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Solve the exercises below:

I. Translate into English using modal verbs or modal substitutes. Specify between brackets
the meaning of the modal you choose (ability/dynamic, epistemic, deontic):
1. M tem c nu neleg prea mult din ce spune; ori nu sunt n stare s urmresc nimic pentru c
sunt obosit, ori vorbitorul nu i-a structurat prea bine discursul.
I'm afraid I cant understand much of what he says, either I am unable to follow anything
because Im tired or the speaker didnt stuctured well his speech.- ability/dynamic
2. Sunt nou n ora. Credei c m-ai putea ajuta s gsesc sediul Institutului de cercetri?
I am new in town. Could you help me find the research institute premises?-epistemic
3. Sugerm s ne oprim deocamdat, dar am putea continua mine la aceeai or. Credei c
vom putea termina suficient de repede pentru a trimite la timp documentele?
We suggest we stop for now, but we could continue at the same hour tomorrow. Do you think
we can finish fast enough to send the documents on time?- ability/dynamic
4. mi amintesc c era o vreme cnd puteam petrece zile ntregi fr s obosim. S fie oare
vrsta? Nu se poate!
I remember there was a time when we could spend entire days without getting tired. Is it age?
It's not possible!- ability/dynamic
5. Am s fiu n stare s-l bat la table cnd voi avea mai mult experien.
I'll be able to knock on the table when I have more experience.-deontic
6. Putem s gzduim urmtoarea conferin la Galai, vara viitoare. Am putea s trimitem
invitaiile chiar sptmna viitoare.
We could host the next conference in Galati, next summer. We could send the invitations even
next week.-dynamic
7. Din fericire, mi-am fcut muli prieteni de cnd m-am mutat n acest ora. tii ct de greu
poate fi la nceput.
Fortunately, I made a lot of friends since I moved to this city. You know how hard it can be
at the beginning.-deontic
8. Dac te concediaz, poi oricnd s vii la firma noastr. tiu ct de ncredere poi fi i chiar
a dori s ni te poi altura.

If they fire you, you can always come to our company. I know how you can be trusted and I
would really like you to join us.
9. n ce privete medicamentul acesta, se tie c poate fi foarte folositor n tratamentul
pneumoniei; nu se poate s fi refuzat administrarea lui.
As far as this drug is concerned, it is known that it can be very useful in the treatment of
pneumonia; the administration could not have been denied.
10. Iari vorbete la telefon! Cu cine o mai fi vorbind i de data asta? A putea s pariez c e
vreuna din prietenele ei cu care poate vorbi ore ntregi fr s se plictiseasc.
Again speaking on the phone! With whom he might be speaking this time? I could bet that it's
one of her friends with whom she can talk for hours without getting bored.-dynamic
11. Nu se poate s fi venit la ntrunire; a fi observat-o i sigur m-a fi dus s vorbesc cu ea. tiu
ct de jignit se poate simi cnd nu este bgat n seam.
She could not have come to the meeting; I would have noticed her and I would certainly have
gone to talk to her. I know how hurt she can feel when she is overlooked.-epistemic
12. Spune c ar putea termina lucrarea de ndat ce intr n posesia tuturor articolelor de
specialitate care s-au publicat n ultimii doi ani.
She says she could could finish the paper as soon as she enters into possession of all articles
of speciality that were published in the last two years.-epistemic
13. A spus c ar putea termina lucrarea de ndat ce intr n posesia tuturor articolelor de
specialitate care s-au publicat n ultimii doi ani.
He said he could finish the work as soon as they have all specialized articles that were
published in the last two years.
14. Nu-mi dau seama ce urmrete; s-ar putea s intenioneze s nfiineze o societate de
asigurri.
I cant figure out what he wants ; he might intend to to establish an insurance company.
15. Dei poate fi nesuferit uneori, i-a cerut scuze c n-a putut ajunge la timp din cauza unui
blocaj n traffic.
Although he may be unbearable sometimes, he apologized because he could not arrive on
time due to a traffic jam.
16. Ai fi putut s-mi spui i mie despre brourile pe care le-ai luat de la agenia de voiaj; mi-a fi
fcut o idee mai clar despre condiiile pe care le ofer.
You could have told me about the brochures tou took from the travel agency; I would have
got a better idea on the conditions they offer.

17. Vezi silueta acea care se apropie? Dac reueti s recunoti persoana, poi s-mi spui i mie
cine este, pentru c nu vd nimic cu ochelarii tia noi; a fi putut la fel de bine s m lipsesc
de ei.
Can you see that figure that is approaching? If you can recognize the person, can you tell me
who it is, because I cant see anything with these glasses; I could just as well do without
them.
18. Poi s crezi c parlamentul ar fi putut vota o asemenea lege care s afecteze interesele
bolnavilor?
Can you believe that the parliament could vote on such a bill that affects the interests of
patients?
19. Dac au reuit s-i conving s intre n proiect, este pentru c ei chiar sunt n stare s-l duc
la bun sfrit.
If they managed to convince them to enter the project, it is because they can really finish it.
20. Cercettorii din domeniu s-au strduit s obin un nou medicament care s fie ct mai
eficient, astfel nct bolnavii s poat spera ntr-o nsntoire rapid.
Researchers in the field have struggled to get a new drug, as efficient as possible, so that
patients could hope for a speedy recovery.
II. Translate into English using modal verbs or modal substitutes. Specify between brackets
the meaning of the modal you choose (ability/dynamic, epistemic, deontic):
1. Ma intreb daca isi da seama de consecinte; s-ar putea sa fie constient de responsabilitatea
pe care si-a asumat-o, desi, sincer sa fiu, nu pare.
I wonder if he realizes the consequences; He might be aware of the responsibility he
assumed, although, to be frank, it doesnt seem so.
2. Poti sa-ti iei adio de la vacanta pe care ti-am promis-o, atat timp cat nu te-ai achitat de
partea ta de intelegere.
You can forget about that vacation I've promised, as long as you have not met your share
of understanding.
3. Copiii sub saisprezece ani nu pot participa la curse de masini atat de periculoase.
Children under sixteen can not participate in such dangerous car races.
4. Ai fi putut sa-i anunti ca plecati ca sa nu faca tot drumul acela numai ca sa gaseasca usa
incuiata.
You could have announced that you were leaving so that he would not have done all that
way only to find the door locked.
5. Sa traiesti fericit o mie de ani si sa ai parte de bucurii si sa stii sa-ti sarbatoresti
neimplinirile!

You should live happily for a thousand years, have some joy and know how to celebrate
your unfulfillments.
6. Pot sa plec acum, sefu? Da, cred ca poti. Sa punem punct aici, dar maine s-ar putea sa
am nevoie de tine dimineata, desi nu cred ca delegatia pe care o asteptam va veni atat de
devreme.
Can I go now, boss? Yes, I think you can. Lets put an end here, but tomorrow I might
need you in the morning, although I do not think the delegation/delegates were
expecting would come so early.
7. Am fi putut sa ne hotaram asupra variantei celeilalte, dar atunci s-ar fi complicat lucrurile
si e posibil sa nu mai fi fost in stare sa terminam la timp.
We could have decided on the other variant, but then things would have become
complicated and we might not have been able to finish on time.
8. Multumesc ca nu mi-ai spus ca nu mergi la petrecere; pot, la fel de bine sa ma duc
singura ca si cum n-as avea partener.
Thank you for not telling me that you dont go to the party; I can, just as well, to go alone
like I would have no partner.
9. Dupa cate vad s-ar putea sa amanam iesirea la iarba verde; cerul e acoperit de nori si s-ar
putea sa inceapa ploaia in orice moment.
From what I can see we might postpone the outing; the sky is overcast and it could start
raining at any moment.
10. Imprumutul acesta se poate obtine daca ai garantii serioase.
This loan can be obtained if you have serious guarantees.
11. Jocul se poate juca doar daca ii cunosti regulile si le respecti; altfel, s-ar putea sa nu-ti
gasesti nici un partener dispus sa-l joace cu tine.
The game can be played only if you know the rules and respect them; otherwise, you
might find yourself no partner willing to play with you.
12. Daca ti-ai lua diploma anul acesta, ai putea sa-ti gasesti un loc de munca care sa-ti
satisfaca asteptarile.
If you would get your diploma this year, you could find yourself a job to satisfy your
expectations.
13. Toata lumea ocolea subiectul de teama sa nu-i trezeasca amintiri dureroase; ar fi putut sa
se inchida din nou in sine, asa cum se mai intamplase, si nimic si nimeni n-ar mai fi
deschis-o spre comunicarea cu ceilalti.
Everyone shunned the subject for fear of waking her painful memories; she might have
closed herself again, as it happened before, and nothing and no one would have opened
her for communication with others.

14. Dupa cat il cunosc, s-ar putea sa mai studieze inca, inchis in birou, dosarele acelea care iau dat atata bataie de cap.
As I know him, he might be studying still, locked in the office, those files that gave him so
much trouble.
15. Desi nu era foarte entuziasmat de idee, tatal sau il trimisese in Italia sa studieze pictura
renascentista.
Although he was not very enthusiastic about the idea, his father sent him to Italy to study
Renaissance painting.
16. Oricat ar costa si oricate argumente mi-ar aduce el, insist sa ne petrecem vacanta in
strainatate pentru ca, asa cum s-ar putea sa stii deja, serviciile oferite sunt mult mai bune
si preturile mai rezonabile.
No matter how much it costs and how many arguments he would give me, I insist on
spending our holidays abroad because, as you may already know, the services are much
better and the prices more reasonable.
17. Ii puteai simti din tonul vocii ingrijorarea cu privire la soarta proiectului cu care se
inscrisese pentru obtinerea unei burse; fie ce-o fi, el incercase si nimeni nu-i putea
reprosa lipsa de interes.
You could have felt from his tone of voice the concern regarding the fate of the project he
has scored for a scholarship; be that as it may, he tried and no one could have
reproached him lack of interest.
18. Dupa atatia ani petrecuti pe mare, inca auzea zgomotul inconfundabil al valurilor, oricat
de preocupat de altceva ar fi fost.
After so many years spent at sea, he still heard the unmistakable sound of the waves,
however concerned about something else he might have been.
19. E posibil ca prietenii mei sa aiba dreptate de data asta, dar eu tot cred ca e bine sa stam de
vorba cu el.
My friends might be right this time, but I still think it's good to talk to him.
20. As putea sa intrerup ce pare sa fie o discutie fara sfarsit si sa va dau un sfat ?
May I interrupt what appears to be an endless discussion and give you some advice?
III. Translate into English using modal verbs or modal substitutes. Specify between
brackets the meaning of the modal you choose (ability/dynamic, epistemic, deontic):
1. Anul acesta am ore dimineata; in fiecare zi trebuie sa fiu la facultate la ora 11:30.
2. Trebuie sa semnam actele maine dimineata si, apoi, sa participam la conferinta de presa.
3. Trebuie ca a fost foarte suparat de faptul ca nu ai fost suficient de rezonabil in luarea
deciziei.

4. Trebuie sa plec imediat daca vreau sa ii ajung din urma.


5. Va trebui sa-l determin sa isi ia pastilele la timp daca vrea sa se faca bine.
6. Crezi ca va trebui sa merg si eu cu tine?
7. Trebuie sa-ti marturisesc ca nu-mi face nici o placere.
8. Mai este nevoie sa-ti spun ca nu ai voie sa pleci daca nu iti reinnoiesti pasaportul?
9. Ar trebui sa-ti vezi de treburile tale daca nu vrei sa fii ocolit de toata lumea.
10. Nu era nevoie sa cheltuiesti atat de mult pe haine; ai un dulap plin.
11. N-a fost nevoie sa ii traduc ce se vorbeste; spre surprinderea mea, vorbea romana foarte
bine.
12. Mark poate sa vina in orice moment; ar fi trebuit sa fie acasa deja.
13. Copiii sub saisprezece ani nu pot participa la aceste curse de masini.
14. Pasagerii zborului 203 se vor prezenta la punctul de control imediat dupa aterizare.
15. Probabil ca se simte bine cu vechii ei prieteni daca nu simte nevoia sa-si faca altii noi.
16. Nu se poate sa se intoarca azi daca s-a oprit in Sibiu.
17. De ce a trebuit sa va duceti acolo? Stiati ca nu era nevoie ba, mai mult, nu aveati voie s-o
faceti.
18. A spus ca a facut ce trebuia sa faca.
19. Va trebui sa astepti aici pana se intoarce secretara; cineva trebuie sa raspunda la telefon.
20. Nu e nevoie sa faci asta in fiecare zi; o data la doua zile este suficient.