;.'Vuu..L

concluded that "This assUll1ption (that the of the horizontal winds on the
would borne entirely by the
far fron1 true, because the tower
of the ."12 The tower CJ"'F,U.1"-'ULLl

elegant proportions.
the play of light on the (Fig. with
tradition by the job to Morrow electrical ,-,u,,,,-'-UV'.d
design gave a look that would be as distinctive at
7.

and The play light on the tower.

12 The p.145.
Once the piers were towers went up sn100thly.
water and the towers up another 690
The towers tons of steel and were assembied
Ar>I,,,,,,,,",,,,,,, of each tower are 90 feet

mammoth structute was


Gales, a head

I was up on the tower when the earthquake hit.... It was so limber the tower
swayed sixteen feet each There were a lot of seams, all the way to the
There were twelve or guys on top, with no way to down. The
wouldn't run. The whole thing would sway toward ocean, guys
would say "here we go!" Then it would sway toward the
were laying on the deck, throwing up and evelything. I figured if we go in,
iron would hit the water

was highly
-'-'.0. .. ' ..... ,...,""'

to the center wh ere .


subsequently pulled then1 over to the
forth sp inning and building up individual into cables.
took seven only half the time originally scheduled,
project make up the time lost on the construction.
feet long, are made fr om solid wires of 0.196
80,000 psi yielding Formed into
radial compression machine into one round inch cable which was Oatloe·o
50 feet by clamps cast steel (Figs 7.11 and 7.

Each suspension cable passed over the top of the tower resting on a
known as a saddle. Russell one of the engineers responsible the design
and construction of flexibility:

13 The Gate, p. 224.


The cable compressor the completed

As the cable changes length, bridge itself moves and


movements are taken care of by expansion joints and
main tower. It can adjust itself without damage to quickly ...
I-'IJ.u....' .....
dimension. This or of U""''-'-'--'-'"-'"-'--'- to the whole
structure and stresses. u.u.uv,,,,, a

Once the Cllc'nA1n'-'11 were hung at 50


COInp1ose;u of a pair
80,000 psi
of 2

200,000
in The dead
including structural and non-structural elements was approximately
19,400 lb/ft, and the expected maximum live load was estimated to be 5,700 lb/ft
for the roadway and an additional 2,000 lb/ft for the sidewalks. 16 Strauss
concluded in a commemorative poem, I!At last the mighty is donel! (Fig. 7.

force winds with gusts up to


per hour. Cone drove out onto the bridge and became quite
disturbed by what he saw:

14 The p.235.
]5 The first time that a net was used in bridge construction.
16 These loads are supported by the main parabolic cables at both sides of the bridge.
The center of the was deftected between
normal and was holding this deftected
vertical1y in a waveli1ce
UH'UUJlUUH}:', LHU'UV,L1,

7.13 7.14. ('T",,'U'J.'/H'I with a safety net.

17 San Francisco Examiner.. "How Safe was the Bridge," 27, 1987.
Fearful

as an ....,....,,,JA.A.'-" .... u.~ .......b nleasure.

an important event
rhythmic vibrations that
that had brought down the
................ 0-.>....., disaster. new engineer was brought to ....,,,. . . .
u .....u .. ....,

he announced that the bridge was perfect ~'-J.A.A""''''''''''-J.L.A.


forward, however, it was monitored much more closely during storms.
tremendous wind storm the bridge, it to be closed to traffic.
the storm, 5,000 tons bracing were incorporated into the roadway
to increase torsional stiffness 7.16). dead weight v,,"avu.
.1..1.1.'-'."

the dead weight of the deck by 1,550 lblft to almost 21,000 lb/ft.
7. 800,000 peaple (sixteen
n.".,~n"7n ta celebrate the Golden

for
lann'1'"Hl' celebration of the Golden Gate . . . . .l..I.'-'-<O.v

as the planning of the bridge


VVJl.l.UJ.l.VA Opposition V..ll.>==,l..lJ.UL\...'Y

the form of complaints about the vVjLl;::;'\-'L""JLVU

shut down of bridge traffic as well as from political


committee itself, significantly hampering all
F,UJLU.LI ..I..L.LF,

it was deciding that the event would be '" 1.'\,"'''' ""


down to restrict morning vehicular to cross
between six and o'c1ock am. The IJUIUl...l\,dL~ was scaled down as weIl to suit
the new of the celebration. Planners, were IvAVIv\."U..l.ll::: a turnout of
about 50,000 people.

On May 1987, however, the organizers expectations were proved incorrect


when 800,000 people (sixteen times the projected arrived to 1"f->.'i->~lr'~
the Golden Gate Bridge's anniversary (Fig. 7.17). The problem was .Lu ...•..... ...,'V.l.J.J.I..f'v ..u .

lack of circulation organization. No strips had


and as such the masses of
opposite directions became frozen in a major <;;...1..1. .... .1.'-,..., ......

the event:
l'pr'\r\l'tpri

The crowd the Gate 's 50th


Many bridge walkers suffered severe claustrophobia, Tr'llnnr-'rl a
U..H.H'U"" from
freedom by a sea human to hours just to
out' said of NeB Smelser.

flattened out-its who Ie arch disappeared," said Gary Giacomini,


pre:SIQem of the Bridge District Board. "The bridge had the greatest load factor
year life. The cables at the center of the were
I while the lower cables near tower
seemed to flap 7.19). Giacomini remembered at the
center of the bridge, "I thought 'wow' this isn't a good idea! 11

at the center of the bridge were


\'rrOTr'VLo'rr as

18 San Francisco Examiner.. "How Safe was the Bridge," 27, 1987.
Bridge engineers had similar concerns as they busily computed the u.U.''''A.I--''''''''''-''''U
live loads incurred by the bridge. Charles Seim (the former state transportation
department who was on the bridge during the
celebration, were forty people per
foot of foot 19, while the
at only 2,200 pounds per
"""' .. A..UJ.U.... ..,'-'-

else during the walk and I was


we were design loads 2o but I
wasn't worried in the Even at the maximum design load of 5,700
per foot the stress in the cables is only of their ."P.n,THT

that's a factor of

According to designer Strauss was a conservative engineer.


Y ork Times 23

The bridge is built to be flexible and canmove 15 feet


27 fe et from side to side, allowing for in or wind
that aften howls through the Golden Gate, the mile-wide channel from the
Pacific to San Francisco

The estimate on the stresses in the cab les is a The


rA"',rin,",,, is the vertical cables. the distance
between the the the width of the and the
estimated applied laad on the the in each cable can be
should compare the calculated stress with the yielding
as provided by the manufacturer. For the sm;penSlon

19 \.CClordmg to this estimate there were 256,000 on the


20 laad is the maximum laad expecn~d to act on the structure during its lifetime.
21 ultimate stress.
22 San Francisco Examiner, 'did just fine, ' despite the over fI May 1987.
23 New York Times, Tuesday, May 26, 1987, p. A18.
you can safely assume that the load acts as a UHJ. .LV.LHLl

Thus, the maximum tensile which occurs at the of the cabie,


can be determined. aftel' you know the tensile force in the
you can determine its stress compare it to the of the
cabie.

a few comments on estimating the U.LU'I--'u.. '-' ....'.L.LH-'.L.LLL!.

The estimation of the displacements is more complicated. Although you can


approximately calculate the deflection at the calculations,
it is an involved and I would recommend th at you use a computer
Model and a vertical roller at the to
the Use fewer elements than real
to fast~r results. I you use five equal segments of
-rrVl,rlnra'l' between the tower and the mid-span 24 and four vertical cables. The

each vertical cable must be equal to the area of 8.4 actual sus:peJnm~r
since the latter are every 50 feet along the For the
roadway between the and the towers, you should use three equal
se~~m(:;nts, two vertical cables the area of each vertical cable must be
to area of 7.5 actual cables. the main tower on a
and use at the ends the cables. You also obtain accurate results if
you use a tnlss analysis instead of a frame If you'
choose to use a truss program, you must include rhHYl-rn''Ir ,eH
U..lu.};v ....

elements to ensure a Since the cable is .l. .........u'-"-'.LU..l.l.

.::> ...... ""1--'''' . . . , the forces on dummy diagonals will be zero for
on each joint along the deck amd half the load on the joint at llli CiS1=,an. 1

loading condition to a uniformly distributed load along


length.

to use a U'-"'-'.LU.VU

computed the
exact location of cables, as and the properties of the
as shown in Table 7.2. using a truss analysis
25
computer program , is shown same model using a frame
analysis computer is shown in Her first was to
check the forces in the with own She then obtained the
the at various points and she was very the
results.

24 Each segment should be 420 feet long.


25 TRUSS_GSD, see the bibliography for the exact reference.
26 see the bibliography for the exact reference.
7.20. The model of the as a truss and applied vertical
at All lerrzenrs are expected to be zero
to THW,,'H"',,"shape of the cable.

f7PJln1t>:'Trv of the bridge and the applied


OI.o1"'T1"n

nodes (shown as squares) indicate a point that two members


meet. The round syntbol at the end of the members indicates a hinge
connection.

7.22. geometry of the bridge and the applied vertical laad,


the symbol of the nodes invisible.
Table 7.1 The coordinates the along the cable for the computer
lrlOdel.

NODE x-coordinate (feet) y-coordinate

1st node (left 0.000


2nd node
3rd node
°
375
750
130.952
297.619
4th node 1125 500.000
5th node 1545 320.000
6th node 1965 180.000
7th node 2385 80.000
8th node 2805 20.000
9th node 3225 0.000

7.2 The mechanical ofthe

VERTICAL CABLES

Diameter of individu al wire: 0.196 inches


Area of individual wide: 0.030172 sq. inches
Number of wires: 2 x 150
Total area: 9.06 inches
Modulus of elaS;t1CIty 30,000,000.00
EA: 2.80 x 108 Ibs
EI: is not required

SUSPENSION CABLES

Diameter of individu al wire: 0.196 inches


Area of individu al wide: 0.030172 sq. inches
Number of wires:
Total area: 831.90 sq. inches
Modulus ofa'oc'br>1'hr 30,000,000.00 psi
EA: 2.50 x Ibs
EI: is not ..".ro.'...·".r!
Palladio, in was
it was destroyed war. The
blended with houses on
vehicular
bridge.
system of the bridge to its appropriateness
such an oid design can carry
VL'-'CV.U..... Ioads of a vU'.u ......".L.UjJV.L<.U.

y.v'cu..u.v .... description of with references to


to the contemporary use of historie bridge.

1. What were the technical innovations that


of the in Bassano?
2. How Julius Caesar's
3. Piease compare the
juxtaposed to buildings, i.e.,
4. v .... ~'u'-' .... ,,) of the bridge, as n~C'OJncc;t.L
..nr.1-ari in 1947, and its
traffic demands. should have
on Palladio's first designs, as in his Four
Books

1 Some names have been dlSJ~U11~ed.

Associate Professor Spiro N. Pollalis and Master of Architecture student Thom McQuillen,
Harvard University, prepared this case as a basis for class discussion rather than to.
illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation, a design
or a design Original research was conducted as part of the course GSD
Architecture and Design the 15th through the lBth Centuries, by
Howard BllrrlS, Professor History of Architecture

Copyright © 1990 Spiro N. Pollalis and Thom McQuillen.


by Andrea Palladio
...... "" ...... F-.ÄÄ'-''''''

city council in the small


1nr>r""':\C""rI weight of the

to determine if the bridge


load should be established and
I:-'V.L.L.U.LC"-J..llJ..lV

were called to determine


V.H,"-"'.l.J.VV;lü

rest of the traffic should be rl'1"',,,,,t-e,rI


at the located 600 feet of

8.1. Aerial view of the at Bassano.

is. situated at a point


<-1.00'''-'-'.'-' countryside
HT1.rlO,,""" from the rocky cuiverts and Italian Aips into the
"""'· ... .,..,.,11 .... '-1" Venice .

...., ... ""Ju."'....... to be used for commerce.


where the bends into an elbow as it
bank 8.1).

Fig. 8.2. The VT()'DO,'iea

Records

lnvention"

2 Palladio, The Four Books ofArchitecture", Dover p.71-73.


3 One Vicenzan foot is approximately equal to 1.172 feet or 14 inches.
the stone design was
rejected as V ..LI"J..LJVJ.J.>J v.JJ..I.J.fJ.J.u ... .I..I.'-"u. stone bridge would prevent
carriages fr om was no to protect them from bad
weather. 5 After . . . . . , . . '. . . . . . , ' . . . to rebuild destroyed
wood once more.

8.3. The engraving of the

Although Palladio was annoyed at


working on another in
design approach of balancing against the
pragmatic demands by An engraving of the
destroyed bridge was not very
different from the it seems clear that
Palladio did not want to design was based on the
the proportions of classicalorder and
The bridge, as designed by Palladio, was
at Bassano.7

4 Magagnato, p. 28.
5 p.27.
site conditions dictated to a large extent the form of the
Embankments in place from the previous bridge set the height of the deck~ a flat
span was desirabie since horses and carriages had to cross the bridge. span
between the piers had to be as long as possible since the Brente floods every year
wh en the snow melts in the Alps, generating high water levels and floating debris.
Although the water level in the river varies greatly with spring floods, the river is
relatively shallow and level enough to allow Palladio to space the piers evenly
across the full width of the river (Figures 4 and

Palladio the and its construction as follows

.. .four orders of piles were made in the river, thirty four foot 8 and a half distant
the one from the other. Each of these orders consists of eight beams thirty foot
and a foot and an half thick every way, and distant two foot one from the
other: hence the whole of the bridge comes to be divided into five spaces,
and its breadth is twenty six foot. Upon the said orders were some cross
beams, according to the said breadth sort of beams so are vulgarly
called which nailed to the beams driven in the hold them all
together, joined and united. these correnti, plumb on the said were
other beams, which make the length of the and reach from
one order to the othef. And because the di stance between the said orders is very
great, hence with the beams ways, could have been able to
support the weight that might have been put on wh en it should have been
grèaL some beams were bet ween these and the that serve for
und support purt of the besides which, other beams were
which being fastened in those that were driven into the and leaning
the one towards the other, were united with another be am in the middle of
the said distance under each beam for the length. These beams so
represent an arch, having the fourth part of its diameter in and so the work
becomes beautiful in lts form; and strong, because the beams that form the length
of the are thereby doubled in the

6 p. 26-27.
7 The bridge was bumed in 18 i 3 and reconstructed in 1821. It was a1so rlpc·trr.""prl
the Second W orld War in 1945 and rebuilt in 1947. Structural maintenance rep airs
were carried out over the life of the the latest occurred in 1966;
J.U5.U5"U.-J, p. 31.
8 Palladio refers to Vicenzan feet in his "'rTT1Y"TC
9 In Italian.
o Palladio, The Four Books Dover Edition, p. 67-68.
bridge and the river banlc

8.5. The siting the bridge.


H H

I
i I

Figure 6: The Palladian Bridge at Bassano.


1 and its is 30.5 It 28
Each of the four is composed
at the top by a cross beam and
In the longitudinal direction, the
U~""'-'."L.LL."_'''''' further by inc1ined elements connecting the piles
The longitudinal beams have the same cross
and beam is aligned with the top of a
of the bridge, and their ends meet over the
the bemlls, there are two more
covers the surface of the deck
uses wood frame construction and relies upon iron
connect members; there are no rigid connections

11 180 Vicenzan feet.


12 26 Vicenzan feet.
1 3 Tt is interesting to note that th ere was an alternate scheme
projected a bridge deck which would tear away in aflood,
waters subsided, a new deck could be rebuilt on the oid piers; 1V1agagnato,
hierarchy of the structural members is reversed in the two bridges.
bridge, the primary beams span perpendicular to the axis of bridge between
two of inclined piles. longitudinal beams are supported on the
beams and are closely In the Bassano bridge, the piers are made of a
of eight piles and the primary supporting elements span in long direction,
one pier to the next. The Bassano bridge is actually a series eight smaller
bridges tied together by cross beams. By introducing more piles at each
Palladio was able to strengthen them against debris floating in the river and, at the
same time, the direction of the primary spanning members. the
geometry of bridge, of the members along the
longitudinal axis of for the
same laad and
,.~'"' the
'-" ..........u...

14 A over the Rhine used by the Romans for purposes; Four books
of p. 63-64.
15 i. e., there is na fixed structural connection between the of
traIlste:rnIlg moments ; the beams rest on top of
8.7.

provided two .........'. .


...... "'-'.... '.H.V H .. J.'-J.lJ.'....... the longitudinal beams
by introducing angled .u.J.V.lJ.J.UV.L to the The
additional supports .I. '-' .......... v""" the bending moment
..:JJ.F,J. .... .l.J.v ....J.J."J. the
longitudinal beams '-'J.A. .....u stresses (Fig. 8.8). To avoid additional piles
..,..,...

or ledgers, are notched into of the original piles


8.9). An center span of
beam of the .I.u.",.I..I.1. .• .., .....

members
the connection net'wef~n
c ......'nl.TH"''''

Thus, the series of the three members


bridge segments as a series of
A~UMH'~~J..u ...... beamsme"'""""~A1.tan
moments diagram, for a uniform load along the

Details the connections.

16 The inclined members and the ...... "iS"... ''''-' are smooth lines; the resolution makes
them look as composed of sma11 segments!
Arch carries axial compressive
forces; beam acts in

structural behavior of the

movement of each the four-hinged arches is constrained by the beam


above it. Palladio's description acknowledges the hybrid nature of the angled
members: "... these beams so placed represent an arch, the fourth
part of diameter 17 in height; and so the work becomes beautiful in its form; and
strong because the beams that form the length of the bridge, are thereby doubled
in the lniddle. "18 The placement of the element under the midspan of the
longitudinal beam permits the angled supports to function truly as arches, as
arches in a stone bridge (Fig. 8.11).

along

17 the height of the arch equals one fourth of the distance between the supports of the

18 Palladio, The Four Books ofArchitecture, Dover p.67.


By aligning the beams above the piles and by providing . . . ~,..... _,,-'-'-'.L.L'... -'-

support, Palladio also reduced the shear stre~ses in longitudinal


8.6). there is only a single beam at the connection with the pier. 19 Further
strengthening for shearing and bearing stresses is required at these points
8.12). Palladio designed "modiglions" or capitals to beplaced over the piles to
support the weight borne by the beams. Architecturally , the modiglions serve as
transition elements between the vertical and the horizontal beams and make
a counterpoint to the shape of arches.

lor a along

major difference between the


... .1-'-'-./U.1•....,.1 bridge and the Bassano
the design of the between the and the beams in each bridge. In
Caesar's bridge, the loads from the longitudinal beams are transferred to the cross
beams and from the cross beams to the two pairs of at either edge of the cross
The cross by two pegs
the piles.

19 Single section (21 x 21 versus the double section at the center span.
a pile (see cross section, 8.6); the cross beam serves only to the tops
the . Thus, the connections of the Bassana bridge are more
use of iron and

8.13. The roof structure.

The structure 8. is neither a primary structural element of the bridge


nor does it protect deep structural elements alQng the sides of the bridge, as do the
roofs of the timber bridges of The structural role of the
roof in the Bassana bridge is limited to serve as a ballast under partial loading
conditions. A laad on one segment of the bridge results in a thrust at t~e
of the inclined members which is to structures.
UU.I,U""'''''J..lI.. of"'ACTrnAnlrl.'

20 i.e., R.S. Allen, Covered Bridges of the Northeast, The lJlv!-,U'-,U Green Press, LeJUnl;rtolll,
1983.
lVla::'::'W"; uu::.c:u::.,
points of by the
transverse cross bridge
deck and are connected with the

8.14.

The bridge at Bassano its stiffness in the longitudinal direction from the
triangularization along the bridge, is formed by the members. The
abutments at both ends the solid
structure. In the bed ·1'h<~ Tn ... ...

bridge, although
to avoid the
'-'.lHJU;:::,J.J.

In the transverse direction,


embedded

are a more
Caesar's bridge
VLVVo..V'U 8.7). It is unlikely that
is given hydrodynamic considerations, since the force of a tree
trunk supports would be many times greater the force produced
by the CUlTent of the river at highest velocity.

21 If the structure below were as a truss in the manner of some covered in


New the loads from the should with all support below to avoid
uv"'u,,,,!". stresses in the horizontal elements.
of the wood equal to 50

ltalian
nn11"A"',,,,,load

tons kN; 22 kips) , as shown in surface area of


load is approximated as a rectangle m x 0.60 m (8 in x 24 in), with
along the transverse axis of the road. focus was
on a preliminary so the truck loads could be approximated to act as a
concentrated load instead of the required distribution into
rear wheels. Furthermore, since live loads lnay not be present on
equilibrium of the bridge should be considered under a
from live loads as wen.

2xl0 t 2xl0t 2xl0 t

0.4 tJm 2

Longitudinal Section Transverse Section

The live on a

22 Pedestrian should be loaded with a live load of 400 kgf/m2 N/m2; 82 pst)
only.
of

Pedestrian Bridges
Uniformly distributed load: 85 psf
.. Automotive Bridges
Automotive (highway) are rated according to the heavier truck that can be
supported. All trucks a 10' clearance and alO' wide lane. It is assumed that a 6'
spacing exists between trucks' left and wheels. Each bridge should be analyzed
either under the load of a as given in Tables 2.1 and 2.2, or under a
combination of uniform lane and a concentrated load to a truck
as shown in Table 8.2.3.
Two axle trucks
Distance between front and rear wheels: 14'.
H 20-44 (M18): front wheels: lb, rear wheels 32,000 lb
H 15-44 front wheels: 6,000 rear wheels 24,000 lb
H 10-44 (M9): front wheels: 4,000 lb, rear wheels 16,000 lb
'" Three axle trucks
Distance between front and middle wheels: 14'.
Distance between middle and rear wheels: 14' to 30' (use the spacing that ........ r\rlllr·"'C'
maximum
HS 20-44 (MI front wheels: lb, middle wheels 32,000 lb, rear 32,000 lb
HS 15-44 front wheels: 6,000 lb, middle wheels 24,000 rear lb
.. Combination uniform/concentrated load*
LANE LOAD H20-44 and HS20-44 H15-44 and HS15-44 H10-44
Uniform (per 10') 640 lb/ft 480 lb/ft 320 lb/ft
Concentrated for moment 18,000 lb 13,500 lb 9,000 lb
Concentrated for shear 26,000 lb 19,500 lb 13,000 lb
* For the of continuous spans, the lane loading should include an additional
of weight which should be in another span so it
moment. For maximum positive moment one concentrated
np(:T>lt'HJP

Load reduction:
For stresses resulting from three lanes loaded sinmU:alli3otlsly a 90% stress reduction is
permitted. For stresses resulting from four or more lanes simultaneously, a 75%
stress reduction is permitted.

bridge, according to the


Officials
Bassano bridge, provided

23 AASHTO Standard for Highway .LJ~~'U5'"'·"', 12 edition, Washington, DC, 1977,


as amented in 1982, pp 14-21.
structural condition of a timber
' - ' ......u. .. ...,' ......... !".'"' and has to decide on
Á ..........."""" . . . ' " ' ......... ...,...., . . . . ...,,

proposed alternative rep air


and construction
The case is

1. of you owner to
are necessary or not?

2.

3. What would emphasize in· selecting the contractor and what


directions would you to contractor that you would select?
4. could have been done to prevent bowing of the

All names, other than historie, have been ..... "i::' ,..U"..., ......

Associate Spiro N. Pollalis and Master of Architecture tudent Jan Fischer


prepared this case as a basis for class discussion rather tkan to illustrate either effective or
ineffective handling of an administrative situation, a design process or a itself.

Copyright © 1988 Spiro N. Pollalis and Jan Fischer.


walls
"" ..r .. "' .... r" ...

yard, and closer lnSOe(~t1on


owner, Glen Harrington.
where it met the ·.r.. .. OV"lca . .

center nearly inches. not seem in danger of collapse,


was clear enough to
1. .......",u......''-' that he should consult
o ........"n ... Tf"\n

about the problem. It was


'-'1.1.j::;'.I.J.J."""""1. any chances.

A sketch of the house.


Street area Cambridge, Massachusetts, where house OLUUULJ,

quiet neighborhood adjacent to the of Harvard


Originally a swamp, the area was gradually drained and turned into
estate owners after the Revolution. Despite the steady growth of '--'U.U,.LL1.L.I.\.~F.V
the 19th century, it was not until the latter part of that the
Strèet area became a residential suburb. Oxford Strèet and the network of streets
in its vicinity were mostly laid out the 1850s, but the houses along these streets
were to arrive. In 1854 there were only houses in the area, but in 1
there were nearly and 1903 there were over 400.
and
·0:1","\l'"\r1r1(1r""

century was a salient


Revolution. It was responsible for a surge Cambridge's population, rose
from 40,000 to 90,000 in thirty years. It was this period that the house on
132 Frost Street was built. Documents show that the construction was completed
sometime in the 1880s, and that the first tenant was a professor at Harvard
University named Patrick Everly, who may have built the house for himself.

The stylistic trends housing in Cambridge during this era were quite
complicated and subject to preference. In the first half of the
century the classicizing Greek Revival style was in vogue, but it was
succeeded by the Queen Anne, which favored asymmetrical plans, intricate
plastic massing and roofs. the 1880s two new
curvilinear forms and open
Colonial,
of

Dunct:uaWQ by rlAir"n-lt"'r n.T1nr1An:rC'

wooden c"uU.h.L....,U and are only


central door and by windows. The house been
subdivided into individual apartments on each over the past forty years.
1"x3"

2"x6"

1"x2" every 12"

See Detail

4---,1'-{---- 2" X 8"


Plaster Surface

3rd Floor

2"x 8" @ 18"

Gutter

2"x 8" '----- 2nd Floor Ceiling

9.2. The section of the house in original state.

with a
"", .... "1-..",,,1-.,""'" J.J.J.\.... uJ.vu~.

of the people who came


'-'LU."'-'-'J,.I.'-''''''''''''

most interesting structural aspect of the house is its roof, which


large members braeed into a triangular arrangement, is not a
truss but a loose 9.2). A central connects the
spanning beam and the attic ceiling every posts are small in
cross section and role was more to ........ ., ................. . . , I"A11 <,!-,,.,,,-.'1'"1 than serve as
essential structural members. Since they do not run up to of the roof,
allow for more storage space within the
lacks a more conventional disposition which uses knee
symmetrically.

~- M ..L
Jii ii .Il

-;::: ,,~ --

-
schematic plan view of the the
fl11,'7V'r,t-1f"VI nnru,n/J'", the interior and the walls.

W orried that the bowing out of the front and rear


0V.L.lV"'~" problem and not just a re sult of a natural '''V'''''.l.l.Ulj;;;.

Harrington decided to consult a


examination of the exterior and .l.l.l ...."".LJ.'JL

undetected structural changes that


During inspection of the house, Entasis asked if
single event that might precipitated
like a violent storm or an accident. Harrington could not. In fact, extent of the
~U..L.lJ.U'hV had taken even to come to his attention because the
house was subdivided, and the tenants had not informed him about the
area of separation between second third floor.
ree all problems with the roofs
exterior vertical walls. Seven years water began .u,,,,,,,,<>--«11':;"

the gutter connection near the area of


was by a set on the '-'A~vLL'JL

the Entasis made the

Cambridge, Massachusetts June 12, 1985

At the request of the owner, I inspected the house, located at 132 Frost Street, in
Cambridge, Massachusetts, on June 6, 1985.
In apartments C, D and E, all on the second floor, there is a visible between the
inside part of the exterior wall and the ceiling as weIl as the inside of the exterior wall
and the interior walls. A tilt of the south exterior wan can aIso observed from the
outside. In addition, thcre is a trace of water damage on thc inside part of the exterior wall
in the apartments of both the first and second floors.
The of the walls be the result of a gutter leak that has allowed water to
penetrate from the exterior of the and reach the structural frame. The structural frame
may thus have been darnaf!;ed.
Since the cannot assessed by visual alone, removal of
parts of the walls and the ceiling the second floor is required. This removal will
alIoVi the inspection of the beams and tÎlted elements, and will help reveaI those rotted
that need Upon these further recommendations will follow
of the house.
reC:OITlmlencled process should start at the earliest convenience of the owner and will
involve extensive construction within the house. Further delay may cause additional
damages to the structural frame of the house.

Alex Entasis

the struetural eomponents had to be at more


on June 1985, Entasis removed
..... J"-.""'''''O'L .....' .... __ , C<CH'I".rH-.",

along the walls and eeiling between the


between the third floor and attie, to a idea of the extent of
~<--_ _ 2"x 8"

18"

I 2"x 8"
2nd FIoor Ceiling

Section Detail

Exterior
Wall

+--- 10"-+

The gap at the connection between the floor, the


the exterior walls.

joined"
CAr'1H",,,,I .. ,

roof frame and supported the floor


problem was not the roof system but in the connection between it
walls--at the laad These were located at the juncture between
members of the third floor, the perpendicular exterior walls of the first two floors,
and th y sloping plane of the roof. The primary supporting elements for the third
floor, running from the front to the rear facade of house, were 1" x 2" beams
(3/4" x size) 12 from which finished ceiling
of the floor was 1" x 2!1 s were transverse 2" x 8"
of the third ran every 18
inches could not be used to
serve as tie-rods to the

9.5. displacements of the roof with and without the 1" x 2"s
'''''$I,I,r.,tA at different scale).

'-'VjLLH\~'-'LJlH;;:'
to members wall
of the roof frame. The
with these me:mt.ers
that the area
rotted (possibly caused by a water
pulled out, as a re sult the walls of the house had
outwards, leaving a gap of four inches between them and the 1 X 2"s (Fig. 9.4).
fI
The situation struck as an alarming development, but quickly
explained how the most accounted for changes
internally. He suggested that the I" x 2" were not meant to be in
other words, not meant to of the house. were meant to
support the floor of the structural resistance to horizontal
movement was provided by the between the third and
(the bottom section of the
two exterior walls
the I" x 2"s worked as structural . . . . because
V .............. '"'LU

and as they came in contact they released,


roof~~== exterior walls
showed the
.....'-'..., ... u.'""' ...... ,"U with the 1 X 2"s
fI at the roors edges versus the
displacements under same loads without I" x
location the nodes, used for the program, and the
members roof are shown 1 and 2.

The . . '-' '-'. . . . . . . . . element COJI1ll{~ctllt1g at the attic's roof the


necessary horizontal thrust for the and
the collapse of the house second floor after the I" x 2"s
the interim' walls and the secure nails on
I" x 2"s away fron1 the critical area displacements
roof the of the exterior walls. understood how the
......uJ.H.J.F;,v could have occurred gradually possibly, over the past
months there been litde change in of the roof.

9.1. The the of the roof fa r the model.

.f·
NODE x-coordinate Y-\,.CUUIUUHUC:

(inches) (inches)

A 0 0
B 308 0
C 45 88
D 263 88
E 65 132
F 243 132
G 154 176
H 120 88
120 156.7
9.2. The of n1.f'n1.1'JP1·S for

MEMBER Size Width Depth Area Moment of Inertia


(inches) (inches) (in-ches 2) (inches 4 )

Horizontal Ties 1x2 0.75 1.75 1.31 0.33


(AC, EG) 2x8 1.825 7.50 13.69 64.16
Horizontal Ties (CD) 2x6 1.825 5.50 10.04 25.30
Vertical Ties 1x3 0.75 2.75 2.06 1.30
Base 4x4 3.75 3.75 14.06 16.48
Floor Beams 2x10 1.825 9.50 17.34 130.39

The interior walls were from the 'V1"~'V"'''''V''' walls (Figs. 9.3 and 9.4) the
floor only. Thus, the horizontal from wind loading on house were
carried out by the shear action of transverse in the basement
1st floor and the cantilevering the exterior walls in the 2nd floor.

1.

for a solution is to ....... r.~"ri,.. ."'1 ..... .,-,,....,,'0


could be in four ways:

1.1. Attach new members to the ends of the 1!f X 2!1 s in order to elongate them.
These extenders would stretch across the four-inch gap
x and the exterior and would be nailed into the 1" x
and the beam. A or 8!1 piece of wood in each case would thus be
sufficient for the job 9.6).
2"x 8"

2" x 8,,-~~~~1t::!~::::====:::::::=====~==========

9.6. 1.1 (seetion).

1.2. to bind them


the
'-''''''"'1-.'''''':<4",""

unintended by
bolstering occur in n1:-1:-."I"I'"\-n">,an1:-

walls did not have any members per se.

1.3. Tie together the front


horizontal to

protection.
likely to corrode
installed in the house

1" X 2"s, there exists about 3/4 of an


e'pULlH.l,U.lE,

or cable to run through, unobservable


of the rod could be
C'AlY-n">a.nt-", ln<'A",·ra.rI TI"I1",C\ll ('rl"l .....L L...,..., ....

would likely be "'U.l"L.I."".lV.!.J".. , ro,n1"t",pC'1",nnrlln

where transverse walls exist. If a cable were


1 .... 1:-,"' ..1" ..

be positioned and passed through it.


I!e--- Exterior WaU

Steel Plate

'----Steel

9.7. Solution (plan

to 2"x 8" roof


frame members

' - - - - Steel cable


alongside I" x 2 ti S

Plan Detail

9.8. Solution 1.3 (section and view).

t"'"'l"l'''' to the roof frame in such a way as to create a


Ä.I..l.V.LU.VV.l.L>

tna.ngl111ru~lze~d truss configuration (Fig. 9.9).


T

4'

Attic

t
7'-4"

3rd Floor
1
Solution 1.4

2.
the same rod or
through the
U.L1JLUJ.Jl5 except in case rods or cable would
be tightened (with double screw threads or a crank) to retract the walls
hold them. steel rods would better serve purpose since they are
more ductile than high-strength cables. J acking up the roof could also be
considered in order to re lieve some of thrust on the exterior wans during
the tightening of the rods (Fig. 9.10). Alternatively, the steel rods could be
heated to expand less force in the
turnbuckles end the
would be eXIJer.leUL:lIJ.}:!, n-,,.0 .... 1"0... 1"o""I:"f"'I,n

3.
rh C'tll .. h.<:l1'~r-""to the would based on a 111rliTn"IA1'l1" that
a structurally dangerous condition.

4'

t
T-4"

1
"""""H-,H~;:;' temporarily the horizontal

it clear at point that both u'V ...... ".'-'J ...... u

the structure would require


to access to the structural ..-.. ""'", . . . ...",. . ".., .
<;;;, would thus be necessary to finish the job.
...., ....... J.............

he

might best rectify


deal of money
from renting the
primary
was worried that future building
"' .... "1'liT1"A1'l J..U0IJv'...,U....JJ.J.0

up undesirable questions about


to see house brought back to its original condition, but he had two concerns
with such a solution. he was very worried about the behavior of the roof
during the process it to position. Second, he did not like
the idea of adding major such as the rods, foreign to the
original' of were used,
supported by
of
VUJlv.1.1.10

assume the horizontal


of
I

Shrestinian, project rn-::lfl-::lj"Tpr a lil~~It-.",\.J


building Visual UOVJlA..., ..........LJLlJ.F. to "'...,. . l V ............ ....,

and effectively manage his project. planning of the nrrH""I'T


initial scheduling tenlplate a typical
the This as a pilot project to study
the necessary conc1usions in order to
nature as a
deadline for the completion of the was firmly set. case
the execution of the renovation and the decisions that the project
manager had to to up project on
time. Based on the interim evaluation of and control
device this David makes his decisions on how to proceed with the
scheduling of of the on the
floor is scheduled to be renovated next.

1. What makes construction a suitable field for using scheduling techniques?


2. of resources

3.
projects. contractor to use
fTp-r,pr'éll a
device? manager? For an architect?
4. of
",p>f'nn.., 34th

Some data have been disguised.


Associate Professor Spira N. Pallalis prepared this case as a class discussian
rather than to illustrate either effective ar ineffective handling af an administrative
situatian, a design pracess ar a design
Copyright © 1993 Spiro N. Pollalis.
AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
26THFLOOR

27THiOOR
I I I

SERVI~S _~~[
28THFLOOR
"ENeRA'
NBW DIt-UNG ROOM
I
NBW
OLD K11CHtN :=::J

29THFjOOR TRADEROOM

30TII1°OR PjASEI
PHAS~n
31STFLOOR
EQUITY INVEST.
I \ ~ I
32NDFlOOR
.V~l:'K

GLOV1·-I
1 L
1 I I
CENTRAL KtChl:' 'VIST WS
I I I I

33RDiOOR DEFINED dONTRIBbIONS


I I I I I
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING
I I I I
34THFl,oOR
M~S

I
rBRARt L~GAL
I
I
I
I I I I I

initial scheduling far the ro.."rn,.nn·nw nine flaars.


1

construction until ..",,·~,..t'1n


partitions would
carpeting.

furniture would
the appropriate
communications.

I SEP I aCT I NOV I


31 7 14 21 28 5 12 19 26 2 9 16 23 30

DEJOLITIdN

JDFJma
I I
c=J LAYOUT

I
ROUGH ELECTRICAL
TEL/DATA WIRINGI
I I
ROUGH PLUMBING
ROJGHHVAc I
I I
ROUGH SPRINCLER
DRryALL I
===:J TAPE & SAND
I I
===:J ~RAME ~EILINqS
f==J INSTALL paaR ~RAMESI
INSTALL LIGHT FIXTURES
FLOORING I I
I====~I==:JPAINTING
o FI~ISH PLUMBING
I I
TILE CEILINGS
1====:::=1==:J MtLLWORK

~
FINISIH HVAC
I I
FINIS1H SPRI~CLER
~~:::J CARPETING
=::::::J IN~TALL~OORS I

~
INYLBASE
I I
CLEANING &
PUNCHLIST

Fig. 10.2. The for planning the renovation the


26th fioor.
êz
~Cl
~
o
u
z
o
u

FROSTSTREET

architectural drawing of of the 26th


fioor.
The was to start on August 20 and completed
11 of the following year. 10.1 shows a Gantt chart
construction floor by fiool', as set by the construction ......................1->
was on the initia! data available a month before starting the
construction, and it had been derived based on the experience the construction
manager with similar projects. The schedule shows the general planning of the
construction operations, with the deadlines as they had been requested the
client. In order to derive the scheduling of each floor, the tasks were broken
down a series of sub tasks. shows the down of tasks for the
renovation of the 26th floor, in a Gantt chart.

1
David Shrestinian decided to use the
Scheduling and Management System (VSMS) in
chart, each task a project is by a
displayed in two din1ensions. The
the duration of
.lUULJ.'-'(.1Cl'-'J

vertical axis
as the "' .. r
n.rlll .....

r/ll·"nr.i:'1,::.r!bar chart can be to form a


rer,re~;enteC1 by a single quantified bar,
another quantified chart at a

2 Patented to Prof. S.N. Pollalis and Y. Ueda by US Patent 5,016,170 of May 14, 1991, this
is presented in: Pollalis, S.N., Computer-Aided Management: A Visllal
"'11"/1"" ([lid Contral Vieweg Verlag, Wiesbaden,
Finally, a template is composed of a quantified bar chart, its folded-up task and
data in a spreadsheet format. A template inherits all the properties of
....J.!-'u......L.LUUC.Lv.L.Lv

U'vv~ pJreS(~nt~lt1Cm of graphics and text


"'.U.L.LU.LI" ..... ... '"

shows the first temp late for planning the construction of the 26th floor.
This template was based on the information on the architectural drawing shown
Fig. 10.3, and productivity data available to the construction manager from similar
The temp late was constructed in August, after the design
öllJDIJ[löIU had been completed and design had been reviewed and

Twenty-seven different tasks were identified to be executed on the floor and they
are listed in first column of the temp late , in the order of execution. The second
column shows the quantity of work with each task, as they were
based on the construction drawing. The
rlI'>t''::>r'1'"n1r'I'>rI productivity of a
worker each task is in the third At this early planning
this is a subjective the and the
of
. n r l r r ..... ". ......

1
v..., .. '.... U.L.nl ....' ....U,;:;, the number of available workers per day for each task, shown
in the column of the template 10.4, the duration each task was
calculated and inserted in the column of the template. To the extend that the
calculated duration meets the overall scheduling plans, no further adjustments
were needed at this level. However, if the duration of a would be
long, then an of the of would
to a shorter duration. In any case, "~I~'-'''''''''''''V'''''''''U
project is v"'''.L.LJ.J-''-4.L-v'~.

COlnpj~ete:C1 in every
cannot be measured, quantity of the work that should completed every
working day is given as a of total work of the task. The quantity
work to be day is a very of information for
be data from the
~
~~
"-Ju:J
~ >-::s::;;;:
:;;!~Cl
Cl)
Cl
TASKS ~
;,::>-
Ci)ZZ
Ci)00
Z
gCi) :r:
QTlANTIFTFn BARS
V'''lnl~''lll l:'bK~Ul'4l:'UWbK)
~~
E-<"-J
~....l
B~~ ~>-
:;;!~ ~~
0<:
::S:Cl ~1Ef2i zu O~ 0-<t:
::S:Cl lre t;;Cl tr::Cl 9n 14 21 28 10/5 12 19 26 11/2 9 16 23

9m~!gal
I I I
80 5 16 6% 8/31 I I I I
1 1 1 1
DEMOLISHING N/A N/A 1 1 1 1
1 1 1

UT
1 1
!
LAYOUT N/A N/A 6 2 ., 33 % 9/23 9/25 1 1 rO i
I
1
I
1
1 1 1 !
11,400 Fr2 380FT2 30 6 5 2,280 Fr2 10/ 1 10/7 I ,H- I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
iI
STUD FRAMING

15 3 5 20% 10/7 JOI1"\


I
I
I
I
CITY
PERMIT
II I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

PTT1Mi'üNG N/A N/A


1
I :E I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
~r~&~IC
I I 1
15 3 5 20% 10/7 10/13
N/A N/A 1
1
1
1 11 1 1
1
1

<; 20% 10/7 JOlli I I I I I


N/A N/A 10 2 I I I I
WIruNG I I _111 I I

~~~gH N/A N/A 15 ., 5 20% 10/7 lOll3 I I I I


I
I
I
I
EI I
I
I
I
I
~g~~~TFR N/A N/A 15 3 5 20% 10/7 10/13 1
I
1
I 111 I
I
I

i~
I I
10.000 Fr2 1.250Fr2 8 2 4 2'iOO FT2 10111 10111> I I I
INSULATION I I

I
1 1 1
21,OOOFr2 470FT2 45 9 5 4,230 Fr2 10/13 10/19 I I I I I
I I I I I
I I I I I
I I I I
I I
I
ALUMINIUM 'no FT 83 Fr i 4 2 2 166 Fr 10119 10/20 I
INSERT I FINISH
r:rTI{)N
111 I
I I I
54 Fr 12 4 162FT 10/19 10/?? i
WOOD BASE 6'iOFT
" I
I
1
I
I
i 1
TI
1
11 I
,
I

20,500 Fr2 510 Fr2 40 8 5 4,080 Fr2 10119 10/24 1 1


I
1 1 1
I
I
TAPE&SAND
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I I

.
FRAME CEILING 9.600 Fr2 480 Fr2 20 4 'i 1920 FT2 10/19 10/?i i I
I I
! I I I
I I I I
42 3 16 4 4 17, 10/19 10/?? I I I
DOOR FRAMES I I I
I I
LIGHT 15 3 'i 20% 1012" 10nCJ TRATIOl\ 0VEEKE
FIXTURES N/A N/A
I
I
i !
I
I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ,8 i 9 10 ,11 12 , 13

10.4. HAdLIL.OILl:: the renovation


9/7 14 21 28

DURATION (WEEKS)

The temp late for planning renovation 26thfloor


were ""'LU..II...,......
IJV.l.J..L.U\.LJ

electric and
1-'" ............:........
u -'.1. work were scheduled to start. All
works were scheduled to finish at the same time, and gypsum
boards would start a day before completing all the rough works. The of
design and materials for the wood baseboard, the vinyl baseboard3
paint should have been completed during the rough works and the . . . . . . . . u ....u. .............

detail insert4 and the wood base would be executed during taping and sanding
the gypsum' partitions. At same time, the ceiling frame would be suspended
and door frames would installed. The first light fixtures would be installed
the ceiling frame be completed and the floor would be
installing At the beginning the 9th painting
at finish plumbing would completed and
job would have been
VU.LJlJ.L.L.L.LF:,

3 Offices had a vinyl while common areas with intense traffic had a stronger and
wooden baseboard.
nrr\t"'f'1""",
4 The aluminum insert is an architectural detail where an aluminum is to be
inserted in a groove to decorate large areas of walls between doors.
5 these columns could have been filled after the precedent
and the and ending dates and then executing a critica]
algorithm. at this level of complexity, the part of the template is easier
to be constructed first, as a visual display of the process.
1
Although this template was used for early planning, there was a
issue to observe. was a high concentration on the
middle and last of the construction period.
on certain reaching a maximum of 30 workers on ~'~'JAA_'~
Such peaks resulted from the constrained schedule, both by the delay city
permit and the deadline of November 23, for the completion of the construction.

A series of schedule changes, shown on


work force on the site. changes are displayed gray,
indicate the as were scheduled temp late of
preparing the template shown 10.5 focused on starting
as possible, on avoiding the parallel execution of

In the temp late of both


start at the beginning of the 6th week,
scheduled. is possible because
framing. the installation of insulation is to start at the
beginning of the week, together with the wood base that should
a week earli er , assuming that the selection of the design and the material
could be reached earlier. The door frames are also moved two days
The installation of doors and the vinyl base can be completed
is proposed to be postponed by one day, after all other tasks
0-:l""1'\",1"11"'10"

vVJl.L.lIJ.Lv,,'vu. vAov'vlJ" for some millwork and the final inspection and

personpower at the site is more balanced than it was on the


the are minimal, resulting from reconsidering
lt'nn'rrn,TPn1Pt'lt could be
1"1,."1"11,,, ..

deadline allows a more even distribution of workers on ex(~eedmlg a


total of workers a single day.
QUANTIFIED BARS
(INTENSITY PERSONPOWER)
TASKS

9/7 14 21 28 10/5 12 19 26 11/2 16 23


I1
:1
r
I
TI T
J
1 1 1 1
DEMOLISHING N/A 6% 8/31 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

H-n n
33 % 9/23 9/25
JL 1 1
LAYOUT N/A N/A 6 2 1 Lil 1

STUD FRAMING 11,400 FT2 380 FT2 30 6 2,280 FT2 101 1 101 7 I CITY
1 I
1
11

1 PERMIT 1 1I
I1
N/A N/A 15 5 20 % I 10/ 7 10/13 jin l I1
ROUGH N/A N/A 15 20% 10/ 7 10/13
Hl J:;r1'RTr
TEL/DATA 101 7 10/13 1 1 1
WIRING
N/A N/A 10 2 5 20 % 1 J 1 I nl
ROUGHHVAC N/A N/A 15 5 I 20 % 101 7 10/13
1
1
1
1
1
1 ral !:
N/A N/A 15 5 20 % i
' 10/ 7 10/13
1
1

1
J
J

1
1
1

1
:n l
INSULATION 10.000 FT2 1 250 FT2 2 4 2.500 FT2 10/13 10/16 1 1 1
1 1 1 I

GYPSUM
21,000 FT2 470 FT1 45 5
,
4,230 FT21101l3 110/19
I 1
1
:
l i J
1
I
1 1
: I
BOARD 1 1 1 1

ALUM. INSERT 330 FT 83 FT 4 __~2_~~2~~16~6~FT~~1~0/~lL9~10~n~04-__~:~__~:____~:----+:-+--+:-----l n I


1
WOOD BASE 650 FT 54FT 12 3 4 162 FT 10/19 10/23 1 1 1 1 1 :1
: : : : i :

li
1 1
I I I I i I I 1
TAPE & SAND 20,500 FT2 510 FT2 5 4,080 FT2 10/19 lOn4 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1
1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1
I I : : 1 1 1 1

1 I I I I
FRAME CEILING 9,600 FT2 480 FT2 20 I 4 5 1.920 FT2 10/19 10/23 : : : I : I:
DOOR FRAl'vfES 42 3 1 16 4 4 12 10/19 10/22
1
:
1
1
1
1
1
:
1
1
1
I
1
:
1
:I r- i I:
I 1
FTXTTlRFS N/A N/A 15 5 20 % 10/23 10n9 1 1 1 I 1 1 1
1 1 1 I 1 i 1
6 -+ 8
L -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I 9 I 101111 12 I 13
DURATION (WEEKS)

A to personpower on the same UI:;UûLLULt':,


917 14 21 28 10/5 12 19 26 11/2 16 23
:
II : i i
FLOORlNG 260 FT2 87 FT2 3 I 1 3 87 FT2 10/23 10/27 I 1 1

I I [
36 4 9 2,280 FT2 11O/2611l! 5

N/A 1 8 1 4 2 50% 110/28110/29

9,600 FT2 I 960 FT2 10 ! 2 5 1,920 FT2110/30 111/'5

N/A I N/A 36 4 9 11% 11/2 111112

N/A 1 N/A 12 4 3 33 % 11/5 1119

N/A N/A 8 4 2 50 % Il/6 11/9

9,340 FT2 334 FT2 28 4 7 1,336 FT2 11/9 11/17

42 7 6 2 3 14 111 9 11/11

1,800 FT . 300FT 6 2 3 600FT 11/16 11/18

N/A N/A 15 3 5 20 %

TOTAL N/A N/A 514

DURATION (WEEKS)

A to the personpower on the same f1.p.of1.llnp.


~

~
IZ) 1 ~

!t !
QUANTIFIED BARS

I~ I ~~
TASKS (lNTENSITI PERSONPOWER)

~ e:, !~ ~C§ 9n 14 21 28 10/5 12 19 26 1l/2 9 16 23


I
I I I I I I I I I I I
80 5 16 6% 8/31 9/22 I I I I I I :I I I
DEMOLISHlNG

LAYOUT
N/A

N/A
N/A

N/A
-----

--.§-- __L
--- ---- ------ ----

--~- _.Il_:p__ _'Y.'f.~ 'i/].2


ninhh
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I
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11,400 FT2 6 I I I
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STUD FRAMlNG
------- ------ ----- --- --- I I : CITY' I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I
I I : PERMl,T I I I J I J
----- I I I I I I I I I I
ROUGH _J1 __ _L --~-
_1Q.:p__ lQU_ 1il111 I I I I I I I I I
PLUMBlNG N/A N/A I I I ! i flI .. J J I : I I

-gPYGB I I I I I I I I I I
N/A N/A _J1 __ _2- --~- _1Q.:p__ lQC!'" lill1l.
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_Jil __ 1--_2- __1._ _1:i:p__ lQLL lilL.§


I~h
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WIRiNó- N/A N/A I I I I I I I I I
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HVAC N/A N/A _J1 __ f-_2-- --~- _lQ.!o__ lQL'!... lill1l. I
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ROUGH
SPRINKLER N/A N/A I
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lQ,WO_IT2_ 1-,-~ilEI:f. -_.!?_- I--_L --~- 3J1Q.fl:f. lWL4. 1ill1.2
lNSULATION I
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I I 1 I I

I1 I
21,OOOFT2 470FT2 45 9 5 j4,230 10/14 10120 I ! I I I
GYPSUM -----1--- --- iI I I I I I
BOARD
------- ------
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__11QJ::I.._ J[U']'__ _ __1-_f--1- __:f._ Ji&.fl_ llWl~ 1il!]..Q
J
ATJTMiNHTM I I I I I I I I I
lNSERT ! I I I I h I I ! I
I I I I I I I I I I
__ _J1-_ _2- __1._ Jg:?'fl _ lW_1L lQl1l.
WOOD BASE _1iiG..EL _~_F!J I
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11 ti
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20,500 FT2 510 FT2 40 8 5 4,080 FT2 10/21 10/27 I I I 1 I I I
:I I I

Lil
I I I I I I I I I
TAPE & SAND ------- ------ ------ --- ---- ------ ---- --- I I I I
I
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FRAME CElLlNG 2,§Q.(tIT2_ 1!LO_W_ 1--_..7il_- __:L --~- 121Q.fl:f. lW19_ lil@
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H
I I I I I I I I I I
__1L __ _3____ _ J.Q __ _.1_ __1._ _lL __ lW_L lilUl
DOOR FRAMES
-
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;--
_J1 __ _L __~+_lQ.ió__ lGf'f.1L mn'I:(WEEK~) I I n···~· I I I
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J
N/A N/A lil8.Q mrJA I I I I I I
FÏiITÛRES I I I I I I I I I
1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 I 7 I 8 I 9 Î 10 I 11 I 13

A to personpower on the one


14 lOfS

DURATION (WEEKS)

ta the persanpawer an eXl:enalll~f! the deadline by ane week


1
for scheduling the construction of the
.:>VJ.Jlv .... I.U.v,as demonstrated the studies of
10.6, made the city
permit on-time and to to maintain the
deadline November 23.

"",r""'1·~""''' and control execution of

periodically a series of control templates


A control v.LC....... v,
\.-V . . . .

1
.. VU.iVJ. .......' " of

V'-'~LI. the corresponding


.. IJÁV"''-' .... , the
part of the
LU!-,J.J."".l.lU.UlJ.VJ.J.V has been filled with the actual
row is empty for those tasks that the start
and finish dates that portray new second row of
the alphanumeric part is not filled for those tasks that had not
either completed or
Cl
;;...
TASKS
~ ~ iE-< I::::

~~I i~
Cl '~Ul I'CIlUl
E-<!;;: §g!;;:
CIlCl ",Cl 9/7 14 21 28 10/5 12 19 26 11/2 16

6%
DEMOLISHING N/A i N/A
80

LAYOUT N/A

STUD FRAMING I---------!---------+---------I------+-----,-----------I-------~------l

ROUGH IJ 3 ~J20 %ÜQUÜJ!Ll1


~
1 __
110113 110/19
15 I 3 I 5 I 20 % 1101 7110/13
ËLECTRIC N/A
NIA I NIA
10 21 5 I ?n% 11n/711nt1"l

n
SPRINKLER N/A N/A 1I
INSULATION : Il i~
9yP~l!M 121,000 Fr2 1470 Fr2 45 9 1 110/13 I
IWW i
MINIUM 330 Fr I 83 Fr I 4 2 2 I 166 Fr 110/19 110/20
INSERT 10126T107271
WOOD BASE 3 4 I 162Fr

20,500 Fr2 510 Fr2! 40 5 4,080 Fr2 10/19 10/24


TAPE & SAND

FRAME CEILING 2~Q<2..~~ 480 Fr2

DOOR FRAMES

~ I~ ~
10 11 12 13
DURATION (WEEKS)

The control TemVlate UClOver 23 the renovation


9/7 14 21 12 19 26 16 23

FLOORING

PAINTING

NfA N/A 516

TOTAL

N/A NfA 593

13
SlO STOP ORDER
CIO-l RELOCATE FANCOILS DURATION (WEEKS)

CIO-2 SECRETARIAL STATIONS


C/O-3 THERMOSTAT WIRING
C/0-4 INSULATE EXISTING DUCTS
C/0-5 RELOCATE HEAD TO TILE CENTER

7. control '1""""",..-.,,--, .. ,, the renovation


As it is shown on this control ~'"".""."'1-'''''4'''"'', many had been delayed. The
can be attributed to the stop orders that are displayed visually
on this template. UntilOctober orders had been by the
dient:
Ol»relocation of the fan
"'.lH.U.l;:;,'" of the

Furthermore, the
the doors and painting should
not been as of 23.

to be executed can also


to a parallel translation of all the tasks along
time cannot postponed as long, then the construction
tasks following the extern al delay should be overlapped, or their intensities should
be increased, in order to reduce their duration.

The change orders on the relocation of the fan coils, the thermostat wiring and
insulation the existing ducts had changed the scheduling of rough HV AC
although that task had been completed by date of October 23.

Prom the owner' s however, a meaningful thickness of this line could and
should the resources allocated by the design firm to accomplish the task of
updating That could provide a measure to expedite the process by
establishing a measure of the effort from the in the de~:IgIl-C()nstru,ctHm
process.
the to the tile centers
rough sprinkler also completed the

as such n-t--t-,,,..-.t-.:•
..-!

estÏlnated quantity of work for the stud framing had been ,",V'.U.!-,.1.V'-'vU,

stud framing would be required the built-in stations. October drawings


were not available. the project manager guessed the quantity of work
that needed· be done, and estimated that work to start a week later, on
November 2, as shown on electric, board, tape and
painting, miIlwork, carpeting, and cleaning were all affected by ihis change order
and had to be re-scheduled. Specifically on the gypsum board and insulation, a
stop order was issued on October 23 to accommodate the changes to be
introduced.

In addition, certain tasks had been planned to start before October 23 had not
started yet. These tasks, not directly related to were: aluminum
insert, ceiling, light

Finally, the wood base delay is attributed to delay of ~v.,'vvL.LVJ.J. the wood
base design as weIl as the change order on secretarial stations.

Despite delays of the renovation, the owner insisted in keeping the initial
deadline of November the duration of the tasks had to be expedited,
overtime work and work on the weekends were considered. that the labor
cost is in the weekends, a graphic display of work vA\.,VULvU.

after regular working hours has been introduced on the control temp late.
HVAC had included worle on Saturday, 17, and on ........ ,J ...... ..,,'4
October 19, in order to with the changes.
TASKS (lNlèN::l1l r

9n 14 28 10/5 12 19 26 11/2 9 16 23

80 5 16 6% 8/3 9/22 I' i I :

o
~ 1~ ~ :~ '~~
DEMOUSHL"G NIA N/A
80 6% 8/31 9/22 i I i
6 2 3 33 %_ 9/23 9/25 9/25 : : :! APPRn''-T nF
LAYbUT
LAYOUT NIA N/A o Q 0 : : :. _ _ tDELA' 'AP'ROVAl
6 2 3 33 % 9123 9/25 101 ' : : ~

STUD FRAMING
11,400 FT2
2,600 FT2
380 FT2
190 FT2
30
14
...------
8+25+140T
65
2 5
2,280 m JO/lOl
10/ 101 ,
::,: PERJ,,0-..f(T!~
'Y '. ~ SI9
~ ,~I!li!t OVEI[TlME l:
14.000 FT2 320 FT2 44 38+25+140T 6 JO 1.920 FT2 101 6 11/ 7 : (:j--+--i--~tt-:flll~ I

3 5 20 % 10/ 10/13 I SATURDAY


15 ---- • I
N/A N/A o o 0 I
:
15 3 5 20% 10/13 10/19 n ~ ~ : i
25 5 S 20 % JOl 10/13
N/A N/A 27 15+6S+6SS 5 S 101 4 JO/ 8
52 46+6S+6SS ..5.. }3' 8% 101 7 1lI 8
3 5 20 % 101 10113 CO-3 I
ROUGH
HVAC N/A N/A 12 8+2S+20T 2 6 101 10/21 ~I~ ~b CICI-4
27 23+2S+20T 3 11 9% 101 10121
15 3 5 20 % 101 10/13 ,
ROUGH
SPRINKLER N/A N/A 9
24
6+3S
21+3S
3
3
3
8 13 %
1lI 5 11/
JOI13 11/ in ~ CI0 5
I::l-_- +-, ---4~~~~
21.000 FT2 470 FT2 45 9 5 4,230 :FTI 10/13 10/19

5.200 FT2 430 FT2 12 6+65 6 2 111 lil 9


26.200 FT2 470 FT2 564 SO+6S
____ 6 9 2.820 FT2 JO/20 lil 9
330 FT 83 FT 2 2 166 FT '10/19 10/20
,,
,
o o 0
330 FT 83 FT 4 2 2 166 H 10/30 10/31 h : (;I:
650H 54FT 12 ...------ 3 4 162 FT 10/19 10/22 10110
o o 0
650 FT 43 FT 15 3 5 129 FT 1l/ 6 11/12 10/29

20.500 FT2 510 FT2 8 5 14.080 FT2 10/19 10/24

3.000 FT2 500 H2 6 4+2SS 2 3 1111 1 11/13


23.5ooFT2 460FT2 51 49+2SS 5 12 IZ.3OOFT2 10/2611113
, ,
9,600 FT2 480 FT2 20 ...------ 4 5 11.920 FT2 10119 10/23 , :
9.600 FT2 533 FT2 18 3 6 1 L599 FT2 111 1i1 7
,
~!
42 3 16 ------- 4 4 12 JO/19 10/22 ,

42 3
o
16
25 ----
0
4
5
0
4
S
12
20%
10/6 10/ 9
10/261115
!~ n
DURATION (WEEK.') i : PROPOSE
N/A N/A f---.YO--f--- ______+_"O-t·--0"--1-------+-----11---+---1
45 3 15 7% 10/29 11114 I 2 3 4: S: 6 7 12 13

10.8. The rorlvof.,.",1 [en~Dlla[e at the nm'nu~n(m of the renovation


260 Fr2 , 87Fr2 3 ..------- I 3 87Fr2 10/28 10/29 9;7
I
,4
I
~I
I
is ! lq/5 '2
~9 :6
I
i/2 :6
I
f3
I
FLOORING 0 0 0
I I I I I
260 Fr2 130 Fr2 2 2 1 260 Fr2 11/1 11117 I I I i n h r :1:1 I

:;S~t
~~~TION 'Vi
;ilm i
I I I
120.500 Fr2 570 Fr2 36 4 9 '2280Fr2 10/26 111'; JO/IC I I D~LAYO I

-------
I I I
PAlNTING 3,000 Fr2 380 Fr2 8 óS+20T R 1 11/1 11/14 I I
i
23.500 Fr2 420 Fr2 56 48+6S+20T 8 9 3.360 Fr2 11/17 10/29
I
I
I
I !' II
i I I

8 ..------- 4 2 50%
11/
10/28 1012\
I
I
I
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
1
I
I
I
I
I
I
i
I
I
I
N/A

9,600 Fr2
N/A

960 Fr2
0
8
..-------
I
0
4
2
0
2 50 % 11111'1 11114
I L920Fr2 10/30 111 '
I
I
1

1
1
I
I
I
1
1
1

I
in
1
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E1!
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10
0 0
"
0
I
1

1
I I
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I
!
O~M""" 1 ~fII)Fr2 8 2 4 12,400Fr2 l1/9 11/17 1 !
I
! n h ~ I

MILLWORK N/A N/A


36

38
-------
2S
36+2S
4

7
9

1
6
11%

17%
ll/2 11/12 10110
11/14 11/14
11/ 9 11/1 10129
1~~~~ON'V
I

f:lt~JN
W-
hl
'~
3 33% 1115 11/9

n ~~
12 4
N/A N/A 0
12
------- 0
4
0
:1 33 % 11/11 1111 1

8 ..------- 4 2 50% ll/E 'Il/'


1 1

,
n~
1
1
FINISH
SPRINKLER N/A N/A 0 0 0 1
1
I
:I
2 4 25% 111110 11/11
8
..-------
CARPETING
9.340 Fr2

9.340 Fr2
334 FrZ

445
28
0
4
0
5
7
()

4
1L336 Fr2 11/9 11/1

17 ??, Fr? 1111 1111~


1
1

1
1
i
I
I
1'
1I

i H~
1
I

i
INSTALL
42 7 6 ..------- 2 :1 14 111 9 1lI11 10110
~~~TION 'V ~~ttZJtN w- 'HU 'curm 'rnrSH
I
0 0 0
DOORS î'ö"R
42 5 8 2 4 10 11/' 111 10129 1 ' 1 ~ h

-----
LRooFr 300 Fr 6 2 3 600 Fr 11/16 11ll! 1
1
1
1
1 1 I
0 0 0 1 1

~
1 1
2 900 Fr
1.800 Fr 450 Fr 4 2
, I 111 Ii 11/H
1 1

-----
IS :1 20% 11111 1lf2{ I 1 1 1 :

~
I
~h~~1:gt N/A NIA 0 0 0 iI I
1
I
1
1
1
I 1 1
I
15 5 :1 33 % 111 llm I

1/
~O
N/A N/A 516 8/31 1l/2( ~L __
nv""T'fMP, lOT)
SAIUKUAY (~)
~<L __
TOTAL N/A NIA 94 11 'i ~ (SS) ,l
I----,

N/A N/A 627 4 8/31 11/2C


5 h ~ 1 J1 i I:
~ i~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~I ~i
1 2 3 4 : 8 9 10 ,11 12 : 13
SEE LEGEND IN FIG. 10.7.
DURATION (WEEKS)

The '.r. ."un.",U" at the l,..UflLL/~c;.LH.i'fL


1

""-".u.'...... "F, v orders

in the alphanumeric
additional row is inserted between the estimate of the quaritity and the
constructed quantity to display this information. Thus, the constructed quantity
should be equal to the summation of the initially estimated quantity and the
quantity in the change order. If that were not it would imply that the
quantities of work had been estimated

2 When the or cost. A different productivity does not the


area of a task if work is displayed.
3 It could be also shown on the graphics part by a different hatching or color.
10.1. Productivity by task: estimated and actual.

TASK PLAN ACTUAL ±% CAUSE


STUD FRAMING Quantity (ft2) 11 14,000 23% (1)
per personday 380 320 -16% (2)
GYPSUM BOARD Quantity (ft 2 ) 21,000 26,200 25% (1)
Quantity per 470 470 (3)
WOOD BASE 650 650
per 54 43 -20% (4)
TAPE & SAND Quantity (ft2) 20,500 23,500 15% (1)
Quantity per 510 460 -10% (2)
FRAME CEILING Quantity (ft2) 9,600 9,600
per 480 530 10% (6)

FLOORING Quantity (ft2 ) 260 260


Quantity per 44% (6)
-------
PAINTING Quantity (ft 2 ) 15% (1)
per personday 570 420 -26% (4), (5)
TILE CEILING 9,600 9,600
Quantity per 960 1200 25% (6)
CARPETING (ft2)
per personday 330 450 36% (6)
INSTALL DOORS Quantity 42 42
per personday 7 5 -29% (4)
VINYL BASE (ft) 1,800 1,800
Quantity per personday 300 450 50% (6)

Change order for the secretarial stations.


Stop and orders.
The partitions for the secretarial stations were low rise and easier to build.
of design selection.
Less prefabrication, more overtime.
(6) Increased because of built-in contingencies in the original schedule, a
tighter actual and intense

to......... , .... -'-"•. ' V u

it contains the ---------_1 estlmated productivity for each task, as


productivity. information was used to plan the
renovation of rest of the floors, and it is particularly useful to future
construction projects.

Visual

1 as an
The construction of the 26th floor was a segment of the whole
intended to provide the construction manager with the insight information on
how to schedule and control the renovation an occupied building a busy
downtown area. At the beginning of the project, several issues needed to be
further, including the relationships with the other participants, the
sequencing of the operations, and the meeting of the deadlines
such, the of project, with emphasis on cost
for the Not he had to
but

productivity
guided the project to think a certain way that kept close to the actual
development of the project. Such a focus on productivity had an immediate
impact on the thinking and data collection for the project. The updated
produetivity shown Table 10.1 is a result of sueh an analysis with an immediate
value for scheduling the rest of the floors and allowing the project manager to
build the necessary contingencies in the to follow.

4 Section 10.4 is based on an interview with Dr. and Mr. David Shrestinian.
1
(i.e.,
, the

on the

the visual
and a graphics way to
of a superintendent was
both for visualizing the data
and for collecting the

was not a
...... <l1·f"1r>11'"'\<:lnf"C'

and the profile of the dient influenced


resources associated with resources are scarce, or an increment
of resources is disproportional then an resource allocation on
each task and the task be considered and brought to
more labor could be solicited, and the
on heavy equipment or '-".U.•k ..... ' - ' ' " '

process not tasks on a


lengthy delays. Furthermore,
dient was quite dear on
That resulted to specific rl""rYl'lr\rl
allocated budget, without any L~L~' '.<L OJ .... .....

on how the operations were


the designer was in
produced from a and flawless
interest on how nlany
"'1-' ...' .../.1. .1. .... ""

were regulatory or the surrounding


were nor involved in this project, thus there was no the
as a device to display
effort on sets of tasks.
na,"u'l"',r'I

hand, typical VSMS could used by the project


presentations before the project was presentations
demonstrate a certain sophistication on and controlling
construction operations on in occupied
1
VSMS was employed to collect the appropriate data
provide the analytical functionality to the project manager,
recorded detail, regarding quantities or productivity
the value these data is significant both the continuation
project and for future projects. in addition to collecting raw data to
used for the analysis and design for or future projects, the execution of
completed parts of the project was meticulously documented. Such a
documentation shows the experienced delays their causes, the concentration
of personpower, the work executed overtime and on weekends, and the overall
flow of the project. The control template should be seen as a photographic and
objective ünage of the execution of the project. the documentary character of
the VSMS can arguments in the construction and can

same
productivity was available.
in 1, 34th floor was next
floor was not available at the same time.

34th floor, shown in the architectural drawing in 10.9, was ...,"-'...,............ ,,'"" . . .
three main sections: the Library section, the Management Information "';'uC'rA1'Y'IC'

(MIS) section, and the Legal section. Thus, these three sections should be
L''-'~LU.'''''~ as three different entities .
'-'V ..

construction of the Library section was scheduled to start next. The


quantities of the identified 24 productivity, the .I..I."",,",,,,,,,,..,u.,L
personpower, etc., are shown in 10.10, calculated in a similar manner as for the
planning of the floor. At this point,
been tested there was more confidence
1I
I'

FROST

10.9. The drawing of the the 34th


floor.
I;
U H·I I~I I~
~ E
13Al3-~

~ ;1
TASKS

!~ !~
\UH""'''UL

J~ ~ ~ 12/14 21 za lJ~ 11 18 25
I
21J 8 15 22
DEMOLISHING N/A N/A 28 I
I
I
I
I
I
iI I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
N/A N/A 4 I I I I I I I I I
LAYOUT I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I
STUD FRAMING 520FT2 260FT2 2 J J J I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I

~E~~lNG N/A N/A 4 I


I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
ROUGH N/A N/A I I I I I I I I
ELECTRlC 4 I I I I I I I I t

~~~gH
I I I I I I I I
N/A N/A 4 ! I I i I I I I I
i 1 1 1 1
~~ii~~T.ER
1 1 1
N/A N/A 4 I
1
I
I
I
1
1
I
I
1
1
1
I
1
1
I i
GYrSUM
BOARD
UITMTNTTTM
1,040 FT2 350FT2 3 I
I
I
I
!
I
I
I
i ! i I
I
I
I
I
I
i
I
lNSERT 40FT 40FT 1 I
I
i
I
I
I ! i ! I
I
I
I
I
I

WOOD BASE 110FT 55FT 2 I i I I I I I I I


I
I
:I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
TAPE & SAND 990FT2 330FT2 3 I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I
I I :
I
I I I I
I
I
:I
FRAME CElLlNG 3,260FT2 470FT2 7 I I I I I I I i
!
I I I I I I I I !
DOOR FRAMES 4 2 I I I I I I I I
? I I !
I
I I I I I I

~~ I i
NIA N/A 6 I 1 I I I I I
1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 I

PAlNTlNG
FlNlSH
2,430FT2

N/A
270FT2

N/A 2
9
-
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
i
I
I
!
I
I
I
I
I
[

I
1! I
I
I
PLUMBlNG I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I .J. I

TILE CElLlNGS 3,260FT2 815FT2 4 1


I
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
1
1
i 1 1
1
1 1

I I I I I I I I I
MlLLWORK N/A N/A 45 I I I I I I I I I
I I I I I I I I
FlNISHHVAC N/A N/A 4 I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I ! I
I
I
I
I
I

~~~ N/A N/A 2


I
I
I
I
I
I
I
!
I
I j I
I
I
I
I
I
I I I I I I I I I
CARPETlNG 3,260FT2 326FT2 10 I I I
I I
I
I I
I
i I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
lNSTALL
DOORS
2 1 II I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
i
VlNYLBASE
CLEANlNG&
100FT 100FT 1
I I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
N/A NlA 8 I I I I I I I I I
PUNCH LIST I I I I I I I I I
DURATION (WEEKS) I I I I I I I
TOTAL 34 FLOOR LIBRARY 160 I I I i I 1
1 I
1 2 I
1 3,1_ 1
I 4 1 5 1 6 I 7 8 1 9 I 10 1 11

data for rnl'7lètrl.lrtn1 n the tem:vtate scnleaUJ~mf! the renovation of the Library in the 34th floor.
1

l::1c. has used computer technology to increase the productivity


to secure more work with the federal and state agencies. After
waiting the technology to mature, the company' s commitment to computing
became aggressive. Kevin Davey, principal of engineering, faces
organizational issues as a result of such a strategy. Furthennore, the extensive use
of computers has caused the bridge rehabilitation work to boom, creating an
imbalance to the company's activities. The student ob serves the impact of
transfOl'ming a non-computer based to a computer based design organization and
is asked to define the strategic plan for further action.

L the use of computer technology change the role of the engineer at


Bridge Engineers lne.? If so, how? If not, why not?
2. Where is the effect on the business process from the use of
teehnology at Bridge Engineers lnc.?
3. of
on .LU.l.'V.UL.l.lUCU,,",'.l.l .....".n.Ä.l.l'VJLVJ",

sueh options? If so,


4. Where will the vH.,;'UJ.',-,vLHJ.", ~pr'UIr'I"'Q U.l. .... UL"' ..... go the
5. What should Kevin Davey do, with respect to computer teehnology?

All names have been ,-"",,,,,,,,,,,,,,

Master (~f Landscape Architecture student SlIzal111e


s/{pelTisian Pr~fessar Spiro N. Pol/alis as a
thall to ilI11strate either effective or ineffective handling af an situatiol1, a
design Original research was conducted as part the course
GSD and Process.

·ro,,,,,,-,,,.,,"" © 1993 Suzanne Thompson and Spiro N. Pollalis.


11.1
1965 by its current president, Joe HA'nTal"('t
their practice as an off-shoot
From the beginning, the company
en~~lmeerlng work, consisting almost VL\.'",.LU,C""

rehabilitation and (RRR


""' .. lfJ"" ..... ...., .... """" with state and . . "" ...."".......
L f'..,'YC"''-''VAL,U,,",,,-,,

In the early 1980's, was awarded the county


inventory in which would by 1992
inspections

employed 67 people
of the company, """ ..,"" .... .1. ... ,,'-' .....

of the bridge
firm was T"T~nu,n state or federal lYA·<TO~·nro(\OT't

number of employees at
for completion the
.I.,U....' U H J ..... ..,

dramatically. to be expanded and "" . .,UAJ.J.F,v .....


change in ,F. IJV,~ v ................., staff was reduced by 70% as
"v""'J..I.J.J."' .... ... V.I..I.);;"L"",,",'-"''''

use of and printers at their ...... '-''''' . . HJOAL.

to inc1ude only
and corporate policy
acquisition ('t"'..... a~t·ron""nTc
because of the use of computers.
the support staff was to J..lu.u,...... v
rI""t''\':l~t'ronP'nt-c without increasing
BRIDGE ENGINEERS,
INC.
11
the design and of bridges, roads, airports,
works, sewers, ete. The design is
("'r-r,rn"t",\-:ln,,,,,ri by the preparation of a set ri1"-:lU!11ncrc and specifications to
construct those projects. engineers specialize as structural
bridge transportation
engineers,
, ..u ..........Ul""

the phases
" .......u ..................<.J'""u approval process for a . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . .
for a bridge rehabilitation.
n1",'\,,,,,,"r information shows the ".......,. ..n.-.r".......
to complete while a horizontal
Cle,/elcJprnellt of a task ".l.F,U. .I..I..l.V" .u .......... ..." ........... tïme, waiting for

When the work is


(EA) may while an
is needed for of new bridges.
PROGRESS CHART
Project No. Job No.: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Date: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Structure: Report N o . : - - - - - - - - - Local Public Agency: _ _ __
Survey Complete CE Approved Tracings

0
0 60 120 180 240 300 480 540 600 660 720 780 840 900
DAYS
Notice to Proceed Date: Agreement Date: Signature:

11.2. chart for a typical project.


A few

The

size are
each alternative for the

and the sizing

area adllaClent to bridge, and


.LL.LtL.LE,UI..LV.U. measures to reduce the of the in the area, or the

11

lnc.,
computers and CAD in his v'V>.u!-,,-,,u

the
word processing for ':>"-',"'.LV",",'-'.V"', a in management
ei vil engineering area prompted the
stations in 1988. had their own . . . . . ".. .,..............,>..>
connected to the ... ""1rn",,.. lr

Mr. Davey, a eivil advocate of ,,'.hU ... ..,'..,."''''''''

allowed an engineer to do more quickly and "''"' "' ......... ,,''' . .


By decreasing the to complete a
be tried so that a design would be <;:lr>t\1P~JPr1
also freed the having to do monotonous . ., ..u.v ............... '"' .... "',
the to concentrate on the quality of
the use of

for the past


r>rHYU"\1I1tp·t'C might offer his firm. With
of construction continuing to climb and the
of the construction work,
use of CAD the
~J.J.""H_"'."VU. bridge rehabilitation and rep air.
company to capture a large of this work.
and opportunities of focusing the bridge department on work, when
and construction of new bridges had always been their specialty. an Aft .....1nAA...
himself, he knew that designing bridges was much more exciting work.
hand, his two bridge repair/rehabilitation engineers were ""V~H}~"'L.l~~~
overtime and were always requesting the use of . . . . . ,.u .... v~ucu ITtanpmiVer

a of computers within the f"'n-r-nn'ln"r


of computer operations, Mr. Davey was
computer system ~ndmaking recommendations for . . ...,. . ,L ......a .... ...,...

throughout firm. Mr. would be pres enting his ........................1:->"


four of the He called computer consultant,
had assisted the company in setting up their cunent system and asked for his
assistance with the analysis.

11

of increasing vV~,U.IJ~""'A,~'"
government. While they were not
their aggressive investment in computers
enab1ed to quick1y overtake their competition.
they were able to profit the -'-J.J. ... ''''' ....Jl''-V'"'

invest in the software and computer equipment at the right time.

AutoCAD and DCA (by Autodesk), industry staltlUarUS


were used extensively by the firm. With fun
capabilities, computer modeling and rough "wa1k-through" were developed to
assist in-house design decision making process. company a1so used a
u.u •. uv,u..:>v system which allowed the use SQL (Standard Query Language) to
and This u.U<.UV'CL.:>....,
for were sent in hard-copy format and floppy disks, since the
l'P'l.T1P1'UP1'C at the still used nlanual review nlethods.

were efficient in the use of i t was


that the network system administration would be shared among all the
........ " ........ U , U , L V ....

,",'V''-Ul-''U-~'-'A users. decided that personal would insure the


succes~ of the and that a systenl administrator would be a waste of money.
Ta accountability, a menlber of the resources task
lnl1Plemenre:Q a progranl on the server to incremental for all
machines every and full back-ups once a The data from these
UU"'"l,,,-'-'Lh' were archived onto and taken to an facility. As a
all computer data since 1988 could be in the event of
hard damage or file also used Computer
Consultants, Inc. to assist thenl with to provide training
and the establishnlent of the initial nA1h"{"\1'!T

of the engineers were


was too valuable to be out the
A decision was by principals to create a new layer of the
company, the technicians, to do the the CAD input. As aresult,
the draftsman were DCA. The continued to use
their conlputers to calculate cut ratios for bridges, but
they employed the CAD technicians to create the cross-sections and details.

"~' to the design, the engineer also


..UU,1JAA CAD work. TypicaUy, vV'-JL'-A,"HULV.....

technicians and one to each bridge


VH,::'-'-i>'",,,,i

project. The engineer would ~~"~t-.~~~ drawing to a CAD


technician based upon his area of In way, each
person what part of the were for completing and
updating. This also each team to work on the same drawing at the
same time without two people the same or overwriting each
VUL-ULhLLLh

other' s work.

Bridge Engineers still as manual draftsmen when last


minute changes or sketches were needed. In
the manual method was stiU much than using the v1JJlUIJ'U'-'-'L

had technician assigned to that portion of the


1n-n,111"1"1nn- the amended data into the lllodel.
performed for each bridge T'\"ï\1"'{~T
UIJ\.l.U ... '",,,,

and placed in the electronic to insure


accountability.
TT1,..",,,.IT~,rI in . . . "u',."'''.~ .......
d''J.U

'--"~.L.'--'-I--"''''''VÁ
Consultants, lnc. to determine how they
for the long term at the best cost. The updating
task

the computer resources task force


computer updates and maintenance.

11
use of
CAD tools and
He felt that models of ......... '. . 1"-. ..,,'-'

enviromnent to a variety of criteria could for better '""u,


'-"ÁÁj;;.,-'-u"",...., •. "" ..... '-'Á .. , ........

and allow his greater freedom in their designs. He also felt this could be
an opportunity to prepare public hearing information that homeowners
businesses would more readily comprehend.

Communication Opportunities. Mr. Davey that computers


improved productivity and comnlunication within firm. One su eh opportunity
was the experimental use of laptop computers for the firm's field engineers. The
con1pany had just started sending laptop computers into the field with the
engineers who were bridge in remote areas of state. These
inventories had been the staff the
on,.,.,-n,"''''''' returned from the with the data.
return to
a

VV~J..lI-I''''''''V.L'''
could provide
'L.I."-'~U~Jl""
personnel supplying
.I..I..I. .... needed .L.U.L.HU-'.V

minute updates that were often lacking on larger projects.

bridge
bridge rehabilitation
without use of
type a rather small profit margin.
work was not very to engineers, it became
to the company with
VJ..J..'U.uJ.LV idea of work being generated the
use of computers was intriguing to Mr. He began to wonder about
other aspects of the be able to expand in a similar fashion.

11
the
.L",~,
Inc. That
u..L<•••u .

suggested the following

and
of the leading edge of

""TrI .........",,::"''''''' at all levels, but especially at the advanced

levels,
• increased utilization of the server for software storage allowing for more cost
effective "floating software licenses" in the future,
• provIsIons remote communications inc1uding and
support and future dedicated phone Hnes,
., additionallaptop computers,
ct of CD ROM' s other
1
ii.U.~.I.""'.V"'"
the development of a
for the University's campus.
not only replacing

resources, and
be made.

1. at

2. from the use of computer

3. How should Planning


a growth?
4. Where will GIS uses go in the future ?
5. What should the

Research Allsociate Elizabeth Gould this case under the of Associate


1-'1YiITP",,,,nr Spiro N. Pollalis as a class discussion rather than to illustrate either
effective or ineffective of an situation, a design process or a design
itself. Original research was conducted as part of the course GSD 6400 lnformation
Technology and Design Process.

Copyright © 1993 Elizabeth Gou1d and Spiro N. Pollalis.


HAR V ARD UNIVERSITY

first map of the pilot project, the


2000.
1
concept of Geographic Information Systems
were powerful for complicated graphics and could handle
information. In the map of an area is entered the computer in a
with attached information that may characterization and uses of
on infrastructure, financial and property information, location natural resources,
location of buildings, data on the description of transitory phenomena, as
migration of wildlife, etc. That information is usually stored databases external
to the graphics environment, linked to the maps on the system, or may
not be displayed graphically.

Thus, includes much more than maps and what is shown on


maps. the data can be updated to reflect the most recent .LUL'-'-'-.>.U..............." .... ,

analyzed for carrying out specific studies, displayed in a variety


ways, using different selections. Planning Group of Harvard
has undertaken the to create such a comprehensive Geographic ~.LU.'-'.L.U.L""'''.L'-''.L.L
System for the Harvard campus. Initially, the system was designed to . . . . . '"' . . ~ . . . . . ,
detail and information on allocation of space and uses of buildings.

1
.......,..,.,"",... .. 2000, In
to consider the long term physical
.............LU.... Jl ....JL.L ..... LJlVH

was created as a "commonly


factually and future and
decisions on both the
University. The was to an study that had
by members of the Planning Group and was published in 1 in a
Long Range Planning: Inventory, Policies and Recommendations.
Book", as the report is known, contains approximately 50 detailed maps of
the Harvard campus area, displaying information gathered at that time, and
subsequently filtered and into those maps. The maps include such
and
vU.vUJlU"'.VLJ. outdoor districts, building
book are coded and
1: 10,000).
the ......."."I"flr'o
was
a space
I-'''''•. ..L,-,.L.u• .o.

data already maintained by


and redrawn.
using a computer system with
V-'-.LUU..UUI,VU

on land information such as


assessment, ownership, deed restrictions, lot lines, etc. Specific building
data could include space usage, how buildings been renovated over the years,
and even yearly maintenance costs. Thus, planners could synthesize a variety of
data advance and analyze those data when a specific request would be made.

1
The originator and leader in the development of the GIS at
Lody Petriv. Ten ago he was employed by
Technology, and on establishing a '"''V ... .o. ....... , .... ...., ...

Asset Management Program. Later, he


of
V"-'-UV.!.!L to . . . . ,1-" ....
A ..... U.U.VJL-'--'-H"'''-'-''-T.U

In a
a cornbined -'--'--'---:'LUJ.-'--'-.LJlfo'.,

A survey was conducted by the Group to look at


were doing. Ivy schools had building

term used as computer-based rlr~ur1rllJ


J.UTHOE:IPr.RRYl-UVUl'U.1
GROUP D4'm: II-U-U L1h
ALNlIOl 175 N. I!ARVARD ST. HSKS06 KENNEDY SCHOOL RYRDll RADCUFFE YARD
AUlil02 BRlG!I" HOCKEY RINK HOTS07 HARVARD SQ. T STOP ISLAND NYEGI2 EVERETT GARAGE
ÁUll.03 !IBS BAKER UBRARY MClIl08 THB INN AT HARVARD NTOX13 38 OXFORD ST.
RHI'T04 PEABODY GARAGE HYSCOII SCIENCE CENTER PLANTER OHRQI4 RADCUFFE QUAD
LR!llI'B05
-_ _ _ _ _ _VENTS
_____ NEAR
_ _ _WEEKS
_____ BRIDGE
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _NYli'J10
__ WILLlA\!S JAMES HALL OHOBl5 OBSERVATORY

12.2. The 15 control shown on the map.


and campus maps in paper
surveyed to have had an installed
Stanford' s buildings

In . . .v •.n ......" ...... to launch the GIS .... rr"'A{~t several technical
!". to be addressed.
Those issues centered on hardware and software requirements. The
considered the scale planning taal, therefore they researched
geographic that would enable inquiries to done on a
AutoCAD®2 was chosen as most appropriate environment for ~~~"'AU."",
the maps and of in the system. Oracle®, was,""V.lVV'"VU

the contain the data to


GEOISQL® was drawing files with
database. interface to AutoCAD® with

in the Planning
.... n1~n""' .. IT could he used to enter and . . . . . r.na,,,,,

1
After a year of campus a
pilot project was was to construct a map the
campus, as a to data 1). An was hired
to maps of campus and convert them to format. The
was used the Group to link the
map to data obtained from the Project 2000 and stored in an Oracle®
That first step was completed one year. The map that was
created during this process was useful for athematic mapping but the inaccuracy
of the original hand to be an obstacle when more
detailed work was ...nr""",,., .. ,,,,r1

2 by Sausalito, California.
3 Random Access Memory.
in the campus to nwps
A detail of the new map.
The development of a higher quality map required a greater investment by the
University, beyond the immediate co st computers. The University responded
positively to to with preparation of the
needed maps. Fifteen control identifiable by bronze markers and set in
cçmcrete, were installed at of the campus to enable accurate surveys
to be linked control stations
~'-',,, System, and they
.........ULO... " ' " '

is a booklet for ~l11"'UA'UAlrc

0LU.II,..LV.L.L0 and provided in


the computerized
"""''"Inr ...... ,... and Anl'\<::l11r'lnO'

aerial map of the N orth


and photogrammetrically
into .............. u ....... " ....'.....

information. map,
only by the data available and the
.u..u ....... ...,· ....

creating the links. additional types of information are


maps, they become useful for a variety of uses at the University.
detail of the newIy produced maps. 12.5 juxtaposes a part of the new map to
the oid one, demonstrating the inaccuracies in the oid map.

As the Group envisioned the potentialof GIS technology, it was also


clear that in a decentralized institution such as information exchange
cooperation were essential the GIS to be successful. they initiated a
Group to bring together a wide variety of people fr om the various faculties and
departments. The Us ers Group monthly meetings on different topics and has
been a board
A superposition the old inaccurate nwp on the new nwp
has an absolute accuracy of 1 foot (0.328

There was a strong interest among the U sers Group in representing all the campus
building floor plans in CAD, as base drawings for facilities n1anagement and space
planning, so it created a spin-off endeavor. The Planning Group had a library for
storing "as-built" drawings of campus buildings. Working in that light, the
Planning Group established a library of computerized floor plans .. Thus,
Group could pro vide support for initial CAD users, and a
.LUeUA.UA"Lb floor plan
building, if for them to use. In return Group
r'l't",nnrt and establish of .l.U~JlV.U.
.U.l.l.'Vl.l.J.

in
LlU.I..L .... .I.'l.l.F,'"

and has worked for and Sciences


and of years the
University. He by on a to draw some as
needed in work, and into a fuIl time occupation. He retrieved
archived plans and drew updated computerized floor plans the of
..... ·1~. ~~~ J...... :~ ..... }" ....• ~
.,

12.6. Harvard building ownership.


or 42% of the
of FAS LJ'.. UJlU.Hl':;:'"

1993. Many newer


forn1at directly from the architects.

89 90 91 92 93 94

I·· {
'.

AWARENESS ".' i : " ..

I I I I I
IIRSl MEETING AT ~SG
A A A
USERGROUP I .. :',:: .....: . . ,

I
l lRST CtD CAPABILITY
PROTOTYPE I··., '. .., j
I

NEEDS I,·.··.····· ...••.'•.. ······1


Y
lULLIGIS STATION
CJ ÇJ
PILOT I
lENi.HttR~ INILACE
~-
.,
40SCALEMAP I
T I
IN~RECT casT PLANS COMP~~

FLOORPLANS I···· ' ..

NETWORKING I

12.7. Development of the GIS project.

1
The overall campus map has broader uses. The long range is to put the GIS
maps on a University wide network, by many users 12.7). Then,
individu al departments could attach their own data to the by the
to tabular information. As an the
rloln"..,·t"n-.ont could own data base to those Data could include
IJ .....'" ...,,'"-'... ,::.,of A user
OIJU\-• ....,;), u.uv'-' ........ J.\J" .. " pLU.n.. J.!.''::''

spaces people

with the Business and the Medical


department must relocate,
oq~aI111Z],ng the move. Answers to questions regarding new •. H .......... ...., ........ " " .........

machines and equipment as wen as specific choices of new 'U' 11...,"-"..

can by provided even before the move begins.


benefit to each building's maintenance department. By accurate
plans, quantity can be for regularly scheduled maintenance, i. e.,
palntlng, carpeting, etc. Building maintenance people previously working
without accurate floor plans due to many years of additions and renovations
access to constantly information. Creating museum and library
,""u will also
.......... ·U' ....... In addition to information, the
listing names
.l.U..lV.l.l.l.lUIC.lVJlL, facts tied

Another application in construction could on the notification of all the


abutters next to a new The GIS will be to list all
If "t-..... r't-.r'~ ~L"rn·"~"'C'
r>A1....

as a
recommendations
could be generated at any
development in the 1900-1909 period.
shown in gray prior to 1900. Buildings shown in
black were constructed or acquired between 1900 1909.

The possibilities of applications are virtually endless.


vVJL.LI-..LJ.J.U'-'U

buildings could be displayed clicking on the building footprint, through


images on map. of art on campus could be
their descriptions, connected to a location on the
map campus over
Fig. 12.8 shows the physical of the v ............ ...""...,

1909. demolition, and renovation could


of resource could ",..,..-.1-".,1"1 U-jU.L ..u u " ' •• .....,...,. ...... .L ... '''''''' ...,'"'

through campus. Alumni see Harvard


Center was built. For development, the resource could provide a
as it would sit
UUJlJ.\J.J.H.F. A
the proposed building
tooI and could be used to
vv.,.L.LU.ULL.LV ........I . ' J U U

AlKEN COMPUTATION LAB


SECOND FLOOR PLAN

NON-ASSIGNA8LE AREAS

"-;--,-, _ ..

12.9. A detail drawing showing the usable space of Aiken


Computation Laboratories.
AlKEN COMPUTATION LAB
SECOND FLOOR PLAN

"--.----"- - "

12.10. A detail drawing showing the rooms m


Computation

1
Cast Recovery
..LH'. U'.'""',,",, is to v ........ "" ................ ....,

used for government-sponsored research. This


square foot ratio, to determine the rate the
research contracts. The plans of
will the process. CAD
research facilities were
r>,...,.~... t"..,·'n
checked by members the Planning Group and the
12.9 and 12.10 show such a map a research "'AV,-,L"'."'VL
separated floor, using a slightly modified version
guidelines specified the American Institute of
bound by single polylines to enable area ca1culations. These base
linked to the Faculty of Arts and Sciences database of information on
each space. This database was set up in Paradox®, the software c·uc'f-,::"......
used by the Faculty of and for database
AutoCAD® v. 12 has an SQL Extension that allows the user to n-,"'n, ...,n
graphic data stored in Paradox® through links within AutoCAD®.
each floor, and room have been assigned an identification ........u ....... v·........
f"nr'"t'",cnn1nrlc to a field in the database. When auditors need to review square
calculations, will invaluable, because of both accuracy and
In the end, a of informative plans will be complete for all these

1
As 1993, software consisted of AutoCAD® v.
GEO/SQL®, v.3.1b, while a few 486 platforms at 66
The original Arche 486/33 was still used as the
The were up on Bernoulli

Paradox could be linked directly to without an . . . . . . ~I"V""'L ....L.LV .........

package. However, such a change would require a substantial


manually link all the nlaps to the stored information, since there is no method
available to extract the links from GEO/SQL import them to ADE.
N evertheless, such a conversion would facilitate the access data by othef
install ADE to their AutoCAD system.
ADE rnanages cross~fiIe CAD data

SAUSALlTO. Calif.- AutoCAD Data Extension (ADE) may be the ultimate data
tooI. Based on the Anaheim teehnology demonstrated by Autodesk A/E/C
n .. }'·,-; ....' n ...~Kn '93, the software allows users to manage and reuse information stored in

CAD drawings aeross files and outside databases. ADE runs under AutoCAD
Release 12 and is with drawings ereated in releases 11 and 12. MOl director
Blair LaCorte said the product takes the trend of task automation to the next level, which
is the proeess automation. "For 10 years have been and data.
This data is valuable and now the it. They not
want to create and reuse the data they
" he said.
ADE allows users to access and combine drawing data from AutoCAD r1r~l""llnlT ....,"'lIU....,"',
attributes and extern al databases. "With this product we've made it easy to access
three forms of infonnation simultaneously, so that you can up the data
and on single attribute you could have in LaCorte The
C'At:tnl<lr",.'" access multiple drawings allows users to open and work on any number of
AutoCAD drawings as if they were one virtual Data ean be accessed from
several different drawings in a operation opening and
individual drawings because searches are global. The program also updates ll'Uln,!I-"'-'
drawings at once.
When an ADE open command is
index for the based on lOc:atl.on
ADE activates the accessed across
The search through
amounts of data. stores data in minimizes system
ria,,,. .. ,,,rie>i";n ... and increases user productivity, LaCorte said. data subsets allow users
to at or retrieve only the precise data in which they are interested.
de~ngJner and drafter a drawing and the inc1udes sidewalks,
tnr.r.lr'lTu and or she only needs to know where the sewer and
up part of the drawing. So, instead of on a 3-
working on 100- KB and that is easy to work with and
SmlpllIH~S the command through the use of
U sers search criteria elieking on
lOcanon, AutoCAD extended data or

the ADE query eommand, users can attach to outside databases without knowing
"We recognize that would use ADE is a person who wants to manage and
rnanipulate data. We're it as easy and as transparent as to get to the
information. A user doesn't have to eonneet to outside databases, the software can
be used for that," LaCorte said.
In addition to its multiple file and database ADE also aUows multu)le-'USI3r
to The software allows users to and write to the same r1 .. ~"u'n(T
simultaneously, but prevents overwrites and unauthorized
entity locking and

12.11. The article on ADE in the ovemDt~r 1993.


technology,
number of users,
technology context of resource U~~'U'-'("~UU'.Ll
scope of effort.
had exploded as the
IJvenn. ....'"..."........ """

portions of the map were completed.


IJVI.'-'~~UU.L to be a asset for the University, both as a collection of individual
or as a total environment. Furthermore, the city Cam bridge had inquired
information on the system, to serve as the for developing a
rrp.J"'CU''lnh1f"'information system. According to Petriv, "the uses of an
information system remain limited only by what the creators and users envision as
SELECTED

MADIGAN ARMY MEDICAL


John Graham Company, and Concept-'-'...,Ui'"'-".

Submittal, Madigan Army Medical Center, Volume 1 I Part


April 1983.

THE

Informe Anual1991. Dragados y Construcciones S.A.

THE PAVIUON

Informe Anual1991. Dragados y Construcciones S.A.


e
Folleto del de La Santa Sede. .LJAI!-'Vc:'.J."'.I.\..IJ.J. 1992.
Fundacion Santa Maria, April
~LLU.""'''U'''''u. 92. 1992.
.LJ.L<-<;;:;.U'..... V0

Licisco,
<:llYT.:ltTO<:ltn i Ponti di Palladio. Electa 1980.
Palladio, Andrea, The Four Books of Architecture. New Y ork: Dover
Publications, 1965.
,nrU'CTlr. Le ei Andrea Palladio. Pozza

Zorzi, Giangiorgio, i Disegni della Antichita di Andrea Palladio. Neri


Pozza 1959.

THE GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE


Architectural Association, The Engineers, London: 1982.,
Record Vol. XI No. 2, October 1901, 615.
"At Golden for F,..,' 50," New
..LJ.LJl .... May
1987.
............ '........... 'did just fine' u,,-,,::>I-'.I.'""-' the "''''''''U'H>r'1 11 Ban ........ .L.Lv .....,,"'v bxallmw~r May 26,
1987, p.l.

Clyde
SciencelEngineering
........ 'n.u ...''V Examiner, May 27,

p.12.

of America, New York, W. W.

An Interactive Computer Program for


o-<a.-.<:Jtu,,,,.,.. of Two-dimensional of
,:>r>nnAI,ACY'U No. LCT-88-3, '--' ......."" ... .,. .."" U\•.d..LV'U'"

Engineering, Cainbridge,

1980.
JLI.L.LJ"-,u•.L•..,V.l. •. .L.LA' May 1987,

1-l ....·t'hrin'(T 11 San Francisco Hv"rn.na ..

1987.
True the Design and Construction of
Simon and Schuster, 1986.

AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY
lannznf!.' Inventory, Policies and
Office.
UI"nn"nrr

by Gewertz. Harvard University 'LJa.,~vLLv. '-'V'-VUV.L

vol. LXXXVIII, no. 5.


AutoCAD Extension v. 12. Autodesk, Inc.

GIS P ...r~~L,,~r Description, Harvard 1991.


THE

-':n..,.r.rI<~1r Daniel Structures, ed., Englewood


Prentice-Hall, 1992.
Fig. 1 1 Stahl

by

THE
5.1.

1.
1990.
Fig. 5.12-20. Construction photographs. Dragados y Construcciones.
1991-April1992.

THE THE SEE


Fig. 6.1. Construction photographs. Dragados y Construcciones. June
1991-April1992.
6.2-9. Construction Documents. Arquitectura,

6.11-17.

6.1

Fig. 6.22.

Summary of bidding and final budgets. Servicios 93. April


1992.

THE '-A'-"L.LJ;'-'

7.1.
Fig.

Fig. The Gate, p. 1; by Irving F.


.... ........ F> .... ,,"".. Eleanor Morrow Mead.

Fig. 7.10.

1. Bridge,

p. 240; copyright 1936 by Piggott, San


Courtesy of the California Historical Society,
7.13. ofthe '-""" . . y.""....

Fig. 7.15.
Francisco Public Library.
7.17. p.

7.18. San Francisco Examiner May p. photograph by


....,..... \,U.5 ............. ' Jr.

11, p. 73.
8.3. Magagnato, p. 24.
Fig. 8.4. p. 32.
30.
Fig. 8.6. 6,p. 68.
8.7. Third Book, plate 2, p.

Fig. 8.13. Magagnato, p.


THE A
10.1- 3, and 10.9 were provided by

ATHARVARD
All were Planning Group.
Selected U.S. Customary their Technical

U.S. Customary Units SI and Technical Units


1 in 25.400 mm
1 ft (12 0.3048 m
1 acre 0.4048 Ha (10,000 m 2)
1 tb 4.448 N (0.4535 kgf)
1 (1,000 lb) 4.448 kN kgf)
1 psi (pounds per square inch) 0.145 kPa (kN/mm 2 )
1 (pounds per cubic foot) 0.157 kN/m3 kgf/m3 )

U.S. Customary Units SI and Technical Units


0.0394 in 1 mm
3.28 ft lm
2.47 acre I Ha (l0,000 m 2 )
0.225 lb IN
2.2 lb 1
6.896 (pound per square inch) I kPa (kN/mm2)
6.37 (pounds per cubic 11<N/m3
62.40 pcf (pounds per cubic foot) 1 tf/m3
Spiro N. Pollalis

Case Studies
Management and Technology
in the Design Process

The case studies method is a complementary teaching method to the


typical format of studio and lecture courses in architecture. In that context,
this book presents twelve case studies focusing on design process, design
changes during construction, evaluating existing structures, renovations
and repairs, and design and information technology. The cases follow a
similar format with open-ended questions to stimulate a meaningful
classroom discussion. Although most of the questions are based on
technology considerations, the topics concern major issues in the complex
environment of the building industry.

Spiro N. Pollalis, born in 1954, is Associate Professor of Architecture at the


Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, since 1986; Visiting
Professor of Architecture at the TU-Delft since 1991; and has been
associated with the architectural-engineering firm Calatrava Valls SA for
several years. He was awarded his PhD from MIT and an MBA in High
Technology. His area is architectural and information technology, and his
research and teaching focuses on technology, design process and prod-
uct delivery. Currently, he heads the task on strategic planning for
computing at the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University. He is the
author of the books Computer-Aided Project Management (1993), A
Visual Representation System for the Scheduling and Management of
Projects (1992), the editor of Architecture: Design Implementation (1991)
and co-inventor of the patented Task Management (1991). His book on
What is a Bridge? The Making of Calatrava's Bridge in SevilIe, is
scheduled to be published in 1994.

ISBN 90-5269-138-X