Sunteți pe pagina 1din 132

DISCUSSIONS

of the

1984 CONFERENCE
of the

Australian Society
Sugar Cane Technologists

COPYRIGHT

WATSON FERGUSON AND COMPANY


Brisbane, Q.

OFFICERS FOR THE 1985 CONFERENCE

President:
V. B. EGLINGTON

Vice-Presidents:
P. N. STEWART

G. P. JAMES

Hon. Gmeml Secretary:


R. W. DORR

Hon. Assistant Secretary:


D. W. SMITH

ManufacturingSection:

Amricultural Section:
Chairman: D. R. RIDGE

Chairman: L. K. KlRBY

Secretary: N . R. MACLEAN

Secretary: R. J. SWINDELLS

Administrative Section:
Chairman: K. A. STUART
Secretary: D. F. SMITH

Publications Committee:
B. T. EGAN (Chairman and Editor), J. R. ALLEN, P. G. ATHERTON, A. G. HAYES,
B. T. ROACH and A. P. SARANIN
P. J. KNIGHT (Sub-Editor)

CONTENTS

SCHEDULE OF MEETINGS
Monday, 30th April, 1984
Morning -General Meeting
Afternoon M e e t i n g of General Session
Tuesday, 1st May, 1984
Morning -Meeting of Manufacturing Session
Meeting of Agricultural Session
Afternoon -Meeting of Manufacturing Session
Meeting of Agricultural Session
Wednesday, 2nd May, 1984
Morning -Meeting of Manuhcturing Session
Meeting of Agricultural Session
Afternoon A g r i c u l t u r a l delegates tour of the Babinda and Innisfail
districts. while Manufacturing and Administrative delegates visit
Goondi Mill
Thursday, 3rd May, 1984
Morning M e e t i n g of Manufacturing Session
Afternoon -Meeting of Manufacturing Session
Friday, 4th May, 1984
Morning -Meeting
Afternoon -General

of Manufacturing Session
Meeting

INDEX OF AUTHORS

ABEYDEERA, W. P. P.

. . . . . .

BEALE, R. F. and FLEMING, J. C. ..


BROADFOOT, R. ..
BROADFOOT, R. and MILLER: K . F.'

CHANDLER. K. J. . . . . . . . .
CROFT, B. J. and MAGAREY. R. C . ..
CROFT, B. J.. REGHENZANI, J. R. and
HURNEY, A. P. . . . . . . . .
DILLON, B. and MILLET. A. R. . . .
DIXON, T. F.. . . . . . . . . .
EGAN, B. T., HURNEY, A. P.. RYAN,
C. C. and MATTHEWS, A. A.. .
FINN, P. and WESTMORELAND, A. H:
FUELLING, T. G. . .
GREIG, C. R., KELLY, G. J:,WHITE, E:
T. and KIRBY. L. K.
GREIG, C. R., WHITE;. E. T. and
KIRBY. L. K.
. . . .
. . . .
GUO, S. Y. and W H ~ T E E:'T.
,
HALE, D. J. and CREES, 0. L. . . . .
HARGREAVES. D. J.
HITCHCOCK. B. E.. CHANDLER:
K. J. and STICKLEY. B. D. A. . . .
HODGSON, M. C. J. and KEAST, W. J.
HURNEY, A. P., RIDGE, D. R. and
DICK, R. G.
JAMES. R. A., RIECK, M. J. and
O'DONOHUE, T. B.
KEAST, W. J. and SICHTER, N.'J.
LAWRENCE, P. J. . . . . . . . .

::

LEVY, P. W. and KENNY, D. A . .


MacLEAN, G. D. and SWINDELLS:
R. J. ..
. . . . . . . .
MAGAREY, R: C. . . . . . . . .
McFADZEAN, S. H . .

. . . . . .

McGRATH, G. J. and WEBSTER.


M. W. .
. . . . . . . .
MCINTYRE, R: J. . . . . . . . .
MILLER, K. F.

. . . .

MULLINS, J. A., TRUONG. P. N. and


PROVE, B. G .
. . . . . . . .
NESS, J. N. ..
NICOL, D. C.. DALY: J. J. gnd ROUND:
P J. . . . . . . . . . . . .
PETERSEN, A. J., MACKSON. J. V.,
CRAWFORD,
D
M.
and
ROBINSON, T. 0. . . . . . . .
PINKNEY, A. J.
. . . . . . . .

The density m e t e r a new approach to measuring


brix . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contracts for supply of heavy gearing . . . .
Viscosity limitations on masseculte exhaustion ..
A new pilot crystalliser for massecuite exhaustion
trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plant parasitic nematodes and other organisms as
a contributing factor to poor sugarcane root
development in north Queensland
. . . .
Pathogenic fungi associated with Northern Poor
Root Syndrome of sugarcane . . . . . .
Northern Poor Root Syndrome of sugarcanestudies on soil transmission and the etfects of
various fungicidal. nutritional and agronomic
treatments
Number one m'ill 10w's~eed'~earbbxfiiiure
Pioneer Mill . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preliminary measurements in the flame region of a
..
bagasse-fired boiler..
A review of the Northern Poor ~ o o t ' s ~ n d r o mdfe
sugarcane in north Queensland . . . . . .
. . . .
A laboratory data processing system
New scope for cane transporter design . . . .
Corrosion and erosion of fugal screens . . . .

4;

Thickness of the crystal layer in continuous


centrifuges . . . . . . . . . . . .
The distribution of impurities in inclusions in
sugar crystals . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotary vacuum filter design . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
The lubrication of mill brasses
Controlled release pesticides for soil insect control
. . . . . . . . . .
in sugar cane..
Rotary drier flight design . . . . . . . .
Evaluation of the efficiency of cane harvesters in
removing extraneous matter. and in limiting
..
cane losses during the cleaning process..
Minimising brake van wheel skidding . . . .
Vertical continuous crystalliser-Victoria Mill . .
Etiology of the Northern Poor Root Syndrome in
the field.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
The steam cleaned stationary grate. . . . . .
Hierarchical control of the Fairymead extraction
plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glasshouse studies on the symptoms and etiology
of Northern P6or Root Syndrome of sugarcane
Granular herbicide application for tram track
maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improvements in low gradeexhaustion at Pioneer
mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optimising electrical power export by supervisory
control . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tests on the defoaming ability of additives for
. . . . . . . . . .
sugar boiling..
Options for controlling soil loss in canelandssome interim values..
. . . . . . . .
. . . .
Viscometry in cane sugar processing
Molasses as a stockfeed
. . . . . . . .
Capacity and trends in mechanical harvesting
. . . . . . . .
machines in Australia
The effects of siding capacities on cane transport
schedules
. . . . . . . . . . . .

REGHENZANI, J. R.

. . . . . .

REICHARD. S. R. and FITZMAURICE,


A. L. ..
. . . . . .
RODGERS-WILSON: P. J. . . . . .
SADLER, R.. CARSON, P. and
RIGDEN, B..
SHERIDAN, N. R.,'WHITE, J.'D. and
THOMAS, A. H. ..
SMITH, N. J.. M C G U ~ R E ,' P . j.;
MACKSON, J. and HICKLING, R. C.
. . . . . .
Staff of BSES and DPI
TILLEY, L. G. W.

. . .

TROIANI, E. and McLUCAS, G. N


WHITE, E. T. and HERTLE, C. K .
WOOD, A. W.. MacLEAN. N. R. and
STEWART, R. L. . . . . . . . .
WRIGHT, P. G.
. . . . . . . .
YOUNG, R. C. and TEASDALE, A. R . .

Northern Poor Root Syndrome-its profile distribution and the effects of temperature and
fallowing
. . . . . . . . . . . .
The detection of sugar crystals in C-molasses . .
The use of huckbolt fasteners in sugar tramway
track joints-a test report..
. . . . . .
A rotating biological contactor for treatment of
sugar mill wastes . . . .
. . . .
Purchasi"g boiler plant for sugar mills . . . .
Green cane harvesting-a review with particular
. . . .
reference to the Mulgrave mill area
A review of results of trials with trash management for soil conservation..
. . . . . .
Investigations into the chemical control of milkweed (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) growing in
cane fields in the Bundaberg district . . . .
Milling train control a t Fairymead. . . . . .
Mixing of high viscosity materials with thinning
fluids . . . . . .
. . . .
The effects of water levels and ~ o i l ' p r o ~ e r t i on
es
sugar cane yields in the Herbert Valley..
..
Characteristics of conductivity transducers for
pan control . .
. . . .
Cane diffusion control'at ~ a j r y n e a d . . . .

A cmplete l i s t of Life, N l , Associate, S u p p r t i n g and Overseas Members of the


Society i s given helm. The rams of those present and the mqxnies and
organisations represented at Conference are indicated with an asterisk (*). Sectional

Membership i s designated as follcws-Agricultural-AG., PdministrativeAD.,


Manufacturing-MA.

EXNE, E.R.
m,S.G.
C Z A m , J.L.
*FOSTER, D.H.
HECK, F.I.J.
-S,
C.G.
*JACKLIN, G.D.

BRISBANE ,AD
MARYBORCUGHaMA
BRISBANE,MA
MACXAY,MA
BEENLEIGH,AD
BRISBANE ,AG
LEST MCKAY,MA

*ABEYDEERA, W. P.
ALLAN, D.A.
AILUAY, R.A.
* U N , J.R.
ALIEN, P . J .
* M E T , P.J.
*ANCEFSEN, N.W.
ANDEILSON, C.N.
*A'IHERMN, P.G.
A'IKINS, P.C.
BAGSER, D.F.
*BARBAT, J.A.
BAAWES, N.H.
BATES, L .
*BEAIE, R.F.
B-,
M.F.
=-R,
R.H.
*BI(XIE, R.E.
BIACK, 1J.A.
B,J.D. Dr.
BOBBEMIN, B .C.
BoYmN, K.
*BRAIN, L.R.
*ERoADFOOT, R.
*BFKIEBRMN, G.A.
BULL, R. McL.
BYRE, B.J.
C P M E m , C.D.
CMEFCN, J.M.
CAMELIA, J.
U-JAN(ELLOE, A.H.
CHAFMAN, L.S.

BUN-=,
MA
BUNDABERG, MA
W33 L
M NSW, MA
MACXAY, AD
INGHAM, MA
MACXAY, AC
MARIAN, MA
BRISBANE, MA
BUNn4E93RG1 MA
PIEYsmm, MA
IENISK2-E
NSW, MA
MACXAY, MA
MOSSMAN, MA
MACXAY, MA
BRIEBANE, MA
SARINA, AD
BRISBANE, W
m, MA
M A r n Y , MA
MAW, m
m y , ER
FARIEICn, m
BRISBANE, AD

*CHAPMAN W.J.
CHEXJERY, G.A.
*(HILDS, H.E.
CHISWILM, I.A.
(HURU-BTARD, E.H.
*m,
C.D.
*Q)LTJNS, P.CJ.

mm, m

G O m m , MA
BUNaABEIEG, AG
GO-m,
MA
~ I A T E R ,AD
BRISBANE, MA
INNISFAIL, W
m
W
;
,

MA

MACKAY, AG
PIKEERPINE, MA
BUNQABERG, AD
MARIAN, MA
BRISBANE, AD
B U N m R G , AG
FARLEIGH, MA
G I W , MA

JENKINS, G.H.
H.W. Dr.
VALlANCE, L.G.
1aDLELL. C.W.
-E, L.J. M.B.E.
iJRIGHT, B.L.

%RR,

DIE, N.L.

BRISBANE,MA
BRISBANE,MA
SOVMPORT,AG
BRISBANE, AG
PAIM BEACH,AD
MA(XAY,MA

AYR, MA

G.R.
*OXlKE, B.J.
*CF&JFORD, C.M.
*CRAkJFORD, W.B.
G E E S , O.L.
*cRmlwER, K.\?.
*a[lLLEN, R.N.
DAVIS, C.\J.
QEICXE, R.
EmY, R.I.
DIBEILA, P.J.
DICK, R.G.
%I=,
W.D.
*DIXON, T.F.
IXHERTY, G.F.
*Wow,F.J.
DYNE, G.D.
DYNE, R.A.
EASl'ALGWFE, G.F.
*E-,
B.P. Dr.
*EGAN, B.T.
*EGLINCSrCN, V.B.
Em-,
I.
ELMS, B.
FMWHAR, R.H.
FER3USCN, G.E.A.
*FIIWXR, L.J.
*FITZMAURICE, A.L.
FLEMING, J.C.
FORBES-mTH, G.
*FROST, G.I.
*FROST, M.B.
*FUELLING, T G.
*m,
1J.C.
GARD, R.K.
GATIEY, T.W.
ClLASGOCJ, B.G.
GLASS, J.S.
*COOK,

PROSERPINE, MA
PROSERPINE, MA

m,

S M l E Y NSJ, MA

MA,-

MA

mEYSrCICE, MA

MA
PYImE N W , MA
BUNDABERG, AD
ISIS, MA
MACKAY, MA
TULLY, AG
m
E
L
J
E N S J , MA
MACKAY, MA
BUNDABERG, AD
PFX3SRPINE, MA
BRISBANE, MA
BLNDABERG, MA
~ m V I MA~ ,
maAY, MA
BiuSBANE, W
NAMBOUR, MA
m y , MA
N E I . J m NSl?, MA
BRISBANE, PCI
BRISBANE, W
BUNINERG, M
MWIULYAN, MA
BUNDABERG, M
NOR'IWBRIDCE NSW,MA
BRISEmNE, MA
SIH JOHNSTCNE, MA
-1

'NLLY, FG
FArUEIGH, MA
SYDNeYI AD
BLNDAERG, MA
BUNDABEW;, M
B U N ~ W ; ,MA

GOTIHARD, D.

GRAVES, C.R.
GREENC.XXID, 1J.A.
*GIU3IG, C.R.
GRIMLEY, S.C.
*W,D.J.
HANSEN, G.B.
W M A V E S , D.J.
HPln]EN, J.V.
HAYES, A.G.
-,
B.J.
HENtETzsoN, C.S.
*HENDRY, J.E. Dr.
HENKEL, C.R.
I l E R I T A a , G.J.
HI-G,
R.C.
HIDI, P.
*HIMIa)(X, B.E.
HaiARlE, D.M.
%OMBLCkJ, E.L.
*HoRSIEY, D.R.
*HUW, K.G.
HLNT, J.M.

C E I A m D NSW, M
m3S5MAN, MA
MAcmY, M
BRISBANE, MA
IKHNAN, AD
MACXAY, MA
ISIS, M
MACKAY, MA
MA,AD
OCNDCNG NSJ, PIL;
FINui m m , M
ETNU3 HATIW, AD
BIIISEmE, MA
m y , IY;
m y , M

-,

I a N G s G r n mw,MA
MACKAY, M
BIIIsmNE, AG
FINCH m m , MA
INGHAM, PG

PRc6ERPINE,

BAlEAU PAY NStJ,MA


m,A.P.
'NZLY, AG
IHIMIINS, R.W.
INNISFAIL, MA
MACXAY, MA
I N K E W , P.
IVIN, P.C.
MACKAY, MA
IZATT, L.K.
~ G O O I B A ,W
ISIS, M
JABS, F.A.C.
Hem HILL, MA
JWS, G.P.
bn!mama VIC,MA
J M S , P.J.
MACKAY, MA
*JWS, R.A.
JEM(INS, D.M.
ADELAIm SA, m
*JENEEN, E.D.
BUNDABERG, MA
JOI4lSON, R.N.
03ND3NG lam, MA
JOHNSON, U.
BRISBANE, MA
GIRU, M
* J W S , K.C.
M o s m , MA
*JOKXNEEN, G.M.
MACXNAtE, PG
*KAIJF'PILA, E.E.
KEW, C.B.
BABINDA, MA
IQNIRY, J.S.
SYDNEY NSW, MA
-,
D.A.
SIH J O H O N ~ ,MA
KIDD, D.L.
BUNDABERG, M
KILUEN, J.C.
RYWUMEAE Nsk1,MA
m mm, M
*KING, J.H.
KINGSIDN, G.
BZNDABEEG, AG
*KIRBY, L.K.
BWDABEFG, M
WJENC33, P.J.
INGHAM, AG
IECGER, P.E.
BUNDABERG, ?G
*IEVERINQIW, K.C. BRISBANE, AG
\?ILLCUQIBY m7,MA
W ,P.W.
*m?Is,O.F.
GOl?IxxvAIE, MA
LINEDALE, A.I.
NAMECUR, PG
rnURILYAN, AD
LLXAN, J.T.
LCXNING, F.M.
m7, M
LUXFORD, R.W.
I N W , MA
M A m , M
*McCCUGW, E.E.
mmy, m
*McEAaimN, B.
mmy, m
Mcl;INN, J.A.
AYR, MA
*MCGRATH, G.J.

McGUIRE, P . J .
m,
McINTXH, G.E.
03NKNG NSW, AG
W I N T Y R E , R.J.
BUNJABERG, MA
*MCIEAN, R.J.B.
m y , MA
McLUCAS, G.N.
BUNDARERG, M
MdUEIL, K.E.
'*cmY,
MA
*McwmmY, W. Dr. m y , MA
MACEY, D.
stmF?oumwA,MA
-SON,
J.V.
INNISFAIL, ?G
MACEAN, G.D.
BLNWERG, MA
*MACLEAN, N. R.
-,
AG
W N , L.G.
MAawm, MA
m,v. Dr.
MAaaY, MA
%'IHE%JS, B.C.H.
m m , MA
W S S I T E R , G.M.
-1
WLFORD, B.J.
MOSSMAN, MA
-R,
K.F.
MA(XAY, M
*MILIETP, A.R.
AYR, MA
MITEELL, G.E.
BUNDABERG, AD
MITCHELL, P . J .
FINCH m m , MA
MOIR, M.
QARWIN m, MA
MOCNEY, A.A.
BWBABERG, MA
MOURILYAN, M
m N , J.W.
-R,
R.L. Dr. BW-RG,
AD
MNRO, B.M.
AD
* M W , C.R. Dr.
m m , MA
BUNDABERG, MA
%SS, J . N .
NEVILTE, R.J.
BRISBANE, MA
m c w , F.
F. rnRESP m<,M
mmm, b1.J.
SARINA, PG
W E L S E N , N.A.
-,
M
NIX, K.J.
BRISBANE, MA
"NOAKES, R.J.
BRISBAFE, MA
NOBIE, A.G.
BWDAE?EW;, MA
O'BRIEN, W.
BRISBANE, MA
O'NEILL, J.H.
, -B
AD
PADW(X, D.R.
amENGNSW, M
P m , A.F.
GIN GIN, MA
PAFSCNS, D.H.
INNISF?,
AG
*PATCH. G.
m y , AD
PEARCE, R.K.
BUNDABERG, M
*PEAlEY, K.J.
F I N m HATEN, MA
*PE?ERSEN, A. J
BUNDABERG, W
*PINKNEY, A. J
MA,MA
P W R , M.R.
-8
MA
POINTING, E.M.
PROSERPINE, AD
m m R , R.
m, M
PRICE, D.J.
mmRS, MA
PRICE, R.A.
MAZENY, PC,
*PWXIE, B.G.
SM JOHCJSTCNE, W
PUKALLUS, G.F.
BUM)ABERG, M
QUINAN, P.B.
BmmAERG, m
,-R*
J.R.
m y , AG
*IU3I(HARD, S.R.
Mcmx, MA
RICHARCG, G. Prof msvILTE, M
RIDDELL, J.W.
MARIAN, AG
*RICDELL, L.J.
M A N , M
* m m ,D.R.
BUNrnRG, M
RIECK, M.J.
CHILE=, MA
*RIGBY, J.
PKEERPINE, AD

..

*ROACH, B.T.

MAaQWE

KSELER, A.K.
RVIHEREORD, B.J.
*m,C. Dr.
RYERSON, D.E.
SAILWAY, P1.M.
SAWWIN, A.
SPJlYER, G.
SHANN, D.S.
SHEPHERD, E.E.
*SHERIDAN, N.R.
SHIELD, A.W.
*SI=R,
N.J.
SIMPSCN, C.F.
SKINNER, J.C. Dr.
SKIPPEN, N.G.
SKYRING, A.G.
*SWIM, D.F.
*SMITH, G.S.D.
9unTH, N.J.
S N E L G m , G.D.
*SOCSELL, B.D.
S m X X X ) , W.R.
*S'ITITWM, M.K.
STEINDL, R.J.
*SlEVENSCN, D.M.
S T E c . m , J.M.
.TIE\aT, E . J .
*STYWART, P.N.
SlFXART, R.L.
SMRY, C.G.

l3NllVZRG1 MA
BUNDABERG, AD
BRISBANE, AG

ALTEN, W.J.
ALMAN, C.U.

ANCEILSON, D.L.
ANJERSON, P.J.
APF9?&3EN, E.L.
*AULD, D.M.
PXFM, F.J.C.
BALLARD, R . I .
BARFIELD, J.G.
*BATHGAlE, R. R.
BPXIER, M.S.
*BEXt-E'IT, N.M.
BIAcxwR, N.
*BIEE, L.D.
BOIEN, J.W.
m, H.M.
FnmARDIERI, J.
BCNANNO, A.
BORCFWWl', L.H.
*m,
N.
BCXJRING, G.K.
BOYLE, E.F.
BOYLE, T.E.
BRADDW(, D.M.

SYMWY,

NS27,MA

WRALD, X
BRISBANE, AD
BRISBANE, MA
M A W Y , MA
M(XAY, MA
B R I S W , MA
BRISBANE, AD
MACIWCE, M
~
~
R MAG
,
GOREWALE, AG
PLEYSIWE, MA
BRISEWE, MA
HCElE HILL, AD
FINCH FATMN, MA
GORIXYNALE, AD
MACKAY, MA
BRI-,
AD
BUMXUERG, MA
SARINA, M
MA(XAY, M

SM JCHNSKNE MA
BUNDABERG, MA
BZNINXRG, MA
GOFE@lWLE, M
MA(I(NAIE,

MA

MACKAY, AG

MOSSMAN, MA
BUNCABERG, M
(HILtERS, PI;
m m , MA
BABINM, MA
GORDCNVAIE, MA
BUNDABERG, M
m, MA
M m Y , AG
m, MA
m l l V Z R G , MA

-,

PG

BEENLEIGH, MA
BABINDA, MA
CHILIERS, M
IaYRFn-,
MA
No=
ETON, MA
aiILDEFL5, FG
JKNmEERG, MA
HCME HILL, M
BRISBANE, MA
REDFERN = I ,
M
EEDEEKV NNWJ, MA
M A F x B o ~ ,PG

*SNART, K.A.
PLGISTCVE, AD
*SPURCeSS, O.W.
BRISBANE, M
S
*,R.F.
MELBCURNE VIC,MA
* S U w , R.J.
BI3IDABW;, MA
*SYMINOrCN, W.M.
MACXWE, AG
*TAYLOR, G.N.
PKSEXPINE, MA
*TAYLOR, T.A.
-,
M
-DALE,
A.R.
JKNDAFERG, MA
*TILUX, L.G.W.
=RG,
AG
mDIANA, E.
JKNLMERG, MA
*VENTON, C.B.
BRISBANE, MA
VIDLER, T.L.
MCKAY, MA
\-R,
J.R.
BRISBANE, MA
qUCJA03, G.A.
MACKAY, MA
%JAW, J.W.
INGHFM, MA
\&'ITS, K.W.
MAcXKf, MA
%EAKiE, R.C.
m,
q E M l E R , M.W.
AYR, MA
\iE(EbER, M.K.
BRISBANE, M
% E L I S , U.D.
GORIXXWAZE, MA
%iEsl?.lo-,
A. EWDABERG, MA
fJHABlAN, E. DR.
m m , MA
BRISBANE, MA
%WTE, E.T.
\lILIERSDORF, A.L. M A m , MA
q J I L L W , D.J.
HCME HILL, AG
-JILLIiWS, E.G.
HARBORD NSJ, MA
WILLIS, R.D.
TJLLY, MA
-D,
A.W.
INQIPM, AG
%JRIGfTL', D.J.
AIM-,
MA
%?FS.WT P.G. Dr.
MA=,
MA
YOUG, R.C.
BUADAH3RG. MA
=K,
R.J.
MACKAY, MA

*BRAD=,
,-B

F.W.

T.E.
BRAZIER, D.
BRE.rr, G.H.E.
B m K S , R.B. DR.
m,
C.F. (Miss)
BUGEJA, J . P .
EblRaE, J.R.
BURGESS, D.J.
*BURQ-lER, W.R.
BURNS, D.W.
BUMIER,A.G.
(W, L.
CFMPBEZL, C.B.
0NPBELL.R.N.
*GlRcamD, R.
*W,G.H.
USANWAS, R.A.
*cW.REEmN, I.
CLARKE, M.L.
*CDLEMAN, G.W.
*aXT.EYI G.W.
*CX3NLVELC1 B.R.
ClXW3R1 T.P.

E K N ~ F G ,MA
MA

-,

NM SYBUEY NW,?
AYR, MA
SP KILW VIC, MA
MACXAY, MA
MXP;Y,MA
B R I S M , AG
INNISFXL, M
BABINDA, MA
MILPEm NEW, MA
(IIILDERS,MA
INNISF'AIL, MA
BLNXBBG, AG

HCMZHILL,MA
m y , AG
MAKYBOWXIQI,

MA

PROGERPINE, M
PAR?MAW NSW,MA
-8
MA

m MA
YANDINA, AG
MUVW, AG

MXIRILYAN, M

*COOPER, R.F.

*03RBETT, R.V.
"COTPERILL, A.G.
aXJLM1, D.F.
CCUSENSi G.R.
0,
D.E.
*cFmE, J.
CREES, N.P.
CRCUCHER, K.
~ U N G S ,T.
DALEY, P.L.
m y , R.H.
*DAMM?SH, J.D.
IlARK, H.R.E.
*DAVIES, G. R.
*WVIE:S, L.W.
DE GWXYP, R.
IEGUARA, T.V.
*DENNIS, F.R.
CERRICX, N.P.
DEE
-R,
J.
*DIBELLA, S.
DILTMAN, N.
C I P K S E , K.E.
DIXCN, J.A.
*DoRRI R.W.
lX3JNIE, P.M.
WDMAN, D.S.
W, C.G.
*mm,N.
XElXERTON, E.H.
E
~ S.J. ~
E ~ I F C.G.
,
E K E m , J.L.
%LLICYlT, W.R.
ELPHINSPCNE, J.R.
GVERITT, P.
F'AIRFLILL, R.F.
FAR(XlIIAR, G.A.
*FAUX, F.
FINJAY, D.A.
FIRTH, R.A.
* E L 4 w R S I H.
*FcmANA, S.
FORMCE, I.G.
J.
F O R Z A m , F.J.
l?UJIER, F.B.
GAIEAkD, S.M.
*G?&IAaER,
J.
GALUTLY, C.E.
GAF37F,'IT, H.N.
C;EORGE, N.R.
* m m , G.
GIiwXANmm, M.
GIWJ3RT, A.J.
GLASIRIN, L.M.
*-W
,'
N.J.
GRAHAM, R.F.
GREENSILL, L .A.

mma,

PROSERPINE, m
BRISBANE, MA

-,

BRISBANE, MA
m,AD
MACXAY, MA
blhFmo-,
MA
IrY3SSUIAN. AG
BUNDABERG, AG
rnLDERS, MA
F I r n m m , MA
M A m , MA
PRc6ERPINE. m
MACKAY, MA
ROSELLA, m
M?&YBornuGH,
MA
BRISBANE, AG
MACKAY, AG
'KXNWIm, MA
JxmHILL, MA
BRISBANE, AD
m y , AG
BRISBANE, AD
BABINDA, MA
CHILDERS, AD
BRISBANE, AD
P I E r n E , M
CHILtERS, MA
-1

wms,

MA

MOURILYAN, EIA
BRISBANE,
MA
,
BEENLEIGH, AG
BRISBANE, MA
MAaAY, M
BlNlXEERG1 AG
PA(XAY, M
BUNDABERG, MA
MACXAY, AG
F I N m m m , MA
CHILDERS, AG
BRISBANE, MA
a 3 m A L E I MA
BABINDA, MA
BRISBANE, M
MAKIAN, AG
FINM m m , m
HILL, AG
mmm, M
KummRFA \?A, AG
M m Y B o ~ M
,
NAMEOUR, AG
m, MA
BABINDA, MA
W A N , M
BUNDABERG, MA
SARINA, M
B W W R G , AG
GIN GIN, PG
BINWBERG, AG

*GREIG, R.R.
*GRIGGS, B.J.
G m , E.H.
HAIGH, I.D.
HMIILTON, A.S.
J.H.
HANSEN, R.V.
HARBISON, S. B.
*HARD, D.A.
HARIEY, J.
IJARRIS, T.E.
*-SON,
R.J.
*HAS-,
K.M.
*HAYES, N.J.
HEAD, N.J.
HEATON, L.E.
HE(X, W.M.
HELANDER' B. D.
HEXMORE, B.D.
HIGHAM, J.A.
%LL,
R.F.L.
H o r n , J.G.
HOCGSCN, J.J.
*HoRNIBL%i, N.
HUI'H, E.G.
m, R.E.
IIOJIN, R.F.
IVORY, A.C.
*-R,
B.D.
* J E P P E m N , N.
JCHNSON, A.H.
*JOHNrON, M.A.
JOHNST3NE, J . A .
*JWES, J . N .
J W E S , R.A.
*JUFFS, R.W.
%LLEY,
k7.T.
*m,N.W.
I(ERR, J.D.
*KERR, W. P.
KLKHR3N, R.S.
K I M C O D , G.B.
KLEIN, H.P.
KMQiT, J.F.
*KRPIASrOS, N.
P.A.
LPSSIG, K.A.
IJWENCE, L.G.
E E , J.B.
*IEIWKN,
D.R.

%as,

K.W.

m
L
C
E
R
S
, MA
MACKAY, MA
BUMDABERG, Pd;
BFUNKN, AG
m y , PG
MACKAY, MA

m, m

NSJ, AG
BUNDABE!RG, MA
ISIS, AG
MOURILYAN, AD
m, MA
BRCNXJATER MJ AG
AIWENVALE, MA
EIMEO, AG
W A N , MA

\m-,

MA

m,
m,

M
F I N m HATKEJ, MA
MCKAY, MA
BRISBANE, AG
MA(XAY, M
TULLY, MA
BEENLEIGH, AG
MCXAY, AG
BABINDA, MA

m, AG
STM JOHNSN3E, MA
M A R Y B O ~ ,MA
BUNDABERG, MA
Km HILL, MA
M
m y , MA
BUNDABERG, MA

m,
m, MA

BWDAPERG, MA
B R I V , MA
BRISBANE, AG
a3RDATBA, AG
BRISBANE, AD
~~,
MA
FINCH m m , MA
BABINDA, MA
BRANDON, AG
BUNDABERG, M
CXIRNS, AG

m w ,M

aORKNVALE, AG
BRISBANE, M

UDGPCNE, J.A.
LCGAN, J.G.

G
O
,
MA
MOURILrn, M

-GLEN,

BUNDAEERG, MA
MACKAY, M
F I N a m m , MA
AYR, MA

G.F.

LIXWIRAN, J.G.
Mcl\lEESE, P.N.

McALZ;ISTER, D.L.
McBRIIX, T.J.

McCARZHY, W.H.
McCEMLSKIE, G.R.

PROSERPINE
BINDABERG, M
AYR, MA

& m y , T.
Mc(llBBEN, S.L.
*McKAY, B.R.

MCKAY, J.

I-IwlxoRNE VIC, M
H a HILL, Fd;
BUNDABERG, M

t m m , PG

McIAUXLJN, T.P.
a m m , AG
McIEAN, C.J.
AYR, MA
McMILLAN, B.E.
BRISBME, M
McNAIR, G.R.
AYR, MA
Maccw.!tHY, W.
MACKAY, M
EIADSEN, A.
CHILLERS, AG
MAHONY, J.M.
INQIAM, PG
*MAIrnrUuNG, E.
NIH SYCNGY NSJ,MA
m L c m Y , J.
BABINDA, M
MaNNING, R.
MA(XAY, AD
MA(XAY, m
MARlaEY, J.
MARKS, R.J.
\maXIrEA. MA
RCfjE BAY rnJ,
m.p
MARSH, R.T.
INGHAM, PG
MP;YNRRD, E.O.
BRXBZATER N57J.AG
m I m , J.
BIN-RG,
AD
M m , MA
*MENG, N.P.
MILANOVIC, M.
INQIAM, PG
MIRE'IN, R.
BRISBANE, MA
MISKIN, K.
TULLY, MA
MIrnLHEUSER, D. 03RmmA, AG
MOLE, H.B.
BRISBANE, MA
MORGAN, D.E.
PARMMATTA tSLJ,MA
MORRISON, R.A.
H a m HILL, MA
MULLER, A.R.
MA(XAYI PG
-Y,
J.B.
MCISSMAN, AG
*MAUXXX, W.A.
m y , M
m y , G.J.
BRI-,
AD
Mt3mEC1, P.C.
mm=, m
NEVILIE, D.
BRISBANE, M4
NOAN3S, D.P.
CHILLERS, PG
WLFXB~KXJGH, MA
* O ' L c u ~ ,D.
OMOCEI, R.H.
BABINDA, M
OSBORN, R.E.S.
NAMEOUR, MA
m m m, M
*PALMER, T.J.
PATEPSCN, B.J.
BRI5mNE, MA
PAVE'I'R3, F.F.J.
W F A X , PG
FsATImG, G.
SARINA, M4
PEhWISI, F.R.
BABINDA, M
FHILTJPS, R.G.
mmy, MA
PHILLIPS-WEBER C.MOSSMAN, AD
*PIIMAN, R.
m y , . MA
*am, C.P.
SARINA, M
m m , C.L.
MAMAY, m
K I N G S G r n mg,MA
PRIOR, A.W.
*WINAN, D.J.
CAIms, A(;
SARINA, M
QUINN, R.\?.
RASMUSEN, E.W.
-,MA
RAIJLINS, W.H.M.
CANBERRA m, PG
m, R.
PREERPINE, M A
*REAL, G.C.
GORDmvm, M
*RI<XETSON, L.S.
m m N , MA
*RDGERS, R.G.
C
A
I
m
,M
*raNEx,
BRISBANE, MA
Rc6s, I.D.
CHILDERS, PG

J.

*RCMANE,

J.L.
RUDDELL, R
RUDDY, B.A.
SAVINA, P.
SELDON, J . E .
*SHOKIT, R.M.
*SMITH, D.W.
SMITH, H.G.
*SmBILL. S. B.
SOERI-DLM, R.F.
S'IEEm, F.J.
*SEVENS, A.D.
STEWENS, R.C.
STILLMAN, S.L.
STIRZAKER, P.H.
*SMRHAYES, E.F.
*SWAN, J.
SLWlDN, A.J.
!llAYLOR, J.H.
*?HctWsm, B.
MET, C.B.
TOFT, K.E.
MPEER, M.G.
TUNSCN, K.G.
TRELQAR, K.
m o R , A.
TSAKISSIRIS, N.
TuFmR, D.
TYNAN, D.L.
VICXERS, P.G.
W m R , G.
I m R , D.J.
W U E R , W.J.
qARDKIP, K.J.
I W S , N.P.
-WIERS, P . J .
*rVATSON, D.C.
~WTSON, I.G.
t W m , L.J.
%W, R.L.
i@BB, R.T.
*rE-R,
B.J.
kESE!SER, M.L.V.
\B-,
C.E.
*rWGLEY, J.G.
'SHITE, P.B.
\MITEHEAD, J.A.
\SLES, R.J.
\ S L L I M S , B.M.
?JILLXFMS, G.H.
\?IUM,
J.
WILLS, A.K.
K.N.
kEJS3N, P.R.
\IILTSHIRE, P.
ISNESOR, A.R. .
WISE, M.
W E , C.R.
m G , I.F.

PLEYSrn, M
SARINA
BEENLEIGH, MA
CAIRNS, AG
AYR, M
-,
MA
BRISBANE, AD
AYR, MA
AYR, M
BRISBANE, MA
GOmAZE, m
MA(XAY, AG

-,

m m R G , M
-,
MA
SARINA, MA
MARYBOFOEH, MA
B r n r n R G , MA
CHILLERS, P13
CAIRNS, MA
-X.
BCNDABERG, AG

-,

B W m R G , AG

m,M

CHILCERS, AG

sm

JOHNSm, M
MCKAY, MA
BRISBANE, M
PII(XSERPINE, MA
BRImmE, M
W A N , MA
FINCH m m , MA
,-OG
MA
BuNnwaRG, M
-,
MA

-,
-,

MA
MACKRY,
BIdDADCBm NSW,MA
BmDAEmRG, m
E m N O r n , MA
FINCH m m , M
SARINA, AG
BABINR4, m
,
O
G
AG

-,

AG

BRISBANE, MA
-1

mm,

MA
mJSVILLE, PG
MA(WUI, PG

BRISBANE, M
IN-,
AG
BRISBANE, M
MACXP;Y, AG
BRISBANE, AD
B I N M R G , AG

MACXAY, M4

AJAX -1CAIS

WAX m w m. LTD.
ALLIED COLTBIDS (AUST) PTY. LTD.
AMPoL EETIZOIEUM (Q'LPND) m.LTD.
*A.N.I.
PERKINS
ANALYTIC?.L INSTRWEhPIS PIY. LTD.
*APPLIED (HEMICAIS
*AsTA m. LTD.
AUSTRAL RGINEERING SUPPLIES PE. LTD.
AU33WDN AERIAL MAPPING (W)Em. LTD.
AUSTRALIAN m R A L D E V E IABORATDRIES
~ ~
A
U
NA'TICWL PCkjER AUIHOL 03. FTY. LTD.
AUSTRAL;LAN SWZRR PaOWASSOCIATION LTD.
*Al.EmWJrn T I r n
AYRaNEWST&DISEASE~LBOlARD
*BABCWC AUST. Em. LTD.
* m maNE FEST & DISEASE axmoL BxmD
*BABIhT CD-OP. =CAR MILI;LNG FSSN. LTD.
*BAILEY CXNlWXS AUSTRALIA PE. LTD.
*BASSTlT, #.E. & PAI(INEE Em. LTD.
*BEARING SEWICE PlY. LTD.
BENTLY NEVAW CDRPORATION

*EmsumL ~~G
PROW(TIS
*BINceRA c?w3 PEST & DIsEAse axwmr, BQARD
*BRADFORC IammLL EoumUES m. LTD.
ElRafJ aovEKI (AUST) PTY. LTD.
BmDPmRG MSPRIcr aNE QZOCJERS' ExEaJrIVE
mmE!alG m m m a.LTD.
BURIEKIN MSTRICP CANE GRUERS' ExE(1VTIVE
*BUREW OF SUGAR E X P E R I m SPATICNS

BRISBANE,

BRISBANE, MA
HoFmsBY m:,
BIUSEANE, MA

BRISRANE,

STRAWPINE, MA
BRISBANE, m
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, ML
BRISBANE, MA
TCXWLIE, m
SARINA, AD
BRISBANE, AD
BRISBANE, MA

m,

SYCNEY, lrlA

BABINDA, M
-D&
MA
RM3ENTSPARK =/MA
mIEOm VIC, MA
BRISBANE, MA
ALnrJA MC, MA
T O C M L L E , MA
BINEAFXRG, AG
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, MA

-DABERG,

AG

BKNEAFXWG, MA

m,

BIUSBFNE, IY; & MA


ST.IECNARDS,NSW/MA
mFuJ.s,
PC1

Bumml' AusrRMJA
*mm EISIIZIcr C m E GRUEFS' EXErnIVE
C N U I E I L amNEU4 ENGINEERS m. LTD.
BRISBANE, m
*mmOIL ( A m ) m. LTD.
BRIS)ANE, MA
CAW TRANsPorrr 2xsmMs (AUST)PTY. LTD.
BRISBANE, m
*CTSTRX A W . m.LTD.
B==,
MA
*CATOIEIM m.LTD.
BRISBANE, m
* m m aEEK 034P. SUGAR MILLING AsSoc. WD.
F'INai m m , MA
CMMICAL MINING & I-AL
SERVICES m. LTD. B R I S W , m
CLBA-GXEm AUSTRALIA LIMIlED
KFMPs
NSJ/AG
*
C
L
m c2uwJTmRS m. LTD.
S'YLNEY NSW, m
*CLME-RIIEY DODLE m. LTD.
mm-VIC, MA
*(3xmAcmJ hEmESAIE INIXISP. E I E a . aNRm3NPS BRISBANE, m
*UXWX&.EAL?H INDUSTRIAt GFSES LTD.
G.IAWmE. MA
c l x x N t a ? H SDEEL a.Lrn.
msBM,-m
-AIR
(AUSTRAIPSIA) LTD.
BRISBANE, MA
aXSOLIDA!lED BEARING Q3 (OLD) LTD.
BRISBANE, m
03PFEX EVEXOFt-EWT ASSN. OF AUST. LTD.
SiCMEY NSJ, MA
BRISBmF,, m
CtZM3KS MIEEA(IXXSIEYm m. LTD.
CSR BWEDRD INSUIATON
BRIS)ANE, MA
*CSR m. gllGAR mvxs10N
SYDNeY NS7J

*CWNAMID AUSTRALTA Em. LTD.

DEPAruwNr OF AGRICULTURE
CEPAFmma' CP AGRIalLTUE&
DQRR-OLIWR

m.LTD.

-6

NEST NSW,MA

FERlW

W, AG

ERNINURRA bA, AG
m
T
S
t
m ~~,M4

W m AUST. m.LTD.
ELLIClIT AusEMAIL LTD.(RELP;YS DIVISION m. LTD.)
FMAIL LTD. (TUBE DIVISION)
E N V I m C H AlEmaLcA m. LTD.
ERIE2 WQdETICS m. LTD.
EVANS IEAKIN I N D U m s LTD.
*FARIEICH a3-OP. WCAR MILLING ASSOC.LTD.
FARZEIGH MILL I;UPPLIERS m T I E E
F.F.E. G R X P (W)m. LTD.
*FISIER axmRors m. LIMITED
*FI-R
& m m. LTD.
FomEY A l x m a u s I A m. LTD.
*lQxBcm PrnPRIETARY LTD.
*F.S.C. PARBURY PTY. LTD.
*F.S.E. SUEMFIFIC
*GARLO(X m. LTD.
Q3E & CO.
GEmERAC EExrIuSERS LTD.
*Q3ORCE MCGS Pry. LTD.
*GIBSON E3Allw & CO.
*aTJINAN A, & CO. LTD.
GwEFumR SSERVICES m. m. m.
GWlERID(E HASKINS & WVEY
*HAG(jLUNCG H Y D m c CO.
'WWBLEaTJ C S E PEST & DISEASE CWl'FOL BQARD
CnFPlICALS m. LTD.
HAuQnm SUGAR CO. LTD.
Elcm, Fay m. LTD.
Em. LTD.
*Hum A U S W A
I.C.I. AUST. OPERATIW Em. LTD.
*INNISFAIL DISTRICT ClNE GFCWEFS' m
a
T
l
T
V
l
3
IN?ElWAlTONAZ, CXMBUSMCN AUST. LTD.
*INVImc743 PEST AND DISEASE axl!mL m
I.R.D.
ME-EIS
( A ~ ~ W J A ) m. LTD.
JCHN (3COPER HYDRAULICS IIND ETEUWTICS m. LTD.
*JOHN W W PTY. LTD.
JORD ENGINEERS m. LTD.
KALMlA MILL SUPPLJEES CCMUIIllEE
J.V.
& ASSOCIAlES m.LTD.
IABORATORY SUPPLY (OU>1 m. LTD.
L.N.C. INWSTRIES
m.LTD.
*LEEDS & NORTHKIP AUSTRALIA FTY. LTD.
L m ' W AUSTNUJA
*LINUILN EIECTNC CO. (AUST) m. LTD.
* L I N r n E I E m c m. LTD.
IKNGPDKlY & M(XENZ1E m. LIMITED
LLTYA JULIUS LIMITED
McGINN 'S ENGINEERING SUPPLIES
MACDONALD, WAGNER & PRIDDLE m.LTD.
*MA,IJAhlER & PRIDDLE Em. LTD.
MACXAY a3LTJ3GE OF T.A.F.E.
MA(XAY DISTRIm' m GRcmRS' EXEcul'IVE

~~

*MA(XNACE

PEm

C E m m O N BQARD

*MARIAN a3-0PERATIVE SOCIETY LTD.


MEFa & MCLELLAN & PAFmaRS
*MILLWUIN SUGAR CCMPPNY Pry. LIMIWD
MITCHELL OlPTS E8GINEERING
MOBIL OIL Am-

m
s
B
A
N
E
, PG
SEVEN HILL NSW, MA
BRISBANE, MA
AIEXANDRIA NSW, MA
WMELm m7,MA
ST.IECNARLE NSW,MA
BRISBANE, MA
FARIEIGH, MA
NORTH KAcJWY, AG
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, MA
G c s m R D NSW, MA
BRISBANE, MA
LANEOJVEm,m
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, m
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, m
BRISBANE, MA
BIIISEWE, MA
B r c m m a D m NSW,MA
BRISBANE, m
a m s , MA
m-,
MA
CnIms, AG
BIIISBANE, MA
mSVILLE, MA
BRIsBAbE, MA
BRIS8ANE, MA
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, AG
INNISFAIL, PG

mN W , MA

GIN, PG
CX%6 NEST NBJ, MA
MACXAY, MA
EPST B W S n C X V, MA
cm% hEST WM
, A

m,

PROSERPINE, PG
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, MA
BNSBANE, MA
BRISBANE, MA

MACKAY, MA
AI--,

BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE,
W ,MA
.sYmEYNSW, MA
BRISBANE,

-,

-,
AG
m,
PG
MA
BRIsE3ANE1 MA
BmrneERG, MA
-1

m-,

BRISBANE, MA

BRISBANE, M
MoNo RMPS (AUST) PTY. LTD.
Gm3 PEST AND DISEASE a x l m L BQARD
-W
AG
MOGSMAN, AD
*lcsfaAN cEwlmL MILL CD. LTD.
,-OG
MA
e V E CENTRAL MILL CO. LTD.
m m IME m, M
*N.E.I. JOHN ?HOMPSON (AUST.) PTY. LTD.
N
o
m RYIE NSW. MA
W.E.1. m ENGINEERING L'IMIlED
O)NDCNGNSW, M
%.S.W.
SUGAR MILLING -P.
LTD.
BICk-axarn NSW, MA
%.S.W.
SUCAR MTLWNG M P . LTD.
Gm. NIELSON & sce3s
m,
BRISBANE, MA
N ( E C EST AND ~~S
*NoFtIR h=
MQ)-OPERATIVE
SUGAR MILLING ASSN LTD. Exm m m , M
m m m , MA
N.Q.E.B.
SloRTH -LAND
EXGINEERS & AC;ENPS m. LTD.
CAIRNS, m
CAIWS, MA
NOKEIEFN ENGINE RECONDITIONING 03. FTY. LTD.
BRISBANE, m
PAYWl'ER DIXCN (QLD)PTY. LTD.
BRISBANE, MA
*PEGIER I-lzumRSIEY
BRISBANE, m
*PETHARD INsuLATIm m. LTD. m.
PEST RYIE NSW, AG
PFI!ZER (HPII(prLS
BRISBANE, M
*PIONEER SW;AR MILLS LTD.
SARINA, AG
*PLANE CFEEK CANE PEST AND DISEASE a x l m L
SARINA, M
* P M CREEK CENTRAL MILL 03. LTD.
ST. WiKkS NB?, M
PIASSER AUSTRAUA PTY. LTD.
BRISBANE, M
P m , H. & M. FTY. LTD.
SYCNEY NSW, MA
*POLYMX PN. LTD.
'IERRY HILLS m , m
*PWEIWX EXGINEERING PIFY. LTD.
PRaERPINE, AG
PWlSERF'INE CANE PEST AND DImAm a)NTIIDL BaARD
PROSERPINE, M
PIxxl?,RPINE MPERATIVE SUGAR MILLING AssN.
AUSTWUA FTY. LTD.
cxAYTm VIC, MA
BRISBANE, m
~ ~ S I A N
03AL
D C3WERS ASSOCIATION
BRISBANE, AD
*QUEENSLAND INSPITVIE OF mmLOGY
BRISBANE, M
QUErn.cm+ND INSTIm OF m
BRISBANE, AG
QIJEENSLAND m m RESOuRms CumtsSICN
RASMUSSEN, A.W.
-1
W
m-,
MA
IENOLD AUST. FTY. LTD.
BRISBANE, M
*m
INSTFumEWrS m. LTD.
BRISBANE, MA
-?Ia
LIMI'IED
BRISBANE, m
SELBYS sxxFmrIFIC LTD.
HORNS= NSW, MA
SENIOR ENGIWZIIING GQW (AUST. ) PTY. LTD.
BRISBANE, m
SHELL amPANY W AUST. LTD.
BRISBANE, MA
*S.K.F. AUST (SAXES) PE. LTD.
BRISBANE, ?
*S.M.C.
l?mUMAT?CS (QLD) m. m.
BRIsBAta, MA
*S.W. FARER PN. LIMI'IED
*SCVIH JWNSKN3 CAFE ESP AND DISEASE CEWKL BD SXrrH &JmNsmm,AG
SouRI J(IwsKNE,MA
WUM JOHNSKNE O-OP. SUGAR MILLING ASSN LTD.

Mom

smmx
SWIFT

SARCO

m.LTD.

~~ WIN'ER

CCMPANY

TAMPER AIJSP. ETY. LTD.


INSTRWWW PE. LTD.
w a s - B Y W r J JACxscN
TRANSFIEUD F.R.P. DIVISION
m y Gm3 REST AND DISEASE o3mmL K M D
*nlLLY O-OPERATIVE SUGAR MILLJNG ASSWIATION
U
W AND NClIAN
WVERSITY W QLEENSIAND
VALVE03 m. LTD.
% m m ToFT LTD.
VIPAC & PARIXERS
W.D.T. (ENGINEERS) W . LTD.
m m C h l A L LTD.
Mm T R E A m (HFMIa CD.

mNSW, M
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, M
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, M
SEVEN HILZS Nsw,MA
m y , M
TULLY, MA
BRISBANE, M
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, m
BUXY+ERG, M
PORT m. VIC,
BRISBANE, MA
BRISBANE, m
'IcmsvIu. MA

WATER CUALITY CDUNCIL OF WEENSLAND


I A ' E ASSO(=CAlES FTY. LTD.
* \ O mMACl-IINERY VALW GWXlP
'%YNNlM ENGINEERING CO. ETY. LTD.

BRISSNE, AD

BRISBANE,
BRISEANE, MA
BRISBANE, MA

Som AFRICA
WEST INDIES
ieST C E m
INDIA
U
N
m
I KINGDOM
INDIA
U.S.A.
PHILIPPINES
CDLCMBIA

BATEMAN, M.S.
BARBADOS SUGAR PRODUCERSASSN. (INC.)
-S,
Verlag Dr. A
BHAD, S.B.
BFUTISH SUGAR 0 3 R P O ~ C NLTD.
BUCXAU k
W INDIA LTD.
W F O R N I A & HFJLKIIAN S U W CCMPANY
CAPE, MR. JOSE
CEMCANA
CWlWUEO, B.L.
CHEN, J.C.P. DR.
~
N B.D.
Cl.AWE, M.A. DR.
C O ~ Z F.
,
COUVE, L.P.
CSR REPRESEXI'ATIVE

INDIA

W S , PROF. K.S.G. C.&.


E r n , F.
m m D , D.
E N m , \?.
FENSKE, J.F.
* F I J I SW;AR CDREQRATICN LTD.
FLETCHER AND
LIMITED
P.T. GIINUNG MADU ETAMTATIONS

U.S.A.
INDIA
U.S.A.
VENEZUELA
MAURITIUS
UNITED KINGWM
INDIA
PHILIPPINES
SCMALIA
k m CemmNY
U.S.A.
FIJI
u
N
I
m KINGWM
INDONESIA

*WO, S.

CHINA

~~

HAREL, J.R.

MAURITIUS

HERWEZ, J.A.
HINWSIHAN SUGAR MILLS LTD.
HUGOT, E.
HULETT SUGAR LIMITED
HULETT SUGAR LIMITED
H U E F T m LIMITED
I N D I M SUGAR & (ENERAL ENGINEEFUNG CORP. ,
INTA E.E.R.A.
FAMAILLA
J(XN H. P A B E INC.
KASINA'IIW, G.
K I E I N , P.
KCMEN, J.P.
KCXINJLIKJ INSTIRJUT WXlR IE TR3PEN

SouRI M R I C A

mm,

R.

LCUISIALt4 S=
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
M?NGEISCORF, A.J.
MWDARBO(US, RASHAD
MUUBIUI, J . P . & ASSOCIATES EVE/LTE.
OLSE;N, P.
PARRY, A.
KJLZIN, M.
P m , H.G.
RAMAI(IMAR, M.K.
RIVALTAND, R.
SAEED, M.
SAN MILLAN, 0.

INDIA
LA REUNION
t3cum AFRICA
Som AFRICA
SCUIW AFRICA
INDIA
AFGWTINA

mm1

INDIA
IEmmRK
AFRICA
fDLLmD

Ham1

U.S.A.

mm1

MAURITIUS
INDIA
MAURITIUS
U. S.A.
SCMALIA
UNITED K I N G r n
INDIA

MAURICE
PAKISTAN
AKZNMNA

SARPSUATI SUGARMILtS

IMlIA

SBRNA SILVA, FRANCISC3.3

MExIa
INDCNESIA
?HAILAND
m AFRICA

SHEKaAR, U.P.
SIVA'MEP SRIIEKHA
SMITH, C.G. SU;AR L1MITF.D \
SMITH, C.G. SUGAR LIMITED
SMI'IH, P.D.
SW@IEKN, K.D.
SUGRR IE-I='
ASSOCIATION OF INDIA
TEMNPSmE m m R s 1 T A F T
T H I R L M A W S I , K.S.
'IWGBHMRh SUGAR WRI(S PRIVATE LIMITED
uJ3clWo RAN(HES UMITED
UGAR SUGAR M3RKS LIMI'IED
ULLZVARRT, I f f i . R.F. k
mm STA'IES SU(;AR OORPORATION
UPAIHIAYA, U.C.
USIN AUJCAREIRA ESlER S.A.
VIGIL, A.
iUPADAPISUT, A.
FLI)FEmL Z
A
R
P
E
m

muln AFRICA

iiEST IMlIES

mm1
INDIA
iEW
INDIA
INDIA
WrnILAND
INDIA

~~

AFamrINA
U.S.A.
U.S.A.
BRAZIL
U.S.A.
'IHAILAM,

BRAZIL

Held at Cairn ran 30th April to 4 t h May, 1984

THE PRESIDENT, M r P.N. Stewart, extended a welcome to t h e members,


delegates and v i s i t o r s attendinq t h i s conference of t h e Society. He e s p e c i a l l y
welcomed Alderman R.P. Davis, Mayor of Cairns and D r R.J. Batterham, A s s i s t a n t
Director, Division of Hineral Enaineering, C.S.I.R.O.,
Melbourne.
THE PRESIDENT a l s o welcuned t h e v i s i t o r s from Japan, F i j i and t h e United
States. M r Stewart then i n v i t e d A l d e m n Davis to w e l w the delegates and
visitors.
Alderman R.E. Davis then welccmed t h e delegates and v i s i t o r s to Cairns and
i n so doing concluded by expressing t h e wish t h a t t h e conference and the v i s i t be a
f r u i t f u l and h a m one.
'IliE JUNIOR VICE-PRESIDENT, Mr V.G. Eglington, thanked Alderman Davis for
h i s kind words of welcome and t h i s was c a r r i e d by acclamation.
THE PRESIDENT then i n v i t e d D r R.J.

Batterham to open t h e conference.

D r Batterhan i n h i s openinq address s a i d

Mr President, Ladies and Gentlemen,

'

It is a pleasure and honour to be here tcday to open t h i s , t h e s i x t h annual


conference of t h e Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technolosists. As an a c t i v e
m r k e r i n m i l l i n g technology some years 30,but m e recently, having an involvement
i n t h e Australian mineral industry, I would l i k e to s h a r e with you scme thouohts on
t h e achievements of both of these i n d u s t r i e s , t h e pressures and challenges they now
face, and t h e ~ o s s i b l es o l u t i o n s to s ~ n eof t h e challenges.
It is i!ppropriate a t t h i s conference t o concentrate on t h e s y a r i d u s t r y ,
b u t I ask your indulgence to mention minerals, as t h e recurring t h e m in t h i s t a l k
w i l l be t h e necessity to expand our horizons t o meet t h e e x i s t i n g challenges.

sources:

I m l d l i k e t o h i a h l i ~ r h tf o r you h a l l e w e s t o t h e i d u s t r y a r i s i n g f m 3
overseas governments, our own government, and s o c i e t y as a whole.

The Sugar and the Mineral industries have much in m n . They are both
industries that survive on exports, exporting of order 3/4 of their total production
and doing so at a time of depressed world markets and depressed prices. Despite scme
fashionable rhetoric to the contrary, the standard of liviq in Australia will be
determined by our level of exports for a long time to came.
'Ib survive in an export market t w factors have to be right: price and
quality. In the minerals industry, in e.g. iron ore, almina, lead and others;
Australia has survived by producing ores or concentrates of the highest quality and,
with the large tonnages involved and the use of the latest techmlqy, has kept the
cost of production low enough to be competitive. The sugar industry also has
achieved the same result. For the two industries, there are right and proper
environmental pressures on production e.g. minimizing enviromntal disturbance in
e.g. mining or in growing ard harvesting, or dust an3 noise control in production.
Then, there are increasing requirements on product quality, e.g. inpurity levels in
the final product. All of these pressures wntrive to squeeze the costs of
production upwards and destroy the profitability. With both industries, the solution
has ben to maintain cur national wsition by developing and employinq some of the
most advanced technology in the world. Both our sugar industry a d our minerals
industry are internationally held in high repute for the level of their technolqry.
There is m need here to rehearse the list of significant achievements although it
might lx salutory to check if the rate of discovery and inplementation of new
techlogy in both industries is falling off. We knew frcm the recent OECD survey,
that Australia as a whole canpares poorly with other OECD countries in terms of
R.&D. expenditure cm a per capita basis. 'Ib maintain our competitiveness, we must in
the future, as in the past, be technical innovators.

Let me return to the topic of market price. Again sugar and minerals are
very close. While we have a large degree of control over the cost of production, we
have much less inpact on the price paid by our overseas custaners. We live in a
world where some countries, both frcm Europe and fran the developing countries, will
subsidize exports almost irrespective of the local cost of production. This is done
of course to balance their trade deficits, particularly to mat& the outflow of funds
for oil prcducts &/or
the servicing of debts. Because of the nominal,
international agreements on marketing of products, the form of the subsidy can often
be rather devious. It can be aiven to the manufacturers or producers in a variety of
ways. More insidiously, it can be hidden in subsidies on overseas transport costs.
With all the debate on tariff protection for the local car industry and
support for the local steel irdustry,
I uwder if we should also be
supporting more strongly the sugar and the mineral industries. 'Ihey have a proven
record of technoloqical innovation and excellence, and also that greatest of
Australian resources:- brainpwer. Given that other countries resort to underhand
support of their export industries, why shouldn't we also support our industries with
proven abilities?

...........

Let us mve f m the challenges imposed by external governments to thcee

imposed by our m federal government, in particular, the support qiven to new


technologies, - the so called "sunrise industries". Let m qualify my caments
before starting by ~ointingout that our am government is not unique here,
governments in almost every OECD country have adopted similar policies.
Much is expected of technology today. It is seen as a way in which new
industries can be created. We are exhorted to restructure our manufacturing
industry, we are being asked to turn away ran rural ard miniq industries. In their
place we are asked to consider basing our econany on products of the mind rather than
products of the material. Particular whasis is being placed on biotechnology,
computer wftware, personal ccmputers, solar energy, biomass, medical technology,
etc.
Much of the justification for this policy is based on an analysis of the
contribution of various sectors to our GDP (Gross Domestic Product), and how the
relative contributions have changed over the years. As an example, comparing 1960
figures and 1977 figures we find the rural sector has decreased from 19% to 7%, the
mining sector has grown from 3-4%, manufacturing has declined from 32 to 23% ard the
services sector has risen from 46 to 66%. Clearly a strong argument for favouring
industries other than rural, mining and conventional manufacturing.
While agreeing strongly with such a policy, it seem to me that our rural
and mining idustries should also be receiving emphasis. The main reason is for
their contribution to our export trade. F7e are a trading nation and likely to remain
of our economic performance. m e level of
so. As such, the GDP is but %measure
our exports is, I suspect, an m r t a n t contributor to our hiqh standard of living.
while exports directly contribute only 14% to our GDP, the multiplier effect of
associated activity has been estimated as bringing the influence of our exports up to
25% of the GDP.
Wditionally one can note that much of our exports are based on renewable
resources, (sugar being an excellent example), and that for our non-renewable ,
resources, many of then have massive deposits and time scales at present levels of
mining measured in centuries rather than years, (e.g. iron ore and coal).
Let me add one mre set of facts to balance the scales slightly against the
new high technolqies ard in the best traditions of the ASSCP help to keep a
reasonable sense of perspective.
The developnent and application of new technologies is probably the most
active area of science and technology. Many OECD governments are active in
assisting, orgainising and managing large national programs in key technologies.
Such programs are often spread over various consortium of canpanies. Examples
include:

The 10 year, at $700 M/yr USA progran on R.&D. for Microelectronics


and Canputer Technology involving 12 ccmpanies.

fie 5 year, 1 1 corrpany, 5 country program in the EEC that will pour
$800 M into a strategic program of research in information technology.

The $100 M provided by the Japanese government to 14 firms in the


chemical industry for research in recombinant DNA, bio-reactor developnt and large
culture cell qrowth.
In smary, many of the OECD countries are showing a marked similarity in
the new technologies chosen for special attention, viz. information technology,
advanced material and biotechnology. Further, they are pourina massive effort into
Research & Developnent in these areas. In view of such expenditure, what hope has
Australia then? Should we also p u r mney into the sane areas? Given the relatively
small size of Australia's R.&D. efforts, h m can we hope to develcp internationally
q t i t i v e skill based products in microelectronics, information technology and
biotechnology on a time scale that will have a major economic impact?
It seems to me that a pragmatic approach is required. Given the
international competition, it muld be unwise to put all of our government and
industry support into the "new technologies" basket.
What we
have in Australia is a set of resource based industries that are
major ocmpetitors on the international scene, e.o. the sugar and the minerals
industry. These industies have strong marketing capabilities, stong science and
technology supprt and an excellent track record of implementation of developnts in
science and technology. What we need to further develop is skill based industries,
to upgrade our exports as far as possible, to sell internationally the technology
involved in their production and upgrading. hk need to produce novel products and
equipllent which are usecl initially to reduce local costs of production or improve
product quality. They can then be sold internationally in their own right. One sees
q l e evidence in conferences such as this that Australian industries can develop
products ard equipoent second to none. (Going back to few years, one could
mechanical cane harvesting as an example.) As yet we do not see enough evidence of
such products being sold on international markets with significant returns to
Australian industry.

.......

A third arena challenging the basis of both our sugar and our minerals
industry is that of mnmunity beliefs. It is not appropriate here to discuss the
trend in Western societies against the mining and extraction of non-renewable
resources or the m r e heated issue of uranium and nuclear p e r . The suqar industry
itself is under attack on the basis that sugar is inherently bad.

A recent letter in a consumer magazine s m r i z e d the point by saying that


the reader bught a product as unadulterated only to find, later, that sucrose had
been added. The Cairns resident who wrote the letter clearly felt that adding suqar
was adulterating a product. Such cpinions are m r e in the nature of beliefs and to
argue against then on rational ground is pointless. 'Ib point out the purity of
sucrose, its natural origins, etc. will have little impact. The thino in a r m n
between missionaries and managers both missionaries and those versed in the
techniques of conflict management know full well - rational arguments hold little
sway against deeply held convictions. The solution here is positive and pervading
promotion of the products concerned, their benefits, and their sensible use.

So far we have concentrated on some of the governmental and societal


pressures on the sugar industry and on pssihle responses. I would like now to focus
on defining the role of the ASSCT. A few years ago, to reflect changes in the
structure of the membership, the Queensland Society of Sugar Cane Technologists
became the Australian Society of Sugar Cane ~chnolcgists. I wonder how long it will
be before another name change is in order? You are, in fad, in several businesses.
First and indisputably, the production of sucrose ran cane sugar. Given the prime
use of sucrose as a sweetener, would the industry be better defined as the production
of sweeteners? n i s would then allm you to embrace the technique of iso-glucose
production from corn syrup using enzyme technology rather than facing iso-glucose as
a captitor. In the same vein, why do we still need to restrict mills and
refineries to be separate entities?

Such views may a p a r heretical but, I suggest, that the pressures I have
outline3 will force the industry to embrace such expansion of horizons.
Tb develop the argument a little further, you may care to consider that you
are already in the business of producing spciality crops. As such, what other
exotic crops could be grown? ?he production of b i m s has been considered in the
past and should be regularly reviewed as the econanic circumstances change. 'Ihe
integration of cropping, milling and production of animal feed should be considered.

Another idea for discussion is that the members of the ASSCT are in the
chemical manufacturing industry. Not only a very plre chemical, hut a carbnaceous
compound and one based on a renewable resource at that! What chemical feedstocks can
sqars be used for? There is then the whole topic of sucrochemistry with, e.q. the
production of detergents. At today's prices, sugar is almost a fermentation
feedstock.
The use of hi-products has often been assessed in the past, e.g. bagasse
for paper production. Such topics should be continously reviewed as economic
conditions change. While on the topic of bagasse, it seems most inappropriate that
CO-generation only extends as far as local mill use and that excess bagasse is still
incinerated.
@I the milling side, one could highlight the expertise available in the
chemical engineering unit operation of crystallization. Few industries have such a
wealth of experience in the design, construction, operation and control of
crystallizers. I refer of course to the equipnent used in both the "boiling" and the
and
massecuite exhaustion stages. lb the chemical engineer they are ev-rative
cooled crystallizers respctively. Can this expertise be applied in other areas;
e.g. in the purification of products produced by biotechmlcgy?

Again one could emphasize the expertise you have in clarifier design and
operation. In a similar vein, one would expect applications in waste treatment and
bio-mass processing.

Expandirq our horizons is appropriate for more than just the products or
their means of production. Corprate structures and objectives are also candidates
for lateral and qprtunistic thinking. As a technolqist, I shall not even attempt
a cmnent on the covrate structures seen in the sugar industry. I would however
like to introduce to you the current Chinese d e l of a corporation.
On a recent visit to China, I had the opportunity to observe the operation
of same large iron and steel corporation. Also
under the current
mdernization programme, Corporations are required to produce a certain auota and
sell this quota to the government at an agreed price. I leave you to draw your own
analogies with the sugar quota. The Corporations are expected to keep their
requirements for services and m a n m r pegged at predetermined levels. Now, if the
corporations are able to produce m r e than their quota, e.q. by employing the latest
technology, then the excess production can be sold at a price the market will bear
a d the nett proceeds used to finace m r e equipnent purchases, ay dividends to the
workers or invest in other businesses. Given the requirement that all of the workers
must be kept in full employment, the investments can be in other industries that
genereate employment. m e steelwrks near Beijing have been particularly successful1
in this regard. With their proceeds from over quota production they have invested in
over 80 plant improvements involving foreign suppliers, thereby ensuring better
productivity and wrking environments. As well, the corporation has set up a
production line cooking Peking ducks for the Eleijing restaurateurs. Even m r e
spectacular are their plans for an International Class Hotel in Eleijing. ?his will
create further opportunities for employment, a pint of relevance to the workers who
can no longer be directly employed due to the introduction of the high technoloqy
projects.

..................

Having highlighted som of the pressures on the industry and thrown out a
few challenges on how the industry might respond to the pressures, let me m
rehearse a list of what I see as the four most important advantages shared by the
Australian Sugar Industry.

- You have a large pool of brainpower of international calibre, a fact


proven by the long string of inventions and innovations.
- Secondly, the industry has an innovative flair. I can rememher well
first joining the industry in the early 70's when you were amngst the first in
Australia to introdue advanced canputer control and mathematical mdellirq and
certainly well ahead of the wrld sugar industry. It is to be hoped that this
x extended
ability to develop a d ccnnnercialize inventions within the industry can l
toth nationally and internationally. It might well become an economic cornerstone of
the industry.
- Ihirdly, your past and present comnitmnt to new technology is
evidenced by the proceedings of the ASSCT with their admirable mix of basic and
applied resear& and industrial application.
-

Finally there is a derronstrable involvement by the industry in

research. I r e f e r not only t o t h e extensive work undertaken by t h e Bureau of S w a r


Experiment S t a t i o n s , t h e Sugar Research I n s t i t u t e , t h e U n i v e r s i t i e s and CSIRO, but
a l s o t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e m i l l s and i r d i v i d u a l companies.
This l a s t p o i n t is c r i t i c a l . To survive, t h e industry must not only expand
its horizons, but it must maintain its ccmunitment to research and developwnt. That
mnnitment mst range a c r o s s t h e whole spectrum from basic, s t r a t e g i c a d t a c t i c a l .
Basic research is unrelated t o day to day problems and aims mainly to
increase o u r knowledqe base. While t h e r e s u l t s can appear to be of l i t t l e d i r e c t
a p p l i c a t i o n , it is from t h e b a s i c research t h a t r a d i c a l innovations e m e v e - both t o
s t a r t o f f new i n d u s t r i e s o r t o rejuvenate o l d i n d u s t r i e s . In time of economic
pressure, b a s i c research is o f t e n one o f t h e f i r s t candidates f o r c o s t s a v i m s : a
tendency t h a t must be r e s i s t e d s t r o n g l y given t h e massive impact t h a t r a d i c a l
innovation can have on an i d u s t r y .
S t r a t q i c resear& d e s c r i b e s much of t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e Bureau of Sugar
Experiment S t a t i o n s and t h e Suqar Research I n s t i t u t e . Such i n d u s t r i a l , mission
o r i e n t e d research keeps t h e industry a b r e a s t of technology i n many f i e l d s , helps c u t
t h e c o s t s of production a d improve competitiveness and f a c i l i t a t e s t h e introduction
of new a d appropriate technologies. The r e t u r n s a r e mre t a n q i b l e than f o r b s i c
research but g e n e r a l l y , l e s s spectacular. Again, t h e pressures to c u t down on
s t r a t e g i c research i n times of economic d a m t u r n must be r e s i s t e d strongly.
T a c t i c a l research concerns t h e s o l u t i o n of more inmediate problems with
d i r e c t and obvious payback. A s such, economic pressures have l e s s impact on t h e
l e v e l of t a c t i c a l research undertaken i n an industry. Solving day t o day problems i n
industry is o f t e n frowned on by some researchers, but t a c t i c a l research is of g r e a t
importance. 'Phe ecnncmic d v a n t a g e s a r e obvious but the o t h e r advantme is t h a t it
provides a feedback of information on t h e relevance of prdslems. In s h o r t , it
provides a caranunications bridge between t h e b a s i c and s t r a t e g i c research w r k e r and
t h e end user of t h e research r e s u l t s .
My s t r o n g p l e a is t h a t d e s p i t e t h e c u r r e n t economic problems faced by t h e
industry, you should maintain your heavy involvement i n research and developrent a d
t h a t such research be spreacl reasonably a c r o s s all t h r e e f i e l d s ; b a s i c , s t r a t e g i c and
tactical.

For f i n a l t o p i c , how is t h e research p r o f i l e shaping up. Over t h e years,


t h e Proceedings of t h e ASSCT an3 t h e QSSCT before it, provide an e x c e l l e n t windcw on
t h e l e v e l of research a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r s p r e d through t h e areas: b a s i c , s t r a t e q i c
and t a c t i c a l . I have looked a t a few r e c e n t proceedings and made a comparison with
those of t h e e a r l y 7 0 ' s when I f i r s t joined t h e i r d u s t r y .
The perspective of an a d d i t i o n a l 10 years has not c h q e d my view t h a t t h e
industry was then, and to a l a r g e e x t e n t s t i l l is, one of t h e mst t e c h n i c a l l y a c t i v e
i n d u s t r i e s i n Australia. mere were then a c t i v e debates on t h e same d e t a i l e d
questions t h a t t h e North American and European chemical i n d u s t r i e s were asking, e.g.
c e n t r a l i z e d o r d i s t r i b u t e d canputer control; d e t e r m i n i s t i c o r s t o c h a s t i c process
Irdlels. me sugar i n d u s t r y was very much a t t h e same l e v e l as t h e overseas chemical
industries.

Is t h e i r d u s t r y s t i l l a s vibrant? F'rom t h e ASSCT proceedings we can note


t h a t t h e r e is s t i l l a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s , frun a g r i c u l t u r a l and harvesting
problems through t r a n s p r t problems and all a s p e c t s of m i l l i n g ancl product
u t i l i z a t i o n a d disposal. M f e a t u r e s however d i s t u r b me a l i t t l e . F i r s t l y , t h e
r e l a t i v e e f f o r t on basic, s t r a t e g i c and t a c t i c a l seems to have s h i ' t e 3 s l i g h t l y
t m a r d s t h e t a c t i c a l end. While understandable a t times of economic u n c e r t a i n t i e s ,
a s already discussed, it is a r i s k y lonq term trend. Semnrlly, t h e r e are many
a r t i c l e s t h a t echo sentiments of sane years ago, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e.g. t h e ccmputer
c o n t r o l area. I wonder i f t h e p r o f i l e of o u r averaae technologist is becoming more
conservative? Aqain, a s already discussed, times of econcmic uncertainty d m r d t h e
h i g h e s t l e v e l of innovation.

This opening address has touched on t h e pressures on t h e sugar i n d u s t r y and


t h e way such pressures could be countered by expanding t h e technolccjical and
corporate horizons. May I conclude by saying t h a t of a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n A u s t r a l i a ,
t h e sugar i n d u s t r y has been one of t h e b e s t a t demonstrating its a b i l i t y to change.
You w i l l need to maintain and n u r t u r e t h i s a b i l i t y .
You have an e x c e l l e n t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r research an3 developnent, and t h e
murage and m n v i c t i o n t o c a r r y r e s u l t s i n t o p r a c t i c e . I t h e r e f o r e leave you t o your
poor r o o t syndrome, green harvesting, cane t r a n s p o r t and a host of t o p i c s on m i l l i n g .
I d e c l a r e t h i s , t h e 1984 Conference of t h e Australian Society o f Sugar Cane
Technologists, open, and wish you a l l w e l l i n your discussions.

A t t h e request of t h e President, t h e Senior Vice-President, M


r W.J.
Nicholson, moved a vote of thanks t o D r Batterham. This m t i o n was c a r r i e d by
acclamation.

The President then presented Dr Batterhaan with a b u n d copy of t h e


Proceedings as a personal wmentc of t h e occasion.

THE PRESIDENT, M r P.N.

Stewart, then presented h i s address

I f e e l t h a t from n w on, t h e name of t h e g m is goirq to be Cane versus


Grain. CUr sugar industry h a s faced many challenqers, and has had its ups and downs
during t h e l a s t t h i r t y years. Our i n d u s t r y underwent its g r e a t e s t expansion a f t e r
t h e siqninq of t h e m i r e o r Camonwealth Sugar Agreemnt on 21st December, 1951. I n
a d d i t i o n to t h i s agreement, an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sugar Agreement came i n t o f o r c e on t h e
1 s t January, 1954 and t h e s e two agreements created boom conditions durinq t h e e a r l y
1950's. Rut a s usually happens with sugar booms, they do not l a s t lonq and by t h e
end of t h e 1950's sugar production was limited to s q a r peaks.

World events influence sugar production and hence sugar p r i c e s . P a r t of


t h e boom i n the e a r l y 1950's w a s due to t h e f e a r s generated by t h e s t a r t of t h e
Korean war i n 1950, arid t h e slump i n t h e l a t e 1950's to t h e Castro takeover i n Cuba.
I t was Cuba who caused t h e breakdown i n t h e negotiation of a new I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sugar
Pgreement, a f t e r the 1954 agreement expired, but when Cuba s t a r t e d sending sugar to
USSR instead o f USA, t h e b a l l g m changed and we were able to supply sugar to t h e
USA under t h e i r quota system. This gave a big boost i n t h e e a r l y 1960's. I n
addition, we s t a r t e d s e l l i n g sugar to Japan. An agreement was signed with Japan
during May, 1963 which enabled us t o supply Japan with between a t l e a s t 350,000 to
450,000 tons of JA sugar per year f o r a t h r e e year ~ e r i o df r a n J u l y , 1964 u n t i l June,
1967.
These tw new o u t l e t s prompted a big junp i n production i n 1962 and a Sugar
Inquiry C m i t t e e looked i n t o t h e question of expansion and t h e i r recamendations
were accepted by t h e Queensland S t a t e Government l a t e i n 1963; 1963 was t h e year of
top p r i c e f o r sugar. Rut horror of horrors, the good times did not last. TKI years
of drought during 1964 and 1965 followed by low p r i c e s i n 1966 and 1967 c h q e d t h e
industry from one of bocm to ~ l m .Money h d to be borrowed f r a n t h e C m n w e a l t h
Government to augment the low sugar p r i c e .
I t was during this grim period t h a t a new I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sugar Agreement was
negotiated and it c m i n t o e f f e c t on t h e 1 s t January, 1969 and it was f o r a f i v e
year period. A t t h i s the t h e United Kingdan made another attempt to join t h e
European Economic Community and was accepted during 1971. The acceptance of t h e
United Kingdom i n t o t h e EEC s p e l t t h e end of the B r i t i s h Cmmnwealth Sugar Agreement
which terminated a t the end of 1974. During 1974 more sugar was t o be sold to Japan,
t h i s time a t an agreed p r i c e , r a t h e r than t h e London Daily Price. The agreement was
t o s e l l t h r e e million tons of sugar between 1975 and 1979. However, t h i s agreement
ran i n t o a l l s o r t s of i n t e r e s t i n g h a s s l e s a s t h e fortunes of o u r industry once again
swung ran good to bad. W e were to l e a r n t h a t t h e Japanese ways a r e not our ways,
but a f t e r mch horse trading t h i s agreement was extended u n t i l 1980.

1974 was t h e boom year; on t h e 21st Novenber, 1974 t h e London Daily P r i c e


reached E650 per ton, a p r i c e never t o be repeated. 'Ibis high p r i c e spelt t h e end of
t h e [Jnited S t a t e s Sugar A c t a t t h e end of 1974. I t was durinq t h i s year of boom t h a t
Hiqh Fructose Corn Syrup f i r s t made its presence f e l t , when !million tons o f High
Fructose Corn Syrup was produced by t h e corn r e f i n i n g industry.
As mentioned previously, t h e good times i n sugar d o not l a s t long. ?he
high of 1974 was followed by low years of limited a c q u i s i t i o n during 1978 and 1979.
Another I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sugar Agreement was negotiatated and it came i n t o e f f e c t on 1 s t
January, 1978 f o r a period of f i v e years u n t i l the end of 1982. This has naw been
extended u n t i l t h e end of t h i s year (1984). Under t h i s agreement we held sugar i n
stock durinq 1978 and 1979, then released it f o r s a l e during the s h o r t boom o f 1980.
A u s t r a l i a signed Long Term Contracts with China, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore and New
Zealard during t h i s period i n an attempt to iron out som of t h e swings i n t h e sugar
industry.

Also, during t h i s period, High Rructose Corn Syrup kept making inroads i n t o
t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c r y s t a l sugar market. M r S i n c l a i r , t h e A u s t r a l i a Minister f o r
Primary I n d u s t r i e s , said a t t h e opening of t h e Annual Conference f o r t h e Australian
Sugar Producers Assn Ltd on 221x3 March, 1976, " t h a t t h e manufacture of high f r u c t o s e
m r n syrups could p s e a s e r i o u s problem f o r t h e sugar industry i n t h e next few
years. A s present indications were t h a t by t h e end of the decade, on q u a r t e r of t h e
sweetening used i n s o f t d r i n k s i n t h e United S t a t e s could be frcan t h i s source".
S i r Joseph McAvoy, as President of t h e Australian Cane Gravers' Council,
when giving h i s review of t h e 1981 season s a i d "Sugar p r i c e s a r e l i k e l y to remain
depressed
under t h e influence of increasing world sugar s t o c k s and t h e inroads of
High Fructose Corn Syrup".

Hiqh Fructose Corn Syrup is made by converting s t a r c h i n t o dextrose and


fructose. Kirmhoff i n 1811 discovered t h a t s t a r c h could be turned i n t o something
sweet when t r e a t e d with acid, but this product was not as sweet as sucrose. However,
it did add tmdy, sweetness anC1 t e x t u r e to products, and because they are hygroscopic,
hold moisture well. %is syrup is used i n i c e c r e m , confectionery, canned foods and
baked goods.
Following t h e discovery of t h e enzyme glucose i m r a s e i n t h e l a t e 1960's
it became p o s s i b l e to convert dextrose to fructose and thus produce a syrup s i m i l a r
i n corrposition to honey, so today sucrose may be replaced by a starch-based sweetener
f o r p r a c t i c a l l y a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s except where c r y s t a l l i n i t y of t h e sucrose is
needed. The conversion of s t a r c h to a dextrose/fructose syrup involves t h r e e
enzymatic s t e p s : f i r s t , l i q u e f a c t i o n where the s t a r c h is g e l a t i n i z e d and broken down
to d e x t r i n s by means o f alpha-anylase; second, s a c c h a r i f i c a t i o n , i n which t h e
d e x t r i n s a r e f u r t h e r hydrolysed to dextrose by means of an amylqlucosidase, a d
t h i r d , isomerization i n which p a r t of t h e dextrose is converted to l e v t ~ l o s eby means
of glucose isomerase. This enzyme is inmobilized i n a form which makes it well
s u i t e d f o r a continuous process with t h e enzyme i n a packed I?ed column and t h e enzyme
usually l a s t s s e v e r a l months.
There a r e currently t h r e e types of High Fructose Corn Syrups a v a i l a b l e .
'Ihe most ccnscon is 42% HFCS containing 42% fructose, 52%dextrose and 6% higher
saccharides. lhis syrup is primarily used i n t h e beverage, baking and canning
industry. A l a t e r developnent is 55% HFCS containinq 55% f r u c t o s e , 40% dextrose and
5%higher saccharides. The beverage i d u s t r y accounts f o r t h e majority of t h i s
product. me t h i r d type is 90% HFCS containing 90% f r u c t o s e , 7% dextrose and 3%
higher saccharides. S a l e s of t h i s product a r e very l i m i t e d a d mostly to t h e h e a l t h
food industry. I f t h e approximate sweetness of sucrose is given a value of one ( l ) ,
then t h e r e l a t i v e sweetness (on a dry substance b a s i s ) f o r 42% HFCS is 0.9, while 55%
HFCS is 1.1 and 90% HFCS 1.4. So i n food and beverage prcducts 42% HFCS and i n v e r t
l i q u i d sugar inprt e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same degree of sweetness. In t h e confectionery
industry t h e 42% HFCS can s e m e the saw purpose a s i n v e r t sugar, while t h e blending
o f 42% HFCS with sucrose increases considerably t h e apparent sweetness. At 40%
sweetener s o l i d s l e v e l , t h e r e is not much d i f f e r e n c e i n sweetness between sucrose,
i n v e r t sugar, dextrose or High Fructose Corn Syrup.

At t h e r m n t t h e major user of sucrose is t h e beverage industry, but it is


a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t by 1985 b e t e n 65% and 70% of t h e high f r u c t o s e corn syrup
d e l i v e r i e s w i l l be t o t h e beverage industry. 'Ihe United S t a t e s Department o f
Agriculture e s t i m a t e s t h a t High F'ructose Corn Syrup consumption i n t h e United S t a t e s
w i l l reach 26% o f c a l o r i c sweetener c o n s w p t i o n by 1985. Coca Cola and Pepsi allow
up t o 75% HFCS i n t h e i r main products and 100% i n some of t h e i r minor products. In
1980, corn sweeteners represented wer 33% o f t h e United S t a t e s n u t r i t i v e sweetener
market compared with o n l y 10% i n 1960. ?he corn r e f i n i n g i n d u s t r y is t h e t h i r d
l a r q e s t user of corn i n t h e United S t a t e s . m s t i c feeds a r e f i r s t a d e x p o r t s
second. And about 70% o f t h e s t a r c h produced by t h e wet m i l l i n g industry is u t i l i z e d
to make corn sweeteners with t h e balance remaininq a s s t a r c h .
Hiqh Fructose Corn Syrup is taking over more of t h e world sugar m r k e t ,
e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e United S t a t e s , Canada and Japan. Last y e a r ' s estimated manufacture
of High Fructose Corn Syrup i n t h e United S t a t e s was 3.6 m i l l i o n s h o r t t o n s d r y
weight, which is g r e a t e r than our t o t a l production of sugar, a r d t h e manufacture o f
HFCS is expected to increase during t h i s year. The b i a advantage o f Hiqh Fructose
Corn Syrup is t h a t s t a r c h is p l e n t i f u l and cheap, while the CO-products of oil and
protein-rich germ a r e of equal value to t h e s t a r c h .
Canada, Japan, Argentina, a s well a s t h e United S t a t e s , a r e a l l
manufacturing High Fructose Corn Syrup. I n all, eleven c o u n t r i e s a r e now
manufacturing Hiqh Fructose Corn Syrup, and it is a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t sugar consumption
w i l l continue to d e c l i n e over t h e next few years under t h e impact o f HECS.
The h e a l t h and n u t r i t i o n debate has a l s o encouraged a number of major
processors of food t o rerove sucrose f r a n t h e i r formulations and s u b s t i t u t e HFCS so
t h a t they can a d v e r t i s e t h e i r products a s " f r e e f r a n sugar". A l l they a r e r e a l l y
doing is replacing one sugar with another. This is r e f l e c t e d i n t h e chanqinq d i e t
p a t t e r n s i n t h e United S t a t e s . For example, t h e consumption of corn syrup h a s
increased 67.6 p e r c e n t from 1976 u n t i l 1981, a l s o s o f t d r i n k s have increased 25.5
per cent while t h e consumption of sugar declined 14.9 per cent.
This is t h e f i r s t tire t h i s century t h a t t h e suaar industry has been
challenge3 by a new t e c h n o l q y - enzyme technology. F'rank Carpenter hiahliqhted t h i s
challenge i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Phat F r i c e Superiority" i n t h e November, 1982 The
Sugar Journal. Frank s t a r t e d o f f t a l k i n g about t h e o l d e c o n m i c law of supply and
demand and s a i d t h a t "Suoar is a prime example of these p r i n c i p l e s . Long ago, l i k e
hundreds of years, s w a r was very lcw i n supply and very hioh i n p r i c e but t h e demand
was t h e r e
And not so long ago, only decades, somebody made a s u p e r i o r
sugar, a white sugar. This was perceived by t h e buyers a s a m r e d e s i r a b l e product,
and so t h e demand was there.
Suppliers r o s e t o t h e occasion and made whiter sugar
--- Many wondered why t h e world needed such white s w a r , b u t t h e demand was t h e r e
h e competition was then only t o s e e who could make a whiter white, m r e
r e f i n e d sugar ----- one couldn't have cared l e s s about t h e colour of suaar, as long
as t h e p r i c e was r i g h t . A s many sugar p r d u c e r s know, t h e colour was j u s t f i n e u n t i l
a b u t time to renew t h e contract. The colour g o t worse, but 0.1 c e n t s d d e n l y made
t h e colour problem go away. This should have been f a i r warning t h a t t h e c o n t r o l l i n g
f a c t o r was p r i c e , not t h e s u p e r i o r i t y of t h e sugar. Rut, s p e c i f i c a t i o n s c a l l e d f o r

-------.

always higher an3 higher r a r i t y : anythina but t h e b e s t was unthinkable. 'Ihere was no
way t h a t even the s l i g h t e s t i n f e r i o r sugar could he accepted - u n t i l t h e p r i c e
debacle of 1974 when t h e p r i c e of refined sugar went up by a f a c t o r of 10
Well,
t h e law of supply and demand had not been repealed. It was still i n t h e r e wrkirwj.
' h e ampetitim had been invented. Hiah E'ructose Corn Syrup came and t h e p r i c e was
r i g h t . What h e n s to a l l those b o t t l e r ' s requirements f o r nothing h t the best
sugar? I n t h e face o f a huge p r i c e advantage a l l those technical requirements went
away. The t r u e demand was f o r PRICE, not superiority. High Fructose Corn Syrup is
most d e f i n i t e l y an i n f e r i o r product by all s q a r standards, but t h e p r i c e is right.
The standards are all being r e w r i t t e n
I n the f a c e o f heavy a m p e t i t i o n . E
price is what a u n t s . "

-.

-.

I have not mentioned the p r o b l m generated by t h e EEC a s I f e e l t h i s is


b a s i c a l l y a plitical problem r a t h e r than a technical problem. The EM3 sugar is high
mst very heavily subsidised sugar, and I f e e l t h a t t h e problem o f suhsidiserl s w a r
can only be overcame by subsidised sugar - which is a ~ o l i t i c a lproblem.

M r . John Moble, Deputy General Manager, Sugar Division, CSR Limited was
quoted i n t h e Australian Caneqrawer, Ceer$er 1983 a s sayinq " t h a t A u s t r a l i a uses its
reputation f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and hiqh q u a l i t y suqar to cement its p i t o n i n the tough
export market p l a c e txlt i n the 10% term it can only continue to a m p e t e e f f e c t i v e l y
i f it can produce sugar cheaply".

We a r e losing a s u b s t a n t i a l portion of our t r a d i t i o n a l export warkets t o


cheaper High Fructose Corn Syrup. I f our industry h o p s t o e x p a d production w a i n
it mst e i t h e r f i n 3 a d d i t i o n a l new markets f o r raw sugar or produce raw sugar a t a
price t h a t is c a n p e t i t i v e with High Rructose Corn Syrup. m e name o f t h e game is
going to b e Cane versus Grain.

?HE PRESICENT then advised t h e meetim of the reccarnnendation of t h e


Executive t h a t Mr C.G. Story be elevated t o l i f e menhership and doing so, r e l a t e d
d e t a i l s of h i s contributions to t h e Society.

I t was then nwved hy DK J.R.

Allen a d seconded by Mr P.G.

Atherton.

" m a t M r C.G. Story be elevated to l i f e


menbership o f t h e Australian Society of
Sugar Cane T e c h n o l ~ i s t s " .
The m t i o n was c a r r i e d by acclamation.

'R1E PRESIDENT then i n v i t e d M r W. Orme, Managing Director of Castrol


A u s t r a l i a L t d . t o the stage.

Mr N.J. Dickfos, a f i n a l year apprentice f r a n Qunaba m i l l was then

presented with a t r a v e l bursary by MK Orme which was offered by C a s t r o l through t h e

Asscr.
Mr Dickfos s u i t a b l y r e s p n d e d i n receiving the award f o r 1984.

At the request o f THE PRESIDENT, t h e Secretary read the names from whan
apologies h a been received, a s follows: G.C. Bieske, J.L. Clayton, R.A. Price, L.
Foesller, A.P. Saranin, A.G. Skyring, N.J. Smith, C.W. W & l l
and B.L. Wriqht.

I.A.

THE S
then read out expressions of good wishes f r a n G.A. Chenery,
olisholm ard t h e Queensland Cane Growers' Council.

THE SECFETAFtY announced t h a t he had recorded t h e n m e s of t h e followirq


G. Anderson, T. Braddock,
Buzacott, E. Clarke, W.B. Lewis, W.C. Sloan and G.E. Zillman.

nmhers who ha3 passed away s i n c e our l a s t mnference:


J.H.

At the request o f THE PRESIDENT, members observed a minute's s i l e n c e as a


m r k o f respect.

&ssrs L.J. Woods, G.D. J a c k l i n and D.H. Foster, l i f e members of t h e


Society, being present a t conference were requested to stand by t h e President and
were honoured by acclamation.

THE SFXIETAFX, M r R.W. Dorr, presented h i s annual r e p r t and f i n a n c i a l


statements f o r t h e year ended 29th February, 1984.

I have nuch pleasure i n presenting t h e following r e p o r t and f i n a n c i a l


statements f o r the year ended 29th Februar] 1984.

P a r t i c u l a r s of merrS3ership a t t h e end of t h e f i n a n c i a l year a r e as follows:


L i f e Members
F u l l Members
Associate M&rs
Supporting W r s
Overseas members

An w e r a l l increase i n mabership has occurred, however, t h i s has mainly

been contributed by the reinstatement of members t h a t were unfinancial and deleted


as a t the end of February, 1983.
Previous totals f o r carparison plrposes were 770 menkers i n 1982 a d 790

WIS
i n 1983.

Copies of the financial statements f o r the year ended 29th February, 1984
have been distributed.
'Ihe Statenent of Receipts and Payments shows a surplus of receipts over
payments f o r the year of $7,123, csanpared with a surplus of $5,947 f o r the previous
year.

The surplus of receipts over payments f o r the year has been credited to the
Capital Accxxmt. An amxlnt of $2,000 has heen transferred r a n the Capital Account
to t h e I.S.S.C.T.
Delegates' Reserve, which m has a balance of $2,003. 'Ihe balance
to t h e c r e d i t of t h e Capital Account nod stands a t $18,872, canpared with $13,749 as
a t the end of the year 1982/83.
'Ibtal incane for 1983/84 excluding m e r e n c e registration fees m u n t e d to
$30,550, s l i g h t l y higher than the comparable t o t a l of $29,788 for the year 1982/83.
!he m a l l increase i n i n m w a s a r e s u l t of higher makership fees but t h i s increase
was o f f s e t by s m a l l reductions i n the s a l e of Proceedings and i n t e r e s t received.
(31the expenditure side, actual t o t a l operating expenses were reduced f r a n
$23,841 i n 1982/83 to $22,927 i n 1983/84. The m i n reason f o r t h i s decline was the
reduction i n costs for the printing of the 1983 hPceedings and Dismssions. 'Ihis
t o t a l cost f o r 1983/84 w a s $16,683 a n p a r e d with $19,020 f o r 1982/83.

Petty cash and postage also was lower i n 1983/84 by $885.


Aawever, increases i n expenditure were experienced i n stationery, our
a f f i l i a t i o n with t h e Standards Associaticn of Australia, the purchase of medals and
badges and bank charges.

In addition, travelling expenses for myself and the Assistant Secretary to


attend the Hackay conference a d myself to v i s i t Cairns d u r i m l a t e 1983 have been
included on t h i s occasion.
'Ibis oost was accepted by t h e Society following an appma& by t h e
Australian Sugar Producers Association to our Executive a t its meetim on 17th April
1983.

For the 1983 conference a surplus of $1,859, k i n g the excess of


r e g i s t r a t i o n fees over conference expenses, was transferred to the Contingency

r e g i s t r a t i o n fees i n respect of the 1982 conference.


The balance i n t h e Contingency Reserve m stands a t $10,275.
S ~ ~ ~ Brve
I I Kand

Nmmm Bemett W i a l Bursmies R.la

The balance to the c r e d i t of the above Fund as a t 29th February, 1984 is


m u $8,934.
For the year, incxme exceeded payment by $1,436.

Bursary payments i n 1983 increased fran $750 t o $950 - $175 to each of t h e


S e p u r Rcme winners and $100 to ea& of the Norman Bennett winners.

Feference already has been made to the balances in t h e Capital, t h e


I.S.S.C.T.
and Contingency Reserve Acccunts and balance i n t h e Seymour Howe and
Norman Bennett M m r i a l Bursaries Fund.
I t is pleasing to note t h a t it was possible t o invest further funds during
1983/84. m v e r , t h e increase i n investments is a reflection of the level of
registration fees received p r i o r to the 29th February, in r e l a t i o n to the 1984
Conference.

I n respect of current l i a b i l i t i e s , sundry creditors includes $1,291


and $1,500, being payment of the
representing a reimbursement to t h e A.S.P.A.
Q.C.G.C.
annual donation f o r 1984/85.

f31the reoarmendation of the Kackay College of Technical and Further


Education, the E x e a t i v e has
the f o l l m i q Seynuur Nme Bursary Awards for
1984:
A

new mard has been made t o Mr Warren Geddes.

new bursary granted to Mr Neil Bryde i n 1983 is extended f o r a further

year-

'Ihe Executive also has approved the following Nxman Bennett Bursaries f o r
1984 to the following m i l l apprentices:
In the f i r s t year, E.J.
Victoria mill.

Canniford of Birqera m i l l and V.A.

In the s e d year, D. Poster of Qlnraba mill and J.A.


mill.

Russo of

Landa of Pioneer

In the third year, N.W. lvbriarty of Mourilyan mill and D.B. Pickerinq of
Millqin mill.
No apprentice bursary winner had an average less than 88% the highest being
Mr D.B. Pickeriq with 94.6%.

With Mr Pickering being successful as a third year apprentice, he has now


conpleted the trifecta as he was a successful bursary winner in 1982 and 1983.
We received 124 applications for the Norman Bennett Bursary run mill
apprentices, ran 22 mills ccmpared with 140 applications frcm 26 mills on the
previous occasion.
C a s t m m Travel Bursary

At the 1983 conference of the Society, considerable discussions were held


in respect of the approach by Castrol Australia L t d , to offer a travel bursary
through the Society to a mill apprentice ccq?leting his third year of apprenticeship.
The Executive agreed to he associated with the bursary, but along the lines
that muld not be detrimental to the Society.
All applications were considered by the Selection Caranittee, after which
the Selection Cannittee met to interview the tcp eleven applicants from which the
successful apprentice was chosen.
The successful applicant will be presented with his bursary later in the
mrning's proceedings. It is also very pleasing to r e d that this young gentleman
was a recipient of a Norman Bennett Memorial Bursary as a first year apprentice at
our 1981 conference.
Jmior V i c e - P r e s i d e n t

Unfortunately, due to family reasons, Mr Geoff Bieske tendered his


resignation as Junior Vice-President of the Society, earlier in the year. It was
felt prudent that this position should be filled prior to the 1984 conference a d it
was therefore necessary for the Executive to consider a replacement.
In this regard, Mr V.B. Eglinqton was subsequently appointed Junior
Vice-President for the remainder of the current year.
1984 Proceedings

The total cost of the 1984 Proceedinqs and authors' papers was $15,730.
The price to n-mbrs who wish to Furchase additional copies will be $15 per copy.
The price to non-members will be $25 per copy.
&I

mnference.

this occasion, 48 papers have been accepted for presentation to this


Five have been prograraned for the Ginera1 Session, 14 for the

T q r i c u l t u r a l Session and 29 f o r t h e Manufacturing Session.


presented t o t h e 1983 conference.

Forty-seven papers were

Tne nLBnber of pages i n t h i s y e a r ' s Proceedings is 355 ccmpared with a t o t a l


of 347 f o r t h e 1983 Proceedings.

I should l i k e to thank t h e President, M


r P.N. Stewart, our Honorary
A s s i s t a n t Secretary, M r D.W. Smith, M r C.N. Newbery and P e t e r McGuire f o r t h e i r
a s s i s t a n c e throughout t h e year.
I should a l s o l i k e to thank M r B.T. Egan and Mr P.J. Knight f o r t h e i r
valued work a s Chairman a d Sub-Editor, respectively, o f t h e Publications Conanittee.
Appreciation is a l s o due t o DC J.R. Allen f o r continuing to represent us a s a
Counsellor of t h e I.S.S.C.T.
lb a l l those who have a s s i s t e d t h e Society i n many
ways throughout the year, I extend my mt s i n c e r e thanks.

Statenent of R x e i p t s and Payments


for the Year Ended 29th February, 1984

Receipts

Subscriptions
Sale of Proceedings
Donations Q.C.G.C.
A.S.P.A.

sundry
Interest Bank accounts
Bonds
I.B.D.'s
Sale o f Badges
Sale of Factory Control Booklet
Registration f e e s
1983 conference

Tranfer of excess o f Conference


expenses aver registration f e e s
to Contingency Reserve

hroceedings, Bound copy and


Author's reprints
Less bounty received r a n
Federal Govement
Discussions
Honorarium Hon. General Secretary
Hon. Assistant Secretary
Editor
Sub-Editor
Publications Canmittee
Petty cash and postages
Stationery
Standards Association of Australia
Ailiation
Purchase of medals and badges
International Society of Sugar
Cane Technologists - Affiliation
Travelling expenses
Bank charges
Conference expenses - 1983

Transfer of excess of registraton


fees wer conference expenses to
Contingency &serve (1983 surplus)

Transfer of excess of Receipts over


Payments for the year ended
29th Februrary, 1984

M E AUSTRALIAN SOCIETY OF SUGAR CANE T%CHNOUX;ISTS

Balame Sheet as at 29th Febavary, 1984

Capital and Reserves


Capital Account Balance as a t 1 s t March, 1983
Wd s~nrplusf o r t h e year
year ended 29th February, 1984

Less t r a n s f e r s to I.S.S.C.T.
Delegates' Reserve

Contingency Reserve Balance as a t 1 s t March, 1983


Less excess 1982 conference
Wd surplus 1983 conference

I.S.S.C.T.
Delegates' Reserve
Balance as a t 1 s t March, 1983
Pdd t r a n s f e r fran Capital
Less delegates' expenses t o 1983
Cuban Congress

&presented by:

current Assets

Australian Savings Rond - S e r i e s


17 (10.25%)
General Account
Seymour Hawe & Norman
Bennett Menorial Bursaries Eund
Bank Accounts Current Account General
Current Account - Suspense
Sundry Debtors
Pre-paid conference expenses
1983 h a l l r e n t a l and p r i n t i n g
1984 h a l l r e n t a l and p r i n t i n g

Investments
Cornnonwealth Tradirq Bank of
Australia
I.B.D.'s

Deduct :

Clnrent L i a b i l i t i e s
Seymour Have and NoBennett Memrial Bursaries
Eund (Page 3)
Sundry Creditors
1984 Conference r e g i s t r a t i o n fees
1983 Conference registration fees
p r i n t i n g subsidy

THE AUSTRALIAN SCCIETY OF SUGAR CANE m I M : I S T S


SEYM(XTRMOWE AND NO=
BE8NETI' MEMORIAL
BuRsmES FUND

Statement of mipts ad Paynents for the


Y e a r Ended 29th Pebruary, 1984

To balance a s a t 1 s t March, 1983


Tb Donations -

Northern Sugar Manufacturers Association


Burdekin Sugar Manufacturers Association
Mackay Sugar Manufacturers Association
Southern Sugar Panufacturers Association
North Old. I n s t i t u t e of Sugar Chemists
Mackay I n s t i t u t e of Sugar Milling Engineers
Mackay Society of Sugar Chemists
To I n t e r e s t

Bank
Bonds
I n t e r e s t Bearing D e ~ o s i t s

Less Bursaries paid

Savings bank Credit balance as a t 1 s t March, 1983


Interest

Current Account Credit balance a s a t 1 s t March, 1983


Interest

Current Account Credit balance as a t


29th February, 1984
P.N.

Stewart President

R.W.

Dorr Hon. General Secretary

We report on the accmpnying balance sheet and statement of receipts and


payments of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists.

In our opinion the acaxnts are praperly drawn up so as to give a true and
fair view of the state of affairs of the Society as at 29th February, 1984, and its
results for the year ended on that date according to the best of our information and
the explanations given to us and as shown by the books of the Society. We have
obtained all the information ard the explanations required.
& Lybrand
Chartered Accountants

Coopers

Discussion
Cn the mticn of Mr K.C. Leverington and seconded by Mr L.J. Woods, the
Secretary's report and financial statements were received, and adopted on the mtion
of Mr P.G. Atherton anrl seconded by A.S. Fitzmaurice. CRRRIED.

B.T.

'Ihe f o l l w i n g report by the Chairman of t h e Publications Camittee, M r


wan, f o r 1984 was received by the Exemtive:-

Synopses received or papers indicated


Papers received by deadline
Papers received l a t e
Papers rejected
Papers scheduled Manuf.
29
Agric.
- 14
General
- 2

Once again nearly a l l papers were received by the deadline, although t h e


total number s u h i t t e d was only 53 canpared with 64 i n 1983. Hwevsr, papers
scheduled were v i t u a l l y the same - 48 t h i s year canpared t o 47 i n 1983. The
production timetable was easier on the c a m i t t e e and the p r i n t e r s t h i s year because
of the l a t e Conference. This a l s o enabled m s t medxrs to receive t h e i r Proceedings
a t l e a s t two weeks p r i o r to Conference. The position i n 1985 w i l l ke m r e d i f f i c u l t
because of the expected e a r l i e r Conference dates.
?he proposed joint session Harvester Symposium proved t o be a problem
because of non-receipt of suitable papers, despite the e f f o r t s of t h e Convenor.
Consequently, t h e Ccnnnittee eventually reccmended t h a t t h e Symposim not be held. A
pertinent point was t h a t m r e mnufacturing papers wuld have been rejected i f the
joint session had proceeded.
A significant change t h i s year was the use of computerised phototypesetting
equipnent, acquired by BSES i n 1983, t o supply the p r i n t e r s with sane 2,500 an of
t e x t for 29 of the 48 papers.
Few tables were supplied t h i s year. Most of t h i s
m t e r i a l cane from ccmputer tapes and/or word processor d i s k e t t e s supplied by BSES,
SRI, CSR and University of *ensland.
?here were corrpatibility problems, a s
expected, but t h e 1985 s i t u a t i o n w i l l be much simpler a s a r e s u l t of the experience
gained. 'Ihe estimated cost of t h i s t e x t was over $2,000 i f typeset by the printer;
BSES charges were under $1,000, including purchase of the special type fonts used for
t h e Proceedings. Further savings can be expected i n 1985.

'Ihe 1983 and 1984 Froceedinqs a r e of similar s i z e and were almost identical
i n n e t t printing costs, despite printing i d u s t r y cost increases of up to ten per
cent and a reduction i n the Government's book bounty from 23 per cent t o 20 p r
e estimate t o t a l savings to ASSOT of a t l e a s t $1,500 on the 1984 Proceedings.
cent. W

Production of 1983 D i s c u a S i a S
A. predicted a year ago, these were produced largely with photo-ready typed
provided by the Secretary and by the reporters, although no chanaes were made i n
content. Further changes are l i k e l y to be made i n 1984. The reports of the two

delegates to Cuba ISSCP Congress were a l s o included i n these Discussions. These two
factors resulted i n a much larger book of 153 pages, 80 of which were on Society
business and the ISSCl'reports, while 73 were on paper discussions.
The m s t of production was considerably reduced despite the increase i n
s i z e $5,098 i n 1982 and $4,080 i n 1983. The 1984 Discussions w i l l cost even l e s s ,
since there w i l l be no ISSCT r e ~ o r t s .

General

I wish to thank a l l members of the Publications Cannittee f o r t h e i r support


and e f f o r t s i n processing papers. In particular, I thank M r G.C. Rieske who has
r e t i r e d a f t e r 14 years a s an agricultural member on the Committee, and Sub-Editor Mr
P.J. Knight f o r h i s e f f o r t s i n maintainirq our production timetable and inteqrating
the new processes.

The reFort of the Publications Camittee f o r 1984 was received on the


motion of D r W. M h i n n e y and seconded by Mr G. Patch and adopted on the motion of M r
B.D. Sockhill and seconded by M r D.H. Foster. CARRIED.
THE PRESIDENT then thanked the memb=rs of the Publications Cannittee f o r
t h e i r work during t h e year and particularly mentioned M
r B.T. man who had carried
out the duties of Chairman and Editor and Mr P.J. Knight the Sub-Editor.

I.S.S.C.T.

HiUW#E

Upon the invitation of t h e President, D r J.R. Allen b r i e f l y outlined t h e


a c t i v i t i e s of t h e I.S.S.C.T.
during the past year. Dr Allen added t h a t f o r the 1986
I.S.S.C.T. Congress i n Indonesia from 25th April t o 3rd May, they have appointed M r
Achmad Affandi a s President, M r Soedjai Kartasasnita a s General Chairman, M r Carlos
Bell Raymod a s General Vice-Chairman and M r . R. Moeljono Hadipzero a s General
Secretary-Treasurer.

These appointees w i l l receive guidance frcm the Board of Trustees (under


Chairman Owen Sturgess), which is an ongoing group, providing the continuity fran one
Congress to the next.
Delegates an3 members may new a w l y f o r mehership. It w i l l be noted t h a t
no visa is needed, no vaccination ( i f from Australia) a r e required and there is no
r e s t r i c t i o n s on import o r export of foreiqn currencies o r t r a v e l l e r s cheques.
THE PRESIDENT made reference t o Dr Allen's association with the I.S.S.C.T.
and representing our Society over a numher of years.

W E PRESIDENT then called for a m t i o n t o formally confirm and appoint Ihr


This m t i o n was mved by M r K.C.
Allen, Counsellor to the I.S.S.C.T.
Leverington and seconded by M r D.M. Stevenson. CARRIED.

J.R.

1t was mved by M r V.B.

Eglington and seconded by M r L.J.

hbods

"That the next annual Conference of t h e


Society be held i n Bundaberg i n 1985".

THE PRESIDmT advised t h a t the following report had been received by the
Executive frcm P ! L.J. W s , Chairman, of the Constitution Standing Camittee:A t the 1980 Annual Conference of t h i s Society, t h e Executive accepted a
reccmnendation frcm t h e Administrative Section reading a s follows:-

"That a Constitution Standing Caranittee be


appointed by the Exerxtive to maintain
continuing surveillance over t h e Rules of
the Society with a view to maintaining them
i n a form which clearly defines the objects
and procedures of the Society.
"Such Standing C a m i t t e e s h a l l submit
recamnendations to t h e Executive fran time
to time and act as a consultative body t o
the Executive and the Society a s a whole on
a l l Constitutional rnatters".
This recamnen3ation was conveyed t o the Final Plenary Session of the 1980
Conference as a recarmendation by t h e Executive. fie resolution was carried and, a t
the follawing Executive m e t i n g , a Caranittee was established, consistiro of the
President, Secretary and M
r L.J. Woods, with pawer to co-opt.
Since its establishmnt i n 1980, t h e Standing Carnnittee has s h i t t e d
several suggested a l t e r a t i o n s of the Rules to the Executive and, with r e l a t i v e l y
minor variations, these proposals were adopted when presented by t h e Executive f o r
consideration by the members of t h e Society a t Annual General Meetings.
A t the 1983 Annual Meeting of t h e Society, the Cornnittee reported verbally
t h a t a study of t h e Rules by the Ccmnittee as then constituted did not give r i s e to
any need f o r further revision of the Rules a t t h a t time, and t h a t an invitation
issued previously to members to put forward any suggested amendments t o t h e Rules t o
the Caranittee f o r consideration had m t led to any r e s p n s e .
'Two m&rs of the Standing Caranittee, t h e Secretary and M r L.J. Woods, met
i n Brisbane on Tuesday, 20th March, 1984 during the period of t h e A.S.P.A. Annual
General Meeting and Conference. Unfortunately, the President, F?r P.N. Stewart, was
unable to attend t h i s meeting. However, M r Stewart has been sent a c q y of t h i s
understand t h a t he agrees with it and w i l l be submitting it to the
report.
Executive meeting prior to the comnencemnt of the 1984 Annual General Meeting and

Conference of the Society i n Cairns.


Members of the Standing Camnittee do not have any suggested anencbnents o r
additions to t h e Rules to put forward for consideration at t h i s stage, nor have any
s p i f i c praposals been received fran merr33ers generally.
However, the Senior Vicepresident, t4r W.J. Nicholson, attended t h e meeting
of t h e Standing Camnittee on 20th March, 1984. He told t h e Ccmnittee t h a t he had
been lodcing i n t o ways and means whereby t h e makership of t h e Society might he
increased, particularly the personal membership, and he f e l t t h a t samething should be
done to encourage increased d r s h i p . He worderecl whether there was any way i n
which t h e Constitution could be amended which might a t t r a c t new members ram amngst
t h e large Nlmber of technologists i n t h e industry who have not sought to take out
e r s h i p .
% i s matter was discussed a t length arid f i n a l l y , it was agreed by t h e

members of the S t a d i n g Camnittee, and by M


r Nicholson, t h a t it was unlikely t h a t the
problem would be resolved by any amendment of t h e Rules. Rather, it was thought t h a t
a m r e positive and more l i k e l y method of success i n increasing membership muld be
f o r t h e Execxltiw to consider some form of personal approach to prospective new
members and/or t h e i r enployers.

Conference Finances
M r R. Deicke referred to t h e financial statements f o r 1983/84 ard f e l t that
m r e detailed information should be s k w n , especially with regard to the d i f f e r e n t
items of expenditure.
l'tlE

SECRETARY indicated t h a t t h i s would he provided i n financial statements

i n the future.

M
r R. Deicke mack reference to the level of e n t e r t a i m n t arrange3 f o r t h e
l a d i e s a t t h e 1984 conference and the total expense f o r same. H e aMed t h a t ran t h e
information provided a t the meeting of t h e SubCamLittee on Conference Finances and
Social Activities, t h e estimated mt of t h e ladies entertairnnent was i n the v i c i n i t y
of $35 per head.
He added t h a t delegates should not expect t h e t o t a l expenditure f o r l a d i e s
e n t e r t a i m e n t to approad~t h e level of t h e registration fee f o r conference.

He recarmendecl t h a t t h e Society should look a t the level of e n t e r t a i e n t


and costs or t h e l a d i e s with the thought of paying their own way.
Other speakers on t h e subject ard registration fee i n general included
Messrs K.C. Lweriwton, G.P. Janes, G. Patch, R.E. Bickle, W.J. Nicholson and D.M.
S t e v e m during which other p i n t s of view were expressed including t h a t a separate

registration fee be intrbduced f o r t h e ladies and a reccrranendation t o formalise


arrangements.
It was s t a t e d t h a t consideration should be given t o instances when a
delegate may cane i n f o r a day o r two and be replaced by another delegate f o r the
following days. Reference was a l s o made as t o whether delegates should only pay f o r
what they take p a r t in.

'IHE SECRETARY then read a list of announcements.

A s there was m further business t h e President then closed t h e Opening


Plenary Session.

Riday, 4 t h May, 1984

Afternan Session
CaIFmL WmmG

Chairman: HI? P.N.

SEWARP,

President

President 'S W a l s
THE PRESIDWI' outlined the factors which he h d taken i n t o account i n
consideration of selecting the recipients of the President's Medals on t h i s occasion.

I n the category of industry p e r s o ~ e lhe announced t h a t President's medals be


awarded t o Messrs P.W. Levy and D.A. Kenny f o r t h e i r paper e n t i t l e d "The Steam Cleaned
Stationary Grate".
In the category of research workers, a President's Medal be awarded to D r E.T.
White f o r h i s overall contributions to conference having been CO-authar of numrous
papers including four a t the 1984 conference.
THE PRESID~TP
presented D r White with h i s medal and i n turn responded by thanking
the President & members for the honour bestowed on his.

M u t i a r s to Full Executive
Elevation t o Full M r s h i p
A t the request d t h President, t h e Secretary read the followimg names of
Associate members who had been reammended by the Executive to be admitted as Full mnbers
of t h e Society:-

W.P. Aheydeera
D.M. Crawford
R.G. Dick
C.R. Creig
S.Y. Guo
D.J. Hardgreaves
R.C. Hickling

E.E.

Kauppila
KeMy
P.J. Lawrence
J.V. Macksom
A.R. Millett
P.J. McGuire
A.J. Petersen
D.A.

B.G. Prove
Sheridan
Sichter
R.L. Stewart
A.R. Teasdale
E. m i a n i

N.R.
N.J.

A.W.

Wood

m e elevation of the above Associate Members t o Full Members of the Society was
carried on the m t i o n of D r R. M u r r y a d seconded by M r L.R. Brain.

-ion

Officer br the 1985 Qnferenc~!in aadaberg

THE SECRETARY announced t h a t t h e Executive have appointed M r A.J. Petersen as the


Anarmodation Officer for the 1985 conference i n Bundaberg an3 took the opportunity of
thanking the Bundaberg D i s t r i c t Cane G r o w e r s ' Executive f o r making M r Petersen's services
available.

Other Resolutions fmn the Bxecutive


M r W.J. Nicholson advised members of the discussion t h a t took place a t t h e
Executive m e t i n g i n r e l a t i o n to t h e present p r a c t i c e of having two sessions dealing with
the annual general meeting of conference. He b r i e f l y outlined h i s reasons f o r such a
change.
Mr Nicholson then w e d :
"

That t h e Executive recamends t h a t


t h e Society consider t h a t t h e Annual
General Meeting of the Society be conducted i n one session".

This motion was seconded by M r G.P. James.


M r C.S. Henderson and M r G.D. J a c k l i n spoke to t h e motion and M r N.L. Condie
indicated t h a t a l e t t e r m l d be forthccming from h i s m i l l management requesting
consideration f o r a four day conference.

Reference was made to one meeting being held Monday morning w h i l s t c o n e r n was
expressed t h a t vhen t h e closing Plenary Session w a s held, attendance was a t its lowest.
It was also s t a t e 3 t h a t i f any suggestion changing the format of conference was contrary
to t h e c o n s i t i u t i o n , such &anges could not be implemented a t the 1985 conference.
There being no f u r t h e r discussion, t h e m t i o n was

plt

and CAlUUED.

The W e n o t i c e having been caried, Mr Nicholson reconended t h a t a a m n i t t e e


be established to look i n t o a l l of the ramifications of considering changes to t h e
conference fonnat. Mr Nicholson then w e d :

"

That a amunittee of f i v e ( 5 ) be s e t
up, m n p r i s i q the t h r e e (3) lnembers
o f t h e Constitutional Standing Comnittee
plus two ( 2 ) o t h e r s e l e c t e d to i n v e s t i g a t e
t h e changes necessary i n cxnsultation with
t h e Publications h i t t e e m .

The motion was seconded by D r R. Murry, an3 following discussion was CARRIFD.

Messrs W.J. Nicholsan, D.S. Shann and C.S.


of the Ccmanittee, and ran a ensuing b a l l o t , M r D.S.
to t h e Camittee.

Hendersan were nominated as members


Shann and C.S. Hendersm were elected

Matters frmn the Sectional H e e t i r r g s


At the request of t h e President, t h e Secretary advised t h a t various
recannendations were received ran meetings of the t h r e e Sections of the Society, of which
mast was of an a n i s t r a t i v e nature.
FWcmendations of p a r t i c u l a r note confinned by t h e Executive were

t h a t future financial statements w l d include d e t a i l s of conference expenses,


displayim a Society "banner" a t opening of conference a d to improw delegate
registration a t conference.
It was also announced t h a t following discussion a t a sectional meeting, the
Executive reconfirms that as a general principal, the business p r o g r m of conference is
m t to ke altered f r m the printed form.

A t the request of t h e President, the Secretary read a list of o q a n i s a t i o n s and


persons to whom thanks were due f o r t h e i r contributions towards the success of the
Conference.
THE PRESIDENT then referred to the assistance carried out by M r C.N.
p-esentation was made to M r Newbery who suitably responded.

Newbery.

E l e c t i o n of O f f i ~ e ~ ~

THE PRESIDN thanked t h e Executive and t h e Publications Cornnittee f o r t h e i r


work durirq the year. He also thanked those who had joined i n the conference discussions,
the reporters a d those responsible f o r the organisation of the f i e l d tour and m i l l v i s i t ,
and a l s o those responsible f o r the operation of the public address systems.

He referred to the work of the Secretary and Assistant Secretary during the year

arrl then asked t h e Secretary to take the chair.


THE SECRETARY then called f o r nominatons for the position of President of the
Society f o r the ensuing year.

M r V.B. Eglington was naninated by M r P.N. Stewart and as there were m further
nominations, was elected to the position of President f o r the year 1984/85.
'IHE PRESIDIWT, M r V.B. Eglington took the chair and i n responding paid t r i b u t e
to the manner i n which Mr Stewart had handled the a f f a i r s of the Society and its 1984
conference durirq h i s t e r n a s President. He then presented M r Stewart with the Society's
past President's badge and a g i f t from the members for Mr & Mrs Stewart.

THE PRESIDENP a l s o referred to the excellent arrangements which had k e n made by


Mrs Stewart f o r entertainirq the ladies.
M r Stewart i n respondiq thanked the President for h i s reference to h i s wife and
himself wd the members f o r t h e i r presentation.

M r Eglington then announced t h a t according to the consititution, Mr Stewart thus


b e m e s Senior Vice-President of t h e Society f o r 1984/85.

THE PRESIDEKT thw called for nominations for the position of Junior
Vice-hresident for the ensuing year.

Mr R.E. Bickle nominated Mr. G.P. James.


Mr P.N. Stewart nominated Mr. B.T. Bach
Messrs R.E. Bickle, P.N. Stewart and D.F. Smith spoke on the nominations.
As there was mre than m e nomination it was then moved by Mr G.A. Wallace and
seconded by Dr D.H. Foster that a secret ballot be held.

CARRIED
'ME

was then invited to take the chair, to conduct the ballot as

returning officer.
'ME SECRETARY reminded those present that only Life and Full Manbers are
eligible to exercise a vote an3 that Mr D.W. Smith and Mr C.N. Newbery would distribute
and collect the ballot papers.

'Ihe ballot having k e n oorrpleted, the Secretary announced that the vote reveal#
that Mr G.P. Janes was successful, and as a result declares Mr G.P. James electd as
Junior Vice-President or the year 1984/85.

THE SFXXLTARY then h&ed

the chair back to the President.

It was mved by Mr P.N. Stewart a d seoonded by Dr R. Murry that the ballot

papers be destroyed.
CARRIED
THE PRESIDINI then called for nominations for the position of Secretary. Mr
K.C. kverington naninated Mr R.W. Dorr, and as there were no further nominations, was
declared electd as Secretary for the ensuing year.
'IHE PRESIDENT then called for nominations for the position of Assistant
Secretary. Mr W.A. Greenwood naninated Mr D.W. Smith as Assistant Secretary, and as the!
were m further naninations, he was declared elected.

At the request of the President, the Secretary then read the names of the
Executive members elected by the Sections as follows:Administrative Section

Mr K.A. Stuart (Chairman); Mr D.F. Smith (Secretary)

Rgricultural Section
Mr D.R. Ridqe (Chairman); Mr N.R. MacLean (Secretary)
Manufacturing Section
Mr L.K. Kirby (Chairman); Dr R.J. Swindells (Secretary)
THE PRESIDEW. then welcomed the new men33et-S of the Executive ad paid tribute tc
the work of Mr W.J. Nicholson who was m leaving the Executive. Mr Nicholson responded.
'Ihe President then invited the new Executive mnbers to take their place at the top table.
Publications Gmdttee
'IHE PRESIDENT aclvised that due to family cannitments, Mr G.C. Bieske was unable
to continue as a member of the Publications Cornnittee. Hawever, Mr Eglington added that
Mr A.G. Hayes of the N.S.W. b-qerative Sugar Milling Association had offered his
services.

It was then nwed by Mr G.A. Wallace art seconded by Mr G. Patch:

"
That the following mnbzrs c~lstitute
the Publications Cunnittee for the ensuing
year, viz Mr B.T. Eagan (Chairman ad
Editor), Dr J.A. Allen, Messrs P.G.
Atherton, A.G. Hayes, B.T. Fbach, A.P.
Saranin, and Mr P.J. Knight (Sub Editor)."

CARRIED

(a) Standing Carmittees:


For the record, it was reconfirmed the mnposition of the following standinq
Camnittees Ccmnittee to review conference arrangements and finance:Messrs E.H. Churchward, R. Deicke, D.S. S h m , W.D. Wells ard R.W. DOrr.
Camnittee to review the Constitution:Mr L.J. W s , the President ad Secretary.

(b) Conference Programning:


Dr D.H. Foster referred to the previous recomndation that consideration be
given to prcqramning the Closing Plenary Session to follow on after the Friday m3lmiw
Manufacturing Section.
As no consideration was given to this earlier start for 1984 conference it
33

moved by Dr D.H. Foster and seconded by Dr R. Murry t h a t s e r i o u s consideration be given to


the p r o g r a n e f o r t h e 1985 conference to hold t h e Closing Plenary Session imnediately
following the conclusion of papers on t h e Friday mrning.
CARRIED
(C)

Conference S t a r t i n g Times:

M
r T.G. Fuelling s t a t e d t h a t he favoured e a r l i e r s t a r t i n g times f o r each day of
conference. M r Fuelling also reccmnended t h a t t h e Publications Comnittee be provided with
timing guidelines f o r the 1985 conference.
M r Fueling nuved and M r K.C. Leverington sewnded t h a t t h e s e s s i o n s of
conference carmence a t 8.30 a.m. d a i l y with the Final Plenary Sessions to amnence 11
a.m. Friday.

M
r D.F. Smith expressed concern a t t h e length of conference, while Mr B. G m p
r e f e r r e d ko h i s management's concern a t the length of t h e lunch periods.
Further views were expressed i n r e l a t i o n to the m f e r e n c e programning
concerning a s h o r t e r conference period, t h e nurrber of papers to be accepted, t h e need f o r
a m i l l v i s i t , an3 the d a i l y s t a r t i n g times to improve t h e e f f i c i e n c y of conference.
D r R.L. Muller s t a t e d t h a t t h e Society should look at obtaining the most
e f f i c i e n t use of t h e conference period and mved t h a t t h e Cannittee to clonsider changes in
t h e conferenoe format i n v e s t i g a t e a l s o the t i m i q ard length of conference.
This motion was seconded by Mr P.G.

A t h e r t o n and CARRIED.

( d ) Membership o r Cannittee to consider changes to Conference format:


M r T.G. Fuelling made reference to discussion held cn the timing a d programning
of conference. H e aaded t h a t t h e Agricultural Section has a vested i n t e r e s t in t h e
matters a d moved t h a t Mr W.J. Nicholson be added to t h e Cannittee.

M r D. J a c k l i n seconded the motion.

CARRIED
There beiq no f u r t h e r business, t h e President declared Conference closed a f t e r
wishing all members a s a f e journey home and s a i d t h a t he hoped to s e e them all i n
Bundaberg i n 1985.

.................. 216
Delegates of Supporting Members .................. 182
Overseas Members and Visitors .................... 10
Observers .................................. 42
Life. m11 an3 Associate Members

lbtal Attendance Cards

.................. 450

Paper: "A Review of t h e Northern Poor Root Syndrome of Sugarcane i n North


Queensland", by B.T. Egan, A.P. Hurney, C.C. Ryan and A.A. Matthews
The paper was presented by MEl. =AN.
Discussion
MR.ROACH d i d not agree t h a t 'unless r e s i s t a n c e is discovered i n
commercially s u i t a b l e v a r i e t i e s , plant breeding could be regarded as a
very long-term s o l u t i o n ' unless t h e only s o l u t i o n w a s t o t r a n s f e r r e s i s tance from basic gemplasm. Ripidium showed a high l e v e l of r e s i s t a n c e
and is a very d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e of sugarcane. Breeding f o r r e s i s t a n c e i n
that s i t u a t i o n would be long-term i f indeed it were possible a t a l l .
However, t h e r e a r e probably q u i t e u s e f u l degrees of t o l e r a n c e i n t h e
thousand or s o breeding cane hybrids maintained by BSES and CSR, o r even i n
t h e i r progeny. Growing these i n a r e a s of known severe r o o t r o t problem and
r e j e c t i o n of those with t y p i c a l Pythium symptoms should screen out
v a r i e t i e s of somewhat b e t t e r t o l e r a n c e than those presently grown. High
r e s i s t a n c e maybe an u n a t t a i n a b l e goal.
MR.RYAN s t a t e d t h a t both long-term and short-term s o l u t i o n s were required. The long-term s o l u t i o n s were along t h e l i n e s a s suggested by Mr.
Roach. However i n t h e s h o r t term, it is known t h a t inoculum l e v e l s a r e
very high and a l l v a r i e t i e s show s u s c e p t i b i l i t y . Recent work by BSES has
shown t h a t some commercial v a r i e t i e s a r e t o l e r a n t t o t h e disease once
inoculum l e v e l s a r e reduced. This involves a c o s t f a c t o r and methods a r e
being examined t o find an economic means of reducing t h e l e v e l of inoculum
s o as canegrowers can use some of t h e present commercial v a r i e t i e s .
MR. ROACH commented on t h e a d d i t i v e model of various f a c t o r s associat e d with NPRS and f e l t that it d i d not give t h e r e a l p i c t u r e , a s a plant
disease is represented by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of genotype X pathogen(s) and
t h e environment. The most l i k e l y means of reducing t h e disease would be
t o provide t o l e r a n t v a r i e t i e s and improve t h e environment, i n t h i s case
s o i l conditions, t o favour t h e cane r a t h e r than t h e pathogens.
MR. EGAN s t a t e d t h a t t h e model was designed t o show that NPRS was a
complex problem. He considered that it was time people stopped t a l k i n g
about NPRS and r e f e r r e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s such a s Pythium, r o o t
r o t , v a r i e t y by fungal i n t e r a c t i o n etc. The authors agreed that improved
c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e could reduce t h e e f f e c t of Pythium. M r . Ryan added that
t h e equasion was meant t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e problem and show that t h e r e was a
number of c a u s a l f a c t o r s which was not necessarily additive.

MR. JACKLIN requested f u r t h e r comment on NPRS not being evident i n


s u b s o i l a f t e r earthworks.
MR. HURNEY r e p l i e d t h a t observations i n f i e l d s where earthworks were
c a r r i e d out have i n d i c a t e d that p l a n t s growing i n t h e s u b s o i l , were
unaffected by NPRS. Glasshouse t r i a l s have shown t h a t r o t t i n g symptoms
were not present i n s o i l obtained a t depths i n excess of 450 mm.

Paper: "Evaluation of t h e Efficiency of Cane Harvesters i n Removing


&traneous Matter and i n Limiting Cane Losses W i n g t h e Cleaning Processw,
by A.P. Hurney, D.R. Ridge and R.G. Dick
The paper was presented by MR.D.R.

RIDGE.

Discussion
MR. DEICKE commented t h a t BSES, i n embarking on i n v e s t i g a t i o n of
mechanical harvesting performance, i n i t i a l l y proposed an optimisation
based on f i n a n c i a l balance of cost of extraneous matter t o t h e m i l l and
t h e value of cane l o s t t o t h e grower. This was of s e r i o u s concern t o some
s e c t i o n s of t h e Industry and the committee, chaired by M r . Churchward,
BSES Board member, s e t an objective f o r any research i n t o cane harvester
performance
t h e minimisation of t h e l e v e l of extraneous matter and t h e
minimisation of t h e l e v e l of sound cane losses. The paper has addressed
t h e subject i n those terms. However t h e presentation, on behalf of t h e
authors, does give r i s e t o concern t h a t judgment has been made by one of
t h e authors a s t o what is an acceptable l e v e l of extraneous matter. He
s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t a reduction t o 4.1 per cent of t r a s h was a n
acceptable level. This is outside t h e objectives established by t h e
Churchward committee which s t a t e d that no judgments~should be made as t o
w h a t l e v e l s of extraneous matter o r cane l o s s is acceptable, only t h a t
they should be minimised.

MR. COTTERILL asked i f t h e authors had investigated t h e use of


blowers instead of e x t r a c t o r s f o r removal of t r a s h and s o i l .
MR. RIDGE r e p l i e d no d i r e c t comparisons have been made. The C l a a s
harvester has a blower while others have s l o t s which v i b r a t e out some s o i l .
MR. FUELLING congratulated BSES f o r extending t h e s e t r i a l s t o include
an evaluation of d i r t i n extraneous matter. With t h e increase i n lodged
cane, we should re-evaluate t h e r o l e of t h e cleaning system. Extractors
and blowers were designed t o remove t r a s h , and were i n e f f i c i e n t i n
removing s o i l which is now regarded as the most important component i n
extraneous matter. The tumbling a c t i o n of a r o t a r y tumbler cleaner w a s
e f f i c i e n t i n removing dry s o i l and the Industry should look t o cleaning
systems which leaves t h e s o i l i n t h e f i e l d where it belongs.
MR. HURNEY r e p l i e d t h a t a r o t a r y tumbler w a s used i n t h e cleaning
system of the extraneous matter samples. It proved t o be r e l a t i v e l y
i n e f f e c t i v e i n removing wet s o i l o r hard clods of s o i l from t h e cane
supply.

Paper: "Green Cane Harvesting - A Review with


P a r t i c u l a r Reference t o t h e Mulgrave M i l l Area",
by N.J. Smith, P.J. McGuire, J. Mackson and R.C. Hickling
The paper was presented by Messrs. McGuire, Mackson and Hickling.
Discussion
MR. FORDYCE enquired i f any recent work had been c a r r i e d out on green
cane harvesting under stony conditions.
MR. HICKLING r e p l i e d none of t h e present machines a r e s u i t e d t o stony
land. The mat of t r a s h e n t e r i n g t h e machine tends t o c a r r y s t o n e s onto t h e
chopper system i n s t e a d of allowing them t o f a l l out.

MR. STEVENSON asked why t h e c.c.6. d i f f e r e n c e between green and burnt


cane was much lower i n 1982 than i n other years.
MR. M
C GUIRE r e p l i e d t h a t i n d u s t r i a l t r o u b l e l e d more growers t o c u t
green cane e a r l y i n t h e season when c.c.6. was low; a l s o t h e i n d u s t r i a l
t r o u b l e caused s e v e r a l long, c u t t o c r u s h delays. Consequently t h e green
versus burnt c.c.6. comparison favoured burnt cane,and t h e d i f f e r e n c e f o r
t h a t season was negligible.

Paper:

"Optimising E l e c t r i c a l Power Export by Supervisory Control",


by R.3. McIntyre.

The paper was presented by t h e author.


Discussion
MR 3ACKLIN asked what was t h e r e a c t i o n o f the e l e c t r i c supply
a u t h o r i t y t o the v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f export.
The Racecourse concept was
o f u n i f o r m e l e c t r i c e x p o r t u s i n g a dump condensor.

MR McINTYRE r e p l i e d t h a t the main concern o f t h e e l e c t r i c i t y supply


A
a u t h o r i t i e s was t h a t t h e v o l t a q e be n o t d i s t u r b e d by l o a d changes.
very narrow v o l t a g e band was s p e c i f i e d by t h e Mackay E l e c t r i c i t y Board
w i t h voltage r e l a y s s e t t o t r i p i n 30 seconds i f i t was v i o l a t e d . The
key t o the e x p o r t c o n t r o l scheme a t North Eton was t o make small s t e p
changes i n l o a d a t w e l l spaced i n t e r v a l s , q i v i n q the v o l t a g e r e g u l a t o r s
i n the M.E.S. system time t o a d j u s t .
The Racecourse system o f smoothing t h e b o i l e r steam demand by v a r y i n g
t h e amount o f low pressure steam t o the a i r cooled condenser provided a
constant surplus o f HP steam which c o u l d be used t o generate power f o r
export.
T h i s was an i d e a l arrangement from an o p e r a t i o n and c o n t r o l
aspect, b u t was r e l a t i v e l y expensive because o f t h e c o s t o f t h e condenser.
MR MESSITER commented t h a t i n 1982 the United S t a t e s Sugar Corp. i n
F l o r i d a i n s t a l l e d a new b o i l e r and generator s e t s o l e l y f o r t h e e x p o r t o f
power as the most economically v i a b l e use o f s u r p l u s bagasse.
This i s so
because t h e p r i c e p a i d by the generation a u t h o r i t y was t h a t t o a "next
r e s o r t " s u p p l i e r and was i n f a c t higher than t h a t p a i d by the sugar m i l l
f o r import power. Queensland sugar m i l l s a r e p a i d approximately one
seventh o f the p r i c e o f import power f o r randomly exported power.
MR COMDIE noted t h a t the s i t u a t i o n covered by the paper allowed f o r
a dedicated generator f o r export. He asked whether t h e technique c o u l d
be a p p l i e d t o m i l l s which d i d n o t have a dedicated machine a v a i l a b l e , b u t
have surplus bagasse.
MR McINTYRE r e p l i e d t h a t i t was proposed t o continue t h i s work by
i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e more general s i t u a t i o n o u t l i n e d by M r Condie.
MR FRY suggested t h a t t h e i n d u s t r y make a s t r o n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o
t h e Queensland generation a u t h o r i t y t o have a h i g h e r p r i c e p a i d f o r sugar
m i l l e x p o r t power. He added t h a t mention should be made o f t h e p o s s i b l e
minimising o f t r a n s i e n t s as a r e s u l t o f the m i l l connection. An analogy
e x i s t s where the use o f t h e Barron F a l l s p l a n t reduces t r a n s i e n t s . The
m i l l s must i n t u r n gear up t o become r e l i a b l e s o u r c e o f power generation.
DR ALLEN asked whether t h e p r a c t i c e o f o v e r s i z i n g motors i n the
i n d u s t r y i s t h e main cause o f the l a r g e d e v i a t i o n from u n i t y power f a c t o r .
MR McINTYRE agreed t h a t t h i s was the main cause b u t t h a t t h e problem
could be economically overcome by the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e c a p a c i t o r s .
ER
I WEGEHER commented t h a t t h e whole purpose o f the e x e r c i s e was
achieved i n t h a t t h e machine was a v a i l a b l e , i t achieved a good steam
balance i n the f a c t o r y , excess bagasse was u t i l i s e d t o b e s t advantage
and cash was earned.

Paper:

"Molasses a s a S t o c k f e e d " , by D.C.

N i c o l , 3.5.

Daly and P.3. Round

The p a p e r was p r e s e n t e d by MR ROUND.


Discussion

MR WATTS commented t h a t i n N.S.W., a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y percen: O F


m o l a s s e s was s o l d d i r e c t l y f o r t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y f e e d i n g o f l i v e s t o c k
m a i n l y t o d a i r y f a r m e r s . Roughly s i x t y p e r c e n t of l o c a l d a i r y f a r m e r s
had i n s t a l l e d b u l k on-farm s t o r a g e t o e n s u r e s l a c k s e a s o n m o l a s s e s
s u p p l i e s . However, c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s w e r e a p p a r e n t i n t h e f e e d i n g o f
m o l a s s e s t o d a i r y cows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

i n s u f f i c i e n t phosphorus and sodium c o n t e n t . The l a t t e r i n view


o f t h e low sodium c o n t e n t o f c o a s t a l p a s t u r e s .
excessively high l e v e l s of potassium.
low sodium c o n t e n t .

T h i s may e x a g g e r a t e t h e

cows f e d m o l a s s e s h a v e h i g h l e v e l s o f f a e c a l m o i s t u r e .

A t r i a l f e e d i n g p r o j e c t w i l l b e c o n d u c t e d i n 1 9 8 4 by t h e Wollongbar
A g r i c u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h C e n t r e o f t h e N.S.W. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o
test t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e a d d i t i o n o f m i n e r a l s u p p l e m e n t s t o m o l a s s e s .
Bentonite w i l l b e t e s t e d t o reduce f a e c a l moisture.
MR ROUND s t a t e d t h a t t h i s was a most i n f o r m a t i v e comment on t h e
use of molasses i n t h e d a i r y i n d u s t r y and t h e p r o j e c t should provide
useful information.
MR OIECKE r e f e r r e d t o t h e Winks and Laing r e f e r e n c e on p 39 and
a s k e d whether t h a t r e f e r r e d t o g r a z i n g of b e e f c a t t l e o r f e e d l o t t i n g .
Work on f e e d l o t t i n g a t Fairymead i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s u s i n g m o l a s s e s , u r e a
and p h o s p h o r i c a c i d a s p a r t o f t h e r a t i o n d i d n o t a p p e a r t o i n d i c a t e
t h a t t h e a c i d had a d e p r e s s a n t e f f e c t on performance. He a l s o a s k e d
w h e t h e r t h e a u t h o r had any comment on improvement o f f l a v o u r i n b e e f
r e s u l t i n g from f e e d i n g o f m o l a s s e s . F l a v o u r and t e n d e r n e s s a r e
i m p o r t a n t f o r e x p o r t m a r k e t i n g . American l o t f e d b e e f seems t o have
t e n d e r n e s s b u t n o t f l a v o u r w h i l e A u s t r a l i a n normal g r a z i n g b e e f
a p p a r e n t l y h a s a h i g h r e p u t a t i o n f o r good f l a v o u r i n . 3 a p a n . He a s k e d
w h e t h e r m o l a s s e s f e e d i n g would e n h a n c e t h i s f u r t h e r .

MR ROUND r e p l i e d t h a t when compared w i t h s u p e r n a t e n t l i q u i d o f


s u p e r p h o s p h a t e a n d monoammonium p h o s p h a t e , p h o s p h o r i c a c i d was found
t o have a d e p r e s s i n g e f f e c t on l i v e s t o c k performance. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n
of a c i d appeared t o i n t e r f e r e with t h e water i n t a k e o f c a t t l e .
He s t a t e d t h a t h e had n o t been a b l e t o f i n d a n y i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g
t h e e f f e c t o f m o l a s s e s on l o t f e d b e e f . H i s a d v i c e was t h a t i n b o t h
g r a s s f e d and l o t f e d , b e e f from t h e U.S.A. is r e g a r d e d more f a v o u r a b l y
i n Japan.
DR NESS a s k e d w h e t h e r , i n view o f t h e h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s i n N.W.
Q u e e n s l a n d and t h e problem o f h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s o n s t o r a g e o f m o l a s s e s ,
measurements o f t e m p e r a t u r e v a r i a t i o n o f m o l a s s e s i n t h e 32 t o n n e t a n k s
now i n e x i s t e n c e had been c a r r i e d o u t .
MR ROUND r e p l i e d t h a t a t p r e s e n t no d a t a is a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g
t e m p e r a t u r e e x t r e m e s . It was p l a n n e d t o c o l l e c t t h i s t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n .

PAPER:
PAPER:

"Etiology of the Northern Poor Root Syndrome in the


field, by P.J. Lawrence.
"Glasshouse studies on the symptoms and etiology of
Northern Poor Root Syndrome of sugarcane, by
R.C. Magarey.

The first paper was presented by MR. LAWRENCE and the second
paper by MR. MAGAREY. Questions were directed at the authors
in joint discussion.
MR. POLLOCK asked whether investigations on NPRS had shown
any evidence of variations in varietal susceptibility.
MR. MAGAREY replied that some evidence had been obtained on
variations in varietal resistance to the two oomycetes inoculated
separately to test plants. Some varieties seemed to be
appreciably resistant to Pythium arrhenomanes under the test
conditions. Only at what appeared to be low inoculum
levels were there any differences in varietal resistance to
the root rot fungus. Q90 appeared to be the most susceptible
variety to the root rot fungus. Under field conditions, little
variation in varietal susceptibility had'been seen.
MR. HITCHCOCK asked if the lesions caused by the NPRS fungi
could be distinguished from those caused by nematodes.
MR. MAGAREY replied that he thought it was possible.
MR. KENNEDY commented that from a farmers point of view the
symptoms were that the roots stopped growing as if striking
a brick wall, and that most varieties were affected. He then
enquired into the history of the disease incidence since its
discovery in the late 1960's.
MR. EGAN explained that the first known appearance of root rot
occurred in 1967, near Bellenden Ker. The second affected
farm was discovered nearby in 1972 and that it was not until
1978 that root rot became widespread in the Babinda area.
He added that the rapid introduction of Q90 could have masked
the early stage development of the epidemic. He commented
that all commercial varieties were affected but some eg. Q78
appeared to be affected less than others.

PAPER:

"Pathogenic fungi associated with Northern Poor


Root Syndrome of sugarcane, by B.J. Croft and
R.C. Magarey.

The paper was presented by MR. R.C. MAGAREY.


MR. COTTERILL asked whether the fungi responsible for NPRS
were newly introduced or whether they had been always present
in our soils and had recently multiplied rapidly to become
a threat to canegrowing..
MR. MAGAREY replied that it was not known whether the fungi
involved were present in soils before sugarcane was first
grown in affected soils or whether they were introduced
from elsewhere. He added however, that it was probable
there had been a significant build up over recent years of
the inoculum of the fungi.
MR. STEWART asked for details of the effects of the two
fungi on root and shoot yields. He also asked whether the
reduction in shoot yield apparently caused by the Pythium
was due to toxin production.
MR. MAGAREY suggested that it was the mode of attack on
the root systems by the two fungi that resulted In the
difference in top growth. Pythium arrhenomanes drastically
reduced the amount of fine root growth and quickly affected
nutrient supply producing poor shoot yields in short term
trials. The root rot fungus only indirectly affected
secondary root growth, consequently poor shoot growth would
only have shown up in a long term trial. He added that
it was not known if the two fungi produced toxins.
MR. HITCHCOCK asked whether the poor root problem that
plagued young plant crops in Q57 in the late 1950's was
NPRS

MR. MAGAREY replied that without having seen those poor


root systems it was impossible to say whether the organisms
now considered to be major factors were involved. Nematodes
and/or symphylla could have played a part in that particular
situation.
DR. RYAN commented that root rot conditions had been known
for many years. Work reported many years ago implicated
Pythium species as a problem in cane in the Bundaberg
district in the 1930's. The root rot fungus was not seen
at that time.
MR. POLLOCK suggested that the problem should be called
PRS and not NPRS in the future as apparently it was not
restricted to North Queensland.

MR. E G A N commented that in the future it would be preferrable


to talk of individual diseases rather than NPRS,or PRS, as

not all causal factors were present at any one site. He


added that it would be necessary to define which agent was
the most important when examining a problem area in the
field.
MR. S Y M I N G T O N asked if any work had been done on identifying
whether different strains of fungi were involved in different
areas.
MR. MAGAREY replied that this would be attempted in the near

future.
MR. C R O S S L A N D asked whether the fungi associated wlth PRS
were more prevalent in the top soil or the lower profile
and what implications this would have on cultural practices.
MR. M A G A R E Y replied that the root rot fungus was known to
occur to a depth of 450 mm and that it was not known to what

depth Pythium arrhenomanes occurred. There did not seem to


be much scope in formulating a control strategy relying
purely on cultural practices.
MR. B E R Z I N S K I asked if any work had been done on alternative

host plants with the root rot fungus.


DR. R Y A N replied that a relatively wlde host plant range
was examined in the glasshouse and only sugarcane had
developed the soft and flacid root rot conditions.
MR. R E G H E N Z A N I commented that no grasses examined in the

field had shown symptoms of soft flacid rot although


sorghum had shown lesion development.
MR. A M I E T asked whether there was a simple method of

identifying Pythium arrhenomanes.


MR. M A G A R E Y replied that there was no simple method of

identifying fungal species with similar spores. He added


that it would be necessary to conduct pathogenicity tests
or some other tests, from cultures of the spores to enable
specific identification.

Paper:

"Plant p a r a s i t i c nematodes and other organisms


as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o poor sugarcane r o o t
development i n n o r t h Queensland".
by K.3. Chandler

The paper was presented by t h e author.


Discussion
MR MACLEAN asked whether despite the a b i l i t y o f pathogenic f u n g i t o a t t a c h
sugarcane roots, would n o t nematode l e s i o n s increase the a b i l i t y o f the
fungi t o e n t e r t h e r o o t s .
MR CHANDLER r e p l i e d t h a t t h i s phenomenon had not been demonstrated i n the
I n BSES p o t t r i a l s ,
f i e l d here, although i t had been reported i n the U.S.
neamtodes do n o t seem t o increase the i n v a s i v e nature o f the NPRS fungi.
The c u r r e n t f e e l i n g i s t h a t nematodes do not d i r e c t l y a s s i s t t h e f u n g i t o
invade the roots.
MR KENNEDY asked what t r i a l work had been done w i t h "Nemagon" a t Bacalakis'
farm i n the 1950's.
MR CHANDLER r e p l i e d t h a t "Nemagon" seemed t o lower the incidence o f symphyla
damage i n those t r i a l s . Symtoms occurring i n the t r i a l were photographed,
b u t no r o o t r o t t i n g organisms could be i d e n t i f i e d from the photograph.
Nematode c o n t r o l a t the s i t e may have increased y i e l d s .

MR HITCHCOCK added t h a t work on the farm showed t h a t symphyla were involved


i n the r o o t p i t t i n g aspect of the problem.

Paper:

"Northern Poor Root Syndrome of sugarcane


studies
on s o i l t r a n s m i s s i o n and t h e e f f e c t s of v a r i o u s
f u n g i c i d a l n u t r i t i o n a l and agronomic treatments".
by 8.3. C r o f t , 3.R. Reghenzani and A.P. Hurney.

r Reghenzani.
The paper was presented by M
Discussion
MR WOODS asked why does t h e s e v e r i t y of NPRS vary from a r e a t o a r e a . He
a l s o asked whether any conclusions can be drawn from t h e f a c t t h a t r a i n f o r e s t s o i l a t Tully produced no r o t t e n r o o t s and a high f i n e r o o t r a t i n g .
He enquired i f t h e author was s u g g e s t i n g t h a t b i o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l of NPRS
was a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y .
MR REGHENZANI r e p l i e d t h a t many f a c t o r s a f f e c t t h e s e v e r i t y of NPRS;

NPRS
s e v e r i t y a l s o a p p e a r s q u i t e v a r i a b l e w i t h i n a block. Inoculum p o t e n t i a l
can be b u i l t up i n s o i l s planted t o a s u s c e p t a b l e v a r i e t y , such a s Q90.
Also cane i n a r e a s t h a t have o t h e r problems may be a f f e c t e d more s e v e r e l y ,
d e s p i t e s i m i l a r inoculum l e v e l s .
The conclusion t h a t can be drawn from t h e Tully r a i n f d r e s t r e s u l t i s t h a t
t h e NPRS organisms a r e n o t p r e s e n t , o r a r e n o t p r e s e n t i n s u f f i c i e n t l y high
numbers t o produce symptoms. I t should be noted t h a t t h e b i o l o g i c a l systems
o p e r a t i n g i n t h e f a i n f o r e s t a r e complex, and probably could n o t be maintained
when c l e a r e d f o r cane. B i o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t r o l methods a r e a
p o s s i b i l i t y , a s p a r t of a n i n t e g r a t e d c o n t r o l system.
MR KENNEDY asked whether it wouldn't be b e t t e r t o p l a c e f e r t i l i z e r over t h e
s t o o l i f t h e r e were no r o o t s t o absorb it. He added t h a t i t was b e t t e r
f o r t h e farmer t o grow bigger c r o p s even i f it caused g r e a t e r s t o o l t i p p i n g .
MR REGHENZANI responded t h a t one of t h e o r i g i n a l s u g g e s t i o n s was t h a t
f e r t i l i z e r banding, p a r t i c u l a r l y with rows being placed i n t h e same s p o t i n
s u c c e s s i v e c r o p c y c l e s , could produce zones unfavourable t o r o o t growth,
and t h u s predispose r o o t s t o a t t a c k by t h e NPRS pathogens. For t h i s reason,
banded and broadcast f e r t i l i z e r t r e a t m e n t s were t r i e d a t both s u b s t a t i o n s .
There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n t r e a t m e n t a t Mourilyan, probably due t o s u p e r i o r
s u r f a c e r o o t i n g a t t h a t site, however, a t Babinda, t h e broadcast t r e a t m e n t
was i n f e r i o r t o banding. This i n d i c a t e s t h a t where r o o t systems a r e poor,
n u t r i e n t s have t o be placed i n c l o s e proximity t o t h e s t o o l . Many growers
a r e a c t u a l l y f e r t i l i z i n g over t h e s t o o l a s you s u g g e s t because of t h i s
reason.
MR LEIGHTON commented t h a t it was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t where a backhoe

had been used t o e l i m i n a t e compaction i n one t r i a l , no c r o p response was


observed. He asked whether farmers should have second thoughts under
p r e s e n t economic circumstances b e f o r e undertaking q u i t e massive e x p e n d i t u r e
i n o r d e r t o reduce compaction.
MR REGHENZANI r e p l i e d t h a t penetrometer s t u d i e s showed zones of compaction

a t both s u b s t a t i o n s . A t t h i s s t a g e , removal of t h e s e zones by excavation


and r e t u r n of s o i l has n o t improved top growth. This does n o t exclude a
response t o removal of compaction a t o t h e r s i t e s , where t h i s problem is
more s e r i o u s . The purpose of t h e a m e l i s r a t i o n t r i a l was t o determine t h e
e f f e c t of chemical and p h y s i c a l s o i l c o n d i t i o n s a s predisposing f a c t o r s
t o NPRS. Work is proceeding i n t h i s t r i a l t o determine t h e e f f e c t on r o o t s
t o be observed from c o r e s and i n excavation p i t $ .

competative n a t u r e of r o o t r o t fungi. He asked


how f r e q u e n t l y would s o i l fumigation be necessary c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l a r g e
l e v e l s i n surrounding s o i l s and t h e f a c t t h a t competitors have been
eliminated. He a l s o asked what e f f e c t o r g a n i c amendments have on improving
competitors, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e amendments high i n p h e n o l i c s , known t o
suppress r o o t r o t f u n g i .

MR ASHBOLT noted t h e poor

MR REGHENZANI s a i d t h a t because of h i @ c o s t , f i e l d t r i a l s using dazomet and


methyl bromide fumigation have been r e s t r i c t e d t o s m a l l a r e a s . Recontamina t i o n by c u l t i v a t i o n through t h e s e s m a l l t r e a t e d a r e a s (approximately 3 m
l o n g ) is high, and t h e e f f e c t of t r e a t m e n t h a s n o t been observed beyond
f i r s t ratoon. Longevity of t r e a t m e n t without recontamination,
i f used
i n combination with o t h e r c u l t u r a l o r b i o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l methods is unknown
a t t h i s s t a g e , however t r i a l s a r e planned.

He noted t h a t it is d i f f i c u l t t o r a i s e o r g a n i c m a t t e r l e v e l s i n t h e northern
s o i l s due t o r a p i d breakdown under our warm, moist c o n d i t i o n s . S o i l s a r e
c u r r e n t l y being surveyed f o r n a t u r a l b i o l o g i c a l c o m p e t i t o r s and e a r l i e r work
is being repeated with Trichoderma sp. which n a t u r a l l y c o l o n i s e o r g a n i c matter.
F i e l d t r i a l s using bagasse and f o r a g e sorghum have n o t been promising.
Sorghum r o o t s showed many l e s i o n s s i m i l a r t o nematode o r Pythium damage.
MR FORDYCE asked whether much work had been done on using preemergent weed

c o n t r o l and broadcasting of f e r t i l i z e r t o avoid r o o t damage.


MR REGHENZANI r e p l i e d t h a t it was p o s s i b l e t h a t r o o t damage can predispose
t o i n f e c t i o n by s o i l pathogens. Many of t h e f i e l d t r i a l s a t t h e s u b s t a t i o n s
were conducted using t h e technique you suggested i n s m a l l p l o t s . These
t r i a l s s t i l l showed s e v e r e symptoms. It should be noted t h a t i n pot t r i a l s
with minimal damage o r d i s t u r b a n c e o f r o o t s , s e v e r e symptoms developed.
Thus it a p p e a r s t h a t t h e NPRS pathogens do n o t r e q u i r e r o o t damage a s a
predisposing f a c t o r , and a r e q u i t e capable of i n f e c t i o n on t h e i r own.
MR PROVE commented t h a t t h e absence of t i l l a g e on s l o p i n g canelands a s i n

t r a s h b l a n k e t t r i a l s throughout Queensland have n o t shown y i e l d d e c l i n e s .


Observations i n d i c a t e r o o t growth is predominantly i n t h e s u r f a c e s o i l .

"Northern Poor Root Syndrome


its p r o f i l e
d i s t r i b u t i o n and t h e e f f e c t s o f temperature
and fallowing" by 3.R. Reghenzani.

Paper:

The paper was presented by t h e a u t h o r .


Discussion

MR COTTERILL asked i f t h e u s e of p l a s t i c t o r a i s e s o i l temperature


c o n t r o l l e d PRS, t h e n why d i d t r a s h b l a n k e t which reduces s o i l temperature
give a b e t t e r r o o t system?
MR REGHENZANI c i t e d a survey conducted by BSES e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e r s which
showed no d i f f e r e n c e i n r o o t system and PRS symptoms between a d j a c e n t p a i r s
of farms which used conventional and t r a s h c o n s e r v a t i o n methods.
The b e t t e r r o o t system may be due t o improved moisture r e t e n t i o n under t h e
t r a s h blanket. Also, m u l t i range i n c u b a t o r s t u d i e s have shown an optimum
range of temperature f o r growth of f u n g a l hyphae. Thus lowering of t h e
temperature can p o s s i b l y reduce a c t i v i t y of NPRS organisms.
MR McGUIRE noted t h a t because a t r a s h b l a n k e t con;erves, i t c a u s e s a
p r o l i f e r a t i o n of r o o t s on t h e s o i l s u r f a c e with l i t t l e o r no d i f f e r e n c e i n
t h e t o t a l r o o t mass.

MR STEWART i n q u i r e d whether t h e u s e of i n t e r - c r o p s a n t a g o n i s t i c t o NPRS


pathogens had been i n v e s t i g a t e d . He asked whether something l i k e g a r l i c
o r b a s i l should be t r i e d
MR REGHENZANI r e p l i e d t h a t t h e use of c a t c h c r o p s a s they a r e known was

under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The purpose is t o s t i m u l a t e germination of oospores


but not a c t a s a h o s t f o r t h e pathogens. The most probable a p p l i c a t i o n
would be d u r i n g t h e f a l l o w period.

Dr Ryan commented t h a t even under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r germination, o n l y


10 p e r c e n t of s p o r e s germinate a t one time. T h i s is p a r t of t h e n a t u r a l
defence mechanisms of t h e pathogens. For any c o n t r o l method t o be
e f f e c t i v e it would have t o c o n t r o l over 90 p e r c e n t of spores.

MR COLLEY asked whether NPRS could be t r a n s f e r r e d from one a r e a t o a n o t h e r


by way of t h e d i r t c a r r i e d on a cane h a r v e s t e r .

MR REGHENZANI r e p l i e d t h a t it was p o s s i b l e t o t r a n s f e r NPRS v i a i n f e c t e d


s o i l . The t r a n s m i s s i o n s t u d i e s have shown t h a t t e n p e r c e n t NPRS s o i l added
t o s o i l s from o t h e r d i s t r i c t s i n p o t s can t r a n s f e r NPRS. I t should be
noted t h a t t e n p e r c e n t s o i l is roughly e q u i v a l e n t t o 200 tonnes p e r h e c t a r e .
It should a l s o be noted t h a t P thium is a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n many cane growing
been found i n Ingham and h c k a y , a s
d i s t r i c t s , and t h e r o o t r o t sa*{
well a s i n t h e northern d i s t r i c t .

D r Ryan s t a t e d t h a t a t h r e s h o l d inoculum p o t e n t i a l was r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r f o r


NPRS t o e s t a b l i s h even though i t may be introduced i n small q u a n t i t i e s
t o c l e a n a r e a s NPRS may n o t e s t a b l i s h . Also it was very d i f f i c u l t t o
completely c l e a n a h a r v e s t e r without d i s m a n t l i n g it.

MR D 1 BELLA asked whether s u f f i c i e n t t r i a l work had ,been done on f a l l o w

ground which was l e f t undisturbed f o r 10 t o 22 weeks a f t e r an extremely


deep ploughing. He enquired i f t h i s method could be t r i e d on a known PRS
s o i l f o r one fallow.

MR REGHENZANI r e p l i e d t h a t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t NPRS propagules remain


v i a b l e i n t h e s o i l f o r p e r i o d s of a t l e a s t up t o two y e a r s . Over t h i s time
t h e r e was no d e c r e a s e i n inoculum p r e s s u r e . For t h i s reason r e s e a r c h i n t o
bare f a l l o w a s an economic method of c o n t r o l h a s been discontinued.

As. t h i s paper i n d i c a t e d no NPRS r o t occurred i n p o t t r i a l s on s o i l c o l l e c t e d


from below 450 mn. For t h i s reason extremely deep ploughing may r e s u l t i n
a temporary d i l u t i o n e f f e c t , however, removal and r e t u r n of s o i l i n
i n t e r v a l s of 250 mn t o 750 mn has had no v i s a b l e e f f e c t on t o p s growth.
ER WOOD asked whether c o u n t s of NPRS f u n g i and o t h e r s o i l microorganisms

were c a r r i e d o u t before and a f t e r s o i l s o l a r i s a t i o n and fumigation t r i a l s .


MR REGHENZANI s a i d t h a t c o u n t s were made f o r nematodes. Both s o l a r i s a t i o n
and 'fumigation t r i a l s showed complete c o n t r o l i n t r e a t e d p l o t s . Control
p l o t s had high neamtode counts.
No c o u n t s were made f o r microorganisms a s t h e method is still under
development f o r NPRS f u n g i . When developed, t h e method w i l l be u s e f u l i n
providing c o u n t s of t o t a l and v i a b l e s p o r e s ; however, we w i l l probably s t i l l
have t o use t h e bioassay technique used i n p o t t r i a l s on s o l a r i s e d s o i l .
This is due t o t h e f a c t t h a t only a p r o p o r t i o n of v i a b l e s p o r e s germinate.
MR BERRYMAN asked what was t h e c o s t per h e c t a r e f o r s o l a r i s a t i o n using UV
p l a s t i c sheeting.

MA REGHENZANI answered t h a t t h e c o s t of t h e f i r s t t r i a l was i n e x c e s s of


e a r e c u r r e n t l y r e s e a r c h i n g methods of reducing t h i s
$3,000 p e r h e c t a r e . W
c o s t . These methods of reducing t h i s c o s t were being i n v e s t i g a t e d . These
were :
1. T r e a t i n g s t r i p s over proposed rows, reducing m a t e r i a l c o s t s by h a l f .
2.

Using t h i n n e r m a t e r i a l . W
e used 150 W t h i c k p l a s t i c , o v e r s e a s work
i n d i c a t e s 20mp t o be s u p e r i o r and p r o p o r t i o n a l l y cheaper.

3.

S o l a r i s i n g p e r i o d s less t h a n 6 weeks
means non UV s t a b l e p l a s t i c and
a r e d u c t i o n of an a d d i t i o n a l 1 0 p e r c e n t of c o s t .

An a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r would be bulk purchase. I f a l l of t h e above works


c o s t s could come t o l e s s than $200 p e r h e c t a r e .
M
r Reghenzani p r e d i c t e d a f i n a l c o s t , pending r e s u l t s from t r i a l s would be
between $200 and $500 p e r h e c t a r e . S o l a r i s a t i o n could be used t o reduce
t h e c u r r e n t high inoculum l e v e l s followed by b i o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l c o n t r o l
methods. Work is w e l l advanced i n I s r a e l with regard m a t e r i a l s . S o l a r i s a t i o n
is used o v e r s e a s a s a commercial c o n t r o l technique f o r s o i l borne pathogens
of c o t t o n , s t r a w b e r r i e s and p i s t a c h i o s . The technique a l s o shows a high
degree of promise f o r t h e commercial c o n t r o l of NPRS.

Paper: "Controlled Release Pesticides f o r Soil Insect Control in Sugar


Cane", by B.E. Hitchcock, K.J. Chandler and B.D.A. Stickley

The paper was presented by MR. HITCHCOCK.


Discussion

MR. CAMPBELL commented that he found it d i f f i c u l t t o readily accept


that cane grubs had become r e s i s t a n t t o B E t o a serious degree throughout
Queensland over the last couple of years, thus requiring the urgent
discovery of a l t e r n a t e controls. Mr. Campbell then asked whether there had
been adequate investigation into the following:
( a ) W a s there something about present formulations of BHC causing it
t o breakdown.
(b) W a s there something about present f e r t i l i s i n g practices causing
B E t o breakdown.
( C ) Was there something about chemical weed control causing BHC t o
breakdown.
MR. HITCXCOCK replied that there was evidence of some resistance t o
BHC in Greyback (Dermolepida albohirtum) grubs, although by no means conclusive. It was believed that application positioning of the BHC may need
t o be more accurate. It may not be positioned i n the r i g h t place. There
could be room for more research i n t o t h e possibility of breakdown a f t e r
application. There w a s no evidence of breakdown between the time of
formulation and application.
MR. WLLOCK commented t h a t i t appeared that manufacturers of the s u i t able agent t o contain the insecticide, had evolved a formula for determining the duration and r a t e of insecticide release. Mr Pollock then asked
the author whether it was cost only t h a t had prevented the production of
slow release pesticides t o ~ o t e c cane
t
c r o p through t o t h i r d ratoon.
MR. HITCHCOCK replied that formulations providing longer periods of
control a r e presently being tested. Longer control could be acZ.eved by
eliminating t h e i n i t i a l rapid release of insecticide during the f i r s t ten
weeks of f i e l d exposure.
MR. FORDYCE enquired as t o the likelihood of 'patent r i g h t s ' being
applied t o the formulations of slow release chemicals.

MR. HITCHCOCK replied that the particular controlled release system


under t e s t was patented by 'Environmental Chemicals'.
MR. CULTERILL suggested that the BSES stop the use of the term 'halfopen drill' as itwslsa misnomer, and observation by Mr. K. Chandler
indicated t h a t 'half-open' could mean six inches above the s e t t .

MR. HITCHCOCK replied that whatever name was used, the method referred
t o placement of the ineecticid'e i n a wide band no more than five centimetres above the s e t t .
MR. ASHBOI3 asked whether it was practicable t o incorporate f e r t i l i s e r
'
t o the slow release granules t o reduce overall costs t o the cane grower.
MR. HITCHCOCK replied that t h i s would not reduce costs.

Paper:

"Options for controlling soil loss in canelands


some interim
values", by J.A. Mullins, P.N. Truong and B.C. Prove.

The paper was presented by MR TRUONC.


KO discussion was recorded.
Paper:

"A review of results of trials with trash management for soil


conservationqq,by Staff of Bureau of Sugar Experiment
Stations and the Department of Primary Industries.

The paper was presented by MR PROVE.


Discussion

MR STEWART stated that the method of measuring soil loss had an error
of soil compaction, and commented that a flume at the base of the
catchment is a better method of measurement.

MR PROVE agreed that collecting run off at the base of a catchment


would be a more accurate method of soil loss determination, and
further research will use sediment concentration data in run off water
as estimates of soil erosion. MR PROVE added that the profilemeter
method of estimating soil movement-was the most applicable at the time.
The method had inherent errors, however the initial soil surface profile
was measured after all farm operations had been carried out and after
a settling rainfall. Thus compaction effects by raindrop impact are
accounted for, however when the first settling rain is erosive, the
method underestimates the actual soil movement.
MR STRONG asked if there were any deleterious effects on
subsequent ratoons of these trash treatment trials. His observations
in NSW and Fiji had shown that although the first crop after
treatment is satisfactory, subsequent crops after the field is
brought back into a normal cultivation, are mostly inferior.

MR PROVE replied that in the current soil conservation trials,


no general adverse effects had been observed, however a full crop
cycle will be investigated.

MR HURNEY added that in BSES trials there were no adverse effects


on yields from green c a m trash blankets for periods up to four years.
There is no information available at this stage on longeritem effects.

Paper:

"The effects of water levels and soil properties on sugar


cane yields in the Herbert Valley", by A.W. Wood,
N.R. Maclean and R.L. Stewart.

The paper was presented by MR WOOD and MR STmART.


Discussion
MR STRONG asked MR WOOD if he at any stage monitored soil
cane sites.
temperature in these poor ~ane/~ood

MFI WOOD replied that soil temperatures were not recorded, but it
was possible that lower temperatures prevailed in the poor sites due
to their greater degree of wetness.

Paper:

"Capacity and Trends i n Mechanical Harvesting.Machines


i n Australia", by A.J. Peterson, J . V . Mackson,
D.M. Crawford and T.O. Robinson.

The paper was presented by M


r D.M.

Crawford.

Discussion

MR PROVE asked why t h e N.S.W. h a r v e s t e r groups c u t a bigger


tonnage with machines s i m i l a r i n s i z e t o those i n northern areas.
MR CRAWFORD r e p l i e d t h i s was due t o t h e longer season.

MR FUELLING commented t h a t Tully M i l l a r e a would a l s o i d e n t i f y


with the l a r g e group s i z e of N.S.W. because of t h e s i g n i f i c a n t
investment of both a r e a s i n high f l o t a t i o n i n f i e l d t r a n s p o r t
equipment. The investment must be spread over a l a r g e tonnage t o
keep harvesting c o s t s t o a minimum. Both a r e a s have a high proportion
of cooperatively owned machines because the farmers themselves have
seen t h e advantage of t r e a d i n g l i g h t l y on the s o i l ; not only t o harvest
t h e crop i n hand but t o ensure t h e crop ratoons f o r subsequent years.

MR DIBELLA connnented t h a t t h e trend t o l a r g e r groups i n t h e


primarily due t o t h e c a p i t a l
Tully a r e a (av. 30,000t) was
outlay providing high wet weather c a p a b i l i t y which is important
i n an a r e a such a s Tully. C a p i t a l o u t l a y i n Tully is f u r t h e r
protected by incentives provided within the Local Board e q u i t y
t r i b u n a l clause. Future c a p i t a l o u t l a y can f u r t h e r be j u s t i f i e d
by t h e green cane and wet weather c a p a b i l i t y of machines available.

successful^

Paper:

"New Scope f o r Cane Transporter Design"


by T.G. F u e l l i n g

The paper was presented by THE AUTHOR.


Discussion
E1R MACLEAN indicated t h a t compression by t y r e s causes a s a t u r a t e d
s o i l mass t o move sideways and upwards.
MFl CRAWFORD asked what t h e a f f e c t of ripping was on s o i l
compaction.

MR FUELLING r e p l i e d t h a t t h e b e n e f i t from r i p p i n g depends on


the s o i l s t r u c t u r e a t t h e time of ripping. Ripping is a l s o
b e n e f i c i a l when a subsurface compaction zone e x i s t s .

MR STRONG asked how changing from conventional t o high f l o t a t i o n


t r a n s p o r t u n i t s may be j u s t i f i e d .

MR FUELLING sumnwised t h e Tully experience by saying t h a t


i n t h e l a s t seven years a change t o n e a r l y 100 percent high f l o t a t i o n
u n i t s had been e f f e c t i v e . The reasons t h a t have j u s t i f i e d t h i s
changeover include ( a ) the a b i l i t y t o take cane off i n wet conditions,
( b ) minimum damage t o t h e f i e l d thus ensuring a ratoon crop f o r
the following year and ( c ) l e s s compaction of t h e f i e l d i n a l l
conditions and hence e a s i e r working of ratoons a s fewer passes and
reduced t r a c t o r power a r e required.
MR COTTERILL outlined t h a t low ground pressure t y r e s r e s u l t e d
i n l e s s t r a s h being pushed i n t o t h e s o i l when compared with d u a l wheel
trailers.

MR FUELLING acknowledged t h i s f a c t and connnented t h a t such was


cornpatable with t h e new concepts of minimum t i l l a g e .
MR STEWART wondered i f t o t a l weight a s well a s ground pressure
should be considered when evaluating a t r a n s p o r t e r ' s compaction
potential.
MR FUELLING agreed t h a t the t a r e weight should be kept t o a
minimum. He s a i d , i n designing any piece of equipment consideration
must be given t o s t r e n g t h , r e l i a b i l i t y and o p e r a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y
which w i l l determine the t a r e weight of t h e vehicle;

Paper:

" I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o t h e Chemical Control of M i l h e e d


(Euphorbia heterophylla L.) Growing i n Cane F i e l d s i n
t h e Bundaberg D i s t r i c t , by L.G.W. T i l l e y

The paper was presented by THE AUTHOR.


Discussion
MR GOHHERT asked i f t h e r e was any burning e f f e c t on t h e cane
leaves following a p p l i c a t i o n of 2,4,5-T and Tordon 50D.
MFi TILLEY indicated no burn r e s u l t e d .

MR FRENCH queried a s t o t h e v i a b i l i t y of the seed and wondered


if a long f a l l o w and spraying with glyphosate would be an e f f e c t i v e

control.

MR TILLEY expected seeds t o be v i a b l e f o r 12 months o r more.


He s a i d a long f a l l o w and t h e use of Gramoxone o r 2,4D sprayed on
the young s e e d l i n g s would help i n t h e c o n t r o l of t h e weed.
MFi STEWART asked i f a t r a s h blanket l e f t a f t e r green cane
harvesting would prevent germination.

MR TILLEY advised t h a t seeds a r e a b l e t o germinate 20cms


below a 20cm t h i c k t r a s h blanket.
MR FOYDYCE highlighted t h e problem of seed d i s t r i b u t i o n by
migrating machinery.

MR McCOWAGE asked how unregistered chemicals became registered.


MR TILLEY replied t h a t chemicals registered f o r use i n other
crops were experimented with i n the cane f i e l d before requesting
registeration f o r t h e i r use i n cane.
MR NAUSEN asked what form of control is best used where H56
is planted as t h i s cane variety is susceptable t o 2,4D and 2,4,5T.

MR TILLEY suggested that if the effected area was small then


the ground may best be f a l l w e d and any weeds sprayed on emergence.

Paper:

"Granular Herbicide Application f o r Tram Track Maintenance",


by S.H. MFadzean

The paper was presented by THE AUTHOR.


Discussion
MR CONNELL asked the author t o elaborate on the aspect of low
cost maintenance.

MR McFADZEAN replied t h i s related t o the r e l a t i v e l y high speed


of application.
MR SMITH asked
application.

i f there were any disadvantages i n granule

MR MFADZEAN said t h a t t r e e s would die i f any root contact was


made. The contaiminated s o i l could be as f a r away from the t r e e s '
trunk as 24 times the height of t h a t tree. Wash down areas are a l s o
a problem and there is a need t o ensure the poison is not carried
i n t o a surface supply of water eg. drains, creeks and stormwater
drains.
MR FORDYCE asked what the e f f e c t of the herbicide was i n cane
lands ifleached i n t o the s o i l .
MR McFADZEAN replied t h a t i t would be very harmful i f it were
t o wash i n t o drains and hence i n t o interspaces where the potential f o r
contact with cane roots was increased.

PAPER:

" M i l l i n g T r a i n C o n t r o l a t Fairymead" by E. T r o i a n i and


McLucas.

G.

The p a p e r was p r e s e n t e d by Mr. TROIANI.


Discussion
DR. WHITE n o t e d t h a t the c h u t e h e i g h t s e n s o r gave
d i s c r e t e v a l u e s and a s k e d how was this smoothed and why.
MR. TROIANI r e p l i e d t h a t t h e smoothing was done
m a t h e m a t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h e c o n t r o l l e r . Only a s m a l l d e g r e e o f
smoothing was used s i n c e a l a r g e degree o f smoothing produced
t o o much l a g .

MR. SHORT asked what were t h e advantages o f c o n s t a n t


maceration p e r c e n t f i b r e .
MR. TROIANI r e p l i e d t h a t w h i l e t h e b e s t performance was
a c h i e v e d w i t h t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e m a c e r a t i o n , a c o n s t a n t flow
r a t e would produce v e r y h i g h m a c e r a t i o n p e r c e n t f i b r e o n t h e
low f i b r e c a n e s and t h i s would r e s u l t i n poor f e e d i n g . To
a v o i d t h i s m a c e r a t i o n was reduced on t h e s e canes.
MR. McEACHRAN a s k e d how t h e c o n t r o l handled t h e s i t u a t i o n
where cane v a r i e t i e s changed and d i d time l a g s a f f e c t t h e
system.
MR. TROIANI r e p l i e d t h a t c o n t r o l a c t i o n was b a s e d on
v a r i e t y t r a c k i n g from t h e weighbridge, a s w e l l a s from m i l l
measurements.
MR. COWAN a s k e d whether the o p e r a t o r had t h e f a c i l i t y t o
a l t e r the set p o i n t on the hopper h e i g h t c o n t r o l o r was this
c o n t r o l l e d s o l e 1y b y the p r o c e s s c o n t r o l l e r .
MR. TROIANI r e p l i e d t h a t t h e s e t p o i n t was n o t a l t e r e d b y
t h e o p e r a t o r once the l o o p was tuned.
MR. LOUGHRAN q u e s t i o n e d the r e d u c t i o n i n s h r e d d e r s p e e d
w i t h s o m e v a r i e t i e s s i n c e i t had been shown t h a t e x t r a c t i o n and
p r e p a r a t i o n were s t r o n g l y l i n k e d and any r e d u c t i o n i n s h r e d d e r
s p e e d would n e c e s s a r i l y r e s u l t i n lower e x t r a c t i o n .
MR. TROIANI r e p l i e d t h a t a n o p e r a t i o n a l problem h a d
o c c u r r e d where some v a r i e t i e s p u l p e d s o s e v e r l y t h a t f e e d i n g
became e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t on t h e f i n a l m i l l .
Thus a t r a d e o f f
had been made between s t e a d y o p e r a t i o n and h i g h p r e p a r a t i o n .
MR. BICKLE a g r e e d w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t c l o s e c o n t r o l
was e s s e n t i a l f o r maximum performance i n t h e f u t u r e . H e f e l t
m a c e r a t i o n c o n t r o l and even e l e v a t o r c o n t r o l were l i k e l y .

DR. BATTERHAM agreed with the authors findings on error


squared control but asked about the problems of integral windup
which were often associated with this form of control.
MR. TROIANI replied that there was an integral action
windup reset within the controller.
MR. McEACHRAN asked what effect the lowering of shredder
turbine speed had on mill extraction, and how much the speed
was changed.

MR. TROIANI replied that the slowdown is only fifteen per


cent and only on a few varfties. The actual extraction loss
was never quantified but in any case the speed drop was
necessary for operational reasons as explained earlier.
XR. CLARKE asked how the control on the killer plates on
mills 2 and 4 compared with the chute height control.

MR. TROIANI replied that the same algorithm was used on


all mills and the killer plate control was acceptable.

PAPER:

"Cane D i f f u s i o n Contrql a t Fairymead" by R.C.


and A.R. Teasdale.

Young

The paper was presented by MR. TEASDALE.


Discussion
MR. BROTHERTON commented t h a t observations during cane
f i b r e t e s t s i n d i c a t e d l a r g e differences i n prepared cane bulk
density could be expected and t h i s could cause problems i n
s p l i t t i n g the flow t o the two d i f f u s e r s a s changes from high t o
low f i b r e canes occur. Was t h i s a problem and i f so how was i t
overcome.

MR. TEASDALE r e p l i e d t h a t the control was capable of


about p l u s o r minus 15 tonnes of cane per hour around t h e
s e t p o i n t and t h i s v a r i a t i o n had not caused any g r e a t problems.
MR. SMITH asked t o be informed of work undertaken t o
monitor d i f f u s e r bed flooding.
MR. TEASDALE commented t h a t they had experimented with
SRI c o n t a c t l e s s conductivity probes which can d i f f e r e n t i a t e
between juice and f i b r e . Also c l e a r p l a s t i c tubes had been
used a s s i g h t g l a s s e s t o determine l e v e l s of juice i n the bed,
although these would need the addition of a dP c e l l f o r
automation. Suggestions f o r flood indication had a l s o included
checking the load on t h e augers.
DR. EDWARDS commented t h a t other suggestions f o r flood
i n d i c a t i o n had been made. One group of p o s s i b i l i t i e s attempted
t o measure the shear s t r e n g t h of the bagasse, a s i t was the
l a c k of shear s t r e n g t h which characterised sloppy, over-wet
bagasse.
Suggestions included penetrometer l i k e t e s t e r s and
measuring t h e load on a l a r g e saw blade being slowly r o t a t e d
through the bagasse. Other p o s s i b i l i t i e s included nuclear
d e n s i t y gauges and weighing the whole d i f f u s e r bed with s t r a i n
gauges.
MR. GREENWOOD asked the author t o enlarge on the
improvement of cane r a t e control by the repositioning of the
be1 t weigher.

MR. TEASDALE commented t h a t a s i n s t a l l e d the b e l t weigher


was 2 0 seconds downstream of t h e s p l i t t e r doors. This was
reduced t o e i g h t seconds by moving the b e l t weigher a s c l o s e a s
could be allowed t o t h e doors. The weigher could n o t be any
c l o s e r and s t i l l s a t i s f y the i n s t a l l a t i o n requirements of the
weigher which had t o be complied with f o r s p e c i f i e d weighing
accuracy. Feed forward was used i n the door c o n t r o l .
MR. McEACHRAN asked i f t h e r e had been any problems with
cane hanging u p between t h e doors. Also what was the accuracy
of t h e b e l t weigher.

MR. TEASDALE s a i d h i g h e x t r a n e o u s m a t t e r l e v e l s c a u s e d
h a n g u p s . The o l d manual c o n t r o l c l o s e d t h e d o o r s a t r e g u l a r
i n t e r v a l s f o r c l e a n i n g b u t gave g a p s i n t h e f e e d . The
a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l w i t h t h e r e s u l t a n t c o n t i n u o u s d o o r movement,
was a n improvement as r e g a r d s hangups. The b e 1 t w e i g h e r was
a r o u n d two p e r c e n t a c c u r a t e

MR. SOCKHILL a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e improved c o n t r o l s y s t e m


h a d l e d t o a n y r e d u c t i o n i n manning and c o u l d t h e a u t h o r
o u t l i n e t h e manning r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e d i f f u s e r .
MR. TEASDALE o u t l i n e d t h e manning r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e
1 9 8 3 s e a s o n which were:

One d i f f u s i o n t r a i n c o n s o l e o p e r a t o r
One d i f f u s e r o p e r a t o r who a t t e n d e d to b o t h d i f f u s e r s
One r o v i n g p l a t f o r m e n g i n e d r i v e r who a t t e n d e d to the f i v e
m i l l s i n the conventional milling t r a i n a s well a s t h e
s i n g l e de-watering m i l l i n t h e d i f f u s i o n t r a i n .
One c u s h man who a t t e n d e d t o two o f t h e m i l l s i n t h e
m i l l i n g t r a i n a s w e l l as t h e d e - w a t e r i n g m i l l .
MR. CHILDS a s k e d a b o u t t h e t y p e o f b e l t w e i g h e r a n d t h e
amount o f e l e c t r i c a l n o i s e .
MR. TEASDALE s a i d t h e b e l t w e i g h e r was o f t h e p l a t f o r m
t y p e , a n d e l e c t r i c a l n o i s e h a d n o t b e e n a problem.

PAPER:

"Hierarchical Control of the Fairymead Extraction


Plant by G.D. Maclean and R . J . Swind.ells

The paper was presented by Dr. SWINDELLS.


Discussion
M R . JACKLIN noted that cane rate was stated as being
adjusted to suit juice tank level, and asked whether this had
caused problems with cane supply for the cane inspectors.

DR. SWINDELLS replied that effet capacity was at that


stage limiting throughput and thus factory rate was controlled
from juice level. In general, however, rate changes were small
but it was preferable to adjust the rate than to have
stop-start operation. He noted that a new number one effet
vessel was being installed for the 1984 season and the
situation may change.
MR. McINTYRE asked whether the authors considered that in
the light of their experience that they made the correct
decision to purchase a PLC with analog capability or whether
they would have achieved the same result with PLC's performing
logic operation only and linked to one of the proprietary
control systems with their very powerful data handling and
display features. He asked the authors to comment on the costs
and benefits of each approach, particularly in the light of
proposed future developments involving the installation of a
separate control computer for communications, data logging and
supervisory functions.

DR. SWINDELLS replied that there had been many


discussions on this exact topic and the decision had been made,
on a cost and benefit basis, that this was the way to go.
MR. GREENWOOD commented that this paper and the two
previous papers were an important contribution to this Society.
Bundaberg Sugar was to be congratulated on reporting the
project. He asked the author to expand on the training
programmes used for both staff and operators.

DR. SWINDELLS replied that the software involved was


friendly, which was an advantage, but in addition there had
been a training programme involving several sessions over a
period of weeks with one or two afternoons work each week.
MR. WEBSTER asked for the authors' views on redundancy
for the PC's, since it appeared to him that if a Critical PC
failed then without sufficient back-up quite a lengthy delay to
crushing could occur. He asked what sort of back-up was
allocated at Fairymead.

DR. SWINDELLS r e p l i e d t h a t t h e P C ' s i n v o l v e d a r e v e r y


r e l i a b l e . T h e r e had b e e n n o l o s t t i m e d u e t o PC f a i l u r e i n
1 9 8 3 . The d i f f u s e r t r a i n c o u l d b e r u n o n m a n u a l and i f t h e
m i l l i n g t r a i n PC f a i l e d , i t s c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n s c o u l d b e
r e l o c a t e d t o t h e d i f f u s e r t r a i n PC. T e x a s I n s t r u m e n t s v i a
Haymans h a d a s t o c k o f s p a r e s i n t h e Bundaberg d i s t r i c t .
F a i r y m e a d now had f o u r PM5501s i n o p e r a t i o n , a n d o n e o f t h e s e
c o u l d be t a k e n from s a y , t h e pan s t a g e , t o t h e more dynamic
m i l l i n g t r a i n i n an emergency.
MR. MESSITER n o t e d t h a t t h e s e r i e s /l c o m p u t e r was
o p e r a t i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h e d u a l role a s c a n e r e c e i v a l s
s y s t e m a n d h o s t s y s t e m t o t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m . He
t h e r e f o r e asked D r . S w i n d e l l s to expand o n t h e s u i f a b i l i t y of
t h e s e r i e s 1 f o r s u c h a d u a l r o l e and t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e
c h a n g e t o t h e I n t e l micro.

DR. SWINDELLS s t a t e d t h a t t h e c a n e r e c e i v a l ~ ~ t a suks e d


t h e d i s k s r e g u l a r l y a n d t h a t t h e s e r i e s /l was becoming d i s k
I t was d e s i r e d t o make t h e h o s t c o m p u t e r i n d e p e n d e n t o f
bound.
t h i s t a s k and t h e I n t e l had t h e advantage i n its communications
c a p a b i l i t y , which i n c l u d e d t h e a b i l i t y to communicate w i t h
colour screens.
DR. BATTERHAM a g r e e d t h a t PLC's w e r e i n f a c t e x t r e m e l y
r e l i a b l e and n e e d e d l i t t l e b a c k u p .
PLC's a r e a l s o approaching
d i s t r i b u t e d c o n t r o l l e r s i n c a p a b i l i t i e s and no d o u b t soon i n
price.
He a s k e d w h e t h e r g i v e n t h e e x p e n s i v e h i g h l e v e l s u p p o r t
n e c e s s a r y t o implement t h e d e s c r i b e d system whether a n e t
s a v i n g i n c o s t had b e e n made.
DR. SWINDELLS r e p l i e d t h a t no c h a n g e s would h a v e b e e n
made i f a n e t s a v i n g was u n l i k e l y . The a c t u a l c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e
n o t s i m p l e s i n c e new i n s t a l l a t i o n s w e r e r e q u i r e d and some o l d
e q u i p m e n t had t o b e r e p l a c e d .
MR. STUART a s k e d w h e t h e r i t was a s s u r e d t h a t t h e q u a l i t y
o f c a n e was t h e same f o r b o t h t r a i n s when c a l c u l a t i n g
e x t r a c t i o n s , and whether s t o p p i n g t h e m i l l i n g t r a i n a f f e c t e d
t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e d i f f u s i o n t r a i n .
DR. SWINDELLS a n s w e r e d t h a t a s i d e f r o m e m e r g e n c i e s t h e
d i f f u s i o n t r a i n normally never operated i f t h e m i l l i n g t r a i n
was n o t o p e r a t i n g and t h a t t h e c a n e g o i n g t o b o t h e x t r a c t i o n
t r a i n s was o f s i m i l a r q u a l i t y .
MR. MCEACHERN a s k e d t o w h a t e x t e n t a l a r m s came u p when
sequentially starting the milling train.
DR. SWINDELLS r e p l i e d t h a t a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e p r o j e c t
a l l a l a r m s were i n d i c a t e d b u t i t was q u i c k l y r e a l i s e d t h a t t h i s
i s n o t w i s e , and t h a t o n l y t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a l a r m s s h o u l d b e
indicated.
MR. TROIANI a d d e d t h a t a n a u d i b l e a l a r m p r e c e d e d a n y m i l l
s t a r t , a n d when a n a l a r m s i t u a t i o n o c c u r r e d , p r e f e r a b l y t h e
f i r s t t o o c c u r was i n d i c a t e d .

MR. CONDIE commented on the committee approach to


distributed control since many groups are involved in the
different areas of control. However in the alarm situation
only the groups involved with the alarm condition should be
alerted. In the case of PLC's versus distributed control,
Pioneer have chosen distributed control for various reasons but
it depends on where you start. Pioneer's justification is
based on operator saving costs and the suspicion that a number
of small units will add up to the same cost as a distributed
system in one big box. He asked how the final figures,
produced by the hierarchical system, are fed into the
commercial machine.
DR. SWINDELLS stated that financial figures were
transferred from the series /l to the 4331 on diskette.
Process information could follow the same route if needed.
MR. STEVENSON suggested that Dr. Batterham's question or
Mr. Condie's question in regard to the overall cost of the
installation in relation to the benefits in production and
labout cost reduction had not been answered and asked whether
it was possible to provide cost benefit data for the overall
installation.

MR. DEICKE appreciated the comment of Mr. Stevenson on


financial justification but suggested each situation must be
considered in terms of the features specific to that situation.
The work on computer control at Bundaberg Sugar Company relates
to the four mills of the group and some of the discussions
regarding hardware and software relates to the future
application. Further the applications are not related wholly
to sugar mills - the distillery and refinery are also involved.
The uniqueness of certain situations are also important in the
assessment of financial justification. For example, in
installing the cane diffuser at Fairymead the option taken was
to install only one cane receival station for capital and
operating cost reasons but that decision involved a number of
control constraints especially because of requirements of the
Central Sugar Cane Prices Board which required no bias in the
splitting of the cane supply between the milling and diffusion
trains. He further commented that regardless of the foregoing
he assured Mr. Stevenson that the commitment made by Bundaberg
Sugar Company to the control strategy that they were developing
had been well costed and commitment to such expenditure had
been justified on the basis of overall financial benefit. As
remarked, each situation has certain unique features and the
commitment of Bundaberg Sugar to the control strategies they
have selected recognises these features. Therefore a paper
detailing financial justification would not be of general
interest.

MR. McINTYRE asked the authors to elaborate on the


programming language to be used in the new Intel system, was it
a high level language capable of modelling, and will mill
personnel be involved in programming.

DR. SWINDELLS r e p l i e d t h a t t h e I n t e l was t o be programmed


i n PLM/86 which was a n e a s y l a n g u a g e t o l e a r n . T r a i n i n g
p r o g r a m s i n t h e l a n g u a g e were p l a n n e d .
DR. MULLER added t h a t a l l o p e r a t i n g programs f o r c o n t r o l
s y s t e m s a r e w r i t t e n and implemented by l o c a l o p e r a t i n g s t a f f .
C e n t r a l s u p p o r t s t a f f i n Bundaberg Sugar d o d e v e l o p b a s i c
s y s t e m s b u t hand them on t o m i l l s t a f f f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .

PAPER:

"Preliminary measurements in the flame region of a


bagasse-fired boiler", by T.F. Dixon.

The paper was presented by THE AUTHOR.


Discussion
MR. LEVY noted that in attempting to improve combustion
stability, emphasis should be placed on utilizing the entire
grate area and furnace volume for combustion and to strive for
early ignition as bagasse entered the furnace. Two possible
systems were suggested.
1)

Staggered opposed spreader firing in which rear versus


front wall combustion bias would be largely eliminated.
Incoming bagasse through one wall would be rapidly dried
and ignited by the strong fire due to bagasse entry from
the other wall.

2)

A degree of predrying of incoming fuel in the bagasse

chutes and distributors using hot air or flue gas. A


small amount of predrying would encourage early ignition
and reduce the tendency for wet bagasse to form grate
heaps.
He stated that both of these approaches could be
achieved at relatively low cost but as usual, it all depended
on whether the industry was prepared to pay anything more to
achieve more stable combustion.
He also commented that full utilization of grate area
and furnace volume ultimately reduced furnace size, leading to
lower overall boiler costs. The design aim should be for
stable combustion in a fully water-cooled furnace enclosure
where all the wall area was utilized as heating surface. He
could not agree that large suspension furnaces with immense
linings of refractory were desirable, nor did they represent
the 'state of the art' in bagasse firing. He also commented
that he could not follow the argument that current suspension
firing techniques were crude. To handle large volumes of
unprepared fuel at close to 100 per cent efficiency and with a
minimum of human intervention were hardly the characteristics
of a crude system.

DR. DIXON replied that the term 'crude' referred to the


firing technique used. Compared to pulverized coal firing,
bagasse spreader firing.was crude. Certainly from a
combustion efficiency viewpoint, current bagasse firing
techniques were far from crude, but the area of combustion
stability required much more attention.
He agreed that the two proposals suggested would lead
to improvements in combustion stability, particularly the
aspect of predrying. He-doubted whether the use of hot air in

the feed chutes and spreaders would produce sufficient drying


to have a significant influence on combustion stability. The
use of furnace gas would probably be necessary. Opposed
bagasse firing was relatively simple to implement.
MR. McDOUGALL congratulated the author on a timely
paper. He asked whether it was considered that a level of 2
per cent CO in the flame region was excessive. He also
commented on the benefit of the reintroduction of bagasse and
volatiles into the combustion zone by low rear wall secondary
air jets. He stated that the penetration of secondary air
into the furnace was approximately 3 to 4 m with 4kPa cold air
pressure at the nozzle duct.
DR. DIXON replied that 2 per cent CO was not
necessarily excessive in the flame region. Such a relatively
high level (compared to other firing techniques) suggested
that the combustion process as it now existed was slower than
could be otherwise achieved. The intermediate CO level in the
flame was important in understanding the combustion sequence,
but it did not imply that the total combustion process was not
as efficient as it could be. He commented that while the
injection of lower rear wall secondary air would aid in the
combustion of bagasse lying on the grate and also probably
help reinject bagasse higher in the furnace, he questioned the
benefit of secondary air at this location on combustion
stability. Previous experimental data had indicated that
where a bed of bagasse was established at the rear of the
grate, the major portion of the flame adjacent to the rear
wall was stabilized. Strong secondary air injection at this
location would tend to dislodge this bed.

MR. WILLIAMS commented that it was encouraging to see


progress being made by the author in this important subject.
He said that a good appreciation of bagasse combustion would
help mill proprietors obtain the most from their investment.
The paper referred specifically to decomposition behaviour in
the furnace and aspects of Dr. Lamb's work could be worth
incorporating in the investigation programme. He stated that
an improved understanding would be obtained if Figures 3 and 4
were to show secondary air jet penetration either calculated
or cold furnace test results. This would concentrate
attention on the nexus between turbulence and temperature.
There have been cases where government inspectors have advised
the installation of additional'secondary air capacity and
'flame quenching' had occurred. Adequate temperature was
necessary for secondary air to partially correct the poor
flame patterns presented in the paper.
He commented that the Pleystowe No.2 boiler was proving
to be a useful workhorse but the unsatisfactory furnace
conditions being reported could mislead the industry. He
reaffirmed his 1983 recommendation that comparative results be
obtained from a more modern sugar mill boiler designed for
higher levels of temperature, turbulence and combustion
stability.

DR. DIXON replied that while the work of Dr. Lamb dealt
with relatively slow combustion in a moving bed of bagasse in
which both the low temperature and high temperature paths
could occur, suspension firing consisted of high temperature
reaction under much faster heating rates. The work of Dr.
Lamb would be much more relevant to the combustion of bagasse
piles on the grate.
He commented that the proper inclusion of secondary air
patterns required detailed experimental work on jet
deceleration and turbulent mixing and the combined effect on
flame temperatures. The inclusion of mean secondary jet
trajectories would not add significantly to an understanding
of the data presented in the figures. He said that the effect
of hot or cold secondary air was not yet clearly defined.
THE AUTHOR did not agree that the conditions in the
Pleystowe furnace were unsatisfactory. While he accepted that
combustion in the Victoria boiler furnace was more stable,
this was understandable as the mean furnace temperatures were
higher due to the extensive use of refractory. The results
from this furnace were not expected to be significantly
different from those presented in the paper.
MR. LEVY commented that the specific effects of
secondary air on CO levels had not been defined. He said that
higher gas temperatures were necessary for adequate drying and
stability.
DR. DIXON replied that the mean CO level at furnace
exit was not an adequate and complete measure of the
effectiveness of secondary air injection.

MR. McDOUGALL commented that there had to be a better


way to improve combustion stability than by the addition of
refractory surfaces in the furnace.
DR. DIXON replied that more sophisticated firing
techniques had been developed for pulverized coal and were
applicable to bagasse combustion.

MR. ARROWSMITH questioned whether the flame front


profile shown in Figure 1 above the traverse plane was
accurate since the fuel rich stream and the oxygen rich stream
must ultimately mix in the remainder of the furnace for the
complete combustion found at furnace exit to be achieved.
DR. DIXON replied that the flame boundary shown in the
figure was the mean position only. Large scale turbulent
eddies were continually present along the edge of the flame
and these were responsible for the rapid mixing between the
fuel and air streams which ultimately resulted in complete
combustion.

PAPER: "The Steam Cleaned Stationary Grate", by P.W. Levy and


D.A. Kenny.
The paper was presented by THE AUTHORS.
Discussion
MR. JACKLIN congratulated N.E.1.-John Thompson for
developing the steam cleaned stationary grate, and South
Johnstone and Racecourse for being the first mills in the
Australian sugar industry for installing the system. He
commented that in his opinion this type of grate was a major
step forward in boiler technology.
He asked THE AUTHORS if they considered that the size
of the grates could be further reduced. He noted that the
Pleystowe number two boiler has a grate area 62 per cent of
the number one boiler and this gives rise to no operational
detriment. He thought that a further reduction in grate area
would have many advantages, e.g. more cost effective - ease of
operation, reduced maintenance etc.
Finally, MR. JACKLIN commented that the paper refers to
the conversion of existing boilers to this type of grate
system and he asked THE AUTHORS how this might be achieved
without inducing boiler combustion problems.

MR. LEVY replied that from the viewpoint of conserving


the integrity of the grate, there is no doubt that the smaller
the grate the better. Apart from the obvious mechanical
advantages of a small grate over a large grate, a given
combustion air flow through the passages of a smaller grate
will provide better cooling because the convection heat
transfer from grate bars to air flow is higher at higher air
velocity. However, grate area cannot be considered in
isolation from furnace plan area. This determines the up-flow
velocity of furnace products and largely determines the degree
of carryover of unburnt bagasse. Therefore it cannot be
argued that the pinhole grate immediately and directly will
permit a reduction in installed grate area. Nevertheless,
some interesting secondary possibilities arise, namely:
(1) The pinhole grate provides very uniform distribution of
combustion air over the furnace plan area. If steps,
such as partial pre-drying of bagasse, were taken to
obtain more uniform distribution of combustion to
accompany the uniform air distribution, it would be
possible to reduce overall furnace proportions without
suffering excessive carryover.
(2) The pinhole grate can tolerate the highest practical
undergrate air temperatures without damage. If required.
very large air heaters can be employed, producing high

thermal efficiency, reduced bagasse consumption and


smaller boiler proportions all round, including reduced
grate area.
MR. LEVY commented that on the first retrofit
installation of a pinhole grate with air cooled floor tubes,
tube cooling air will be supplied by a new fan independent of
the boiler's existing draught plant. Air exhausting from the
floor tubes may be recycled to the undergrate hoppers or
wholly or partly vented to atmosphere. The final arrangement
will be determined during commissioning to satisfy the
requirements of combustion and grate cooling.
MR. ARROWSMITH asked the author to describe the effect
of the steam nozzle on grate life. He commented that the
water cooled grates installed by CRD in the 1960's for wood
firing suffered frequent thermal shock deterioration.
MR. LEVY replied that N.E.1.-John Thompson have spent
considerable effort in devising a steam nozzle system which is
highly resistant to thermal shock, blockages and erosive wear.
THE AUTHORS tabled a specimen grate bar and nozzle at this
conference, which MR. ARROWSMITH was welcome to inspect.
MR. GREENWOOD commented that operational experience at
Racecourse indicates that:
(1) Steam cleaning is very effective, and
(2)
Maintenance requirements have been non existent,
to date.
He also commented that a large quantity of sluice water was
required to prevent choking of the sluice system.
MR. LEVY replied that any system employing batch
removal of furnace ash (pinhole grate or dump grate) will
require a greater flow of sluice water than a system employing
continuous ash removal, and the dewatering equipment must be
sized accordingly.
The simplicity of maintaining 100 per cent circulating
water at all times almost certainly outweighs the ash system
complications which would arise from an arrangement in which
furnace ash sluice water was turned on and off to coincide
with the grate cleaning cycle.
MR. McDOUGALL commented on the excellent operation of
the Racecourse pinhole grate and congratulated THE AUTHORS on
their courage in trying air cooled support tubes. He
questioned THE AUTHORS about the loss of furnace temperature
immediately above the grate due to the support water tubes.

MR. LEVY replied that the main thrust of the current


pinhole grate design has been to totally remove the grate from
the Sugar Mill maintenance agenda. Close attention has
therefore been paid to thorough cooling of the grate bars by
both undergrate air and floor tube water.
Where air alone is the cooling medium, the heat
transfer cycle is: furnace heat to grate bars by radiation,
grate bars to undergrate air by convection, undergrate air
back to furnace. Such a system has no nett effect on furnace
temperature whatever the actual equilibrium temperature of the
grate.
When water cooled floor tubes are employed, part of the
heat given up by the grate bars goes toward raising the
temperature of, or possibly even generating some steam in, the
floor tube water. This represents a nett loss of heat from
the furnace. In effect extra heating surface has been added
at grate level. MR. LEVY said that he was convinced that this
effect is the cause of the somewhat dull fires which have been
observed in pinhole grate boilers. As the boilers' steaming
performance has not been affected by this, N.E.1.-John
Thompson are delighted to be in a position where they can,
with confidence, move to air as the floor tube cooling medium.
This will be slightly less effective than water as a coolant
(which should improve combustion), will lead to lower cost
installations and will readily permit quantitative measurement
of coolant performance.

Paper:

" C o n t r a c t s f o r S u p p l y o f Heavy G e a r i n g " , by R.F.


and J . C . Fleming.

The p a p e r was p r e s e n t e d by MR.

Beale

BEALE.

Discussion
DR. ALLEN s a i d t h a t a c o - o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e h a s b e e n
a r r a n g e d whereby CSIRO t o g e t h e r w i t h S u g a r R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e ,
l a r g e g e a r m a n u f a c t u r e r s and o t h e r l a r g e g e a r u s e r s w i l l b u i l d
p o r t a b l e g e a r m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e s f o r u s e by m a n u f a c t u r e r s and
i n d u s t r i a l users.
He a s k e d w h e t h e r g e a r m a n u f a c t u r e r s l o a d t h e
g e a r t r a i n s when c h e c k i n g them by b l u e marking t o e n s u r e t h a t
r e a l i s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s e x i s t a t t h e time of checking.
MR. BEALE r e p l i e d t h a t i t i s n o t u s u a l t o a p p l y more
t h a n 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e working t o r q u e d u r i n g s u c h a t e s t u s u a l l y much l e s s t h a n t h a t . An a r t i f i c e now becoming w e l l
known is t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a permanent o r l a c q u e r t y p e g e a r
marking t o t h e t e e t h .
They a r e t h e n o p e r a t e d u n d e r l o a d . A s
many t o o t h c o n t a c t s a r e t h e n r e c o r d e d by way o f c o m b i n a t i o n s ,
an e x c e l l e n t mark s h o u l d b e a p p a r e n t . He s a i d t h e l a c q u e r used
i n h i s e x p e r i e n c e was "Dychem" o f U.S. o r i g i n .
DR. HARGREAVES remarked t h a t e f f e c t i v e l u b r i c a n t
t e m p e r a t u r e is i m p o r t a n t i n t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f EHL f i l m
He b e l i e v e d
t h i c k n e s s which is i m p o r t a n t i n g e a r l u b r i c a t i o n .
t h a t including q u a n t i t a t i v e d e t a i l s of l u b r i c a t i o n requirements
i n c o n t a c t s would be a 'good t h i n g ' f o r A u s t r a l i a n i n d u s t r y .
He f u r t h e r commented t h a t h e b e l i e v e d t h a t i n situ l a p p i n g
u n d e r f u l l l o a d was n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e a f u l l c o n t a c t w i d t h
b u t t h a t t h e a u t h o r s suggested t h a t such lapping might n o t b e
good and t h a t " t h e r e i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r ex-works a c c u r a c y " .
He a s k e d MR. BEALE t o e x p l a i n why i n eitu l a p p i n g was n o t good.

MR. BEALE r e p l i e d t h a t most s e r i o u s practitioners have a


f a c t o r t o allow f o r t h e instantaneous temperature r i s e
e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e l u b r i c a n t f i l m t r a p p e d i n t h e n i p .
The
F r a n k l i n R e s e a r c h C e n t r e o f P h i l a d e l p h i a (Penn.) h a v e a g r e a t
d e a l of experience i n t h i s area.
With r e g a r d t o l u b r i c a t i o n
d a t a i n c o n t r a c t s some a u t h o r a t i v e " s i f t i n g o u t " o f t h e m a s s i v e
amount o f p u b l i s h e d d a t a would b e needed.
MR. BEALE s a i d t h a t
h i s o b j e c t i o n t o l a p p i n g is t h a t i t is so o f t e n o v e r d o n e o r
c a r r i e d o u t t o o b s c u r e g r o s s d e f e c t s . Works l a p p i n g t o improve
s u r f a c e f i n i s h is a d e s i r a b l e t h i n g . S i t e l a p p i n g c a n b e a n
awkward o p e r a t i o n .
Moderation is n e c e s s a r y o r t o o t h g e o m e t r y
w i l l b e d e g r a d e d a s m e t a l removal is a f u n c t i o n o f s l i d i n g
velocity.

PAPER:

"Number One M i l l Low Speed Gearbox F a i l u r e a t Pioneer


Dillon and A.R. Mille't

M i l l by B.

The paper was presented by Mr. MILLET.


Discussion
DR. ALLEN asked i f the modification of the s h a f t by t h e
i n t r o d u c t i o n of a l a r g e radius f i l l e t was simply following the
recommendations given by the Sugar Research I n s t i t u t e f o r the
l a s t twenty years. He expressed amazement t h a t a drawing of
the s h a f t was n o t a v a i l a b l e s o t h a t i t s s h o r t comings could be
seen b e f o r e i t was purchased. The paper by Beale e a r l i e r i n
t h i s Conference i n d i c a t e d the need f o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and t h i s
paper c e r t a i n l y proved t h a t need. DR. ALLEN then asked whether
i t was impractical t o see drawings before purchase.
He
expressed s u r p r i s e t h a t a manufacturer would not supply a
drawing on request.
MR. MILLET r e p l i e d t h a t some manufacturers refused t o
supply d e t a i l e d , drawings on the b a s i s t h a t the drawings may
f i n d t h e i r way t o a t h i r d p a r t y . He agreed t h a t t h i s argument
was completely unacceptable.

MR. BICKLE commented t h a t the f a i l u r e a t Pioneer m i l l was


due t o a simple b a s i c design f a u l t by t h e manufacturer. He
believed t h a t the m i l l should become more involved i n the
design and s p e c i f i c a t i o n of equipment i n the f u t u r e .

MR. MELBOURNE commented t h a t the problem of o b t a i n i n g


drawings from s u p p l i e r s was of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t to t h e F i j i
Sugar Corporation. In an e f f o r t t o improve the s i t u a t i o n , they
have imposed s t r i n g e n t conditions on s u p p l i e r s whereby the
Corporation r e t a i n s a f i x e d percentage of t h e c o n t r a c t value
u n t i l t h e drawings a r e handed over. In the case of small
c o n t r a c t s , t h i s can amount t o a s much a s f i v e per cent.
However n o t i n every case has t h i s approach been e f f e c t i v e .

PAPER:

"The Lubrication of Mill Brasses", by D.J. Hargreaves.

The paper was presented by THE AUTHOR.


Discussion
MR. McDOUGALL congratulated the author on the paper and
commented on the need for a lubricant to solve the problem of
brass wear, particularly for large brasses. He questioned
whether the brass composition was selected to give maximum
life.
DR. HARGREAVES replied that he thought the standard
composition was 80/10/10 with little lead included. However
there was no industry standard.
MR. BEALE commented that in his time in manufacturing
the general composition was 10 per cent tin and 6 per cent
lead. The lead was not a cheapening agent but was included to
improve the bronze plasticity under extreme loads.
MR. JACKLIN asked how many brasses throughout the
industry gave greater than 10 years life. He expressed a
desire to learn of the secrets of this success.

DR. HARGREAVES replied that Table I of the paper


indicated that three mills had brasses whose lives exceeded 10
years and six mills whose quoted brass lives were equal to 10
years. The survey did not attempt to discover the reasons for
the prolonged brass lives, but simply recorded what the lives
were.
MR. SMITH questioned whether, even though a boundary
lubrication regime was found to exist, a fluid film condition
could exist in the presence of certain lubrication schemes and
oil types.
DR. HARGREAVES stated that he did not believe that fluid
film lubrication could exist in existing brasses for the
reasons outlined in the paper. However there were two factors
which tended to refute this:

1)

Many chief engineers commented that the lubricant should be


very viscous, implying fluid films. Dr. Hargreaves argument
here was that the viscosity may be important not in the
bearing proper but at the ends of the bearing where the
lubricant acted as a seal to prevent ingress of contaminants.
Another possible explanation may be the existence of minature
fluid film bearings within the brass. For 'rough' surfaces,
there may be asperity contact such that EHL can exist between
the contacting asperities. Pockets of lubricant may exist in
the depressions such that hydrostatic action may be possible.
In these cases lubricant viscosity would be important.

2)

Based on a boundary lubrication coefficient of friction of


0.075, about 20kW was required to overcome bearing friction
per bearing. However, measurements of cooling water heat
dissipation indicated that the value was much less than 20kW.
These two methods should give the same value for bearing
friction. One way of doing this would be to reduce the
coefficient of friction drastically to a value which would be
a typical of boundary lubrication and closer to fluid film
lubrication. The author stated that despite these two
factors, he believed that the lubrication regime was boundary
layer, but some mixed lubrication may occur.

MR. KENNY commented that in Hawaii the mills had


ferro-asbestos bearings which were lubricated by pouring
lubricant on the journals until a film was established and then
applying water to the journal. If the lubrication film was lost,
the bearing would overheat. The mill would then have to stop,
the bearing cooled down and the lubricant film re-established.
DR. HARGREAVES replied that because the lubricant film was
necessary did not prove that fluid film lubrication existed. It
may well be that the additives contained in the lubricant were
dominant, not the viscosity. Lubricant viscosity was also very
important in fluid film bearings. Additives were very important
in boundary lubrication. The fact that a complete lubricant film
was required for successful operation did not point to one regime
or the other.

MR. BICKLE commented that in his opinion the three most


important requirements for prolonging mill brass life were 1)

sufficient quantity of oil at the highest pumpable viscosity,

2)

ample quantity of brass cooling water,

3)

prevention of juice, bagasse etc. ingress to the bearing.


He stated that he was satisfied with a brass life of 4-5

years.
DR. HARGREAVES agreed with these comments and stated that
while viscosity was unimportant for boundary lubrication, it may
be significant in providing bearing sealing. In this respect,
there maybe a viscosity level below which bearings run 'hot', so
that viscosity was important so long as it was above a certain
value.
MR. KASSAY stated that in view of the projected savings of
$250 000, has there been any investigation of the cost
effectiveness of the installation of hydrostatic lubrication in
order to ensure full fluid film lubrication.
I

DR. HARGREAVES replied that hydrostatic bearings were much


more expensive to install and would require careful operation in
terms of lubricant purity. These bearings may have been
considered by manufacturers but the author was not aware of any
proposals.

PAPER;

"Purchasing b o i l e r p l a n t f o r sugar m i l l s " , by N . R .


Sheridan, J.D. White and A.H. Thomas.

The paper was presented by M r .

Sheridan.

DISCUSSION
DR. D I X O N commented t h a t m i l l s were doing themselves a d i s s e r v i c e
by n o t performance t e s t i n g b o i l e r p l a n t immediately a f t e r
commissioning when a l l equipment was operating a t peak
performance. Such t e s t s e s t a b l i s h e d a datum a g a i n s t which t o
compare f u t u r e operation. He a l s o questioned the value of 85 per
c e n t e f f i c i e n c y which was s t a t e d i n the paper t o be a t t a i n a b l e .
SHERIDAN r e p l i e d t h a t t h i s l e v e l of e f f i c i e n c y included
p a r t i a l bagasse drying.

MR.

MR. WILLIAMScongratulated the authors on a review of such a


timely s u b j e c t . He s t a t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s of the m i l l

p r o p r i e t o r , f o r both r e t r o f i t and new u n i t s , can b e s t be


p r o t e c t e d by the approach recommended. He sought the a u t h o r s '
comments on two p o i n t s . Previous reported r e s u l t s of bagasse
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Frew, 1977) were well o u t s i d e those shown i n
Table I . Did the autbors agree t h a t t h e r e was a danger i n
o p t i m i s t i c f u e l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ? Secondly, the turndown r a t i o of
3-4 which was s t a t e d a s " e a s i l y achievable" i n the paper, was
much g r e a t e r than had been found commercially v i a b l e i n North
Queensland a s f a r a s a manufacturer's guaranteed performance was
concerned. To o b t a i n a s t a b l e turndown of 4 : l required
considerable c a r e and a t t e n t i o n a t the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s t a g e .
SHERIDAN r e p l i e d t h a t m i l l s should use t h e i r own f u e l
s p e c i f i c a t i o n s when purchasing b o i l e r p l a n t . The values shown i n
Table I were t y p i c a l f u e l f i g u r e s only. He agreed t h a t a
turndown r a t i o of 3 o r 4:l was a l i t t l e o p t i m i s t i c . However t h i s
r a t i o was p o s s i b l e with c a r e f u l design of bagasse b o i l e r s and was
d e s i r a b l e when e l e c t r i c i t y generation formed a major p o r t i o n of
the b o i l e r load.
MR.

REICHARD asked, i n r e l a t i o n t o c o n t r a c t o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
during design approval, how much of a design can a c l i e n t approve
without removing the o b l i g a t i o n of the c o n t r a c t o r t o guarantee
performance.
MR.

MR. SHERIDAN r e p l i e d t h a t a t the tendering and c o n t r a c t signing

s t a g e , the f u l l p l a n t design would not be complete. Further


cooperation and i n t e r a c t i o n was necessary between the c l i e n t and
the c o n t r a c t o r befvre t h e design was completed.
MR. LEVY commented t h a t one of the a r t s of s p e c i f i c a t i o n w r i t i n g
was t o adequately s p e c i f y what was important and functional
without clouding the i s s u e with non-essential d e t a i l . For
example, the bagasse s p e c i f i c a t i o n should primarily include the
range of moisture contents and ash contents t o be catered f o r by
the c o n t r a c t o r , b u t t h e designer needs no o t h e r information,
except i n unusual s i t u a t i o n s . The combustion p r o p e r t i e s of
bagasse were q u i t e adequately defined by the moisture and
ash contents alone. He a l s o noted t h a t i n a discussion of b o i l e r

performance - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the d i s t i n c t i o n should be made


between turndown and dynamic response. The former term r e l a t e d
t o the range of steady s t a t e steaming r a t e c a p a b i l i t i e s of the
b o i l e r . a n d was not connected with matters such a s water l e v e l
control or maintenance of steam pressure during steam load
transients.
GREENWOOD r e f e r r e d t o the statements i n the paper i n r e l a t i o n
t o t h e use of surplus bagasse f o r power generation. He commented
t h a t the p r e s e n t r e t u r n s from e l e c t r i c i t y s a l e s were i n s u f f i c i e n t
encouragement f o r m i l l s t o purchase and operate p l a n t
s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r power export.

MR.

SHERIDAN r e p l i e d t h a t t h e sugar industry should make a


s t r o n g e r and p e r s i s t e n t case t o the e l e c t r i c i t y a u t h o r i t i e s f o r
more a t t r a c t i v e power r e t u r n s .
MR.

MELBOURNE s t a t e d t h a t the paper did n o t consider the


c o n t r a c t u r a l aspect of b o i l e r e r e c t i o n , which accounted f o r
approximately 40 per c e n t of the t o t a l c o s t . The type of
c o n t r a c t entered i n t o with the b o i l e r contractor was of paramount
importance since i t had a s i g n i f i c a n t bearing on the p r o j e c t a s a
whole. The F i j i Sugar Corporation d e f i n i t e l y p r e f e r r e d t h e fixed
p r i c e turnkey approach. This type of c o n t r a c t required very
l i t t l e e f f o r t t o control and c o n t r a c t u r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were
e a s i l y defined.
MR.

SHERIDAN r e p l i e d t h a t the i n f e r r e d c r i t i c i s m of c o n s u l t a n t s
was somewhat j u s t i f i e d . He noted t h a t consultants were needed
where the c l i e n t ' s e x p e r t i s e was lacking o r where t h e r e was a
shortage of manpower. Consultants were a l s o needed where the
checking of p l a n t performance was important.

MR.

PAPER:

"A Labdratory Data Processing System", by P.


A . H. Westmoreland.

Finn and

The paper was presented by MR. WESTMORELAND


Discussion
DR. WHITE asked i f the computer system was the c o r r e c t
s i z e f o r t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n and could the authors have done more
o r b e t t e r with a l a r g e r o r d i f f e r e n t type of computer.
MR. WESTMORELAND r e p l i ed t h a t the sys tern was adequate
f o r c u r r e n t needs.
A l a r g e r system would enable more
e f f i c i e n t processing b u t t h i s i s n o t seen a s necessary.
DR. ALLEN asked i f the truck numbers were unique t o each
m i l l o r t o the whole Bundaberg Sugar Company.
MR. WESTMORELAND r e p l i e d t h a t a l l b i n and motor l o r r y
numbers a r e unique within Bundaberg Sugar Company.
However,
i t i s probable t h a t numbers f o r new s i x tonne b i n s w i l l
overlap numbers f o r the o l d e r 2 . 5 tonne b i n s used i n o t h e r
m i l l a r e a s . Interchange of cane between those p a r t i c u l a r
m i l l s i s p h y s i c a l l y and geographically very d i f f i c u l t .

MR. WALLACE asked the authors i f they have considered


pre-entry of data a t t h e weighbridge and do they consider
pre-entry of weighbridge data t o be advantageous.
MR. WESTMORELAND r e p l i ed t h a t the e n t r y of weighbridge
data was done v i a the weighbridge programme. Limited pree n t r y of data was c u r r e n t l y undertaken a t m i l l s where two
The weighbridge programme could be
railway bridges were used.
modified r e a d i l y t o pre-entry of a l l d a t a . The advantages of
pre-entry might include smoother operation o r b e t t e r use of
manpower.
DR. WHITE asked the authors what e f f o r t i n man years
was required t o develop t h i s s u i t e of programmes.
MR. WESTMORELAND r e p l i e d t h a t the laboratory system
required of the order of one and a h a l f man years i n t o t a l t o
develop.
Several people have been involved over some s i x
years.
DR. WHITE asked i f the data processing system could be
t r a n s f e r r a b l e t o o t h e r m i l l s o r should they develop t h e i r own
programmes separately.
I f t r a n s f e r was p o s s i b l e , what would
be the mechanism required f o r t r a n s f e r .
MR. WESTMORELAND r e p l i e d some modification would be
This would depend on t h e
required f o r o t h e r m i l l s usage.
l o c a l r u l e s and the d e s t i n a t i o n computer system a t t r i b u t e s .

MR. VIGH asked i f the authors intended t o i n t e g r a t e the


commercial and l a b o r a t o r y sys tems i n t h e near f u t u r e and how
a r e the l a b o r a t o r y data r e s u l t s c o r r e l a t e d with cane
receivals.
MR. WESTMORELAND r e p l i e d t h a t f u t u r e development may be
a common data base on the c e n t r a l commercial system.
Laboratory sampling requirements vary f rom d i s t r i c t t o
d i s t r i c t . Cane r e c e i v a l s (weighbridge) programmes a l l o c a t e
samples and determine t h e i r s i z e i n accordance with the l o c a l
r u l e s . Thus a sample may vary from one b i n ( o r one motor
l o r r y ) t o maximum of 2 5 b i n s . The f i l e s used by both
weighbridge and l a b o r a t o r y programmes a r e common.

MR. GAMPE asked i f the CCS a l l o c a t i o n f o r laboratory


samples was on a 24 hour automatic b a s i s o r does the system
require a units clerk.
MR. WESTMORELAND r e p l i e d t h a t the a l l o c a t i o n of CCS t o
dry samples i n accordance with board r e g u l a t i o n s i s a v a i l a b l e
using one of t h e pass word functions from the computer
programme menu. This may be done f o r any range of samples b u t
i s g e n e r a l l y performed f o r the same range of samples reported
t o the commercial sy'stem. A u n i t s c l e r k i s employed t o
maintain the data b a s i s on both the m i l l and commercial
computer S

PAPER:

"Rotary drier flight design" by M.C.J. Hodgson and W.J.


Keast.

The paper was presented by MR. HoDGSON


Discussion
DR. ALLEN congratulated the authors and felt the paper should
assist mills and designers in improving drier performance. He
asked MR. HODGSON if the model could handle changes in flight
design progressively along the drier to change the
characteristics of the curtain and present a continuous hole in
the curtain.
MR. HODGSON replied the model permitted the designer to develop
several flight designs to compensate for the changing flow
nature of sugar as it passed through the drier.

DR. WRIGHT asked if the authors considered continuous


serrations, rather than the half configuration shown in Figure
4. Also in Figure 5 was it practical to aim for an even
distribution across any one cross section of the drier, i.e.
V = 0, rather than at two successive groups of flights as
suggested in the paper,-i.e. V = W.
MR. HODGSON advocated the use of deep serrations rather than
the shallow ones commonly used. The number of serrations was
restricted to not unduly reduce the lifting capacity and the
mechanical strength of the flight. In practice a continuous
curtain could not be produced by a single row of flights. That
could only be achieved by a flight design and number which
could not physically fit in the drier.
DR. ALLEN considered the non continuous vee flight had real
advantages in enabling a deep vee groove to produce a good
early flow, with the blank wall section between vees acting as
a retaining wall to produce a weir effect. That allowed the
sugar to move sideways to the grooves as the flight rotated.
That appeared a valuable feature which, if mixed with other
continuous vee flights could provide a good design.
MR. WEARNE asked MR. HODGSON the gap between the tip of one
flight and the base of the following flight in the particular
drier which had problems filling the flight with sugar.

MR. HODGSON stated in the case outlined the problem arose from
a combination of insufficient space between adjacent flights
and the angles of the flight bends. The flights wh&ch had
problems filling had both angle 1 and angle 2 at 90 and a gap
between flights of 8 cm.
MR. McGRATH asked if the authors had considered a flight design
and fitting configuration that would prevent or minimize
spillage from the entry end of the drier.

MR. HODGSON indicated the paper aimed to predict the


trajectories of particles within the drier. Although the
problem of particle spillage from the ends of the drier had not
been specifically addressed, the model could be used to develop
a flight design for the sugar inlet and outlet ends, with the
bulk of the particles having a small fall trajectory, thus
minimizing spillage.

MR. JENNER commented that the South Johnstone drier had curved
flights which looked like a section from a 900 mm pipe. The 3
metre diameter single drum drier had handled very high sugar
throughputs of up to 70 tonnes per hour.
The conclusions of the paper suggested a curved flight design
would produce a closer to optimal distribution across the drum,
and had any work been done on that aspect.
MR. HODGSON replied that the characteristics of curved flights
had been considered, but that the geometry involved in
calculations with those was substantially different from that
with straight sided flights. The development of the geometry
for curved flights and its inclusion in the model was a
desirable concept.
MR. MARTIN enquired as to whether the problem of different flow
characteristics associated with Brand I and JA sugar had been
overcome in the model.
MR. HODGSON replied that although they were aware of the
problem, no mathematical expression had been identified to
successfully characterize the difference. Thus the model made
no distinction between Brand I and JA sugar.
MR. SHORT asked MR. HODGSON the effect of drum speed on drier
performance.
MR. HODGSON replied that in general, with increasing drum
speed, the mass of sugar transported through the drier by
cascade action increased. If at low speeds material was
kilning along the drum bottom, and not cascading through the
air, then increasing drum speed should improve overall drier
performance.

DR. WHITE asked if the analysis applied for clean flights only
and if so what was the effect of crystal buildup. Also were
any measurements made on air flow distribution.
MR. HODGSON sta.ted that crystal buildup on the flights reduced
sugar throughput by cascade motion. Depending on the flight
size and drum loading, overall drier performance could be
reduced. Knowing the buildup thickness the design dimension
data for the model could be adjusted to obtain an estimate for
the characteristics of dirty flights.

Measurements of air flow distribution were taken within a


stationary drum. MR. HODGSON was interestedto know of a
technique which could successfully measure air flows within a
revolving drier.
MR. GAMPE enquired if improved distribution of sugar across the
drum would actually impede air flow and possibly reduce overall
drier performance.
MR. HODGSON stated the concept addressed by the paper was the
established chemical engineering theory that mass and heat
transfer and therefore drier capacity was maximized when the
contact area between sugar and air was maximized. Elimination
of channels in the sugar curtain through which air could short
circuit was likely to increase the pressure drop of air through
the drum. However established theory stated that elimination
of those channels could only enhance drier performance.

PAPER:

"Minimising Brake Van Wheel S k i d d i n g " by R.A.


Reick and T.B. O'Donohue.
.

James,

M.J.

The p a p e r was p r e s e n t e d by MR. JAMES.


Discussion
MR. ROWE commented t h a t a n a n t i - s k i d d e v i c e was
e s s e n t i a l f o r m a i n t a i n i n g b r a k i n g e f f o r t . The d r i v e r u s i n g t h e
c u r r e n t t y p e o f b r a k e waggon h a s no i d e a when optimum b r a k i n g
was a c h i e v e d . He e i t h e r p u t f l a t s on t h e w h e e l s o r u n d e r
b r a k e d which c o u l d c a u s e d e r a i l m e n t s . T h i s d e v i c e was
e s s e n t i a l i f b r a k e waggons were t o be used e f f i c i e n t l y .

MR. POWER a s k e d i f t h e d r i v e r had any knowledge t h a t


wheel s k i d d i n g and s u b s e q u e n t r e l e a s i n g o f b r a k e s were
occurring.
He f e l t t h a t t h e d r i v e r needed t o be aware t h a t
s k i d d i n g was o c c u r r i n g s o t h a t he c o u l d r e d u c e t h e s e v e r i t y o f
t h e brake application.
MR. JAMES r e p l i e d t h a t t h e d e v i c e worked i n d e p e n d e n t l y
o f t h e d r i v e r . Wheel l o c k u p and s u b s e q u e n t r e l e a s e by t h e
a n t i - s k i d d e v i c e c o u l d t a k e p l a c e many t i m e s p e r m i n u t e
d e p e n d i n g on r a i l c o n d i t i o n s . During d e l i b e r a t e o v e r - b r a k i n g
when wheel l o c k u p o c c u r r e d i t was o n l y f o r a f r a c t i o n o f a
second.
F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s i t seemed u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e d r i v e r
r e q u i r e d a n y i n d i c a t i o n t h a t l o c k u p had o c c u r r e d .
Furthermore,
t h e s p e e d a t which t h e d e v i c e s e n s e d l o c k u p and i n i t i a t e d a
b r a k e r e l e a s e and r e a p p l i c a t i o n was such t h a t any s i g n a l l i n g
d e v i c e would be t o o s l o w .
F o r s i d e rod c o u p l e d w h e e l s such a s i g n a l was n e c e s s a r y
b e c a u s e a l l t h r e e a x l e s o f a b r a k e waggon c o u l d l o c k u p .
In
t h i s s i t u a t i o n a b r a k e p r e s s u r e r e d u c t i o n i n i t i a t e d by t h e
d r i v e r was n e c e s s a r y .
MR. FROST commented t h a t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f b r a k e v a n s
was most i m p o r t a n t a s s c h e d u l e s were d e s i g n e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e
o f t h e b r a k e v a n s c a p a b i l i t i e s , i n s t e a d of r e g a r d i n g i t a s
e x t r a i n s u r a n c e f o r b r i n g i n g t h e l o a d i n more s a f e l y .
MR. FROST a s k e d i f THE AUTHOR c o u l d g i v e an e s t i m a t e o f
t h e c o s t of t h e a n t i - s k i d device.
MR. JAMES r e p l i e d t h a t t h e approximate p r e s e n t d a y c o s t s
I n s t a l l a t i o n c o s t s were a
o f t h e a n t i - s k i d d e v i c e was $5 500.
f u r t h e r $ 1 800. Commercially s u p p l i e d s i d e r o d s and c r a n k s
would c o s t between $15 000 and $20 000. New a x l e s w i t h
s u i t a b l e e x t e n s i o h s f o r c r a n k s would a l s o be r e q u i r e d .
MR. BICKLE commented t h a t t h e r e a r e s t i l l many m i l l s who
d o n o t h a v e b r a k e v a n s and e x p e r i e n c e d problems re wheel
s k i d d i n g and f l a t s on t h e i r c a n e l o c o m o t i v e s .

MR. BICKLE asked if THE AUTHOR would comment on the


suitability of this anti-skidding device for fitting to
conventional cane locomotives.
MR. JAMES replied that after further proving trials
during the 1984 season, it was hoped to extend the use of the
equipment to control locomotive wheel skidding on bogie
locomotives. For cane railway locomotives only one sensor
would be required because all wheels are mechanically coupled
by the drive train. For side rod type 0-6-0 locomotives, it
would be necessary to drive the device by chains or belts.
This approach may not be suitable.

Paper:

"The E f f e c t s o f S i d i n g C a p a c i t i e s o n Cane T r a n s p o r t
S c h e d u l e s " , by A . J . P i n k n e y .

The p a p e r was p r e s e n t e d by THE AUTHOR.


Discussion
M R . BATHGATE a s k e d w h e t h e r e a r l y h a r v e s t s t a r t s and
l a t e r h a r v e s t i n g would t o g e t h e r l e a d t o e v e n f r e s h e r c a n e t h a t i s , w h a t would b e t h e e f f e c t o f e x t e n d e d h a r v e s t i n g h o u r s .

MR. PINKNEY r e p l i e d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e c a n e a g e is
p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e a r e a under t h e cane s t o c k curve.
Lowering
t h i s c u r v e ( e a r l i e r z e r o h o u r ) and a l t e r i n g i t s s h a p e ( b y l a t e r
h a r v e s t i n g ) w i l l b o t h improve a v e r a g e cane age.
Maximum
b e n e f i t is o b t a i n e d b y h a v i n g b o t h e a r l y z e r o h o u r a n d l a t e
harvesting.
MR. COUCHMAN r e m a r k e d t h a t c a n e a g e s h o u l d p o s s i b l y b e
e x p r e s s e d a s a w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e and a s k e d THE AUTHOR t o comment
on t h e d i f f e r e n c e between s i m p l e a v e r a g e c a n e age and weighted
average.
MR. PINKNEY r e p l i e d t h a t a t p r e s e n t ACRSS c o n s i d e r s o n l y
a v e r a g e c a n e a g e b u t i t was f e l t t h a t a r e d u c t i o n i n a v e r a g e
a g e would a l s o r e d u c e t h e q u a n t i t y o f c a n e o l d e r t h a n a c e r t a i n
age.
However e x p e r i e n c e shows t h a t t h e s c h e d u l e s p r e s e n t l y
p r o d u c e d by ACRSS c a n h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n t a g e o f " s t a l e "
cane.
MR. FROST commented t h a t S o u t h J o h n s t o n e had b e e n u s i n g
t h e program i n an e x t e n s i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e t r a n s p o r t
s y s t e m w i t h a v i e w t o r e d u c i n g l o c o m o t i v e s h i f t s by
r a t i o n a l i s i n g s i d i n g c a p a c i t i e s and number o f s i d i n g s a n d t h a t
ACRSS h a d p r o v e d v e r y v a l u a b l e i n t h i s s t u d y .
South Johnstone
s t a r t s h a r v e s t i n g a t a b o u t 3 a.m. w h i c h c a n g i v e a z e r o h o u r a s
e a r l y a s 7 a-m.
There is d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g h a r v e s t e r s to
c u t l a t e i n t h e afternoon because of s e r v i c e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n
c a s e o f breakdown.
MR. PINKNEY s a i d t h a t ACRSS h a s c e r t a i n l y h i g h l i g h t e d
s i d i n g c a p a c i t y problems a t South Johnstone.
He f e l t t h a t many
m i l l s c o u l d make c o n s i d e r a b l e s a v i n g s i n t r a n s p o r t c o s t s b y
increasing siding capacities.
E a r l y h a r v e s t i n g and ( t h e r e f o r e )
z e r o hour a s s i s t i n o b t a i n i n g an a c c e p t a b l e cane age b u t l a t e
h a r v e s t i n g is j u s t a s important.
The c h a n c e s o f h a r v e s t e r
b r e a k d o w n a r e b e i n g r e d u c e d by more r e c e n t v e r s i o n s o f
h a r v e s t i n g machinery.
Real, i n d u s t r y wide, s a v i n g s a r e t o b e
made b y h a r v e s t i n g l a t e i n t h e a f t e r n o o n and e v e r y e f f o r t m u s t
b e made t o e n c o u r a g e i t .
MR. WESTMORELAND a s k e d THE AUTHOR t o comment o n t h e
f e a s i b i l i t y o f r u n n i n g t h e s y s t e m d a i l y and what t y p e o f
computer might be n e c e s s a r y t o do t h i s .

MR. PINKNEY s a i d t h a t t h e computer t i m e r e q u i r e d t o


p r o d u c e a s c h e d u l e w i t h ACRSS d e p e n d s o n t h e computer u s e d .
With t h e CSIRONET CYBER 76 a s c h e d u l e c o u l d be produced i n
a b o u t f i v e m i n u t e s f o r some a p p l i c a t i o n s . O v e r n i g h t r u n s a r e
r e q u i r e d on t h e S u g a r R e s e a r c h VAX 750.
Although t h e s c h e d u l e
c o u l d be produced o v e r n i g h t t h e s c h e d u l e produced by t h e
p r e s e n t v e r s i o n o f ACRSS would p r o b a b l y need some m o d i f i c a t i o n
Rather
b e f o r e i t would be p r a c t i c a l f o r t h e d a y ' s o p e r a t i o n .
t h a n a t t e m p t d a y by d a y o p e r a t i o n i t m i g h t b e more u s e f u l t o
g e n e r a t e b e f o r e t h e c r u s h i n g s e a s o n , a s m a l l number o f
schedules, each f o r a t y p i c a l d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of cane
s u p p l y , and t o modify t h e s e s c h e d u l e s a s n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n
s u i t a b l e transport plans.
MR. QUAID a s k e d w h e t h e r ACRSS c a n h e l p i n t h e d e s i g n o f
f u l l s and e m p t i e s y a r d s .

MR. PINKNEY s a i d t h a t ACRSS


reduces t o t a l m i l l yard capacity.
c o u l d r e q u i r e more b i n s o r l e a d t o
ACRSS may be used t o c a l c u l a t e t h e
i n e f f i c i e n t m i l l yards.

can produce a schedule t h a t


Such a s c h e d u l e , however,
higher average cane age.
c o s t s of operating

PAPER:

"The Use o f H u c k b o l t F a s t e n e r s i n Sugar Tramway Track


J o i n t s - a T e s t R e p o r t " , by P. J. Rodgers-Wilson.

The p a p e r was p r e s e n t e d by THE AUTHOR.


Discussion
MR. MULBORN s a i d t h a t t h e F i j i S u g a r Company h a v e been
u s i n g H u c k b o l t s o n c a n e c a r r i e r s l a t s f o r two y e a r s and t h e
r e s u l t o f t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n downtime i n t h i s a r e a had been
reduced t o p r a c t i c a l l y zero.
He went on t o s a y t h a t t h e y were
very s a t i s f i e d with Huckbolts.

MR. RODGERS-WILSON t h e n s a i d t h e Q u e e n s l a n d s u g a r
i n d u s t r y had u t i l i z e d Huck F a s t e n e r s i n a number o f t r a c k ,
r o l l i n g s t o c k and p l a n t a p p l i c a t i o n s .
H u c k b o l t F a s t e n e r s have
shown t h e m s e l v e s t o b e a b l e t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e m a i n t e n a n c e
c o s t s and equipment downtime where t h e y r e p l a c e c o n v e n t i o n a l
threaded f a s t e n e r s .
The e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e F i j i S u g a r
C o r p o r a t i o n was c e r t a i n l y n o t u n u s u a l .
MR. SHORT t h e n a s k e d t h a t s i n c e t h e clamping f o r c e
d e t e r m i n e d e x p e r i m e n t a l l y was d e t e r m i n e d o n a l o n g e r b o l t t h a n
a c t u a l l y used i n p r a c t i c e , d i d t h i s mean t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l l y d e t e r m i n e d clamping f o r c e was a c t u a l l y d i f f e r e n t t o t h a t
for the actual b o l t length.

I n r e p l y , MR. RODGERS-WILSON s a i d t h a t i n t h e o r i g i n a l
t e s t program, Huckbolt P a r t No. C50LR-BR-24-92 was used f o r t h e
a c t u a l l o a d c e l l t e s t program. A f a s t e n e r , more a p p r o p r i a t e t o
t h e g r i p d i m e n s i o n i n t h e tramway a p p l i c a t i o n - C50LR-BR-24-60
was l o a d c e l l t e s t e d t o p r o v i d e c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a . T h a t t e s t
showed t h a t t h e f a s t e n e r used i n t h e t e s t program a c h i e v e d an
a v e r a g e clamp f o r c e o f 138.7 kN and t h e f a s t e n e r more
a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n a c h i e v e d an a v e r a g e clamp
f o r c e o f 156.5 kN. T h e s e f i g u r e s compared t o t h e minimum
s p e c i f i e d clamp f o r c e f o r t h a t d i a m e t e r a t 126.3 kN.
This
would i n d i c a t e t h a t c e r t a i n l y t h e r e is a v a r i a t i o n i n a c h i e v e d
clamp f o r c e and t h e a c t u a l clamp f o r c e a c h i e v e d i n s e r v i c e w i l l
be h i g h e r t h a n r e f l e c t e d by t h e t e s t p r o g r a m s .
MR. JUFFS a s k e d t h e a u t h o r i f any e x p e r i e n c e had been
g a i n e d on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f H u c k b o l t s i n d e r a i l m e n t
situations.

I n r e p l y , MR. RODGERS-WILSON s a i d t h e r e had been no


r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c e s of Huckbolt F a s t e n e r f a i l u r e i n a
d e r a i l m e n t s i t u a t i o n . To p r e v e n t c a t a s t r o p h i c j o i n t f a i l u r e i n
a d e r a i l m e n t s i t u a t i o n , i t i s common p r a c t i c e t o a l t e r n a t e t h e
p o s i t i o n o f b o l t head and c o l l a r o n e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e t r a c k
j o i n t s o t h a t i n a d e r a i l m e n t s i t u a t i o n a t l e a s t o n e b o l t on
e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e j o i n t r e m a i n s i n t a c t i f t h e wheel f l a n g e
d e s t r o y s t h e c o l l a r s i d e o f t h e b o l t p r o t r u d i n g o u t from t h e
r a i l h e a d . He t h e n went o n t o s a y t h a t i t is i n f a c t common

p r a c t i c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d t o a l t e r n a t e b o l t head and c o l l a r
on e i t h e r s i d e o f t r a c k j o i n t s whether t h e y a r e f o u r b o l t o r
s i x bolt joints.
MR. TAYLOR a s k e d THE AUTHOR i f a n y t e s t s had b e e n
c o n d u c t e d w i t h b o l t head o r i e n t a t i o n a r r a n g e d so t h a t t h e p i n
t a i l end is on t h e s i d e o f t h e running edge o f wheel f l a n g e .

I n r e p l y , MR. RODGERS-WILSON s a i d t h a t no s u c h t e s t s
had b e e n c o n d u c t e d . A l l t e s t s had b e e n d o n e w i t h a l t e r n a t e
head and t a i l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s .

Paper:

"Improvements i n l o w grade exhaustion a t Pioneer M i l l ",


G.J. McGrath and M.W. Webster.

by

The paper was presented by MR McGRATH

Discussion
MR JAMES comented t h a t the paper d e a l t with a c l a s s i c example of a
d e l i b e r a t e , systematic and p e r s i s t e n t approach t o a problem which had been
tackled with the s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e a t every m i l l . He was
surprised t h a t the e f f e c t s of h o t b o i l i n g d i d not p e r s i s t and t h a t v a r i a t i o n
i n dropping b r i x , p u r i t y and grain s i z e f a i l e d t o improve the pan performance.
He added t h a t it would have been more proper t o include RSIAsh r a t i o s on a
weekly b a s i s r a t h e r than a seasonal one. He a l s o asked what e f f e c t would
hot b o i l i n g and ramping have on exhaustion pointing out t h a t t h e new
technique according t o Table V1 had only 3.7 u n i t s t o gain t o achieve t h e
t a r g e t p u r i t y f o r 1983.

MR McGRATH said t h a t they were a l s o surprised t h a t t h e hot b o i l i n g e f f e c t s


did not p e r s i s t and t h a t they could n o t o f f e r an explanation f o r t h i s
phenomenon. They were r e a l l y dismayed t h a t the b r i x , p u r i t y and grain s i z e
improvements did not help i n reducing the molasses l o s s . In hindsight
though, he said t h a t they should go back and r e a s s e s s the influence of these
v a r i a b l e s i n conjunction with the ramping technique t o see i f the combined
e f f e c t could a s s i s t i n f i n e tuning the system. Hot b o i l i n g with conductivity
ramping would appear t o be the most e f f e c t i v e method of increasing exhaustion
but they d i d not continue t o adopt such techniques because of i t s p o t e n t i a l
t o increase the colour of shipment sugar.
DR WRIGHT commended t h e authors on the implementation of a well thought o u t
a n a l y s i s procedure on individual s t r i k e s which enabled various changes i n
techniques t o be monitored. He mentioned t h a t t h i s type of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
had now been made easy by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h e apparatus l i k e t h e CSR
pressure f i l t e r and the SRI p i l o t c r y s t a l l i s e r . He a l s o suggested t h a t t h e
' l e v e l ' ramped procedure would be p r e f e r a b l e t o the 'time' ramped procedure
used a t Pioneer and f e l t t h a t such procedures could now be e a s i l y
implemented by microprocessor based c o n t r o l l e r s and systems.
MR McGRATH agreed with the comment and affirmed t h a t ramping by l e v e l would

be more e f f e c t i v e than ramping by time. He f u r t h e r s a i d t h a t there were


some c o s t c o n s t r a i n t s on the i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e system a t Pioneer and they
found time ramping was considerably cheaper and extremely easy t o i n s t a l l .
MR STATHAM asked i f any work had been done t o evaluate the success t o the

ramping technique i n r e l a t i o n t o mechanically c i r c u l a t e d pans. He a l s o


asked i f s i m i l a r r e s u l t s could be achieved i n an u n s t i r r e d pan.
MR WEBSTER replied t h a t no attempt had been made t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t of

ramping in an u n s t i r r e d pan primarily because o f t h e h y d r o s t a t i c e f f e c t s on


c i r c u l a t i o n within t h i s l a r g e pan. He a l s o added t h a t p r i o r t o the s t i r r e r
i n s t a l l a t i o n , c i r c u l a t i o n problems were encountered with t h i s pan when

b o i l i n g low grade m a t e r i a l .
DR BROADFOOT s t r e s s e d t h e value i n using a pressure f i l t e r apparatus on
pan drop C ~ a s s e c u i t ef o r routine control. He pointed out t h a t check on
v a r i a b i l i t y i n graining and exhaustion i n C pans could generate
competition amongst sugar b o i l e r s t o achieve good standards i n pan work.
Results given i n Table I indicated t h a t lower molasses p u r i t i e s could be
achieved by b o i l i n g 57-58 p u r i t y massecuites compared with 60-62 p u r i t y
massecuites. He a l s o commented t h a t a gain of 1-1.3 u n i t s of p u r i t y
over the weekend suggested t h a t f u r t h e r exhaustion might s t i l l be
a v a i l a b l e from a d d i t i o n a l capacity i n the c r y s t a l l i s e r s .
MR McCOWAGE asked whether the e f f e c t of hot b o i l i n g on raw sugar colour

could be quantified.
MR McGRATH replied t h a t the hot b o i l i n g d e f i n i t e l y produced darker C
massecuites and f i n a l molasses. The sugar colour was found t o be high
during the period i n which h o t b o i l i n g was p r a c t i s e d i n 1982, but i t
s t i l l remained high i n 1983 when they returned t o cooler boiling. He said
t h a t Dr Wright had previously outlined t h e p o t e n t i a l of h o t massecuites
causing higher sugar colour and therefore they abandoned t h i s technique a s
a precaution t o minimise the colour formation i n shipment sugar.
DR WRIGHT endorsed M r McGrath's comments and s a i d t h a t the work done i n
the p a s t indicated t h a t t h e l a r g e s t increase i n colour i n the pan s t a g e
occurred i n the c r y s t a l l i s e r s . This would be amplified, he s a i d , i f the
massecuites were dropped h o t t e r . An i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s was given by the
gassing e f f e c t of massecuites measured by Dr White e t a1 (1982 Conference)
which increased r a p i d l y with temperature.
MR KEAST asked i f the conductivity feed s e t p o i n t and conductivity a t
dropping were adjusted f o r t h e v a r i a t i o n i n temperature when the change t o
h o t b o i l i n g was made.
MR McGRATH said i n reply t h a t there was no s e t d i r e c t i v e t o the sugar b o i l e r s
a s t o the conductivity s e t p o i n t values. The b o i l e r s adjusted the s e t point
t o correspond with the desired consistency following, f o r example, changes
i n impurity l e v e l s . Undoubtedly, there would have been some changes i n t h e
conductivity s e t point t o compensate f o r the elevated b o i l i n g temperature.
He added t h a t the pans were run up h o t a t about -82.5 kPa and were a l s o
dropped hot a t about 78OC.
MR MILLER commented on the e f f e c t of 'C'

massecuite dropping b r i x on
u l t i m a t e e x h a u s t i b i l i t y . He thought t h a t many people, i n p r a c t i c e , had
found s i m i l a r e f f e c t s t o t h a t reported, i.e. no c l e a r improvement following
an increase i n I/w r a t i o , but s t i l l believed t h a t improvement should have
occurred. The most l i k e l y reason f o r t h i s would be t h a t the pan b o i l i n g
a t constant conductivity, runs o u t l i g h t i . e . low c - c . and low s . s . so t h a t ,
even with extended heavy-up times, f i n e g r a i n would form during the l a t t e r
Any f i n e grain formed and any growth on t o
high b r i x s t a g e of heavy-up.
these n u c l e i through the c r y s t a l l i s e r s would be i r r e t r i e v a b l y l o s t during
fugalling. He f u r t h e r s a i d t h a t the s o l u t i o n was given l a t e r i n the paper
where t h e desired growth conditions were maintained during run-up by
ramping conductivity downwards with increase i n massecuite volume. He a l s o
commented t h a t there was v a l t ~ ei n making provision f o r sampling and pressure

f i l t e r i n g m a s s e c u i t e a t t h e pan f u l l s t a g e and a g a i n a t pan d r o p t o o b t a i n


i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r e l a t i v e amounts o f work b e i n g a c h i e v e d d u r i n g run-up
and heavy-up o p e r a t i o n s . He added t h a t l a r g e l y u n p u b l i s h e d work on b o t h
f a c t o r y and p i l o t s c a l e u n i t s r e v e a l e d t h a t h i g h e r b r i x a t pan d i s c h a r g e gave
improved e x h a u s t i o n a c r o s s t h e pan and t h a t t h i s improvement c o u l d be
m a i n t a i n e d through t h e c r y s t a l l i s e r s even i f some m o d i f i c a t i o n t o o p e r a t i n g
p r a c t i c e s ( s u c h a s j u d i c i o u s m o l a s s e s d i l u t i o n and h i g h e r f i n a l c u r i n g
t e m p e r a t u r e ) had t o be made.
DR NESS r e f e r r e d t o t h e improvement i n flow p a t t e r n claimed by t h e a u t h o r s

a f t e r m o d i f y i n g t h e b a f f l i n g system. He asked i f t h e improvement n o t i c e d


was based on v i s u a l a s s e s s m e n t o r q u a n t i t a t i v e t e s t s i n v o l v i n g t r a c e r work.
He a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t h o t w a t e r a t 70C used i n t h e m a s s e c u i t e r e h e a t e r
appeared t o be a l i t t l e h i g h b u t t h i s would b e a c c e p t a b l e s i n c e no measurable
l o s s e s had been d e t e c t e d . He e n q u i r e d i f t h e a u t h o r s had c a r r i e d o u t any
s a t u r a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e measurements t o e s t a b l i s h t h e l i m i t s on h e a t i n g
water temperatures.
MR McGRATH r e p l i e d t h a t t h e flow p a t t e r n through t h e c r y s t a l l i s e r s was
o b v i o u s l y poor and t h e m a s s e c u i t e was f l o w i n g o v e r t h e t o p o f most b a f f l e s
and i t was t h i s t y p e o f s h o r t - c i r c u i t i n g t h a t t h e y e l i m i n a t e d . He added
t h a t t h e improved flow p a t t e r n was a s s e s s e d v i s u a l l y and t h a t t h e y d i d n o t
c a r r y o u t any t r a c e r t e s t s t o e v a l u a t e i n t e r n a l s h o r t - c i r c u i t i n g .
They
were n o t happy a b o u t u s i n g w a t e r a t 70C f o r t h e m a s s e c u i t e r e h e a t e r b u t
lower t e m p e r a t u r e s gave t h r o u g h p u t problems. No s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s e s were
d e t e c t e d a t t h e h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e p o s s i b l y due t o t h e h i g h m a s s e c u i t e r a t e s
i n e x c e s s o f 27 t o n n e s p e r h o u r . He a l s o s a i d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t c a r r y o u t
any s a t u r a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e measurements.

MR ATHERTON emphasised t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e u s e o f a p r e s s u r e f i l t e r t o
o b t a i n answers r e l a t i n g t o e x h a u s t i o n work. He s a i d t h a t w i t h o u t such
i n f o r m a t i o n t h e chemist d i d n o t know where t o l o o k f o r i n a c r i s i s
situation.
MR BRAIN s a i d t h a t i t was good t o s e e t h e work t h a t was done some 35 y e a r s
ago had been r e p e a t e d . He r e v e a l e d t h a t Messrs C e d r i c Venton, B a s i l Adkins
and h i m s e l f c a r r i e d o u t s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s 35 y e a r s ago i n Mackay and
o b t a i n e d t h e same r e s u l t s . Although t h e t e c h n i q u e s had improved and
p e r s o n n e l had gained w i d e r knowledge, t h e u l t i m a t e r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s
were much t h e same. He c o n g r a t u l a t e d t h e a u t h o r s f o r t h e i r e x c e l l e n t work
and r e p o r t i n g .
MR BATHGATE p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e f i g u r e s g i v e n i n T a b l e V1 i n d i c a t e d a

s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between True and Expected p u r i t i e s


from 7.0 i n 1981 t o 5.0 i n 1982 and 3.7 i n 1983. However, i n 1979 and 1980
t h e d i f f e r e n c e was o n l y 3.1 and 3 . 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . He asked i f t h e a u t h o r s
knew why such a l a r g e i n c r e a s e o c c u r r e d from 1980 t o 1981.
MR McGRATH s a i d i n r e p l y t h a t t h e y could n o t e x p l a i n why t h i s happened.
However, h e e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n o v e r t h e i r p r o c e d u r e f o r d o i n g d r y s u b s t a n c e
a n a l y s e s by t h e h o t a i r oven method. He i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y would be
r e v e r t i n g t o t h e SRI vacuum oven t e c h n i q u e i n t h e coming s e a s o n t o c o n f i r m
the accuracy of other analyses.

MR FINGER compared P i o n e e r ' s a v a i l a b l e C pan c a p a c i t y w i t h i t s t y p i c a l C


m a s s e c u i t e p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s and suggested t h a t t h e r e appeared t o b e t h e
p o t e n t i a l t o v a r y t h e C m a s s e c u i t e b o i l i n g time. He f u r t h e r e n q u i r e d
whether any a t t e m p t s had been made t o maximise t h e b o i l on time and i f s o ,
h e wanted t o know t h e t e c h n i q u e s employed.
M
R McGRATH r e p l i e d t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e t o v a r y t h e C m a s s e c u i t e b o i l i n g
r a t e s t o match B molasses p r o d u c t i o n which t h e y had done on c e r t a i n
o c c a s i o n s . However, t h e i r aim would be t o complete t h e boil-ing c y c l e i n
a s e t time. He added t h a t t h e ramping t e c h n i q u e had allowed them t o b o i l
t h e pan f a s t e r and t h a t t h e y would p r e f e r t o have w a i t i n g p e r i o d s between
s t r i k e s r a t h e r than have t h e pan on i d l e mode. T h i s p o l i c y would change
o f course i f exhaustion decreased.

Paper:

"Corrosion and erosion of fugal screens",


Kelly, E.T. White and L.K.

by C.R. Greig, G.J.

Kirby.

The paper was presented by MR GREIG.

Discussion
MR IRBSTER colnsented t h a t the paper had given him some i n s i g h t a s t o why
t h e i r CC6 fugal screens continued t o wear out. P u r i t y r i s e acorss the fugal
indicated t h a t t h e screens were wearing out. He asked how long the screens
take t o show s i g n s of wear and whether it was possible t o assign a time
s c a l e on the screen wear. He a l s o asked the authors i f they had a method
other than t h a t involving measurement of p u r i t y r i s e , f o r d e t e c t i n g screen
wear i n an operational fugal.
MR GREIG r e p l i e d t h a t the screens a v a i l a b l e were supplied from various

fugals and t h a t no working l i f e d a t a was available. Hence t h e time s c a l e


was not c e r t a i n . He believed t h a t the working l i f e was v a r i a b l e depending
on the q u a l i t y o f the coating attachment and the molasses properties. The
d e t e r i o r a t i o n of screens would probably depend on pH, chloride content and
temperature e t c .
DR BROADFOOT advised t h a t the SRI was trying t o characterise screen wear by
measuring the screen r e s i s t a n c e while the screen s t i l l remained i n place on
the basket. A method had been developed for t h i s purpose but he said t h a t
the problem was t o develop a standard procedure, mainly with regard t o screen
prewashing and rubbing e t c . before the r e s i s t a n c e t e s t could be undertaken.

MR GREIG agreed t h a t the SRI type r e s i s t a n c e measuring device would be of


great b e n e f i t i n monitoring screen wear. Be said t h a t the measurement of
s l o t width and observation of the chrome coating on the screen could a l s o be
regarded a s worthwhile routine measurements. P a r t i a l shedding of the chrome
coating indicated t h a t the s l o t enlargement was not f a r away.

MR FROST asked the authors i f they advocated the use of brass wire brushes
t o refurbish used screens o r a s a preventative measure f o r new screens.

MR GREIG replied t h a t he did not know how successful such a process would be
but s a i d t h a t some German researchers had reported success i n another
application with chrome coatings. To be successful it would have t o be
c a r r i e d out whenever t h e cracks appear. This could mean carrying out the
treatment on new screens and a l s o on a r o u t i n e basis. A routine b a s i s could
mean weekly, d a i l y o r even every s h i f t . He added t h a t s u f f i c i e n t knowledge
was not a v a i l a b l e as y e t t o say anything conclusive.

MR MILLER s a i d t h a t the BHA-BALCO engineers had claimed t h a t there was no


p a r t i c u l a r b e n e f i t i n producing a micro-crack f r e e screen, a s these would
appear a s soon a s flexing occurred i n f i t t i n g and use. He asked whether i t
would be possible t o f i l l these micro-cracks with an i n e r t f l e x i b l e m a t e r i a l ,
such a s s i l a s t i c , by vacuum immersion i n a d i l u t e solution, followed by
pressure release. He noted t h a t although a l l screens have a nickel base
and chromium l a y e r , the wear p a t t e r n s appeared t o d i f f e r amongst d i f f e r e n t
brands.

MR GREIG agreed with t h e comment and s a i d t h a t only short-term b e n e f i t s would


accrue from producing crack-free chromium coatings.

MR BROTHERTON s t a t e d t h a t a s f a r as he knew there seemed t o be only two


manufacturers of screens i n the world. He asked i f we could expect any
i n t e r e s t from them i n solving these problems.
MR KIRBY s a i d t h a t he knew of t h r e e screen manufacturers i n the world.

MR GREIG comented t h a t t h e r e was very l i t t l e incentive f o r the industry t o


c a r r y out f u r t h e r research towards finding a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem. He
added t h a t , even i f the industry came up with a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s b a s i c
problem, s t i l l i t might not be possible t o r e c t i f y these poor q u a l i t y screens
unless t h e r e was competition amongst manufacturers. If a p o t e n t i a l screen
manufacturer i n A u s t r a l i a could be found, then the likelihood of a b e t t e r
screen being developed would be improved.
DR WRIGHT conrmented t h a t i t might be d i f f i c u l t t o produce non divergent

holes i n screens with present etching techniques. Regarding the


t h e chrome p l a t i n g h e noted t h a t i t a l s o occurs with t h e chromed
monopumps p a r t i c u l a r l y on magma pumping duty. He suggested t h a t
spraying treatment ( a f t e r an i n i t i a l flexing operation) might be
f i l l i n g the cracks.

cracking of
r o t o r s of
a metal
one way of

MR GREIG r e p l i e d t h a t screen forming was not by etching but by electroforming.


However, t h e r e were a l t e r n a t i v e s such a s l a s e r c u t t i n g which could be
investigated. The p o s s i b i l i t y of metal spraying could a l s o be u s e f u l .
DR WHITE believed t h a t t h e screens were electroformed (electrodeposited)
and i f t h e o r i g i n a l makes were a v a i l a b l e , the s l o t s could be made t o any
shape provided t h e screens peel o f f . He s a i d t h a t he would l i k e t o emphasise
the f a c t t h a t screens d i d n o t wear i n the r e a l sense. The thickness of the
chromium coating was uniform throughout and i t was t h e corrosion under the
chromium l a y e r which l i f t e d o f f lumps of chromium.

DR SWINDELLS regarded the paper a s one of the b e s t of i t s kind presented t o


the conference i n recent years d e a l i n g with low grade fugal research. Re
pointed out t h a t t h e screen i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 2 though new, showed s i g n s
o f p i t t i n g . He asked i f the authors could comment on t h e p i t t i n g mechanism
i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r instance.

MR GREIG explained t h a t the mechanism of p i t t i n g i n both new and used


screens would have t o be the same except t h a t t h e e l e c t r o l y t e ( f l u i d ) i n t h i s
case could be atmospheric moisture instead of molasses. In such s i t u a t i o n s ,
t h e process of p i t t i n g would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y slower.

Paper:

"Thickness o f the crystal layer in continuous centrifuges",


by C.R. Greig, E.T. White and L.K. Kirby.

The p a p e r was p r e s e n t e d by MR GREIG.

Discussion
DR NESS s a i d t h a t t h e v i s c o s i t y d a t a given i n t h e paper r e f e r r e d t o
m a s s e c u i t e a t feed c o n d i t i o n s . He asked i f t h e a u t h o r s had considered
measuring t h e flow p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e m a t e r i a l a s i t is on t h e b a s k e t s i n c e
t h e ' v i s c o s i t y ' of t h e m a t e r i a l would change v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y up t h e
b a s k e t . He suggested t h a t t h e r e would be a d r a m a t i c change i n flow
behaviour a t t h e c o l o u r l i n e .

MR GREIG agreed t h a t f o r flow c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h e v i s c o s i t y v a r i e s w i t h


c r y s t a l c o n t e n t up t h e s c r e e n and, i f p o s s i b l e , it should be measured.
To d a t e no a t t e m p t s had been made t o do t h i s b u t i t was p o s s i b l e t h a t
m a t e r i a l could be sampled a t v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s on t h e s c r e e n and both
c r y s t a l c o n t e n t and v i s c o s i t y behaviour measured.
DR WRIGHT s a i d t h a t he was c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f in-fugal
a f f i n a t i o n i n continuous f u g a l s . He asked t h e a u t h o r s t o comment on t h e
p o s s i b l e changes i n s u g a r flow above t h e c o l o u r l i n e which might occur
when s y r u p s a r e sprayed o n t o t h e l a y e r above t h e c o l o u r l i n e . I n r e f e r r i n g
t o MR GREIG'S i n t r o d u c t o r y comments DR WRIGHT s a i d t h a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n of
a multi-angle f u g a l b a s k e t would r e q u i r e t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e c o l o u r
l i n e b e a c c u r a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d a t t h e j u n c t i o n o f t h e a n g l e s . The u s e of a
r e f l e c t a n c e m e t e r t o d e t e c t t h e c o l o u r l i n e would be a b i g advantage f o r
t h i s control.

MR GREIG s a i d i n r e p l y t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f a f f i n a t i o n depend on t h e amount


o f s y r u p added. Small amounts l e s s t h a n t h e molasses f r e e v o i d volume of
t h e bed should have l i t t l e e f f e c t . Large amounts i n e x c e s s of t h e f r e e
v o i d volume w i l l g i v e a f l u i d l a y e r o v e r t h e bed and e s s e n t i a l l y g i v e a
new c o l o u r l i n e . P o s s i b l y flow behaviour s i m i l a r t o t h a t below t h e c o l o u r
l i n e might be observed. He added t h a t t h e concept o f a multi-angled
b a s k e t would r e q u i r e an a c c u r a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d c o l o u r l i n e . At t h i s s t a g e
t h e r e f l e c t a n c e m e t e r appeared t o be t h e means t o e f f e c t t h i s . The
v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h e c o l o u r l i n e d i d complicate t h e m a t t e r , however.

MR COLLINS s a i d t h a t work by CSR L t d i n r e c e n t y e a r s had i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e


mechanisms r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u r i t y r i s e a c r o s s a c o n t i n u o u s f u g a l were
o p e r a t i v e below t h e c o l o u r l i n e and t h a t f i n e g r a i n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
p u r i t y r i s e r a t h e r t h a n d i s s o l u t i o n . An important q u e s t i o n which remained
t o be answered was whether c r y s t a l breakage was o c c u r r i n g t o a s i g n i f i c a n t
e x t e n t i n t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n chamber and on t h e f u g a l s c r e e n below t h e
c o l o u r l i n e o r whether a l l f i n e c r y s t a l was p r e s e n t i n t h e m a s s e c u i t e a s
feed t o t h e f u g a l . The answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n would d i r e c t f u t u r e work
t o f u g a l d e s i g n o r back t o t h e pan s t a t i o n t o minimise molasses p u r i t y .
MR GREIG r e p l i e d t h a t i n t h i s c o n t i n u i n g work experiments a r e t o be
c a r r i e d o u t i n s u g a r f a c t o r i e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f breakage i n t h e
a c c e l e r a t i o n chamber could be i n v e s t i g a t e d and t h e y would be l o o k i n g a t t h e
feed and product c r y s t a l s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n s .

MR WALLACE commented t h a t when p u r g i n g B m a s s e c u i t e a t about 20 t.h-' i n a


KllOO f u g a l i t was n o t i c e d t h a t m a t e r i a l was r e a c h i n g t h e c o l o u r l i n e and
t h e n a c t u a l l y g o i n g back down t h e b a s k e t t o f i n d a n o t h e r p a t h up t h e
basket.
MR GREIG s a i d h e found such o b s e r v a t i o n s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d and c o u l d
n o t s u g g e s t a n e x p l a n a t i o n from any o f t h e s e p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s .

DR BROADFOOT s a i d t h a t h e b e l i e v e d t h e key t o b e t t e r f u g a l l i n g work was t o


f i n d a way t o a c h i e v e a more c o n s i s t e n t c o l o u r l i n e . He t h e n asked i f any
o f t h e v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d i n t h i s work had been shown t o produce a more
consistent colour line.
MR GREIG s a i d i n r e p l y t h a t no s t u d i e s had been c a r r i e d o u t w i t h t h e aim o f
i n v e s t i g a t i n g f e e d i n g . However, from e x p e r i e n c e , h e b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e
c o l o u r l i n e was more u n i f o r m f o r low v i s c o s i t y a n d / o r low c r y s t a l c o n t e n t
m a s s e c u i t e s , and f o r t h o s e o f u n i f o r m c o n s i s t e n c y .
MR AMES s a i d t h a t h e wished t o e n d o r s e t h e comments by DR BROADFOOT
r e g a r d i n g t h e need t o produce a s t a b l e c o l o u r l i n e . I n t h e f u g a l s h e had
viewed t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f a s t a b l e c o l o u r l i n e .

MR GAMPE e n q u i r e d i f t h e a u t h o r s had been a b l e t o a s c e r t a i n t h e d e g r e e o f


s e p a r a t i o n above and below t h e c o l o u r l i n e .
MR GREIG r e p l i e d t h a t no measurements had been made, b u t h e c o n s i d e r e d t h a t
t h e c o l o u r l i n e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e s t a g e a t which t h e o n l y m o l a s s e s r e m a i n i n g
i s t h e v o i d volume o f t h e c r y s t a l bed. He had s t u d i e d t h e work o f
DR SWINDELLS where it was r e p o r t e d t h a t above t h e c o l o u r l i n e an a d d i t i o n a l
one t o two u n i t s of C s u g a r p u r i t y were a c h i e v e d .

MR BYRNE asked i f t h e a u t h o r c o u l d a d v i s e t h e n a t what h e i g h t t h e c o l o u r


l i n e s h o u l d be h e l d i n t h e f u g a l b a s k e t .
MR GREIG s a i d t h a t b e c a u s e v e r y l i t t l e s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d above t h e
c o l o u r l i n e h e would s u g g e s t t h a t f u g a l s be o p e r a t e d t o g i v e a c o l o u r l i n e
a s c l o s e t o t h e t o p o f t h e b a s k e t a s p o s s i b l e . However, one must e n s u r e
t h a t a s few s u r g e s a s p o s s i b l e exceed t h e b a s k e t t o p i n t h e c a s e o f a
variable colour l i n e position.
MR JAMES r e f e r r e d t o t h e i d e a o f a two-angled b a s k e t and asked which way
would you a n g l e such a b a s k e t . He f u r t h e r added t h a t a change i n d i r e c t i o n
a l o n g t h e b a s k e t must c a u s e c r y s t a l i m p a c t , t h e r e f o r e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f
b r e a k a g e , and o t h e r unknown c o m p l i c a t i o n s .

MR GREIG r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y had no i d e a what a n g l e o r a n g l e s were optimum


f o r f u g a l performance. R u s s i a n and Amcrican l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r e d
c o n t r a d i c t o r y views on t h e e f f e c t of v i s c o s i t y on t h e optimum a n g l e s o t h e
b e s t approach seems t o be t o do t h e measurements and f i n d o u t . S i m i l a r l y
t h e e f f e c t s on c r y s t a l b r e a k a g e would have t o be found o u t t h e h a r d way.
DR SWINDELLS s a i d t h a t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c o l o u r l i n e d e b a t e h e f e l t t h a t
t h e wave p a t t e r n was p o s s i b l y due t o t h r e e f a c t o r s :
( i ) non-uniform v i s c o s i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e m a s s e c u i t e (due t o t e m p e r a t u r e
variations within the feed);
( i i ) non-uniform c r y s t a l c o n t e n t ; and
( i i i ) feed s u r g e s .

Work t o d a t e had shown t h a t bed drainage following t h e f i l t r a t i o n mechanism


contributes l i t t l e t o molasses separation; hence t h e fugal should be
operated with the colour l i n e a s close t o the top a s p r a c t i c a l l y possible.
MR RIDDELL asked i f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s should be c a r r i e d out on methods of
force feeding fugals under controlled conditions o t h e r than the
conventional methods.
MR KIRBY r e f e r r e d t o some European work where massecuite had been force fed
t o continuous fugals by a pump.

Paper:

'The detection o f sugar crystals in C-molasses",


by S. Reichard and A.L. Fitzmaurice.

The paper was presented by MR REICHARD.

Discussion
DR SWINDELLS commented t h a t he considered t h i s device an important

contribution s i n c e , together with motor load and r e f l e c t a n c e meter c o n t r o l ,


it would enable t h e low grade fugal s t a t i o n t o be f u l l y automatically
controlled. He then asked t h e authors f o r t h e c a p i t a l and labour c o s t
components of t h e u n i t .

MR REICHARD r e p l i e d t h a t he could not say what the s e l l i n g p r i c e of a


ready-built u n i t would be since instrument manufacturers have t o make a
p r o f i t which they do not always d i s c l o s e . However, a conscientiously
prepared c o s t estimate f o r t h e u n i t which was j o i n t l y b u i l t by Mourilyan
M i l l and SRI put the c o s t a t $1345 (including labour). Manufacturer's
p r o f i t would a t l e a s t double t h a t price. I f t h e u n i t were b u i l t i n a
sugar m i l l t h e c o s t would be $ 1 3 4 5 .
DR WHITE r e f e r r e d t o t h e strong e f f e c t s of v i s c o s i t y on t h e performance of

the f i r s t u n i t using t a p e r - r o l l e r bearings. He then asked what were t h e


e f f e c t s of v i s c o s i t y on the operation of t h i s present u n i t .
MR REICHARD r e p l i e d t h a t throughout t h e t e s t s they were very much aware of

v i s c o s i t y r e l a t e d forces. The motor c u r r e n t varied q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y


with v i s c o s i t y . Also there were forces bending t h e a n v i l bar away from
t h e sample t r a n s f e r wheel. These e f f e c t s could be exploited by adding
some f u r t h e r e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t r y thus making t h e machine perform an
a d d i t i o n a l function - sensing v i s c o s i t y and using t h a t f o r molasses
dilution control.

MR CHILDS asked MR REICHARD what e f f e c t extraneous noise would have on t h e


accelerometer.
MR REICHARD r e p l i e d t h a t most of the noise and v i b r a t i o n i n t h e m i l l i s a t
low frequencies, about 50 Hz. The accelerometer used i n t h i s device has a
n a t u r a l resonance a t about 200 kHz - about t e n times higher than t h e
sonar used by b a t s . It was f o r t u n a t e t h a t a breaking c r y s t a l generates
such high frequency components, and t h e r e f o r e they could make t h e system
very s e n s i t i v e a t t h a t high frequency, but i n s e n s i t i v e a t lower
frequencies. Occasionally someone might drop a spanner o r make some o t h e r
high frequency noise, and the instrument w i l l sense t h a t , However, t h e
alarm i s derived through an i n t e g r a t o r and t h e noise w u l d have t o p e r s i s t
continuously t o be of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The occasional bang, although
r e g i s t e r e d by t h e instrument, is of no s i g n i f i c a n c e i n i t s primary function
of d e t e c t i n g c r y s t a l s .
MR AMES asked what was t h e smallest s i z e c r y s t a l t h a t t h e device could

detect.

MR REICHARD r e p l i e d t h a t they t r i e d t o d e t e c t c r y s t a l s l a r g e r than 0.1 mm


because t h a t was t h e s i z e of c r y s t a l s escaping through the screen.

C e r t a i n l y they could have reduced t h e gap between t h e wheel and t h e a n v i l


t o d e t e c t smaller c r y s t a l s but they were t r y i n g t o avoid d e t e c t i n g t h e
very t i n y c r y s t a l s which abound i n molasses. However, he d i d not know
what t h e p r a c t i c a l lower l i m i t was f o r t h e gap.
DR WRIGHT commented on an e a r l i e r q u e s t i o n by DR WHITE regarding t h e
e f f e c t of v i s c o s i t y on t h e reading from t h e p r e s e n t instrument. The use
of a pre-scraper on t h e wheel b e f o r e t h e accelerometer p l a t e s t a b i l i s e s
t h e t h i c k n e s s of t h e l a y e r i n s p i t e of v i s c o s i t y changes, and t h e p u l s e
reading was r e l a t i v e l y independent of v i s c o s i t y . The extension of t h e
instrument t o d e t e c t v i s c o s i t y through t h e torque on t h e accelerometer
p l a t e f o r a r e l a t i v e l y low c o s t would seem t o be worth looking a t a s a
means of f u g a l molasses b r i x c o n t r o l v i a v i s c o s i t y measurement.

MR MESSITER asked t h e a u t h o r s i f t h e use of two-way r a d i o s o p e r a t i n g i n


t h e UHF range could have any adverse e f f e c t on t h e s i g n a l obtained from
t h e accelerometer.
MR REICHARD r e p l i e d t h a t t h e accelerometer and i t s c a b l e a r e h e a v i l y

screened and a r e contained i n a metal box. He doubted i f even a v e r y


powerful two-way r a d i o could break through t h a t amount of screening.
However, even i f i t d i d , t h e d i s t u r b a n c e would be only temporary. While
such a d i s t u r b a n c e was f a t a l f o r computers, t h i s machine averages s i g n a l s
over minutes b e f o r e g i v i n g alarms. Therefore a temporary d i s t u r b a n c e was
of no r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e .

MR WOODS enquired i f wear on t h e s c r a p e r b l a d e over a period of time


would have any e f f e c t on t h e accuracy of t h e output s i g n a l from t h e
instrument.
MR REICHARD r e p l i e d t h a t they had n o t n o t i c e d any wear over t h e r e l a t i v e l y
s h o r t period of two weeks of t e s t i n g . The s c r a p e r was made of a d u r a b l e
s o f t p l a s t i c and any l o s s of shape would be e a s i l y d e t e c t e d by looking a t
t h e f a c e of t h e wheel a f t e r t h e s c r a p e r . I f t h e metal was c l e a n t h e n t h e
molasses was being removed e f f i c i e n t l y . I f wear occurs it w i l l be gradual
and it w i l l have a gradual e f f e c t on t h e composition of t h e new sample.
MR CONDIE commented t h a t r a d i o frequency c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t s i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n

and t h a t they had experienced d i f f i c u l t y with t h e b o i l e r c o n t r o l s from t h i s


cause. A t t e n t i o n t o screening, metal c a s e s around both instruments and
e a r t h i n g , and l o c a t i n g t h e powerful b a s e s e t s away from instruments were
a l l important. He then asked t h e a u t h o r s t o e l a b o r a t e f u r t h e r on how t h e
method could be developed t o measure v i s c o s i t y .
bfR REICHARD r e p l i e d t h a t they had experimented b r i e f l y with t h i s . Motor
c u r r e n t was one obvious approach and it changed by approximately 50% f o r a
change i n h r i x from 83 t o 88 (by a l t e r i n g t h e water a d d i t i o n ) . Another
p o s s i b i l i t y would be t o a t t a c h s t r a i n gauges t o t h e a n v i l b a r . It had
been observed t h a t an a n v i l b a r of some 3 mm t h i c k n e s s bends a s a r e s u l t
of t h e molasses b e i n g sheared by an amount t h a t can be d e t e c t e d by touch.
Therefore a l a r g e s i g n a l would be a v a i l a b l e from s t r a i n gauges. To
develop t h e i d e a f u r t h e r some more work was needed. That was o u t s i d e t h e
scope of t h e development of a c r y s t a l d e t e c t o r , but it was f e l t t h a t t h e
p o s s i b i l i t y of having two instruments f o r f u g a l s u p e r v i s i o n f o r a l i t t l e
more than m e p r i c e of one had t o be mentioned h e r e .

MR REICHARD then played a t a p e r e c o r d i n g of t h e count p u l s e s produced by

t h e d e t e c t o r when h o l e s of v a r i o u s s i z e s had been d r i l l e d o r c u t i n a


s c r e e n on a continuous f u g a l . The instrument was a b l e t o d e t e c t even
minor damage t o a screen.
MR KEAST asked how much work was involved i n i n i t i a l l y s e t t i n g t h e
'crunch gap', and f o r how long would t h i s gap remain a c c u r a t e under t h e
i n f l u e n c e of wear and c o r r o s i o n .

MR REICHARD r e p l i e d t h a t t h e i n i t i a l s e t t i n g of t h e gap was done with a


f e e l e r gauge although w i t h some experience t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g could
be gauged from t h e appearance of t h e molasses f i l m on t h e wheel a f t e r t h e
'crunch g a p ' . Over t h e t e s t p e r i o d of t h i s instrument wear was n o t
apparent.
I n summing up MR REICHARD noted t h a t a working v e r s i o n of t h e instrument
was on d i s p l a y f o r t h o s e wishing t o i n s p e c t i t .

Paper:

"Mixing of high viscosity materials with thinning fluids",


by E.T. White and C.K. Hertle.

The paper was presented by DR WHITE.

Discussion
MR BROTHERTON asked i f these same techniques could be used t o study t h e
mixing of b a g a c i l l o i n t o c l a r i f i e r underflow.
DR WHITE s a i d t h a t he thought they could.

They a r e both purely mechanical

s e l e c t i o n and d i s p e r s i o n procedures.
DR SWINDELLS r e f e r r e d t o figure 4 i n t h e paper and asked the author t o

explain why there was a sudden r i s e i n t h e bottom temperature a f t e r about


100 revolutions and why t h e temperature of t h e top and bottom probes
changed more r a p i d l y a f t e r about 275 revolutions.
DR WHITE replied t h a t while the information was drawn a s a continuous curve

the points were r e a l l y d i s c r e t e and were separated considerably. Actually


the same e l e c t r o n i c s u n i t had been used with switching between the t h r e e
sensors. Therefore t h e curve should not be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a continuous
dynamic response. The temperature would change a s a packet of hot water
was swept by and t h i s was random. Whether i t was detected or not depended
on whether or not t h a t p a r t i c u l a r sensor was being monitored a t t h a t time.
Thus it i s hard t o i n t e r p r e t t h e curves shown. Basically they were used
t o i n d i c a t e when no f u r t h e r v a r i a t i o n s (above a c e r t a i n magnitude) were
observed.
For t h e most viscous m a t e r i a l s t e s t e d , t h e molasses was so viscous t h a t t h e
response of t h e thermocouple was adversely affected. In these cases t h e
s u f f i c i e n t l y mixed point was detected v i s u a l l y o r from torque f l u c t u a t i o n s .
DR WRIGHT commented t h a t the s u r f a c e pool of d i l u e n t which s i t s on the
moving surface of h i g h l y viscous m a t e r i a l s i n c r y s t a l l i s e r s and propellerdraught tube mixers under some circumstances seems t o pose a d i f f e r e n t
mechanism t o the macroscopic mechanism measured by t h e authors.
DR WHITE said i n reply t h a t the surface pool can remain t h e r e f o r a long
time a s t h e r e i s l i t t l e d r i v i n g force causing it t o mix in. Diffusion is a

very slow mechanism. They had observed t h i s pool with t h e propellerdraught tube i f i t was run i n the d i r e c t i o n t o g i v e downflow a t t h e
c e n t r e . Reversing t h e d i r e c t i o n took t h i s l i q u i d t o t h e wall and down the
s i d e of t h e v e s s e l . The mechanism of mixing is repeated subdividing and
dispersion of t h e two phases.
In the c r y s t a l l i s e r a non-mixing surface pool can e x i s t on the upflow s i d e
of the v e s s e l and feeding should be avoided i n t h i s area.

MR C. GREIG asked t h e author i f he considered t h a t the r e s u l t s obtained i n


t h i s work would be u s e f u l i n determining t h e mixing of water o r condensate
with the molasses on a fugal screen. He f u r t h e r enquired i f t h e r e might
be an a l t e r n a t i v e experiment which could be u s e f u l i n determining t h e
mixedness achieved i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n .

DR WHITE r e p l i e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s obtained i n t h i s paper would not be


d i r e c t l y u s e f u l t o t h e mixing of water and molasses 0 n . a fugal screen a s
t h e r e i s no mechanical r o t o r causing r e l a t i v e motion of t h e phases. It is
u n l i k e l y t h a t there would be much mixing between the two phases while on
t h e screen because t h e contact time is so short. It is possible t h a t
mixing occurs i n t h e molasses chamber.
DR NESS noted t h a t i n equation 1 of the paper N should be FT2.

He f u r t h e r
commented t h a t with respect t o a c r i t e r i o n f o r mixedness it probably
depended on process requirements. For t h e h e l i c a l ribbon a g i t a t o r i n t h e
sample chamber of the p i p e l i n e viscometer and t h e Sugar Research I n s t i t u t e
p i l o t s c a l e c r y s t a l l i s e r t h e i n t e r e s t was i n uniformity of temperature of
the m a t e r i a l so temperature v a r i a t i o n would be the measure of degree of
mixedness i n t h a t case. For molasses d i l u t i o n i n f a c t o r y c r y s t a l l i s e r s
some measure of t h e uniformity of the v i s c o s i t y of t h e r e s u l t i n g m a t e r i a l
would be an i n d i c a t i o n of mixedness.
DR WHITE r e p l i e d t h a t f o r viscous m a t e r i a l s , 'temperature' mixing and

'material' mixing a r e by t h e same mechanism of subdividing and dispersion.


He t h e r e f o r e expected these r e s u l t s t o be applicable t o both. He agreed
with the comments made on the measures of uniformity of mixing.
MR KEAST asked how applicable t h i s a n a l y s i s method would be t o t h e mixing

of granular m a t e r i a l s such a s sugar. He was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n


t h e addition of water t o t h e sugar b e l t before d r i e r s and t h e sugar
coating technique a s used i n South Africa.
DR WHITE s a i d t h a t he was not sure of t h e types of mixers used i n t h i s
case but i f they involved a mechanical r o t o r he would expect some
similarities.

DR WRIGHT commented t h a t t h e 'mixing-in' a b i l i t y of a f a c t o r y c r y s t a l l i s e r


was, a s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e author's presentation, influenced q u i t e
markedly by t h e degree of exposure of t h e c r y s t a l l i s e r ' s c o i l s . He then
enquired a s t o what exposure l e v e l was used i n t h e mixing experiments done
with the laboratory c r y s t a l l i s e r . DR WRIGHT f u r t h e r commented t h a t m i l l s
tend t o use propeller-draught tube mixers f o r magma remelt tanks and
molasses d i l u t i o n tanks. Bagasse/mud mixers were u s u a l l y h o r i z o n t a l
h e l i c a l screw mixers.
DR WHITE s a i d i n reply t h a t the c o i l s i n t h e laboratory c r y s t a l l i s e r were

always exposed, even a f t e r t h e water was added. The top of t h e l i q u i d


l e v e l was one and a h a l f tube diameters below t h e top tube l e v e l .

PAPER:

" V i s c o m e t r y i n c a n e s u g a r p r o c e s s i n g " b y J.N.

Ness.

The p a p e r was p r e s e n t e d b y t h e a u t h o r .
During t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n
Dr. N e s s commented o n r e c e n t c o l l a b o r a t i v e s t u d i e s between t h e
Bureau o f S u g a r E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n s a n d Sugar Research
I n s t i t u t e o n p r o d u c i n g a recommended s t a n d a r d d e s i g n f o r a
p i p e l i n e viscometer

DISCUSSION
ATHERTON i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e Bureau o f Sugar Experiment
S t a t i o n s and Sugar Research I n s t i t u t e w i l l s h o r t l y b e i s s u i n g a
j o i n t communique d e t a i l i n g t h e recommended s t a n d a r d p i p e l i n e
H e u r g e d a n y m i l l s making a p i p e l i n e v i s c o m e t e r t o
viscometer.
b u i l d t o this s t a n d a r d so t h e r e s u l t s would b e comparable t o
t h o s e from o t h e r o r g a n i s a t i o n s .
MR.

MR. GREIG commented t h a t t h e s h e a r r a t e f o r f l o w o f m o l a s s e s


throuqr t h e s c r e e n s i n continuous f u g a l s is of t h e order o f
500 S
a n d a s k e d i f t e c h n i q u e s were a v a i l a b l e t o measure
v i s c o s i t i e s a t such h i g h s h e a r r a t e s .
NESS r e p l i e d t h a t t h e B r o o k f i e l d r o t a t i o n a l v i s c o m e t e r a n d
t h e p i p e l i n e v i s c o m e t e r u s i n g f a c t o r y compressed a i r W r e a b l e
t o measure v i s c o s i t i e s up t o s h e a r r a t e s of 20
30 S-' o n l y .
However t h e r e a r e r o t a t i o n a l v i s c o m e t e r s which w i l l measure
v i s c o s i t i e s a t t h e shear r a t e of i n t e r e s t . Piston driven
c a p i l l a r y v i s c o m e t e r s c o u l d a l s o b e s u i t a b l e . These t e c h n i q u e s
may b e s u i t a b l e f o r m o l a s s e s s t u d i e s b u t some problems a r e
a n t i c i p a t e d w i t h t h e v e r y h i g h c r y s t a l c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l on t h e
fugal basket.
DR.

MR. RIDDEL d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f u s i n g o n - l i n e
v i s c o s i t y measurement o f j u i c e t o i n d i c a t e when d e x t r a n i s
p r e s e n t i n t h e c a n e s u p p l y due t o t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e d e l a y s
i n o b t a i n i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and b e i n g a b l e t o c o r r e c t t h e
s i t u a t i o n b y adding dextranase.
DR. NESS r e p l i e d t h a t i n t h e p a p e r h e was n o t i n g a p o t e n t i a l
a p p l i c a t i o n f o r v i s c o m e t r y i n f a c t o r y c o n t r o l and acknowledged
t h a t t h e p r o c e d u r e would need some r e f i n e m e n t s i f i t was t o b e
successfully applied.
DR. HARGREAVES p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e l u b r i c a n t i n d u s t r y u s e s a
form o f t h e p i p e l i n e v i s c o m e t e r t o o b t a i n a ' p u m p a b i l i t y ' i n d e x
a n d i n some s i t u a t i o n s s a m p l e s o f l o w e r v i s c o s i t y , a s s a y
measured b y t h e B r o o k f i e l d viscometer w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e
more ' p u m p a b l e ' .
He a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e two methods p r o d u c e
c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s i n m o l a s s e s and m a s s e c u i t e s .
NESS i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s a r e o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n
t h e Brookf i e l d a n d p i p e l i n e v i s c o m e t e r s w i t h m o l a s s e s p r o v i d e d
c o r r e c t i o n s a r e made f o r non-Newtonian f l o w c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
With m a s s e c u i t e s the B r o o k f i e l d i n s t r u m e n t u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e s a
DR.

higher degree of non-Newtonian behaviour, probably due t o the


' s l i p e f f e c t ' of the small diameter s p i n d l e i n t h e massecuite
due t o the presence of c r y s t a l s . The e f f e c t i s more pronounced
a t higher speeds of r o t a t i o n . Nevertheless both instruments
tend t o rank the v i s c o s i t y of d i f f e r e n t massecuite samples i n
the same order.
DR. WHITE r e c a l l e d t h a t some time ago some molasses and
massecuite samples were c i r c u l a t e d amongst a number of
l a b o r a t o r i e s around the world and remarkable agreement was
obtained between t h e various measurements when e i t h e r t h e
coaxial cylinder viscome t e r o r pipef low v i scometer were used.
He was s u r e a s i m i l a r consistency of r e s u l t s could be obtained
between m i l l s .
W R I G H T asked the author t o i n d i c a t e t y p i c a l shear r a t e s
encountered i n the major process streams.

DR.

NESS r e p l i e d t h a t t y p i c a l values were 1 t o 10 s-!lfor


in
massecuite and molasses flow i n p i g f l i n e s :
2 to 8 s
i n cooling c r y s t a l l i z e r s
s t i r r e d vacuum pans: 0.1 t o 0 . 5 s
with higher values c l o s e t o the moving c o i l s ; of the o r d e r of
f o r flow i n c r y s t a l f i z e r chutes and, f o r flow a c r o s s
0.1 s
fugal screens, 200 - 800 6
DR.

MR. KIRBY was puzzled t o t h e r e a l meaning of v i s c o s i t y and


questioned whether v i s c o s i t y should be q u a l i f i e d by t h e
p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n e . g . pipeflow v i s c o s i t y , s e p a r a t i o n
viscosity.
DR. NESS s a i d t h a t f o r non-Newtonian m a t e r i a l s such a s molasses

and massecuite the v i s c o s i t y depends on t h e shear r a t e and i t


i s important t h a t the v i s c o s i t y be measured a t shear r a t e s
r e l e v a n t t o the process concerned. I n presenting v i s c o s i t y
measurements one should note, amongst o t h e r parameters, t h e
shear r a t e range of measurements and the type of viscometer
used i n obtaining the data.
BROADFOOT added t h a t where v i s c o s i t y data i s being used f o r
r o u t i n e f a c t o r y c o n t r o l then i t i s acceptable t o use a s i n g l e
measurement a t a shear r a t e i n the a p p r o p r i a t e range of
i n t e r e s t . However, f o r i n v e s t i g a t i v e work, v i s c o s i t i e s should
be measured a t three o r four shear r a t e s s o t h e data has b e t t e r
a p p l i c a t i o n t o i n t e r - f a c t o r y comparisons.
DR.

MR. R.J. McLEAN asked i f v i s c o s i t y measurements using t h e


p i p e l i n e viscometer were v a l i d f o r heavy, low p u r i t y
massecui t e s

NESS r e p l i e d t h a t heavy, low p u r i t y massecuites tended t o


show v i s c o e l a s t i c p r o p e r t i e s b u t these a r e only of i n t e r e s t
when a change of shear r a t e is forced on the m a t e r i a l , e:g.
s t a r t of pumping. For steady s t a t e operation the viscosity
values determined by the p i p e l i n e method a r e v a l i d f o r t h e
design of f a c t o r y pipework.
DR.

PAPER:

"Viscosity Limitations On Massecuite Exhaustion" by


R. Broadfoot

The paper was b r i e f l y introduced by the author, who explained


the use of c o r r e l a t i o n s t o p r e d i c t the l i m i t i n g exhaustion
c a p a b i l i t y of c r y s t a l l i z e r s , with c o n s t r a i n t s on massecui t e
viscosity.
DISCUSSION
E.T. WHITE queried the s e n s i t i v i t y of the s e l e c t e d
v i s c o s i t y value of 2 000 Pa.s t o the economics of
crystallization.

DR.

BROADFOOT r e p l i e d t h a t the economics were n o t considered i n


depth, a s they would vary f o r each m i l l according t o the
e x i s t i n g equipment i n s t a l l e d .

DR.

MR. D.H. FOSTER r e f e r r e d t o Figure 5, and asked what a r e t h e


mother molasses v i s c o s i t y values corresponding t o the
t h e o r e t i c a l l y c a l c u l a t e d exhaustion curves shown. Thi S i s of
i n t e r e s t because the expected p u r i t y formula i s based on an
exhausted molasses v i s c o s i t y of about 100 Pa.s.

BROADFOOT i n d i c a t e d t h a t the curves assumed a supers a t u r a t i o n of 1 . 2 would have a mother l i q u o r v i s c o s i t y of about


350 Pa.s.
A t 1.1 s u p e r s a t u r a t i o n the v i s c o s i t y would be
200
110 - 120 Pq.s.

DR.

MR. FOSTER a l s o asked the author t o comment on the d i f f e r e n c e


between t h e expected ( t a r g e t ) p u r i t y formula and the p u r i t y
d a t a from the p r e d i c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t low RS/ASH r a t i o s .

DR. BROADFOOT r e p l i e d t h a t the formula was based on a molasses


v i s c o s i t y l i m i t a t i o n c r i t e r i o n v a l i d f o r batch fugal technology
while the l i m i t a t i o n proposed h e r e of massecuite v i s c o s i t y was
more appropriate f o r continuous fugal technology. However the
agreement i s r e a l l y q u i t e good a t higher RS/ASH l e v e l s , while
the d i f f e r e n c e of two u n i t s a t low RS/ASH l e v e l s is comparable
with the standard deviation of the formula (1.6 u n i t s ) .

MR. K . STUART c i t e d the recommendation t o process low p u r i t y


massecuite, which seems t o ignore the requirements t o have
s u f f i c i e n t c r y s t a l a v a i l a b l e t o obtain adequate r a t e s of
exhaustion, without f a l s e g r a i n being formed during t h e f i n a l
s t a g e s of the pan s t r i k e , leading t o increased l o s s e s of sugar
through t h e fugal gauze.
DR. BROADFOOT acknowledged t h i s c o n s t r a i n t , which could
over-ride considerations of a b e t t e r p o t e n t i a l exhaustion
limit.
P . G . WRIGHT commented t h a t perhaps the reason f o r the
d i f f e r e n c e i n expected p u r i t y c a l c u l a t i o n s was t h a t t h e paper
assumes c e r t a i n standards of c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n progress which may
n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be achieved with the low RS/ASH r a t i o
materials.

DR.

K . F . MILLER commented t h a t f a c t o r y e x h a u s t i o n o f m o t h e r
l i q u o r a t t h e e n d o f c o o l i n g was q u i t e o f t e n b e l o w t h e t a r g e t
p u r i t y , b u t s e v e r a l p u r i t y u n i t s could b e l o s t i n the
continuous c e n t r i f u g a l s .
The p a p e r r e a l l y a d d r e s s e d t h e m a t t e r
o f e x h a u s t i o n o f t h e mother l i q u o r b e f o r e t h e f u g a l l i n g s t e p ,
w h e r e m o l a s s e s v i s c o s i t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y w e l l a b o v e 100 P a . s .
MR.

THE CHAIRMAN c l o s e d t h e d i s c u s s i o n , a n d t h a n k e d t h e a u t h o r f o r

a useful presentation.

PAPER:

"A New Pilot Crystalliser for Massecuite Exhaustion


Trials", by R. Broadfoot and K.F. Miller.

The paper was presented by MR. K.F. MILLER.


Discussion
MR. ATHERTON commented that it was pleasing this work
had overcome most of the problems of aeration and evaporation
that had occurred in previous designs. He also commented on
the importance of maintaining a low level survey on additives
as some have shown promise in overseas studies.
MR. MILLER stated that they were not duplicating
previous work and whether the additive was effective or not,
reLsultsobtained were useful for low grate crystallization
modelling work.
DR. WRIGHT commented that the design grew out of
experience with the pipeline viscometer (now under joint
development with BSES) and that the system has to be augmented
by a hydraulic high-pressure pressure filter for the separation
of mother liquor before it is of real use.
MR. McDOUGALL asked whether the pilot system requires
more or less power?
MR. MILLER replied that the total stirrer motor power is
60 W which for a 3.5 L volume corresponds to 17 kW m-3
i.e.
considerably higher than for factory crystallizers. As well,
the heating surface to volume ratio is about 15 times that for
production units so direct power consumption comparisons are
difficult and no stirrer power input has been measured.

MR. SOLOMON asked whether the pilot system gave


realistic results considering the ideal stirring conditions.
MR. MILLER indicated that similar performance was
obtained by the pilot system as mill crystallizers have given
purities within one unit of that obtained with the system.
Experiments on the effect of varying the shear rate have given
conflicting results, however, it is hoped this will be resolved
in the coming season.
DR. BROADFOOT added that in one experiment an increase
in shear rate improved exhaustion as was expected, but other
results were confusing. The effect of shear rate on exhaustion
will be investigated further in the coming season.
DR. WHITE asked what size samples were taken for growth
rate measurement, and how was size analysed?

DR. BROADFOOT replied that a 50 mL sample was taken and


compressed in a small adapter fitted inside the C S R pressure
filter apparatus. The small sample of mother molasses
separated requires that the sucrose content is determined by
HPLC or a similar technique. It is intended to analyse the
size of the pan drop sample, with corrections for size change
based on the change in mother molasses purity.

DR. NESS commented that it is possible to measure the


average shear rate in the pilot crystallizer by the Metzne-Otto
method. This method requires "calibration" with Newtonian
fluids, but the power input is also required thus extra
instrumentation is required on the present system.

" V e r t i c a l Continuous C r y s t a l l i s e r
Keast and N . J . S i c h t e r .

PAPER:

Victoria M i l l " , by

W.J.

In introducing the paper MR. KEAST gave d e t a i l s of the


engineering design of the v e r t i c a l c r y s t a l l i s e r while MR.
SICHTER covered performance aspects of operation.
Discussion
DR. SWINDELLS could n o t reconcile the statement i n the
paper, t h a t s t i r r e r loads were reduced a t lower water flow
r a t e s because of higher average water temperatures, with the
data i n Table 111. A t the higher water flow r a t e the minimum
water temperature was 46.8 C, while a t the lower r a t e the
maximum water temperature was 46.3 C .
MR. SICHTER s a i d t h e d i s p a r i t y was probably due t o a
massecui t e v i s c o s i t y d i f f e r e n c e i n these t e s t s . The aim of
t h i s t a b l e i s t o show t h a t , a t constant s t i r r e r load, a lower
water flow r a t e gave a lower average water temperature thus
giving a higher h e a t removal r a t e .
DR. NESS asked whether the authors had considered
thermal p r o p e r t i e s of massecuite such a s s p e c i f i c h e a t
capacity o r thermal conductivity t o explain the poor agreement
between the design and measured h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t s ,
r a t h e r than the v i s c o s i t y difference between cane and b e e t
massecuite a s s t a t e d i n the paper.
MR. SICHTER r e p l i e d t h a t these f a c t o r s had n o t been
compared b u t s t i l l thought t h a t v i s c o s i t y was the dominant
influence.

DR. BROADFOOT commented t h a t the i n s t a l l e d power of 0.12


kw/m was loweg than t h a t i n typical industry h o r i z o n t a l u n i t s
with 0.15 k ~ / m of i n p u t power and asked the reason f o r t h i s
choice

MR. KEAST r e p l i e d t h a t the power used was the maximum


a v a i l a b l e from BMA. This l i m i t i s s e t by the gearbox and
s t i r r e r s h a f t and could n o t be increased without major
redesign of these items.

DR. WHITE asked whether a dead s p o t e x i s t e d opposite the


30 degree segmental o r i f i c e . The massecuite could move
forward 314 of a turn o r backward by 114 turn. I f e i t h e r were
t r u e , dead spots would e x i s t .
MR. SICHTER agreed t h a t the data showed dead s p o t s
existed.
I f the mixing a c t i o n of the s t i r r e r were h i g h e r ,
these zones could be reduced o r eliminated.
MR. MELBOURNE was s u r p r i s e d t h a t water flow r a t e had
l i t t l e e f f e c t on H.T.C. a s t h i s was contrary t o h i s experience

with a f i n n e g tube type v e r t i c a l u n i t .


D e t a i l s o f t h i s were:
vqlume 142 m ; r a t e 24 2ph; c o o l i n g s u r f a c e a r e a
f i n s 327
m ; t u b e s ( i n s i d e ) 72 m : s p e e d 0 . 4 5 rpm; 1 5 kW h y d r a u l i c
d r i y e ; H.T.C. t u b e s t o w a t e r 7 2 , f i n s t o m a s s e c u i t e 1 6 . 6
W/m /C: h e a t removal r a t e 174 k W .
He c o n s i d e r e d a moving
c o o l i n g e l e m e n t t y p e t o b e more e f f i c i e n t t h a n t h e BMA f i x e d
type.

M R . STUART was d i s a p p o i n t e d by t h e r e s i d e n c e t i m e
d i s t r i b u t i o n a s i t would b e e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e
w i t h c o o l i n g would r e s i s t s h o r t - c i r c u i t i n g .
Experience a t
P l e y s t o w e m i l l h a d shown t h a t s c r a p e r s f i t t e d t o moving
e l e m e n t s were n o t s u c c e s s f u l a t removing m a s s e c u i t e from t h e
surface.
MR. JACKLIN a d d e d t h a t t h e s e s c r a p e r s imposed s e v e r e
m e c h a n i c a l l o a d s o n t h e u n i t s and wondered i f t h e y s h o u l d b e
removed c o m p l e t e l y t o overcome t h e power l i m i t a t i o n s .
MR. KEAST e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s h a d shown
t h a t t h e s c r a p e r c l e a r a n c e would h a v e t o b e r e d u c e d below t h e
a l l o w a b l e minimum t o o b t a i n any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on H.T.C.
Although t h e c r y s t a l l i s e r h a d n o t b e e n o p e r a t e d w i t h o u t t h e
s t i r r e r r u n n i n g , h e c o n s i d e r e d t h e H.T.C. would g r a d u a l l y
d e t e r i o r a t e w i t h time i n t h i s c a s e .

MR. MARRON e n q u i r e d a b o u t shutdown and s t a r t up


p r o c e d u r e s o n weekends.

MR. SICHTER e x p l a i n e d t h a t p r i o r t o shutdown t h e


m a t e r i a l was l u b r i c a t e d s l i g h t l y w i t h m o l a s s e s and t h e l e v e l
i n the c r y s t a l l i s e r reduced. This reduced s t i r r e r load t o
a b o u t 213 o f t h e maximum v a l u e .
The s t i r r e r i s l e f t r u n n i n g
o v e r t h e weekend.

PAPER:

"Characteristics of conductivity transducers for pan


control" by P.G. Wright.

The paper was introduced by THE AUTHOR.


ds
MR. MILLER pointed out that the E equality on the second last
equation on page 307 should be erased.
MR. STUART stated that the conductivity setting to achieve a
certain supersaturation value was dependent on nett evaporation
rate, and in practice this varied, particularly on 'B' strikes.
DR. WRIGHT replied the optimum ramping of conductivity given in
the paper for various strikes was determined for a constant
evaporation rate throughout. This was valid with steam flow
control for 'A' strikes, for most of the 'B' strike, but not so
valid for 'C' strikes, where steaming rate could often fall off
with increasing level. More accurate determinations would
require a knowledge of the way steam rate varied for a
particular case, but the examples in the paper served to show
the general trend.
DR. WHITE asked if the equation given for conductivity was
sensitive to regional variations e.g. as ash etc., and if so by
how much.
DR. WRIGHT replied that the correlation equation only applied
for a particular molasses. The constant in the equation should
increase with lower ~s/ashratios, and vary somewhat with ash
composition, but the general sensitivity to purity,
temperature, and saturation temperature should be reasonably
common to all molasses types.
DR. KERR commented that the early work of McBryde on
conductivity almost predated the Javan publications on the use
of that interesting measurement for pan control. It was
gratifying to see its continuing wide acceptance and usefulness
in the Australian Sugar Industry.

Paper:

" T e s t s on t h e Defoaming A b i l i t y o f A d d i t i v e s f o r S u g a r B o i l i n g " ,


by K.F. Miller.

The p a p e r was p r e s e n t e d by t h e a u t h o r .
Discussion
MR SOLOMON commented t h a t a t V i c t o r i a s u r f a c t a n t had been used
e f f e c t i v e l y i n promoting t h e heavy-up r a t e and e x t e n t i n C m a s s e c u i t e
pans. Some d o u b t s e x i s t r e g a r d i n g t h e optimum method o f a d d i t i o n .
MR MILLER s t a t e d t h a t s u p p l i e r s had made t h e p o i n t t h a t s i n c e
GM0 t y p e s u r f a c t a n t s were b a s i c a l l y " i n s o l u b l e " i n w a t e r , t h e y s h o u l d

be prepared a s a n emulsion i n water using a high speed blender before


a d d i t i o n t o t h e pan. I n t h e defoaming tests it d i d n ' t seem t o m a t t e r
much how it was added.
S l u g d o s i n g a p p e a r e d t o b e s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r heavy-up p u r p o s e s a l t h o u g h
i n l a b o r a t o r y e x t e n d e d b o i l i n g e x p e r i m e n t s it was o b v i o u s t h a t o v e r time
t h e e x i s t i n g pattern d i d tend t o r e v e r t t o t h a t e x i s t i n g p r i o r t o
s u r f a c t a n t a d d i t i o n . T h i s o c c u r e d even though t h e m o l a s s e s s u r f a c e
t e n s i o n was unchanged and t h e l o s s t h r o u g h v o l a t i l i t y a p p e a r e d t o b e
very small.
When a d d i t i v e s a r e used d u r i n g pan run-up (e.g. ' B ' m a s s e c u i t e s t r i k e s )
it was common t o s p l i t t h e a d d i t i o n between t h e half-way p o i n t and s t a r t
o f heavy-up.
MR GAMPE r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n e x p r e s s i o n used i n t h e
p a p e r b e c l a r i f i e d . He s t a t e d t h a t m a t e r i a l used a t F a r l e i g h i n 1983
g a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement i n h e a t t r a n s f e r r a t e s o f poor b o i l i n g
m a t e r i a l on t h e pan s t a g e .
MR MILLER s t a t e d t h a t t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s q u o t e d i n t h e p a p e r were
p a r t s p e r m i l l i o n on s o l i d s . I n t h e f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n , w l t h c r y s t a l
p r e s e n t , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e l i q u i d phase would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y
h i g h e r . A c t u a l l y , t h e defoaming t i m e was most a f f e c t e d by t h e s u r f a c e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a d d i t i v e on b u b b l e s and t h i s would h a v e a low v a l u e
a t t h e commencement of b o i l i n g o f a magma s t r i k e . As b u b b l e c o a l e s c e n c e
and' b u r s t i n g o c c u r s , t h e a d d i t i v e from t h e s e s u r f a c e s was t h e n a v a i l a b l e
t o a t t a c h t o remaining bubbles. Eventually, t h e s u r f a c e concentration
e x c e e d s some c r i t i c a l v a l u e f o l l o w i n g which defoaming was v e r y r a p i d .

He commented t h a t t h e y had been u n a b l e t o o b t a i n t h e h e a t t r a n s f e r


improvements found by many mills, i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n . I t was
d i f f i c u l t t o o p e r a t e a t t h e h i g h v i s c o s i t y v a l u e s needed t o test b o i l i n g
h e a t t r a n s f e r i n s m a l l s c a l e equipment. They were f a i r l y c o n f i d e n t
t h a t t h e mechanism was t h a t o f enhanced s u r f a c e w e t t i n g which "pinched
o f f " b u b b l e s from t h e h e a t i n g s u r f a c e r a t h e r t h a n f o r m i n g a t h i n i n s u l a t i n g
s t e a m l a y e r between t h e m e t a l and t h e m a s s e c u i t e .

Paper:

"Rotary Vacuum F i l t e r Design", by D.3. H a l e and O.L. C r e e s .

The p a p e r was p r e s e n t e d by D r H a l e .
Discussion
MR ATHERTON c o n g r a t u l a t e d t h e a u t h o r s f o r a t l a s t p r o v i d i n g some
i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i n t e r n a l w o r k i n g s o f a r o t a r y f i l t e r . The u s e o f
f l o w measurement t o r e s o l v e t h e l e a d i n g - t r a i l i n g p i p e argument would
be o f g r e a t b e n e f i t .
DR HALE commented t h a t t h e mass f l o w m e t e r which was b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d
f o r i n t e r n a l f i l t r a t e f l o w measurement works on t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t a ' U '
t u b e when v i b r a t e d w i l l t w i s t when m a t e r i a l is p a s s e d t h r o u g h it. F o r
t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e r e l a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n t h e a b s o l u t e f l o w measurement
was i m p o r t a n t . I t was c l a i m e d a l s o t h a t t h i s equipment would o p e r a t e
s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n a two-phase f l o w environment.
MR WALLACE s t a t e d t h a t t h e v a l v e s o f t h e R a c e c o u r s e f i l t e r would be
a l t e r e d . They would h a v e a n a d d i t i o n a l 1 0 0 mm t a k e - o f f p i p e a t t h e
h o r i z o n t a l i n t h e s e c o n d wash s e c t i o n . T h i s w i l l remove f i l t r a t e t h a t
c u r r e n t l y h a s t o b e purged by a i r t o t h e t o p main f i l t r a t e removal p i p e .
T h i s may a l s o p r e v e n t f i l t r a t e r u n - o f f a t t h e s c r a p e r .
MR MILFORD added t h a t t h e d e s i g n o f t h e new Mossman f i l t e r i n c o r p o r a t e s
a l a r g e pipe t o a c t a s a r e s e r v o i r a t t h e base of each s c r e e n t o c a t c h any
run-back.

MR GAMPE a s k e d w h e t h e r i n t h e p i c k - u p any d i f f e r e n c e h a s been n o t e d


between t h e i n t e r n a l vacuum and t h e e x t e r n a l l y i n d i c a t e d vacuum.

DR HALE s a i d t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d between t h e


vacuum i n d i c a t i o n a t t h e s c r e e n a n d t h e p i c k - u p vacuum gauge a t t h e v a l v e
head. I n 1984 i t was p l a n n e d t o m o n i t o r t h e p i c k - u p vacuum, and i n some
c a s e s t h e wash vacuum a t t h e v a l v e head a s w e l l a s t h e s c r e e n vacuum.
MR SOLOMON o b s e t v e d t h a t a t V i c t o r i a a n d a t some o t h e r m i l l s w i t h
l a r g e d i a m e t e r f i l t e r s , when l o w e r vacuum is a p p l i e d i n t h e p i c k - u p a r e a ,
t h e r e was no a p p a r e n t f l o w o f f i l t r a t e t h r o u g h t h e v a l v e .

DR HALE r e p l i e d t h a t t h i s was c e r t a i n l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e l a r g e d i a m e t e r
f i l t e r a t Marian. With a low c o n t r o l l e d p i c k - u p vacuum, t h e pick-up
r e c e i v e r was c o l d , i n d i c a t i n g no f i l t r a t e flow.
MR STUART s t a t e d t h a t t h e r a t e o f f i l t r a t e f l o w a l s o depended on t h e
p r e s s u r e d r o p a c r o s s t h e s c r e e n and t h i s c o u l d a f f e c t t h e compaction o f
t h e c a k e . One o f t h e p o s s i b l e a d v a n t a g e s o f a c l o t h f i l t e r is t h e i n i t i a l
p r e s s u r e d r o p oT t h e c l o t h , l o w e r i n g compaction. He a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e
a u t h o r s knew t h e p r e s s u r e d r o p a c r o s s t h e s c r e e n .

DR HALE r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t h a v e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n .
MR MILLER commented o n t h e improvement i n pan o p e r a t i o n a f t e r
c o r r e c t i o n o f vacuum c o n t r o l . He a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e r e was any i n d i c a t i o n
o f s i m i l a r improvements i.n f i l t e r o p e r a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b e t t e r
vacuum c o n t r o l .
DR HALE s t a t e d t h a t o n l y q u a l i t a t i v e a s p e c t s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g
1983. I n 1984 i t was hoped t o q u a n t i f y a n y b e n e f i t s a r i s i n g from
improved vacuum a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e s c r e e n .

Paper:

"The Density Meter - A new approach t o measuring brix",


by W.P.P. Abeydeera.

The paper was presented by the author.

Discussion
MR STEWART quoted the l a s t paragraph on page 331 and asked i f t h e samples
could be i n j e c t e d f r e e of a i r and i f t h i s was so why M r Pollock (BSES, Ayr)
had problems i n introducing juice samples f r e e of a i r .
MR ABEYDEERA replied i n the a f f i r m a t i v e saying t h a t t h e r e had been no

problems i n i n j e c t i n g samples f r e e of entrapped gas o r a i r and t h a t he was


s a t i s f i e d with the instrument design which f a c i l i t a t e d easy sample
introduction. Any a i r bubbles i f present would be v i s u a l l y obvious and
could be e a s i l y got r i d o f . He added t h a t M r Pollock had never informed
him of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y during the t r i a l period and t h a t he was surprised t o
hear t h i s comment from Mr Stewart.

MR BRAIN s a i d t h a t he was very i n t e r e s t e d i n the d e n s i t y meter a f t e r he read


the BSES report. He s u g g e s t e d , t h a t attemptsmustbe made t o cut down c o s t s
involving analyses and t h e d e n s i t y meter should f u l f i l t h i s o b j e c t i v e i n
reducing o v e r a l l cost of j u i c e analyses. The automatic polarimeter proved
t o be a success and t h i s instrument could automate the I X J b r i x a n a l y s i s and
complement the cane a n a l y s i s procedure. He f u r t h e r said t h a t t h e CSCPB had
discussed extension of t h i s work with the BSESand had offered equipment and
a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h i s work. The present day c o s t of the instrument with
temperature control and software package t o convert d e n s i t y t o b r i x would be
approximately $10 000.

DR WHITE asked how e a s i l y could the tube g e t clogged up and i f i t d i d how


convenient would be t h e cleaning procedure.
MR ABEYDEERA r e p l i e d t h a t there was no p o s s i b i l i t y of clogging up of the

sample tube under normal operating conditions. The usual sample preparation
and screening procedures used i n hydrometer b r i x determination would be
q u i t e adequate t o operate the instrument without blocking the c e l l . He
f u r t h e r s a i d t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c U-shape of the c e l l made cleaning,
r i n s i n g and drying extremely easy.
MR SMITH asked i f the instrument could be developed t o handle process l i q u i d s

containing high l e v e l s of d i r t , sand and a i r f o r process control purposes.


MR ABEYDEERA responded by saying t h a t t h i s could be e a s i l y achieved by
i n s t a l l i n g a simple mechanical f i l t e r i n g device o r a degassing u n i t i n
conjunction with the sample c e l l .
DR MUL.LER pointed out t h a t a t l e a s t four o t h e r manufacturers produced

s i m i l a r instruments s u i t a b l e f o r process c o n t r o l . Apart from being robust


these instruments a l s o had l a r g e r flow-through c e l l s up t o 25 m i n diameter.
MR ABEYDEERA commented t h a t he was aware of these i n d u s t r i a l versions but
they might not measure up t o the standard required f o r accurate analyses.
He added t h a t Anton Paar ( t h e manufacturers of DMA-45) a l s o make on-line

d e n s i t y measuring systems s u i t a b l e f o r process control.,

MR LEVERINGTON commented on Mr Smith's query. He explained t h a t t h i s


machine should only be used i f a d e n s i t y measurement was required. Thus it
resembled a pycnometer. I f a non homogeneous sample was introduced, it
could not be expected t o give the d e n s i t y of the l i q u i d while omitting the
sand o r o t h e r extraneous material present. I f an accurate measure of sugar
was required, then, a sugar measuring instrument should be used. Ile
emphasised the f a c t t h a t t h e instrument had been designed t o measule the
d e n s i t y and not t h e sugar content.
MR HALE replying t o Mr Smith's question r e f e r r e d t o t h e e a r l i e r discussion

on h i s paper where he mentioned the use of a mass flow meter for measuring
flow r a t e s within a vacuum f i l t e r . He pointed out t h a t the mass flow meter
could a l s o be regarded a s an on-line d e n s i t y meter and perhaps t h i s type of
instrument would be s u i t a b l e f o r process c o n t r o l .
MR ABEYDEERA reaffirmed t h a t the accuracy and precision obtainable with

i n d u s t r i a l mass flow meters would not be good enough for r e l i a b l e d e n s i t y


measurements. The p r e c i s i o n a t t a i n a b l e with some of the b e s t i n d u s t r i a l
types would be i n the order of +l-0.5 kg/m3 compared with 20. l kg/m3 f o r t h e
DMA-45 and +0.0 1 kg/m3 f o r the DMA-55.
MR McGRATH asked whether the d e n s i t y meter could be used a s a replacement

f o r t h e conventional drying technique t o o b t a i n the dry substance i n


molasses.

MR ABEYDEERA r e p l i e d t h a t t h i s was not possible because the two techniques


measured two d i f f e r e n t physical e n t i t i e s based on d i f f e r e n t measuring
p r i n c i p l e s . Hence one technique could not be replaced by the other.

MR DUFFIELD commented t h a t the d e n s i t y p r i n c i p l e had been extensively used


i n o i l and gas industry. Mass flow measurements were achieved by measurino
the density. Mass flow meter accepted a s i g n a l from the d e n s i t y meterand
a s u i t a b l e flow meter and provided accurate mass and volumetric flow readings.
In many cases t h e samples were d i r t y and d i f f i c u l t t o handle but these
problems had been overcome with success. He added t h a t the equipment used
was rugged and s p e c i a l l y designed f o r f i e l d conditions.
MR MILLER asked M r Brain whether he envisaged any s p e c i a l way of t r e a t i n g
muddy juice f o r cane payment purposes when using t h i s instrument. He
enquired ..rhether the refractometer would s t i l l be used for reading muddy
juices o r i f a f i l t r a t i o n o r c e n t r i f u g a t i o n s t e p be introduced p r i o r t o
analysis.
MR BRAIN responded by saying t h a t the t e s t work t h a t had been planned

incorporated such i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e should i n d i c a t e any problems


with s o i l i n juice such a s those found i n I n n i s f a i l . He f e l t t h a t they
would be able t o find some s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem a f t e r the
investigations.
.
MR MILLER commented t h a t the c a l c u l a t i o n of p01 i n I X J using Horne's Dry

Lead method assumes t h a t the b r i x and p01 readings would be made a t the
same temperature. Thus the d e n s i t y meter should be c a l i b r a t e d a t the same
temperature a t which the p01 readings would be made, preferably a t 20'~.
He asked the author why he c a l i b r a t e d the instrument a t 25'~.

MR ABEYDEERA agreed with t h e comment made by Mr M i l l e r and explained why

t h e c a l i b r a t i o n was done a t 25OC. He s a i d t h a t although t h e reasons f o r


t h i s were n o t given i n t h e paper, they appeared on page 8 of t h e BSES
Report r e l e a s e d t o the i n d u s t r y . A c a l i b r a t i o n temperature of 2 5 ' ~ was
s e l e c t e d t o s u i t t h e f i e l d o p e r a t i o n s . During t h e f i e l d t e s t i n g , t h e
instrument was used i n a non air-conditioned f i e l d l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t e d i n
an a r e a of high humidity. I f t h e instrument was c a l i b r a t e d a t 20c, t h e
fogging of t h e sample c e l l window would have been unavoidable under
c o n d i t i o n s of high humidity. This could have been awkward f o r t h e o p e r a t o r
s i n c e heavy fogging on t h e window could obscure t h e path of t h e sample
through t h e c e l l . A higher temperature ( 2 5 O ~ )would a l s o a s s i s t t o s h o r t e n
t h e time r e q u i r e d f o r t h e sample t o reach temperature e q u i l i b r a t i o n s i n c e
f r e s h l e y prepared j u i c e samples would be warm. He added t h a t an o p e r a t i n g
temperature of 20c would be p r e f e r r e d i n air-conditioned l a b o r a t o r i e s .
MR LEVERINGTON s t a t e d t h a t BSES could n o t make any comment a s t o how t h e

instrument should be used f o r cane payment purposes. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s


c a r r i e d o u t by t h e author were designed t o e v a l u a t e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y ,
r e p e a t a b i l i t y and accuracy of t h e instrument. He pointed o u t t h a t i t was
the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e i n d u s t r y o r g a n i s a t i o n s t o determine t h e
a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h i s instrument f o r cane payment purposes.
MR GAMPE wanted t o know t h e range of t h e instrument and whether i t would
be p o s s i b l e t o read both j u i c e s and molasses u s i n g t h e one instrument.

MR ABEYDEERA r e p l i e d t h a t t h e range o f t h e instrument when o p e r a t i n g on


d e n s i t y mode was 0.5 t o i .5 g/cm3 and t h i s would cover a b r i x range of
One instrument would s e r v e one l a b o r a t o r y and a l l t h e b r i x
0-92.
determinations could be c a r r i e d o u t with t h i s u n i t i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e
n a t u r e o f t h e sample.
MR FROST asked i f t h e instrument could be employed t o o b t a i n an a c c u r a t e
e s t i m a t e of t h e suspended s o l i d s i n a sample by measuring t h e d e n s i t y b e f o r e
and a f t e r f i l t r a t i o n of t h e sample.
MR ABEYDEERA s a i d i n r e p l y t h a t t h i s could be e a s i l y done b u t t o o b t a i n

r e l i a b l e and s e n s i b l e answers, t h e samples would have t o be homogeneous and


a l s o t h e pore s i z e of t h e f i l t e r used i n f i l t r a t i o n would have t o b e
specified.
MR ATHERTON i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e instrument should be used i n t h e d e n s i t y

mode s o t h a t t h e o u t p u t could be fed i n t o a computer programed t o convert


d e n s i t y measurements t o b r i x . I n t h i s way, no e r r o r s would be introduced
t o t h e measurements. Re added t h a t it was much more convenient t o c a l i b r a t e
t h e instrument with a i r and water when o p e r a t i n g on d e n s i t y mode. Also,
p01 and b r i x readings should be taken a t t h e same temperature a s a t p r e s e n t .
He f u r t h e r s a i d t h a t t h e instrument measured what i t had been presented
with.
MR ABEYDEERA summed up by saying t h a t t h e instrument had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o

replace t h e b r i x ' s p i n d l e ' and t h a t it was up t o t h e i n d u s t r y o r g a n i s a t i o n s


t o e v a l u a t e t h e s u i t a b i l i t y of t h i s instrument.

Paper:

"The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i m p u r i t i e s i n i n c l u s i o n s i n sugar c r y s t a l s " ,


by S.Y. Guo and E.T. White.

The paper was presented by DR WHITE. During t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h e r e s u l t s


of t h e measurements w i t h s o l u b l e s t a r c h a s an impurity were a l s o
discussed.

Discussion

MR KIRBY asked i f t h e b o i l i n g apparatus could be t r i p l i c a t e d f o r r e p e a t


experiments and unknown e f f e c t s such a s t h e i n f l u e n c e of s t a l e cane s t u d i e d
a g a i n s t a standard s o l u t i o n .
DR WHITE r e p l i e d t h a t i t could.
used.

Any l a b o r a t o r y pan apparatus could be

MR FOSTER s t a t e d t h a t many authors a r e of t h e b e l i e f t h a t i m p u r i t i e s such

a s glucose a r e h e l d o n t o t h e c r y s t a l s u r f a c e by hydrogen bonding and a r e


overgrown by t h e d e p o s i t i o n of s u c c e s s i v e l a y e r s of sucrose. I n view of
t h i s could t h e a u t h o r s j u s t i f y t h e statement on page 342 t h a t it could be
assumed t h a t glucose does n o t , d e p o s i t i n t h e s o l i d l a t t i c e .
DR WHITE r e p l i e d t h a t i t seemed c l e a r t h a t glucose was adsorbed on t h e
s u r f a c e of t h e growing c r y s t a l . Whether i t was incorporated i n t o t h e
l a t t i c e was t h e p o i n t i n q u e s t i o n . The r e s u l t s presented h e r e suggested
t h a t i t was n o t . The glucose i n t h e c r y s t a l v a r i e d with t h e i n c l u s i o n
content. I f it were C O - c r y s t a l l i s e d one would expect a c o n s t a n t glucose
content independent of t h e i n c l u s i o n c o n t e n t .
DR WRIGHT r e f e r r e d t o f i g u r e 8 and asked i f t h e r e was any anomaly i n t h e
key c o n c e n t r a t i o n l a b e l l i n g . Also, with r e s p e c t t o f i g u r e 4 , why should
t h e r e be a range o f i n c l u s i o n d e n s i t i e s among any one growth b a t c h of
c r y s t a l s . He f u r t h e r noted t h a t , s i n c e l i t h i u m is n o t absorbed, would
measurements of t h e r a t i o of impurity c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o l i t h i u m
c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n d u a l dosed s o l u t i o n s be an e a s i e r method of i n v e s t i g a t i n g
absorption effects.
DR WHITE s a i d t h a t t h e l a b e l l i n g on f i g u r e 8 was c o r r e c t . I f t h e i n c l u s i o n
impurity c o n t e n t s were c o n s t a n t , a s f i g u r e 13 would suggest, then a l l
t h e s e p l o t s should be on t h e same l i n e . The d i f f e r e n t l i n e s were some
measure of t h e s c a t t e r of t h e r e s u l t s . Thus t h e r e was no t r e n d .
With regards t o t h e second q u e s t i o n , t h e a u t h o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e range
of i n c l u s i o n c o n t e n t s was t h e r e s u l t of t h e ranges of growth r a t e s
o c c u r r i n g with sugar c r y s t a l s . This range of growth r a t e s g i v e s ' s i z e
d i s p e r s i o n ' and a l s o a p p a r e n t l y ' i n c l u s i o n d i s p e r s i o n ' . He added t h a t t h e
comment on l i t h i u m was a good idea. Since many of t h e runs d i d involve
j o i n t i m p u r i t i e s they could u s e t h a t d a t a t o check i t o u t .
MR MILLER noted t h a t d i s s o l v i n g a c r y s t a l back l a y e r by l a y e r was

d i f f e r e n t from t h e l a y e r by l a y e r growth. Hence would t h e experiment be


b e t t e r performed by growing t h e c r y s t a l s , removing samples from time t o
time and a n a l y s i n g t h i s .

DR WHITE r e p l i e d t h a t t h a t was a b e t t e r technique but i t would involve a


l a r g e r batch of c r y s t a l s and a l o t more experimental , e f f o r t i n s e p a r a t i n g
and washing each sample. However, he thought it would be worth doing.
DR WRIGHT r e f e r r e d t o t h e f i n d i n g s on colour a b s o r p t i o n and commented t h a t
t h e r e was evidence t h a t colour was concentrated i n f a c t o r y C s u g a r s
r e l a t i v e t o massecuite (on a co1our X impurity b a s i s ) . He f u r t h e r s a i d
t h a t normal f a c t o r y raw sugar growth r a t e s of 0.1 rmn p e r hour and upwards
would be expected, from f i g u r e 5 , t o r e s u l t i n i n c l u s i o n l e v e l s g r e a t e r
than one p e r cent although t h e r e might be some c i r c u l a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s .
He then asked i f t h e a u t h o r s had done any measurements on f a c t o r y raw
sugars.
DR WHITE r e p l i e d t h a t they had not done t h e s e measurements on f a c t o r y raw
s u g a r s y e t . They had measured t h e i n c l u s i o n c o n t e n t of r e f i n e d sugar a t
about 0.5%, and a s i m i l a r v a l u e was obtained on c a s t o r sugar.
MR FOSTER r e f e r r e d t o h i s e a r l i e r question on a d s o r p t i o n and hydrogen
bonding and asked i f t h e a u t h o r s could j u s t i f y t h e conclusion t h a t a l l
d e n s i t y r e d u c t i o n s were due t o syrup i n c l u s i o n s . He suggested t h a t t h i s
might a l s o be due t o imperfections induced by t h e adsorbed molecules, but
he d i d n o t exclude t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some small amount of water could
be included i n t h e d i s r u p t i o n s of t h e c r y s t a l l a y e r .
DR WHITE r e p l i e d t h a t t h i s proposed mechanism was p o s s i b l e b u t t h e a u t h o r s
s t i l l p r e f e r r e d t h e one they had suggested. The water c o n t e n t s of a few
samples had been measured by Karl F i s c h e r t i t r a t i o n ( u s i n g morpholine t o
d i s s o l v e ) and they c o r r e l a t e d w e l l with i n c l u s i o n c o n t e n t s . F u r t h e r work
was needed on a d s o r p t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of glucose on sugar.

Paper: " A r o t a t i n g b i o l o g i c a l contactor f o r treatment o f sugar


m i l l wastes", by R . Sadler, P. Carson and B. Rigden
The paper was presented by MR CARSON.

Discussion
MR ABERNATW asked what volumes of sludge were produced and what was t h e
suggested method of sludge disposal.
MR RIGDEN r e p l i e d t h a t t h e sludge production was not measured during t h e
Millaquin t r i a l s . However e a r l i e r laboratory t r i a l s suggested t h a t sludge
production would be high. The b e s t means of sludge disposal would probably
be land a p p l i c a t i o n a s a manure. The r e l a t i v e l y small s c a l e of t h e p i l o t
p l a n t meant t h a t i n s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l was a v a i l a b l e f o r a f i e l d t r i a l .
MR ASHBOLT r e f e r r e d t o t h e time it takes i n a b i o l o g i c a l system f o r t h e
development of t h e microbial film, and asked how long d i d i t take t o
e s t a b l i s h t h e f i l m i n i t i a l l y with t h i s system and how long would i t t a k e
a f t e r t h e s l a c k season.
MR CARSON s a i d i n reply t h a t these t r i a l s indicated t h a t i t took one t o two
weeks t o e s t a b l i s h t h e microbiological film. Also, t h e laboratory t r i a l s
had shown t h a t d i l u t e d molasses could be used a s a feedstock so t h a t
a c t i v i t y of t h e system could be e s t a b l i s h e d before the season s t a r t e d .

MR FINGER commented t h a t i n the paper t h e waste water is r e f e r r e d t o a s


sugar m i l l wastewater. It was important t o point o u t t h a t i n f a c t t h e
m a t e r i a l fed t o t h e contactor was subsampled from t h e combined e f f l u e n t of
t h e Millaquin complex i . e . sugar m i l l , r e f i n e r y and d i s t i l l e r y .
MR CARSON agreed with t h e comment and added t h a t t h e r e s u l t i n g liquour
would be m r e d i f f i c u l t t o t r e a t than normal m i l l wastewater. I t was f e l t
t h a t i f t h e system could t r e a t Millaquin e f f l u e n t i t should be a b l e t o
t r e a t any m i l l ' s e f f l u e n t .
DR WHITE asked i f t h e r e would be a l o s s i n s u r f a c e a r e a per u n i t volume f o r

t h e new design compared with t h e previous arrangement and i f t h e mechanical


power c o s t s were s u b s t a n t i a l when compared with s t a t i c roughing f i l t e r s .

MR CARSON r e p l i e d t h a t t h e new design provided a t l e a s t a s much s u r f a c e


area a s t h e normal s o l i d d i s c arrangements. The shade c l o t h d i s c was
suspended i n s i d e t h e cage, perpendicular t o t h e s h a f t . He f u r t h e r s a i d
t h a t t h e mechanical power c o s t s were much l e s s than with other b i o l o g i c a l
systems. In the r o t a t i n g b i o l o g i c a l contactor system only t h e biomass was
moved, and then using a balanced system. The power requirements were
therefore low. I n a ' s t a t i c ' f i l t e r system t h e l i q u i d t o be t r e a t e d i s
moved over t h e biomass while i n an a c t i v a t e d sludge p l a n t a i r , water and
biomass a r e mechanically mixed and aerated. Low power, operating and
maintenance c o s t s were t h e primary advantages of t h e r o t a t i n g b i o l o g i c a l
contactor system.

MR MESSITER asked what was t h e approximate water temperature and :as

this
temperature r e l a t i v e l y constant. Further, would some s t e r i l i s a t i o n be
expected i f a sudden increase i n temperature, t o say 850C, occurred?

MR SADLER s a i d t h a t t h e temperature of t h e wastewater e n t e r i n g t h e u n i t


was a constant 40 t o 450C. The cover provided an a d d i t i o n a l advantage by
keeping t h e l i q u i d warm and thus s u s t a i n i n g high metabolic a c t i v i t y . The
r e s u l t i n g e f f l u e n t temperature was 350C. They had n o t t e s t e d t h e e f f e c t
of temperature shock. Some e f f e c t would be expected on t h e biomass, but
i t should be remembered t h a t unlike conventional treatment p l a n t s
(activated sludge, t r i c k l e f i l t e r e t c . ) , t h e microflora l a y e r is n o t i n
continuous contact with the main body of t h e l i q u i d . Hence a t l e a s t some
temperature reduction would occur through exchange with t h e a t m s p h e r e .

MR ASHBOLT questioned t h e use of expensive slow r e l e a s e f e r t i l i s e r s


containing potassium which was n o t needed i n the system.

MR CARSON r e p l i e d t h a t t h e form of n u t r i e n t chosen had t o be compatible


with the l a r g e l y unattended mode of operation of t h e u n i t . The concern
was t o provide a r e l i a b l e source of n u t r i e n t s a s t h e major aim of t h e
p r o j e c t was t o i n v e s t i g a t e COD removal.