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(Laboratory notes)



What is a Hazard Datasheet on Occupation?
This datasheet is one of the International Datasheets on Occupations. It is intended for those
professionally concerned with health and safety at work: occupational physicians and nurses, safety engineers,
hygienists, education and Information specialists, inspectors, employers ' representatives, workers'
representatives, safety officers and other competent persons.
This datasheet lists, in a standard format, different hazards to which ship-engineers (machinist) may be
exposed in the course of their normal work. This datasheet is a source of information rather than advice. With the
knowledge of what causes injuries and diseases, is easier to design and implement suitable measures towards
This datasheet consists of four sections:
Section 1: Information on the most relevant hazards related to the occupation.
Section 2: A more detailed and systematized presentation on the different hazards related to the job
with indicators for preventive measures (marked as numbered shields and explained on the third page).
Section 3: Suggestions for preventive measures for selected hazards.
Section 4: Specialized information, relevant primarily to occupational safety and health professionals
and including information such as a brief job description, a list of tasks, notes and references.

Section 1
Who is a ship-engineer (Marine Engineering Officer)?
A professional, licensed (on large vessels) mechanic (Marine Engineering Officer) who is responsible
for the operation, troubleshooting, repair and maintenance of shipboard engines and other machinery such as
generators, pumps, boilers, etc.
What is dangerous about this job?
A ship-machinist is exposed to all the hazards of machine attendants or of maintenance workers, e.g.,
entanglement in moving machinery, blows, cuts, penetration of foreign particles into eyes, exposure to exhaust
gases, dermatoses caused by lubricating and cleaning formulations, etc. Those hazards, however, are exacerbated
by the motion of the ship, by working and living over long periods of time in confined and constricted spaces, by
personal problems caused by prolonged absences from home, and by the rigid and often depressing discipline
aboard ship. When at sea, the ship's machinist is also exposed to some major accident hazards common to all
seafarers, in particular shipwreck and falls into water.

Section 2
Hazards related to this job Accident hazards

Falls from ladders or staircases in the engine room

Fall from gangways or ladders, when climbing into ship, esp. when climbing to the ship from a
Slips, trips and falls (esp. while carrying loads), and related to the insufficient illumination of
corridors and passages
Struck by unsecured heavy objects, falling from high places and shelves on feet and other parts of
body, or squeezed by such unsecured objects that move horizontally due to ship's rolling and
Cuts and injuries caused by sharp instruments and tools
Hazard of suffocation from asphyxiating gases (e.g., CO) or from oxygen deficiency, during
maintenance and cleaning operations
Burns caused by flames, by contact with hot parts of equipment, pipes, steam lines, etc., or by
release of hot water or steam
Burns caused by corrosive substances stored on high shelves, that may be spilled when taken
down from the shelf
Electric shock, caused by defective installations and equipment (esp. portable) or faulty insulation
Musculo-skeletal injuries (esp. of the back), resulting from lifting and moving of heavy loads
Blows (in particular on the head) from low door frame-heads, from protruding overhead pipes, etc.
Blows (in particular on arms and legs) when moving in poorly-illuminated passages
Blows from falling heavy objects
Bites by rodents
Poisoning by fuel vapors, or other vaporizing chemicals, when worker doesn't wear the required
personal protection equipment
Fires and explosions caused by fuels and other combustibles
Hand injuries caused by sharp tools, slipping of tools, use of faulty hand tools, etc.
Drowning, as a result of shipwreck or falls into the water
Injuries caused by entanglement in moving or rotating machinery, belts, shafts, pulleys, and/or
cables, ropes, etc.
Involvement in work accidents, as a result of verbal or written misunderstanding and lack of
communication between workers not speaking the same language

Physical hazards

Exposure to noise and whole-body vibrations

Exposure to strong draft winds and stormy weather
Exposure to cold stress and/or heat-stress, as a result of rapid movement between cold and hot
Exposure to excessive heat from burners, steam pipes, etc.
Exposure to UV radiation during welding operations

Chemical hazards

Exposure to various chemicals, such as: acids, adhesives, caulking compounds, fluxes (solder),
glues, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric zinc chloride, tars, greases, oils & various distillation products,
inorganic lead, solvents, thinners, etc.
Exposure to toxic substances released sometimes when mixing different chemicals
Exposure to carbon monoxide and other exhaust gases

Biological hazards

Exposure to pest- or rodent-transmitted diseases, in particular on older ship

Exposure to communicable diseases

Ergonomic, psychosocial and organizational factors

Repetitive strain injury (RSI) and other musculoskeletal problems as a result of continuous
repetitive movements, overexertion during lifting and moving of heavy loads, work in awkward
(bent, etc.) postures
Psychological stress due to dissatisfaction at work as a result of strict discipline, boredom and
monotony, low salary, problematic personal relations with subordinates and/or superiors, poor
amenities, separation from family, etc.
Stress and cumulative fatigue as a result of shift and night work, cultural differences from crew
members from other nations, etc.
General ill feeling as a result of work in confined spaces and development of sick-building
In port: hazards related to violence, drinks, drugs, prostitution, etc.

Section 3
Preventive measures
Inspect ladder before climbing. Never climb on a shaky ladder or a ladder with slippery or broken
rungs, be very careful when climbing a rope-ladder
Always wear adequate personal protective equipment, in particular safety helmets, safety shoes or boots
with metal caps and non-slip soles (sport shoes, mountaineering shoes, etc. are NOT safety shoes), goggles, etc.
Use gloves to avoid contact of skin to sharp edges, lubricants or cleaning formulations; do not use latexcontaining gloves if an allergy to latex has been diagnosed; do NOT use gloves when working near moving or
rotating parts of machinery
Ventilate the work station site, according to need; if necessary wear a gas mask
Check electrical equipment for safety before use. Take faulty or suspect electrical equipment to a
qualified electrician for testing and repair
Learn and use safe lifting and moving techniques for heavy or awkward loads; use mechanical aids to
assist in lifting
Use personal protection equipment, fit for the work being carried-out
Do NOT enter dark or poorly-illuminated spaces; use portable light sources
Do NOT enter the engine room with loose clothing or hair; collect hair in a net or beneath a hat to avoid
Wear adequate clothing and head-gear for protection in adverse weather

Section 4
Specialized information
Marine-engineer; mechanic, marine engine; ship's machinist; ship's engine operator; ship's engine room
Definitions and/or description:
Supervises and coordinates activities of crew engaged in operating and maintaining propulsion engines
and other engines, boilers, deck machinery, and electrical, refrigeration and sanitary equipment aboard ship:
Inspects engines and other equipment and orders crew to repair or replace defective parts. Starts engines to
propel ship and regulates engines and power transmission to control speed of ship. Stands engine-room watch
during specified periods, observing that required water levels are maintained in boilers, condensers, and
evaporators, load on generators is within acceptable limits, and oil and grease cups are kept full. Repairs
machinery, using hand tools and power tools. Maintains engineering log and bell book (orders for changes in
speed and direction of ship). May be required to hold appropriate license, depending upon tonnage of ship, type
of engines, and means of transmitting power to propeller shaft. Page 45 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

L2. Preventive Maintenance

Preventive maintenance (PM) is an important component of a maintenance activity.
Within a maintenance organization it usually accounts for a major proportion of the
total maintenance effort. PM may be described as the care and servicing by individuals involved with maintenance to keep equipment/facilities in satisfactory operational state by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and correction of
incipient failures either prior to their occurrence or prior to their development into
major failure. Some of the main objectives of PM are to: enhance capital equipment
productive life, reduce critical equipment breakdowns, allow better planning and
scheduling of needed maintenance work, minimize production losses due to equipment failures, and promote health and safety of maintenance personnel.
From time to time PM programs in maintenance organizations end up in failure
(i.e., they lose upper management support) because their cost is either unjustifiable or
they take a significant time to show results. It is emphasized that all PM must be costeffective. The most important principle to keep continuous management support is: If
it is not going to save money, then dont do it!
This chapter presents important aspects of PM.


There are seven elements of PM as shown in Fig. 1.

Each element is discussed

1. Inspection: Periodically inspecting materials/items to determine their serviceability by comparing their physical, electrical, mechanical, etc., characteristics (as applicable) to expected standards
2. Servicing: Cleaning, lubricating, charging, preservation, etc., of items/
materials periodically to prevent the occurrence of incipient failures
3. Calibration: Periodically determining the value of characteristics of an item
by comparison to a standard; it consists of the comparison of two instruments, one of which is certified standard with known accuracy, to detect
and adjust any discrepancy in the accuracy of the material/parameter being
compared to the established standard value Page 46 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM




Elements of




Figure 1 Elements of preventive maintenance.

4. Testing: Periodically testing or checking out to determine serviceability

and detect electrical/mechanical-related degradation
5. Alignment: Making changes to an items specified variable elements for
the purpose of achieving optimum performance
6. Adjustment: Periodically adjusting specified variable elements of material
for the purpose of achieving the optimum system performance
7. Installation: Periodic replacement of limited-life items or the items experiencing time cycle or wear degradation, to maintain the specified system
Some characteristics of a plant in need of a good preventive maintenance program
are as follows:
Low equipment use due to failures
Large volume of scrap and rejects due to unreliable equipment
Rise in equipment repair costs due to negligence in areas such as regular
lubrication, inspection, and replacement of worn items/components
High idle operator times due to equipment failures
Reduction in capital equipment expected productive life due to unsatisfactory maintenance
Table 1 presents 17 questions for determining the adequacy of a preventive maintenance program within an organization.
The answer yes or no to each question is given 5 or 0 points, respectively.
A maybe answer is assigned a score from 1 to 4. A total score of less than 55 points
indicates that the preventive maintenance program requires further improvements. Page 47 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

Preventive Maintenance Program Evaluation Questions


Is the trend in downtime recorded and

reported regularly?
Is there a formal PM program in place?
Are inspectors performing their inspection
duties full-time?
Are check sheets controlled to assure 100%
Are inspection routes developed/scheduled
on the basis of work measurement
Are inspection reports randomly checked
by supervisor to determine their accuracy?
What percentage of downtime is due to
Is the lubrication task performed through
the scheduled usage of check sheets?
Does maintenance management receive
meaningful downtime reports?
Is one individual responsible for the overall
Were lubrication routes developed and
scheduled on the basis of time and method
Is data processing used to schedule and
report PM inspections and lubrication?
Are foreseeable problems, discovered
through PM inspections, quickly reported?
Is PM work highlighted in the costreporting system to permit routine analysis
of PM as a distinct class of expenditure?
Are lubrication requirements examined
regularly to minimize the need for
different types of lubricants?
Is the analysis of breakdown reports
performed to detect failure patterns that
can be rectified by adjusting the PM
Are plant/building assets examined
regularly as an integral part of the formal
inspection program?







(5 points)

(14 points)

(0 points)

( 8%)

(8% )

(Unknown) Page 48 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

References 4 and 5 proposed the following principle or formula to be used when

deciding to go ahead with a PM program:
( NB ) ( ACPBD ) ( ) > CPMS


CPMS = total cost of preventive maintenance system,

= a factor whose value is proposed to be taken as 70%; more specifically,

70% of the total cost of breakdowns,
= number of breakdowns,
ACPBD = average cost per breakdown.


To develop an effective PM program, the availability of a number of items is necessary.
Some of those items include accurate historical records of equipment, manufacturers
recommendations, skilled personnel, past data from similar equipment, service manuals, unique identification of all equipment, appropriate test instruments and tools,
management support and user cooperation, failure information by problem/cause/
action, consumables and replaceable components/parts, and clearly written instructions
with a checklist to be signed off.
There are a number of steps involved in developing a PM program. Figure 2
presents six steps for establishing a highly effective PM program in a short period.
Each step is discussed below.
1. Identify and choose the areas. Identify and selection of one or two important areas to concentrate the initial PM effort. These areas should be
crucial to the success of overall plant operations and may be experiencing
a high degree of maintenance actions. The main objective of this step is
to obtain immediate results in highly visible areas, as well as to win
concerned management support.
2. Identify the PM needs. Define the PM requirements. Then, establish a
schedule of two types of tasks: daily PM inspections and periodic PM
assignments. The daily PM inspections could be conducted by either maintenance or production personnel. An example of a daily PM inspection is
to check the waste water settleable solids concentration. Periodic PM
assignments usually are performed by the maintenance workers. Examples
of such assignments are replacing throwaway filters, replacing drive belts,
and cleaning steam traps and permanent filters.
3. Establish assignment frequency. Establish the frequency of the assignments. This involves reviewing the equipment condition and records.
Normally, the basis for establishing the frequency is the experience of
those familiar with the equipment and the recommendations of vendors and Page 49 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

Figure 2 Six steps for developing a PM program.

engineering. It must be remembered that vendor recommendations are

generally based on the typical usage of items under consideration.
4. Prepare the PM assignments. Daily and periodic assignments are identified and described in detail, then submitted for approval.
5. Schedule the PM assignments on annual basis. The defined PM assignments are scheduled on the basis of a twelve-month period.
6. Expand the PM program as necessary. After the implementation of all
PM daily inspections and periodic assignments in the initially selected
areas, the PM can be expanded to other areas. Experience gained from
the pilot PM projects is instrumental to expanding the program.

Three important measures of PM are: mean preventive maintenance time (MPMT),
median preventive maintenance time (MDPMT), and maximum preventive maintenance time (MXPMT). Each measure is described below. Page 50 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM


MPMT is the average item/equipment downtime needed to conduct scheduled PM.
This time does not include PM time expended on the equipment/item during operation or administrative and logistic downtime.
Mean time for PM is defined by

f i MPMTi

MPMT = -----------------------------m



= total number of data points,
MPMTi = mean or average time needed to perform ith preventive maintenance
action, for i = 1, 2, 3,, m,
= frequency of ith preventive maintenance action in actions per operating
hour after adjustment for equipment duty cycle.


This is the item/equipment downtime needed to carry out 50% of all scheduled
preventive maintenance actions on the item/equipment under the conditions outlined
for MDPMT. For lognormal distributed PM times, the MDPMT is given by

i log MPMTi

MDPMT = antilog ---------------------------------------m



i = constant failure rate of element i of the item/equipment for which maintainability is to be evaluated, adjusted for factors such as duty cycle, tolerance
and interaction failures, and catastrophic failures that will lead to deterioration of item/equipment performance to the degree that a maintenance action
will be started, for
i = 1, 2, 3,, m.


This is the maximum item/equipment downtime required to accomplish a given
percentage of all scheduled preventive maintenance actions on the item/equipment
under consideration. For lognormal distributed PM times, the MXPMT is given by
MXPMT = antilog ( log MPMT m + yS logMPMT )

(4) Page 51 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

y = value from table of normal distribution corresponding to the given percentage
value at which MXPMT is defined (e.g., y = 1.283 for the 90th percentile
and y = 1.645 for the 95th percentile). log MPMTm is the mean of logarithms
of MPMTi and is expressed by

i log MPMTi

log MPMT m = ---------------------------------------m





( log MPMT ) 2 log MPMT




= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Over the years many PM-related useful mathematical models have been developed.
This chapter presents some of those models.


Inspections are often disruptive, but they usually reduce downtime because of lesser
number of failures. This model can be used to obtain the optimum number of
inspections per facility per unit of time. Total facility downtime is defined by
TDT = yT i + --------b


= total downtime per unit of time for a facility,

= a constant associated with a particular facility,
= facility downtime per breakdown or failure,
= facility downtime per inspection,
= number of inspections per facility per unit of time.

By differentiating Eq. (7) with respect to

y, we get

cT b
---------------- = T i -------2

(8) Page 52 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

By setting Eq. (8) equal to zero and then rearranging, we obtain

cT 1/2
y = --------b


y = optimum number of inspections per facility per unit of time.
By substituting Eq. (9) into Eq. (7) yields

TDT = 2 ( cT i T b )



TDT = total optimal downtime per unit of time for a facility.
Example 1
An engineering facility was observed over a period of time and we obtained the
following data:
Tb = 0.1 month,

Ti = 0.05 month, c = 3

Using Eq. (9), calculate the optimal number of inspections per month.
Using the given values in Eq. (9), we get
3 0.1
y = ---------------0.05


= 2.45 inspections per month

The approximate number of optimal inspections per month is 2.


This mathematical model can be used to calculate the reliability and mean time to
failure of a system subject to periodic maintenance. The model is subject to the
following assumptions:
A failed part is replaced with a new and statistically identical one.
Periodic maintenance is performed on the system after every y hours, starting at time zero.
For periodic maintenance, the time interval of y hours is written as
y = iY + T , i = 0, 1, 2,; 0 T < Y

(11) Page 53 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

For i = 1 and T = 0, the reliability of a redundant system subject to periodic

maintenance after every Y hours is given by
RY ( y = Y ) = R ( Y )


For i = 2 and T = 0, we have

R Y ( y = 2Y ) = [ R ( Y ) ]


In this case, the system must operate the first Y hours without experiencing failure.
Also, for another Y failure-free hours after the replacement of any failed part.
For 0 < T < Y, another T hours of system failure-free operation is required. Thus,

R Y ( y = 2Y + T ) = [ R ( Y ) ] R ( T )


In general form Eq. (14) is


R Y ( y = iY + T ) = [ R ( Y ) ] [ R ( T ) ], for i = 0, 1, 2, 3,; 0 T < Y


The redundant system mean time to failure with the performance of periodic maintenance is given by
MTTF pm =

0 RY ( y ) dy


To evaluate Eq. (16), we write the integral over the range 0 < y < as follows:
( i+1 )Y


MTTF pm =

R Y ( y ) dy



In Eq. (17), the integral of Eq. (16) is divided into time intervals of length Y. For
y = iY + T, by substituting Eq. (15) into Eq. (17) we get
MTTF pm =

[ R ( Y ) ] R ( T )dT


In Eq. (18) for y = iY + T, dy = dT and the limits become 0 and Y.

Thus, rearranging Eq. (18) yields
MTTF pm =

[ R ( Y ) ] R ( T )dT


(19) Page 54 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM


[ R(Y )]


= --------------------1 R(Y )


Equation (19) becomes


0 R ( T )dT

MTTF pm = ---------------------1 R(Y )


Example 2
Assume that two independent and identical machines form a parallel system. Each
machines times to failure are exponentially distributed with a mean time to failure
of 200 h. The periodic preventive maintenance (PM) is performed after every 100 h.
Calculate the system mean time to failure with and without the performance of
periodic PM.
Using the information and the given data, the reliability of the two
unit parallel system is
R ( y ) = 2e y/200 e 2y/200


By substituting Eq. (22) into Eq. (21) yields


0 ( 2e

T /200

2T /200

) dt

MTTF pm = --------------------------------------------------------------100/200
2 ( 100 )/200
1 ( 2e
= ---------------0.1548
= 608.26 h
By integrating Eq. (22) over the time interval [0, ], we get system mean time to
failure without the performance of periodic maintenance as follows:
MTTF pm =

( 2e


2 y/200

) dy = 300 h

This means that periodic PM helped improve the system mean time to failure from
300 to 608.26 h.


This is similar to Inspection Frequency Model I. It can be used to determine optimum
inspection frequency in order to minimize the per-unit-of-time equipment/facility
downtime. In this model facility/equipment (per-unit time) total downtime is the Page 55 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

function of inspection frequency. Mathematically, it is defined as follows:

TDT ( n ) = DT r + DT i

(n) n
= ----------- + --





facility/equipment total downtime per unit of time,

equipment/facility downtime due to per-unit-of-time inspection,
equipment/facility downtime due to per-unit-of-time repairs,
inspection frequency,
equipment/facility failure rate,
equipment/facility repair rate,
mean of exponentially distributed inspection times.

By differentiating Eq. (23) with respect to n, we get

d TDT ( n )
d (n) 1 1
------------------------ = --------------- --- + --dn


Setting Eq. (24) equal to zero and rearranging yields


-------------- = --dn


The value of n will be optimum when the left and right sides of Eq. (25) are equal.
At this point the equipment/facility total downtime will be minimal.
Example 3
Assume the failure rate of a system is defined by

( n ) = f e n


where f is the system failure rate at n = 0. Obtain an expression for the optimal
value of n by using Eq. (25).
By substituting Eq. (26) into Eq. (25), we get

= --


n = ln ------



Rearranging Eq. (27) yields Page 56 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

n = optimal inspection frequency.
Example 4
Assume that in Example 3 we have the following:
--- = 0.02 month, --- = 0.005 month,

f = 1 failure per month

Calculate the optimal value of the inspection frequency, n.

Inserting the given values into Eq. (28) yields
1 0.02
n = ln ------------------- = 1.39 inspections per month
This means that roughly one inspection per month will be optimal.


This is a useful mathematical model that can be used to calculate optimum inspection
frequency to maximize profit. The model is developed on the premise that the facility/
equipment under repair lead to zero output, thus less profit. Furthermore, if equipment
is inspected too often, there is danger that it may be more costly due to factors such
as loss of production, cost of materials, and wages than losses due to breakdowns.
The following assumptions are associated with this model:
The equipment failure rate is a function of inspections.
Times to inspection are exponentially distributed.
Equipment failure and repair rates are constant.
The following symbols were used to develop equations for the model:


number of inspections performed per unit of time,

mean of exponentially distributed inspection times,
profit at no downtime losses,
average inspection cost per uninterrupted unit of time,
average cost of repair per uninterrupted unit of time,
equipment failure rate,
equipment repair rate.

Profit per unit of time is expressed by:

PR = p PL i PL r IC RC
pn p ( n ) nc C r ( n )
= p ------ --------------- -------i ---------------

(29) Page 57 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

PLi =
PLr =
IC =
RC =

production output value loss per unit of time due to inspections,

production output value loss per unit of time due to repairs,
inspection cost per unit of time,
repair cost per unit of time.

By differentiating Eq. (29) with respect to n and then equating it to zero yield
d PR
p p d ( n ) C C d ( n )
----------- = --- --- -------------- -----i -----r -------------- = 0


Rearranging Eq. (30), we get

d ( n )
-------------- = --- ( p + C i )

p C r
--- + ----


The value of n will be optimal when left and right sides of Eq. (31) are equal. At
this point, the profit will be at its maximum value.
Example 5
Assume the failure rate of a manufacturing system is defined by Eq. (26) in
Example 3. Develop an expression for the optimal value of n with the aid of Eq. (31).
Using Eq. (26) in Eq. (31) yields

= --- ( p + C i )

--p- + C


By rearranging Eq. (32), we get

f ( p + Cr )
n = ln --------------------------( p + Ci)

n = optimal manufacturing system inspection frequency.
Example 6
Suppose that in Example 5 we have the following data:


$10,000 per month

2 failures per month
0.04 month
0.01 month
$75 per month
$400 per month

(33) Page 58 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

Determine the optimal value of n by using Eq. (33).

By inserting the specified data values into Eq. (33), we obtain
2 0.04 ( 10,000 + 400 )

n = ln --------------------------------------------------------------0.01 ( 10,000 + 75 )
= 2.11 inspections per month
For optimal performance, approximately two inspections per month should be

This mathematical model represents a system that can either fail completely or undergo
periodic PM. The failed system is repaired. The system transition diagram is shown
in Fig. 3. The model is useful to predict system availability, probability of system
down for PM, and probability of system failure.
The following assumptions are associated with the model:
System PM, failure, and repair rates are constant.
After repair or PM the system is as good as new.
The following symbols were used to develop equations for the model:
= the jth system state, j = 0 (system operating normally), j = 1 (system failed),
j = p (system down for PM),
Pj (t) = probability that the system is in state j at time t, for j = 0, 1, p,

= system failure rate,

= system repair rate,

p = rate of system down for PM,
p = rate of system PM performance.

System down
for preventive

System working

System failed

Figure 3 System transition diagram. Page 59 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

Using the Markov method we write the following equations for Fig. 3:

dP 0 ( t )
--------------- + ( + p ) = P 1 ( t ) + p P p ( t )


dPp ( t )
---------------- + p P p ( t ) = p P 0 ( t )


dP 1 ( t )
--------------- + P 1 ( t ) = P 0 ( t )


At time t = 0, P0 (0) = 1 and Pp (0) = P1(0) = 0.

Solving Eqs. (34)(36), we get
( m 1 + p ) ( m 1 + ) m1 t ( m 2 + p ) ( m 2 + ) m2 t
- + -------------------------------------------e -------------------------------------------- e
P 0 ( t ) = -----------m1 m2
m1 ( m1 m2 )
m2 ( m1 m2 )


( p + m 2 ) m2 t
m 1 + p m1 t
- e ----------------------------- e
- + ----------------------------P 1 ( t ) = -----------m1 m2
m1 ( m1 m2 )
m2 ( m1 m2 )


( + m 2 ) p m2 t
p m 1 + p m1 t
- e ----------------------------- e
- + ----------------------------P p ( t ) = -----------m2 ( m1 m2 )
m1 m2
m1 ( m1 m2 )




B [ B 4 ( p + p + p ) ]
m 1 , m 2 = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------2


B ( + p + + p)


m1 + m2 = B


m 1 m 2 = p + p + p


The probability of system failure is given by Eq. (38), the probability of system
down for PM by Eq. (39), and the system availability by Eq. (37). As time t
becomes large in Eq. (37), we get the following expression for the system steadystate availability:
AV SS = --------------------------------------- p + p + p

(44) Page 60 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

Example 7
Assume that in Eq. (44) we have = 0.005 failures per hour, p = 0.008 per hour,
= 0.009 repairs per hour, and p = 0.009 per hour. Calculate the system steadystate availability.
Substituting the given values into Eq. (44) yields
0.009 0.009
AV SS = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 0.009 0.009 ) + ( 0.008 0.009 ) + ( 0.005 0.009 )
= 0.4091
There is an approximately 41% chance that the system will be available for service.
Specifically, the system steady-state availability is 41%.


The performance of PM has many advantages including increase in equipment
availability, performed as convenient, balanced workload, reduction in overtime,
increase in production revenue, consistency in quality, reduction in need for standby
equipment, stimulation in preaction instead of reaction, reduction in parts inventory,
improved safety, standardized procedures, times, and costs, scheduled resources on
hand, and useful in promoting benefit/cost optimization.
Some disadvantages of PM are: exposing equipment to possible damage, using
a greater number of parts, increases in initial costs, failures in new parts/components,
and demands more frequent access to equipment/item.

1. Discuss at least five important elements of PM.
2. What are the symptoms of a plant in need of a good PM program?
3. What are the important questions that can be asked to determine the
adequacy of a PM program?
4. Comment on the principle or formula proposed to decide whether to go
ahead with a PM program.
5. List at least ten items whose availability is essential to develop an effective
PM program.
6. Discuss important steps for developing a PM program.
7. Discuss the following:
Mean PM time
Maximum PM time
Median PM time
8. Three independent and identical machines form a parallel system. Each
machines times to failure are exponentially distributed with a mean
time to failure of 150 h. The periodic PM is performed after every 75 h. Page 61 Wednesday, December 19, 2001 11:52 AM

Determine the system mean time to failure with and without performance
of periodic PM.
9. Obtain steady-state expressions for Eqs. (38) and (39). Obtain an
expression for the system steady-state unavailability.
10. What are the benefits and drawbacks of performing PM?

An important parameter for a marine diesel engine is the rating figure, usually
stated as brake horsepower (bhp) or kilowatts per cylinder at a given revolu
tions per minute.
Although enginebuilders talk of continuous service rating (csr) and max
imum continuous rating (mcr), as well as overload ratings, the rating which
concerns a ship owner most is the maximum output guaranteed by the engine
builder at which the engine will operate continuously day in and day out. It is
most important that an engine be sold for operation at its true maximum rating
and that a correctly sized engine be installed in the ship in the first place; an
underrated main engine, or more particularly an auxiliary engine, will inevit
ably be operated at its limits most of the time. It is wrong for a ship to be at
the mercy of two or three undersized and thus overrated auxiliary engines, or a
main engine that needs to operate at its maximum continuous output to main
tain the desired service speed.
Prudent ship owners usually insist that the engines be capable of main
taining the desired service speed fully loaded, when developing not more
than 80 per cent (or some other percentage) of their rated bhp. However, such
a stipulation can leave the full-rated power undefined and therefore does not
necessarily ensure a satisfactory moderate continuous rating, hence the appear
ance of continuous service rating and maximum continuous rating. The
former is the moderate in-service figure; the latter is the enginebuilders set
point of mean pressures and revolutions which can be carried by the engines
Normally a ship will run sea trials to meet the contract trials speed (at a
sufficient margin above the required service speed), and the continuous service
rating should be applied when the vessel is in service. It is not unknown for
ship owners to then stipulate that the upper power level of the engines in serv
ice should be somewhere between 85 per cent and 100 per cent of the service
speed output, which could be as much as 20 per cent less than the engine mak
ers guaranteed maximum continuous rating (Figure 1).








Max. pressure


Comp. pressure

mep, mip



PComp, Pmax

Engine r/min

bar (abs)



Scav. air pressure


Exhaust gas temp.

Exhaust gas temp.
after valves
Exhaust gas temp.
after turbines


T-Exhaust Gas



Total air excess







Specific fuel oil




g/kW h



Figure 1 Typical performance curves for a two-stroke engine

Maximum rating
The practical maximum output of a diesel engine may be said to have been
reached when one or more of the following factors operate:
1. The maximum percentage of fuel possible is being burned effectively in
the cylinder volume available (combustion must be completed fully at
the earliest possible moment during the working stroke) (Figure 2).
2. The stresses in the component parts of the engine generally, for the
mechanical and thermal conditions prevailing, have attained the highest
safe level for continuous working.

Figure 2 Layout diagrams showing maximum and economy ratings and corresponding fuel consumptions

3. The piston speed and thus revolutions per minute cannot safely be
For a given cylinder volume, it is possible for one design of engine effec
tively to burn considerably more fuel than one of the other designs. This may
be the result of more effective scavenging and higher pressure turbocharging,
by a more suitable combustion chamber space and design and a more satisfac
tory method of fuel injection. Similarly, the endurance limit of the materials of

cylinders, pistons and other parts may be much higher for one engine than for
another; this may be achieved by the adoption of more suitable materials, by
better design of shapes, thicknesses, etc., more satisfactory cooling and so on.
A good example of the latter is the bore cooling arrangements, which is now
commonly adopted for piston crowns, cylinder liner collars and cylinder cov
ers in way of the combustion chamber.
The piston speed is limited by the acceleration stresses in the materials,
the speed of combustion and the scavenging efficiency: that is, the ability of
the cylinder to become completely free of its exhaust gases in the short time of
one part cycle. Within limits, so far as combustion is concerned, it is possible
sometimes to increase the speed of an engine if the mean pressure is reduced.
This may be of importance for auxiliary engines built to match a given alterna
tor speed.
For each type of engine, therefore, there is a top limit beyond which the
engine should not be run continuously. It is not easy to determine this maxi
mum continuous rating; in fact, it can only be satisfactorily established by
exhaustive tests for each size and type of engine, depending on the state of
development of the engine at the time.
If a cylinder is overloaded by attempting to burn too much fuel, combus
tion may continue to the end of the working stroke and perhaps also until after
exhaust has begun. Besides suffering an efficiency loss, the engine will become
overheated and piston seizures or cracking of engine parts may result; or, at
least, sticking piston rings, as well as dirty and sticking fuel valves, will be

Exhaust temperatures
The temperature of the engine exhaust gases can be a limiting factor for the
maximum output of an engine. An exhaust temperature graph plotted with
mean indicated pressures as abscissae and exhaust temperatures as ordinates
will generally indicate when the economical combustion limit, and sometimes
when the safe working limit, of an engine has been attained. The economical
limit is reached shortly after the exhaust temperature begins to curve upwards
from what was, previously, almost a straight line.
Very often the safe continuous working load is also reached at the same
time, as the designer naturally strives to make all the parts of an engine equally
suitable for withstanding the respective thermal and mechanical stresses to
which they are subjected.
When comparing different engine types, however, exhaust temperature
cannot be taken as proportionate to mean indicated pressure. Sometimes it is
said and generally thought that engine power is limited by exhaust tempera
ture. What is really meant is that torque is so limited and exhaust temperature
is a function of torque and not of power. The exhaust temperature is influenced
by the lead and dimensions of the exhaust piping. The more easily the exhaust
gases can flow away, the lower their temperature, and vice versa.

An option available to reduce the specific fuel consumption of diesel engines
is derated or so-called economy ratings. This means operation of an engine at
its normal maximum cylinder pressure for the design continuous service rating,
but at lower mean effective pressure and shaft speed.
By altering the fuel injection timing to adjust the mean pressure/maximum
pressure relationship, the result is worthwhile saving in fuel consumption. The
horsepower required for a particular speed by a given ship is calculated by the
naval architect, and, once the chosen engine is coupled to a fixed pitch pro
peller, the relationship between engine horsepower, propeller revolutions and
ship speed is set according to the fixed propeller curve. A move from one point
on the curve to another is simply a matter of giving more or less fuel to the
Derating is the setting of engine performance to maximum cylinder pres
sures at lower than normal shaft speeds, at a point lower down the propeller
curve. For an existing ship and without changing the propeller, this will result
in a lower ship speed, but in practice when it is applied to newbuildings, the
derated engine horsepower is that which will drive the ship at a given speed
with the propeller optimized to absorb this horsepower at a lower than normal
shaft speed.
Savings in specific fuel consumption by fitting a derated engine can be sig
nificant. However, should it be required at some later date to operate the engine
at its full output potential (normally about 1520 per cent above the derated
value), the ship would need a new propeller to suit both higher revolutions per
minute and greater absorbed horsepower. The injection timing would also have
to be reset.

Mean effective pressures

The term brake mean effective pressure (bmep) is widely quoted by engine
builders and is useful for industrial and marine auxiliary diesel engines that
are not fitted with a mechanical indicator gear. However, the term has no useful
meaning for shipboard propulsion engines. It is artificial and superfluous as it
is derived from measurements taken by a dynamometer (or brake), which are
then used in the calculation of mechanical efficiency. Aboard ship, where for
merly the indicator and now electronic pressure transducers producing PV dia
grams, are the means of recording cylinder pressures, mean indicated pressure
(mip) is the term used, particularly in the calculation of indicated horsepower.
Many ships now have permanently mounted torsionmeters. By using the
indicator to calculate mean indicated pressure and thus indicated horsepower,
and the torsionmeter to calculate shaft horsepower (shp) from torque readings
and shaft revolutions, the performance of the engine both mechanically and
thermally in the cylinders can be readily determined.
Instruments such as pressure transducers, indicators, tachometers and pres
sure gauges (many of which are of the electronic digital or analogue type of

high reliability) allow the ships engineer to accurately assess the performance
of the engine at any time.
The values of bhp, mean indicated pressure and revolutions per minute are,
of course, capable of mutual variation within reasonable limits, the horsepower
developed per cylinder being the product of mean indicated (or effective) pres
sure, the revolutions per minute and the cylinder constant (based on bore and
stroke). The actual maximum values for horsepower and revolutions to be used
in practice are those quoted by the enginebuilder for the given continuous serv
ice rating.

Propeller slip
The slip of the propeller is normally recorded aboard ship as a useful pointer to
overall results. While it may be correct to state that the amount of apparent slip
is no indication of propulsive efficiency in a new ship design, particularly as a
good design may have a relatively high propeller slip, the daily variation in slip
(based on ship distance travelled compared with the product of propeller pitch
and revolutions turned by the engine over a given period of time) can be symp
tomatic of the changes in the relationship of propulsive power and ship speed;
and slip, therefore, as an entity, is a useful parameter. The effects on ship speed
over the ground by ocean currents is sometimes considerable.
For example, a following current may be as much as 5 per cent, and
heavy weather ahead may have an effect of more than twice this amount.

Propeller law
An enginebuilder is at liberty to make the engine mean pressure and revolu
tions what he will, within the practical and experimental limits of the engine
design. It is only after the maximum horsepower and revolutions are decided
and the engine has been coupled to a propeller that the propeller law operates
in its effect upon horsepower, mean pressure and revolutions.
shp varies as V3
shp varies as R3
T varies as R2
P varies as R2
shpaggregate shaft horsepower of engine, metric or imperial
Vspeed of ship in knots
Rrevolutions per minute
Ttorque, in kg m or lb ftPr
Pbrake mean pressure, in kg ft cm2 or lb ft in2
rradius of crank, in m or ft
If propeller slip is assumed to be constant:

shp KV 3

where Kconstant from shp and R for a set of conditions.

But R is proportional to V, for constant slip,

shp K1 R3

where K1constant from shp and R for a set of conditions.

p A c r 2 R
33 000
K1 R (imperial)


When Aaggregate area of pistons (cm2 or in2), c0.5 for two-stroke,

0.25 for four-stroke engines, or

T PAcr

33 000
K1 R 3 K 2 R2 (imperial)
2 R


T PAcr

K1 R 3 K 2 R2 (metric)
2 R

i.e. T K 2 R 2

where K2constant, determinable from T and R for a set of conditions.

PAcr T or

2 R2

i.e. P K 3 R 2

where K3constant determinable from P and R for a set of conditions.

The propeller law index is not always 3, nor is it always constant over the
full range of speeds for a ship. It could be as much as 4 for short high-speed
vessels, but 3 is normally satisfactory for all ordinary calculations. The index
for R, when related to the mean pressure P, is one number less than that of the
index for V.
Propeller law is most useful for enginebuilders at the testbeds where engine
loads can be applied with the dynamometer according to the load and revolu
tions calculated from the law, thus matching conditions to be found on board
the ship when actually driving a propeller.

Fuel coefficient
An easy yardstick to apply when measuring machinery performance is the fuel


D2 / 3 V 3

Cfuel coefficient
Ddisplacement of ship in tons
Vspeed in knots
Ffuel burnt per 24h in tons
This method of comparison is applicable only if ships are similar, are run
at approximately corresponding speeds, operate under the same conditions and
burn the same quality of fuel. The ships displacement in relation to draught is
obtained from a scale provided by the shipbuilders.

Admiralty constant

D2 / 3 V 3

where CAdmiralty constant, dependent on ship form, hull finish and other
If C is known for a ship, the approximate shp can be calculated for given
ship conditions of speed and displacement.

Apparent propeller slip

P R 101.33 V
Apparent slip (%)


Ppropeller pitch in ft
Rspeed of ship in knots
101.33 is one knot in ft/min
The true propeller slip is the slip relative to the wake stream, which is
something very different. The engineer, however, is normally interested in the
apparent slip.

Propeller performance
Many variables affect the performance of a ships machinery at sea, so the only
practical basis for a contract to build to a specification and acceptance by the
owner is a sea trial where everything is under the builders control. The margin

between the trial trip power and sea service requirements of speed and loading
must ensure that the machinery is of ample capacity. One important variable on
the ships performance is that of the propeller efficiency.
Propellers are designed for the best combinations of blade area, diameter,
pitch, number of blades, etc., and are matched to a given horsepower and speed
of propulsion engine; and in fact each propeller is specifically designed for the
particular ship. It is important that the engine should be able to provide heavy
torque when required, which implies an ample number of cylinders with abil
ity to carry high mean pressures. However, when a propeller reaches its limit of
thrust capacity under head winds, an increase in revolutions can be to no avail.
In tank tests with models for powering experiments the following particu
lars are given.

Quasi-Propulsive Coefficient (Q)


model resistance speed

work got out per min

work put in per min

2 torque rev/min

Total Shaft Horsepower at Propeller (EHP)


ehp p

EHPeffective horsepower for model as determined by tank testing;
pincrease for appendages and air resistance equal to 1012 per cent of
the naked model EHP, for smooth water conditions.
The shp at the propeller for smooth sea trials is about 10 per cent more
than that in tank tests. The additional power, compared with sea trials, for sea
service is about 1112 per cent more for the South Atlantic and 2025 per cent
more for the North Atlantic. This is due to the normal weather conditions in
these areas. The size of the ship affects these allowances: a small ship needs
a greater margin. By way of example, 15 per cent margin over trial conditions
equals 26.5 per cent over tank tests.
The shp measured by torsionmeter abaft the thrust block exceeds the EHP
by the power lost in friction at the sterntube and plummer blocks and can be as
much as 56 per cent.
The bhp exceeds the torsionmeter measured shp by the frictional power lost
at the thrust block. Bhp can only be calculated onboard ship by multiplying
the recorded indicated horsepower by the mechanical efficiency stated by the
Required bhp for engineEHPsea marginhp lost at sterntube and
plummer blockshp lost at thrust block.

Typical values for the quasi-propulsive coefficient (Q) are as follows:

tanker 0.670.72, slow cargo vessel 0.720.75, fast cargo liner 0.700.73, ferry
0.580.62 and passenger ship 0.650.70.

Power build-up


Figures 3 and 4 are typical diagrams showing the propulsion power data for a
twin-screw vessel. In Figure 3 curve A is the EHP at the trial draught; B is the
EHP corrected to the contract draught; C is the shp at trial draught on the Firth
of Clyde; D is the shp corrected to the contract draught; E is the power service
curve from voyage results; F shows the relation between speed of the ship and
engine revolutions on trials and G is the service result. The full-rated power of
the propelling engines is 18000bhp; the continuous service rating is 15000bhp.
In Figure 3 curves A to D show shp as ordinates and the speed of the ship as
abscissae. In Figure 4 powers are shown as ordinates, revolutions as abscissae.
Contract draft

Trial draft

18 000

14 000

a ft

16 000


12 000





10 000



















rev l









Speed in knots

Figure 3 Propulsion data


Figure 5 shows the relationship between revolutions, power and brake

mean pressure for the conditions summarized in Figures 3 and 4. A fair line
drawn through the observed points for the whole range shows the shp to increase
approximately as the cube of the revolutions and the square of the bmep. For
the range 95109 rev/min, the index increases to 3.5 for the power and 2.5 for
the bmep. Between 120rev/min and 109rev/min, a more closely drawn curve
shows the index rises to 3.8 and the bmep to 2.8. In Figure 5 ordinates and
abscissae are plotted to a logarithmic base, thus reducing the power/revolution
and the pressure/revolution curves to straight lines, for simplicity.

Trailing and locking of propeller

In Figure 6, the normal speed/power curves for a twinscrew motor vessel on
the measured mile and in service are shown.
The effect upon the speed and power of the ship when one of the propellers
is trailed, by free-wheeling, is indicated in the diagram. The effect of one of
the propellers being locked is also shown.
Figure 7 shows the speed/power curves for a four-screw motorship under
the following conditions:
1. When all propellers are working
2. When the vessel is propelled only by the two centre screws, the outer
screws being locked
3. When the ship is being propelled only by the two wing screws, the two
inner screws being locked.

Trial draft = 210F

= 21101/ 2 mean
contract draft = 269 mean

18 000

16 000

Equiv. shp trial

contract draft

12 000

shp service
shp Endurance
trial at 21101/ 2
Torsionmeter shp
trial draft

10 000




Figure 4 Propulsion data






14 000

Slope = 3.8




15 000



14 000


13 000

12 000

11 000

bmp (kg/cm2)

16 000



17 000


10 000







Figure 5 Engine trials: power, revolutions and mean pressure

10 000


Service results

One engine in use

(One shaft locked)



Measured mile results
One engine in use
(One shaft freewheeling)







Speed in knots

Figure 6 Speed/power curves of a twin-screw vessel

Astern running
Figure 8 summarizes a series of tests made on the trials of a twinscrew pas
senger vessel, 716ft long, 83ft 6in beam, trial draught 21ft forward, 26ft aft,
26000 tons displacement.

16 000

14 000

12 000

Four screws working

Two centre screws only


10 000


Two wing screws only







Speed in knots










Nautical miles

Speed in knots

Figure 7 Speed/power curves of a quadruple-screw ship












Time in minutes




Figure 8 Ship stopping trials

As plotted in Figure 8, tests I to VI show distances and times, the speed

of approach being as stated at column 2 in Table 1. The dotted curves show
reductions of speed and times.

Table 1 Ship stopping trials

Test No.

Ahead Speed
of Approach






23.0 (119)

Trailing; unlocked





14.5 (75)

Trailing; unlocked






13.5 (75)

Trailing; locked






15.0 (75)

Ahead running
checked; no
additional astern





14.8 (75)

Engine stopped;
astern as quickly
as possible






22.4 (116)

Trailing; unlocked





The dotted curves A to F respectively correspond to curves I to VI. In test

I, after the ship had travelled, over the ground, a distance of two nautical miles
(1nm6080ft), the test was terminated and the next test begun.
In Table 2 a typical assortment of observed facts related to engine stop
ping and astern running is given. Where two or three sets of readings are given,
these are for different vessels and/or different engine sizes.
Trials made with a cargo liner showed that the ship was brought to rest
from 20 knots in 65s. Another cargo liner, travelling at 16 knots, was brought
to a stop in a similar period. The engine, running full power ahead, was
brought to 80rev/min astern in 32s and had settled down steadily at full astern
revolutions in 50s.
A shipbuilder will think of ship speed in terms of the trial performance in
fair weather, but to the ship owner ship speed is inevitably related to scheduled
performance on a particular trade route. Sea trials are invariably run with the
deadweight limited to fuel, freshwater and ballast. Because of the difference
between loaded and trials draught, the hull resistance may be 2530 per cent
greater for the same speed. This has a consequential effect upon the relation
between engine torque and power, and in the reaction on propeller efficiency.
Adverse weather, marine growth and machinery deterioration necessitate a
further power allowance, if the service speed is to be maintained. The mean
wear and tear of the engine may result in a reduction of output by 1015 per
cent, or a loss of speed by up to one knot may be experienced.

Table 2 Engine reversing and ship stopping




Time for










Small fast

2C. tr.


























S.A. 2C.










































S.A. 2C.

When selecting a propulsion engine for a given ship, a suitable power

allowance for all factors such as weather, fouling, wear and tear, as well as the
need to maintain the service speed at around 85 per cent of the maximum con
tinuous rating, should all be taken into consideration. (C.T.W.)



An engine indicator is used to record pressure/volume or indicator diagrams taken off engines, the areas
of these indicator diagrams represent the work done per cycle of one unit.
There are two types of engine indicators:
1. Mechanical type: This records indicator diagrams on paper.
a) Can record pressure within the engine cylinder at any part of the engine cycle.
b) Not considered reliable of engine speed more than 150 rpm.
c) Small lightweight models can be used for engines with speeds up to 350 rpm.
d) Mean indicated pressure (m.e.p) from an indicator power diagram.
2. Pressure indicator type - this measures maximum combustion pressure only.
a) Also known as maximum pressure indicator.
b) Compression pressure is recorded with fuel cut off.
c) No engine speed limitation.
d) Often used on medium speed engines.
e) Does not record indicator diagrams on paper.
Mean Effective Pressure and Indicated Power:

Power Indicator Diagram.

Referring to the Indicated diagram (Power card), the area of the diagram divided by its length represents
the mean pressure effectively pushing the piston forward and transmitting useful energy to the crank in
one cycle. This, expressed in N/m2, is termed the indicated mean effective pressure (pm).
Power is the rate of doing work (basic unit is the Watt) or:
1 Watt = 1 J/s = Nm/s
pm = mean effective pressure (N/m2).
A = area of piston (m2).
L = length of stroke (m).
N = Number of power stroke per second.
Average force (N) on piston = pm x A newtons.
Work done (J) in one power stroke = Pm x A x L newton-metres = joules.
Work per second (J/s = W) = pm x A x L x n watts of power,
Indicated power = pmALn.
This is the power indicated in one cylinder. The total power of a multi-cylinder engine is that multiplied
by the number of cylinders, if the mean effective pressure is the same for all cylinders.
Construction and Working Principle of Indicator:

Engine Indicator.
An engine indicator consists of a small bore cylinder containing a short stroke piston which is subjected
to the same varying pressure that takes place inside the engine cylinder during one cycle of operations.
This is done by connecting the indicator cylinder to the top of the engine cylinder in the case of singleacting engines, or through change over cocks and pipes leading to the top and bottom ends of the engine
cylinder in the case of double-acting engines. The gas pressure pushes the indicator piston up against the
resistance of a spring, a choice of specially scaled springs of different stiffness being available to suit the
operating pressures within the cylinder and a reasonable height of diagram.
A spindle connects the indicator piston to a system of small levers designed to produce a vertical
straight-line motion at the pencil on the end of the pencil lever, parallel (but magnified about six times)
to the motion of the indicator piston. The pencil is often a brass point, or stylus, this is brought to
press lightly on specially prepared indicator paper which is scrapped around a cylindrical drum and
clipped to it. The drum, which has a built-in recoil spring, is actuated in a semi-rotary manner by a cord
wrapped around a groove in the bottom of it; a hook at its lower end to a reduction lever system from the
engine crosshead attaches the cord, passing over a guide pulley. Instead of the lever system from the
crosshead, many engines are fitted with a special cam and tappet gear to reproduce the stroke of the
engine piston to a small scale. The drum therefore turns part of a revolution when the engine piston
moves down, and turns back again when the engine piston moves up, thus the pencil or stylus on the end
of the indicator lever draws a diagram which is a record of the pressure in the engine cylinder during one
complete cycle.

Line Diagram of Engine Indicator.

Above figures show an engine indicator which is suitable for taking indicator diagrams of steam
reciprocating engines and internal combustion engines up to rotational speeds of about 300 rev/min. In
this type, the pressure scale spring is anchored at its bottom end to the framework, and the top of the
piston spindle bears upwards on the top coil of the spring, the upward motion of the indicator piston thus
stretches the spring.
Types of Indicator Diagrams:
Four types of indicator diagrams or cards can be obtained from a slow-running diesel engine:

This is taken with the indicator drum in phase with piston movement. The area within this diagram
represents the work done during the cycle to scale. This may be used to calculate the power produced
after obtaining the indicated mean effective pressure of the unit.


This is taken in a similar manner to the power card but with the fuel shut off from the cylinder. The
height of this diagram shows maximum compression pressure. If compression and expansion line
coincide, it shows that the indicator is correctly synchronized with the engine.

Taken in a similar manner to the power card with fuel pump engaged but with the indicator drum 90*
out of phase with piston stroke. This illustrates more clearly the pressure changes during fuel

Taken similar to power card and in phase with the engine stroke, but this diagram is taken with light
compression spring fitted to the indicator. This shows clearly pressure changes during exhaust and
scavenge in enlarged scale. This can be used to find any defects during those operations.


Typical Power Card with Out Of Phase Card taken on the same Diagram.

Trace of a power card taken over a full cycle with the card opened out so that the compression
curve appears to the left of the vertical (tdc) line and the combustion and expansion occurring to
the right of the same line. This is common way for electronic monitors to record events in the
cylinder, again relevant pressures and angles may be well recorded on the print out.

Card taken by Electronic Device.

Typical print taken from an electronic measuring device.
Pressure and their relevant angles are automatically printed on to the card.
Very useful for checking engine performance.

-------------: Early Injection.

-------------: Normal Injection.
-------------: Late Injection.
-------------: Late Injection with After Burning.

3. Combustion.
This is an exothermic reaction (one in which heat is liberated by the action) between a fuel and oxygen.
Liquid fuels consist of carbon, & hydrogen, in the form of hydrocarbons, with small quantities of
sulphur & traces of other metallic Impurities such as vanadium.
A typical fuel analysis, by mass would be:
C = 5%, H2 = 12%, S = 3%, with a C.V. of 44000 KJ/Kg.
(19000 BTU/lb.)
The oxygen is obtained from the air, which can be considered to contain 77% nitrogen & 23% oxygen
by mass.
The nitrogen plays no active part in the combustion process but it is necessary as it acts as a moderator.
With pure oxygen, the combustion would be violent & difficult to control & it would produce very high
temperatures, creating cooling, metallurgical & lubrication problems.
The reactions, which occur, are:
2H2 + O2 ----------- 2H2O liberating 142 MJ/kg. H2.
C + O2 -------------- CO2 liberating 33 MJ/kg. C.
S + O2 --------------- SO2 liberating 9.25 MJ/kg. S.
2C + O2 --------------2CO liberating 10 MJ/kg. C.
Combustion will only occur within limits in the air/fuel mixture. If too much air is supplied all the fuel
will be burnt but the excess of oxygen & nitrogen will carry away heat. If too little air is supplied
incomplete combustion will occur, when all the hydrogen will be burnt but only part of the carbon, with
the remainder only burning to carbon monoxide or not burning at all. In diesel engine practice it is usual
to supply between 100 & 200% excess air by mass, though 15% is sufficient for a steady flow
combustion process (boiler).
This difference has two reasons:
1. As the combustion proceeds in the diesel engine, the fuel finds less & less air to combine with in
a boiler air is constantly being fed in.
2. More air is needed in the diesel engine as it lowers the maximum temperature, allowing Cast iron
to be used.
Combustion Process.
Fuel is injected into the clearance volume towards the end of the compression stroke, as a fine mist of
very small droplets, which have a surface area many times that of the accumulated fuel charge. These
droplets are rapidly heated by the hot compressed air, which has a temperature of between 550* to
650*C, causing vaporisation. The vapour mixes with air and when the mixture exceeds the spontaneous
ignition temperature, (S.I.T.) combustion begins.
The process can be divided into four phases :
1. Injection delay.
2. Ignition delay.
3. Constant volume combustion.
4. Direct burning.
Injection delay:
A time lag of about 0.005 seconds occurs between trapping the fuel charge in the pump barrel and
starting injection into the engine cylinder. This is due to:
a) Elasticity of high-pressure fuel lines & system.
b) Slight compressibility of the fuel charge.
c) Leakage past the pump plunger & injector needle.
d) Opening delay of the pump discharge valve & injector needle.

In a slow speed engine the lag period accounts for up to 5* of crank movement. In a high speed engine it
may account for 20* or more and because of point (a) it is necessary to use fuel lines of similar length
for all cylinders, when the fuel pumps are grouped together.
Ignition Delay.
Ignition delay is another short period of time delay, which is sufficient to account for several degrees of
crank angle. Several factors are involved:
a) Spreading and penetrating of the fuel in to the clearance volume space.
b) Heating of the fuel to cause vaporization & then exceeding the fuels spontaneous
ignition temperature.
c) Mixing of the fuel & air in the clearance volume space before detonation.
Constant Volume Combustion.
Ignition occurs at T.D.C. when the fuel charge, which has entered during the ignition delay period, burns
rapidly causing a sharp rise in cylinder pressure with little movement of the piston occurring. Modern
four stroke engines may attain 100 bar; at this point where as a two stroke engines are likely to operate
with pressures of 75 to 98 bar.
Direct Burning.
The remainder of the fuel burns as it enters the cylinder and mixes with air. The excess air and
combustion gases prevent high temperatures and rapid combustion so the pressure remains about
constant. Injection and combustion should cease simultaneously at the end of this period.
Factors Affecting Combustion.
In order to attain good combustion it is essential that:
a) Sufficient air is supplied.
b) Compression is high enough to give a temperature above the spontaneous ignition temperature.
c) Good mixing of the air and fuel is obtained.
All of these give problems. The factors affecting combustion are:
1. Atomisation.
2. Penetration.
3. Turbulence.
1. Atomisation.
The rate of heat absorption and burning depends upon the surface area of the fuel particles. As this must
be rapid it follows that the surface area needs to be big & this is achieved by breaking up the fuel into
small droplets. The amount of the fuel pressure, diameter of injector nozzle holes and the viscosity of
the fuel, affect the process.
2. Penetration.
To use all the air in the combustion space it is necessary to give the fuel particles sufficient energy to
enable them to penetrate to the extremes of the space. This is controlled by the fuel pressure, the size of
the particle & the length to diameter ratio of the nozzle hole (From 2:1 to 5:1). The latter also controls
the angle of spray.
3. Turbulence.
To aid mixing of fuel with air and atomisation, friction between the fuel & air is needed. Friction is a
function of the relative velocity between the fuel particle and the air, and may be obtained by either of
two methods.
a) Fuel seeks air.
b) Air seeks fuel.

a) The air is static or slow moving and the mixing energy is obtained from the fuel particles.
Injection pressures of 200 to around 1000 bars are needed from multi-holed nozzle injectors.
Advantages are, simplicity, economy and easier for cold starting the engine. The latter because
little air movement means reduced heat loss to the cold liner and piston crown (also assists in the
burning of heavy fuel). Disadvantages are in producing and sealing high fuel pressures.
b) The air is made to swirl rapidly at the end of the compression stroke by using a pre-designed
combustion chamber. Single holed nozzles and lower fuel pressures are used, 70-100 bars.
Advantages are simplicity of injection, equipment and rapid combustion (useful in high speed
engines). Disadvantages are complicated combustion chambers and high rate of heat loss to
surroundings. Causes difficulties in cold starting, sometimes needing cylinder combustion space
heating system.
In practice, a combination is often used minimum fuel pressures being used with a small degree of swill
produced by vaned inlet valves or tangentially cut scavenge ports. Quantity of swirl causes half the
liner circumference to be traversed during combustion.
Combustion Faults.
The combustion process is regarded as a controlled explosion with a flame front speed of about 25 m/s.
However if combustion conditions are not correct double ignition may occur and a detonation may
result. The latter occurs when the mixture is rapidly compressed by an initial ignition and the remaining
mixture is overheated and burns almost instantaneously (Flame speed 2000 m/s). The detonation can set
up very high pressures, temperatures and causes vibration of the cylinder and piston. It also reduces the
efficiency of the engine as energy is absorbed producing the vibration.
After burning.
This occurs when combustion extends into the expansion period after the injector has closed. It is caused
by poor ignition qualities or very poor atomization and produces high exhaust pressures and
Injection timing.
Early injection produces high firing pressures; late injection produces low firing pressures and high
exhaust pressures. In both cases the engine power is reduced.
All these faults could be seen very clearly in indicator cards of each unit.
Ideal Combustion.
To obtain maximum thermal efficiency, the combustion process should be carried out as close to the
Otto cycle as practically possible. This means, the rate of rise of pressure should be as rapid as possible,
without exceeding the designed mechanical and thermal loading. To achieve maximum mean effective
pressure the fuel remaining after the initial period of rapid rise, should be burned at a rate which will
hold the cylinder pressure constant, at the maximum design value until the fuel is burned.
Some of those factors affecting the ideal combustion can be considered as follows.
Injection timing.
Using jerk injection system, it has been found that the shortest delay period occurs when it includes
1. Early injection results in increased delay since the pressure and temperature are still
rising, so auto injection energy has not been reached.
2. Late injection causes increased delay since the piston is accelerating away from the
cylinder head and temperature and pressure fall rapidly.
In each case, the rate of pressure rise is increased due to the large quantity of the fuel in the combustion
space before the chemical reaction is initiated. The reaction, which follows involves a massive amount
of fuel and approximates to detonation.

This results in Diesel knock, the effects of which are determined objectionable. Many engines are
timed later than that which gives maximum mean effective pressure to reduce the rate of pressure rise
and the maximum pressure. This however involves some sacrifice in efficiency and power output.
Engine R.P.M.
Since the delay period is determined mainly by the fuel characteristics, it follows that delay tends to be
independent of engine speed. The delay angle however will vary with engine speed and have
considerable influence on the pressure / crank angle diagram.
In each case 10 deg. BTDC & 20deg. BTDC the delay angle is increased with increase in speed.

- - - - - - -: High Speed.
-----------: Slow Speed.
Other factors influenced by engine speed may include.
1. Fuel spray characteristics (since fuel pumps are engine driven and pressure and temperature in
cylinder affect secondary atomisation).
2. Volumetric Efficiency (since the piston speed & valve opening characteristics influence the gas
exchange process).
3. Combustion chamber wall temperature (since rate of heat input & rate of heat conduction
determines the wall temp).
Fuel / Air Ratio.
As fuel is being injected there will be local fuel-air ratios varying from infinity near the injector to zero
where fuel vapour has not yet reached. Provided the vapourisation is not complete before injection
commences the amount of fuel injected would have no direct effect on the delay period. However, with
reduced Fuel /Air ratio, combustion temperatures are lowered, which reduces the cylinder wall
temperature. With some engines, this may have the effect of increasing the delay period.

Varying Fuel/Air Ratio Diagram.

From the above diagram it may be seen that:

1. The delay period is not effected.
2. There is little reduction in rate of pressure rise.
3. Provided that only a small proportion of the fuel is injected during the delay, it will have limited
effect, on the maximum pressure.
Combustion can take place with extremely low Fuel/Air ratios, probably due to burning taking place
close to the injector where the local F/A is high enough for stable reactions to occur.
The turbulence effect is probably associated more with the mixing process rather than with propagation
of chemical reactions.
Turbulence takes place possibly in two ways:
1. Primary turbulence: Due to the way in which the air enters the cylinder. In large diesel engines
this is produced by the angularity of the inlet ports, near the end of compression, when the air
density is high, the effective swirl will be greatly reduced.
2. Secondary turbulence: Squish, is produced, by the shape of the piston crown and cylinder head.
The air is made to move readily inward and across the path of the automised fuel. This may help
to secure short second and third combustion stages.
Turbulence after complete combustion, say due to detonation, can break down the cool insulating layer
of gas near the cylinder head wall, which will:
1. Reaches cylinder wall temperature locally (Hot spot).
2. Increases heat loss to cooling water.
3. Breaks down the oil film on the cylinder walls. Promotes micro seizure and service wear.
Compression ratio.
The compression ratio determines the air pressure and the temperature at the moment of fuel injection
and will have a considerable influence on the degree of secondary automisation, the delay period, and
the rate of rise of maximum pressure. Increasing the compression ratio alone, in the range used for diesel
engines, has only a marginal effect on the power developed and cycle efficiency.
High compression ratio, do however increase cylinder friction loss, ring leakage, and starting torque
requirements. With highly pressure charged engines, the cylinder air charge is increased which allows
more fuel to be burnt, but if working close to the Otto cycle the maximum pressure can be high. To limit
the maximum pressure and therefore maximum stress the engine is designed to operate with lowest
compression ratio consistent with satisfactory running and starting.
This has the tendency of raising both the pressure and temperature at the point of fuel injection. This is
beneficial in reducing the delay period and the rate of pressure rise. The degree of supercharging is
limited not so much by combustion considerations but by durability and reliability of the components
concerned in stressing the high maximum cylinder pressure and high heat flow rates.
Air inlet and Jacket water Temperatures: Increasing both of above:
1. Reduce the delay period.
2. Reduce rate of pressure rise.
3. Reduce heat flow to the cylinder coolant.
4. Reduce power developed due to reduced air mass.
5. Increases cylinder wall temperature.
6. Increases cycle efficiency due to reduced heat loss.
Increasing the air inlet temperature has the effect of down rating the engine and lowering the smoke
thresh-hold. In each case this is due to the reduced air mass. This effect can be pronounced when
operating in the tropics, where both air and sea temperatures are high. One should keep in mind that,
while operating in cold climates, where sea and air temperatures are low, the inlet air temperature should
not be brought down too low, as humidity in the air may cause corrosive damage to cylinder liners.



Crude oil is, at the present time, the source of most fuel oils for marine use.
Synthetic fuels are being developed but will probably be too expensive for ship propulsion.
Solid fuel, such as coal, is returning in a small way for certain specialized trade runs. The
various refined products of crude oil seem likely to remain as the major forms of marine
The refining process for crude oil separates by heating and distillation the various
fractions of the oil. Paraffin fuel would be used in gas turbine plants, gas oil in high- and
medium-speed diesel engines and crude oils in slow-speed and some medium-speed
diesels. Paraffin and gas oil are known as 'distillates', which are free flowing, easily stored
and can be used without further treatment. Residual fuels, however, are very viscous or
thick at normal temperatures, and require heating before use. Additional treatment to
remove harmful chemicals or sulphur may be required for all or some of the refined
products, depending upon their application. Finally blending or mixing of the various oils
is done to provide a range of commercial fuels for different duties.

Fuel oils
Fuel oils have various properties which determine their performance and are quoted
in specifications. The specific gravity or relative density is the weight of a given volume of
fuel compared to the weight of the same volume of water expressed as a ratio, and
measured at a fixed temperature. Viscosity is a resistance to flow. A highly viscous fuel
will therefore require heating in order to make it flow. Measurement of viscosity is by
Redwood, Saybolt or Engler instrument flow times for a given volume of fuel.
The ignition quality of a fuel is measured by the time delay between injection and
combustion, which should be short for good controlled burning. Ignition quality is

indicated as cetane number, diesel index and calculated cetane index; the higher the value
the better the ignition quality of the fuel.
The flash point is a figure obtained and used mainly to indicate the maximum safe
storage temperature. The test determines the temperature at which the fuel will give off
sufficient vapours to ignite when a flame is applied. Two values are possible: an open flash
point for atmospheric heating, and a closed flash point when the fuel is covered while
Low-temperature properties are measured in terms of pour point and cloud point.
The pour point is slightly above the temperature at which the fuel just flows under its own
weight. It is the lowest temperature at which the fuel can be easily handled. At the cloud
point waxes will form in the fuel. Below the cloud point temperature, pipe or filter blocking
may occur.
The carbon residue forming property of a fuel is usually measured by the
Conradson method. Controlled burning of a fuel sample gives a measure of the residual
carbon and other remains.
Sulphur content is of importance since it is considered a cause of engine wear. A
maximum limit, expressed as a percentage by weight, is usually included in specifications.
The calorific value of a fuel is the heat energy released during combustion. Two
values are used, the more common being the Higher Calorific Value, which is the heat
energy resulting from combustion. The Lower Calorific Value is a measure of the heat
energy available and does not include the heat energy contained in steam produced during
combustion but passing away as exhaust. The measurement is obtained from a bomb
calorimeter test where a small fuel quantity is burnt under controlled conditions.
The various fuel properties have different effects on performance of the engine and
the storage and handling requirements of the system. Blending and the use of various
additives will also influence both the engine and the system.
Viscosity will affect jerk-type injector pumps and injector operation since the
liquid fuel is the operating medium. The pump mechanism is lubricated by the fuel which,
if it is of low viscosity, will cause wear.
Cloud point and pour point values are important when considering the lowest
system operating temperatures. Wax deposited in filters and fuel lines will cause blockages
and may restrict fuel flow to the engine.
The cetane number or diesel index will determine injection timing and also
influences the combustion noise and production of black smoke. The temperature in a fuel
system should be progressively increased in order to deliver fuel at the correct viscosity to
the injectors or burners. System cleanliness is also very important to reduce wear on the
many finely machined parts in the fuel injection equipment. Regular attention to filters and
general system cleanliness is essential. Various additives are used to, for instance, remove
lacquer from metal surfaces, reduce wear and prevent rust.

Lubricating oils
Lubricating oils are a product of the crude oil refining process. The various
properties required of the oil are obtained as a result of blending and the introduction of
additives. The physical and chemical properties of an oil are changed by additives which

may act as oxidation inhibitors, wear reducers, dispersants, detergents, etc. The important
lubricant properties will now be examined.
Viscosity has already been mentioned with respect to fuel oils, but it is also an
important property of lubricating oils. Viscosity index is also used, which is the rate of
change of viscosity with temperature.
The Total Base Number (TBN) is an indication of the quantity of alkali, i.e. base,
which is available in a lubricating oil to neutralise acids.
The acidity of an oil must be monitored to avoid machinery damage and
neutralisation number is used as the unit of measurement.
The oxidation resistance of a lubricant can also be measured by neutralisation
number. When excessively oxidised an oil must be discarded.
The carbon-forming tendency of a lubricating oil must be known, particularly for
oils exposed to heat. A carbon residue test is usually performed to obtain a percentage
The demulsibiliti of an oil refers to its ability to mix with water and then release the
water in a centrifuge. This property is also related to the tendency to form sludge.
Corrosion inhibition relates to the oil's ability to protect a surface when water is
present in the oil. This is important where oils can be contaminated by fresh or salt water
The modern lubricant must be capable of performing numerous duties. This is
achieved through blending and additives. It must prevent, metal-to-metal contact and
reduce friction and wear at moving parts. The oil must be stable and not break down or
form carbon when exposed to high temperatures, such as where oil cooling is used. Any
contaminants, such as acidic products of combustion, must be neutralised by alkaline
additives; any carbon build up on surfaces must be washed away by detergent additives and
held in suspension by a dispersant additive. The oil must also be able to absorb water and
then release it during purification, but meanwhile still protect the metal parts from
The various types of engine and other equipment will have oils developed to meet
their particular duties.
Trunk piston engine lubricating oil must lubricate the cylinders as well as the
crankcase: some contamination from the products of combustion will therefore occur,
resulting in acidity and carbon deposits. The oil must, in addition to lubricating, neutralise
the acids and absorb the deposits.
Turbine oil, while lubricating the moving parts, must also carry away considerable
quantities of heat from the bearings. This calls for a stable oil which will not break down at
high temperatures or form deposits. Where gearbox lubrication is also required certain
extreme pressure (EP) additives will be needed to assist the lubricating film. Contact with
water in the form of steam will be inevitable so good demulsifying properties will be
Slow-speed diesel engines will have separate cylinder and crankcase lubrication
systems. The cylinder oil will have to neutralise the acidic products of combustion and also
have good detergent properties to keep the metal, surfaces clean. Crankcase oils are either
detergent type, multi-purpose oils or rust and oxidation inhibited. Good demulsification
and anti-corrosive properties are required together with oxidation resistance which is
provided by the inhibited crankcase oil. The detergent or multi-purpose oil is particularly

useful where oil cooling of pistons occurs or where contamination by combustion products
is possible.
Oil treatment
Both fuel oils and lubricating oils require treatment before passing to the engine.
This will involve storage and heating to allow separation of water present, coarse and fine
filtering to remove solid particles and also centrifuging.
The centrifugal separator is used to separate two liquids, for example oil and water,
or a liquid and solids as in contaminated oil. Separation is speeded up by the use of a
centrifuge and can be arranged as a continuous process. Where a centrifuge is arranged to
separate two liquids, it is known as a 'purifier'. Where a centrifuge is arranged to separate
impurities and small amounts of water from oil it is known as a 'clarifier'.
The separation of impurities and water from fuel oil is essential for good
combustion. The removal of contaminating impurities from lubricating oil will reduce
engine wear and possible breakdowns. The centrifuging of all but the most pure clean oils
is therefore an absolute necessity.
A centrifuge consists of an electric motor drive to a vertical shaft on the top of
which is mounted the bowl assembly. An outer framework surrounds the assembly and
carries the various feed and discharge connections.

Figure 1 Purifying bowl arrangement

separated water

The bowl can be a solid assembly which retains the separated sludge and operates
non-continuously, or the bowl can be arranged so that the upper and lower parts separate
and the sludge can be discharged while the centrifuge operates continuously.The dirty oil is
admitted into the centre of the bowl, passes up through a stack of discs and out through the
top (Figure 1).
The purifying process
The centrifugal separation of two liquids, such as oil and water, results in the
formation of a cylindrical interface between the two. The positioning of this interface
within the centrifuge is very important for correct operation. The setting or positioning of
the interface is achieved by the use of dam rings or gravity discs at the outlet of the
centrifuge. Various diameter rings are available for each machine when different densities
of oil are used. As a general rule, the largest diameter ring which does not break the 'seal'
should be used.
The clarifying process
Cleaning oil which contains litde or no water is achieved in a clarifier bowl where
the impurities and water collect at the bowl periphery.

Figure 1 Clarifying bowl arrangement

A clarifier bowl has only one outlet (Figure 2). No gravity disc is necessary since
no interface is formed; the bowl therefore operates at maximum separating efficiency since
the oil is subjected to the maximum centrifugal force.
The bowl discs
Purifier and clarifier bowls each contain a stack of conical discs. The discs may
number up to 150 and are separated from one another by a small gap. Separation of
impurities and water from the oil takes place between these discs. A series of aligned holes
near the outside edge permits entry of the dirty oil. The action of centrifugal force causes
the lighter components (the clean oil) to flow inwards and the water and impurities flow

outwards. The water and impurities form a sludge which moves outwards along the
undersides of the discs to the periphery of the bowl.
Non-continuous operation
Certain designs of centrifuges are arranged for a short period of operation and are
then shut down for cleaning. After cleaning and removal of the sludge from the bowl, the
machine is returned to service. Two different designs are used for this method of operation:
a long narrow bowl and a short wide bowl. The narrow-bowl machine has to be cleaned
after a shorter running period and requires dismantling in order to clean the bowl. Cleaning
of the bowl is, however, much simpler since it does not contain a stack of discs. The
wide-bowl machine can be cleaned in place, although there is the added complication of
the stack of conical discs which must be cleaned.
Continuous operation
Modern wide-bowl centrifuge designs enable continuous operation over a
considerable period of time. This is achieved by an ejection process which is timed to
discharge the sludge at regular intervals. The sludge deposits build up on the bowl
periphery as separation continues, and the ejection process is timed to clear these deposits
before they begin to affect the separation process. To commence the ejection process the
oil feed to the centrifuge is first shut off and the oil remaining in the bowl is removed by
admitting flushing water. Water is then fed into the hydraulic system in the bottom of the
bowl to open a number of spring-loaded valves. This 'operating' water causes the sliding
bowl bottom to move downwards and open discharge ports in the bowl periphery. The
sludge is discharged through these ports by centrifugal force (Figure 3). Closing 'operating'
water is now fed in to raise the sliding bowl up again and close the discharge ports.

Figure 3 Sludge discharge

Water is fed into the bowl to remake the liquid seal required for the separation
process, the oil feed reopened, and separation continues.
The complete ejection cycle takes only a few seconds and the centrifuge is in
continuous operation throughout. Different bowl designs exist for various forms of sludge

discharge, e.g. total discharge, controlled partial discharge, and so on. With controlled
partial discharge the oil supply is not shut off and not all of the sludge is discharged. In this
way the separation process is not stopped. Whatever method is adopted the centrifuge can
be arranged so that the discharge process is performed manually or by an automatic timer.
The bowl and the disc stack will require periodical cleaning whether or not an
ejection process is in operation. Care should be taken in stripping down the bowl, using
only the special tools provided and noting that
some left-hand threads are used. The centrifuge is a perfectly balanced piece of
equipment, rotating at high speeds: all parts should therefore be handled and treated with

Heavy fuel oil separation

Changes in refinery techniques are resulting in heavy fuel oils with increased
density and usually contaminated with catalytic fines. These are small particles of the
catalysts used in the refining process. They are extremely abrasive and must be removed
from the fuel before it enters the engine. T he generally accepted maximum density limit
for purifier operation is 991 kg/m3 at 15C.

Figure 4 Fuel oil separation control

In the ALCAP separation system the separator has no gravity disc and operates, to
some extent, as a clarifier. Clean oil is discharged from the oil outlet and separated sludge
and water collect at the periphery of the bowl. When the separated water reaches the disc
stack, some water will escape with the cleaned oil. The increase in water content is sensed
by a water-detecting transducer in the outlet (Figure 4). The water transducer signal is fed
to the MARST 1 microprocessor which will discharge the water when a predetermined

level is reached. The water will be discharged from sludge ports in the bowl or, if the
amount is large, from a water drain valve.
The ALCAP system has also proved effective in the removal of catalytic fines from
fuel oil.
Lubricating oil centrifuging
Diesel engines
Lubricating oil in its passage through a diesel engine will become contaminated by
wear particles, combustion products and water. The centrifuge, arranged as a purifier, is
used to continuously remove these impurities.
The large quantity of oil flowing through a system means that full flow lubrication
would be too costly. A bypass system, drawing dirty oil from low down in the oil sump
remote from the pump suction and returning clean oil close to the pump suction, is
therefore used. Since this is a bypass system the aim should be to give the lowest degree of
impurity for the complete system, which may mean running the centrifuge somewhat
below the maximum throughput.
Water-washing during centrifuging can be adopted if the oil manufacturer or
supplier is in agreement; but some oils contain water-soluble additives, which would of
course be lost if water-washed. The advantages of water-washing include the dissolving
and removal of acids, improved separation by wetting solid impurities, and the constant
renewal of the bowl liquid seal. The washing water is usually heated to a slightly higher
temperature than the oil.
Detergent-type oils are used for cleaning as well as lubricating and find a particular
application in trunk-type engines and some slow-speed engines. Detergent-type oil
additives are usually soluble and must not therefore be water-washed.
Steam turbines
The lubricating oil in a steam turbine will become contaminated by system
impurities and water from condensed steam, so bypass separation is used to clean the oil.
The dirty oil is drawn from the bottom of the sump and clean oil returned near the pump
suction. Preheating of the oil before centrifuging assists the separation process. Water
washing of the oil can be done where the manufacturer or supplier of the oil permits it.

A homogeniser is used to create a stable oil and water emulsion which can be burnt
in a boiler or diesel engine. Such an emulsion is considered to bring about more efficient
combustion and also reduce solid emissions in the exhaust gas.
Various designs utilise an impact or rolling action to break down the fuel particles
and mix them with the water. It is also considered that agglomerates of asphaltenes and
bituminous matter are broken down and can therefore be burnt. The manufacturers contend
that a homogeniser can render a sludge burnable whereas a centrifuge would remove such
material. Homoeenisers are able to reduce catalytic fines into finely ground particles which
will do no harm.

Shipboard experience with homogenisers is limited and generally not favourable.

Most authorities consider it better to remove water and solid contaminants than simply
grind them down.

Blending is the mixing of two fuels, usually a heavy fuel and marine diesel oil. The
intention is to produce an intermediate-viscosity fuel suitable for use in auxiliary diesels.
The fuel cost savings for intermediate fuel grades are sufficient to justify the cost of the
blending plant. Furthermore no supply problems exist since the appropriate mixture can be
produced by the blender from available heavy and marine diesel oils.
The blending unit thoroughly mixes the two fuels in the appropriate proportions
before supplying it to a blended fuel supply tank.
Compatibility can be a problem and tests should be conducted on any new fuel
before it is used. Incompatible fuels may produce sludge or sediment. The cracked residues
presently supplied from many refineries are very prone to incompatibility problems when
blended with marine diesel oil.

Filters and strainers

Mechanical separation of solid contaminants from oil systems (fuel and
lubricating) is achieved by the use of filters and strainers. A strainer is usually a coarse
filter to remove the larger contaminating particles. Both are arranged as full flow units,
usually mounted in pairs (duplex) with one as a standby.
The strainer usually employs a mesh screen, an assembly of closely packed metal
plates or wire coils which effectively block all but the smallest particles. It is usually fitted
on the suction side of a pump and must be cleaned regularly or when the pressure
differential across it becomes unacceptable. Where suction conditions are critical the
strainer will be fitted on the discharge side of the pump. When cleaning is undertaken the
other unit will be connected into the system by changeover valves or levers and oil
circulation will continue. The particles of dirt collect on the outside of the strainer element
or basket and can be removed by compressed air or brushing. A strainer should be cleaned
as soon as it is taken out of the system, then reassembled and left ready for use.
Magnetic strainers are often used in lubricating oil systems, where a large
permanent magnet collects any ferrous particles which are circulating in the system. The
magnet is surrounded by a cage or basket to simplify cleaning.
Fine Filters, again in pairs, are used to remove the smallest particles oil dirt from oil
before the oil enters the finely machined engine parts in either the fuel injection system or
the bearings of the rotating machinery. Fine filters are full-flow units which clean all the oil
supplied to the engine. The filtering substance may be a natural or synthetic fibrous
woollen felt or paper. A felt-type fine filter is shown m Figure 8.5. A steel division plate
divides the steel pressure vessel into an upper and a lower chamber. Dirty oil passes into
the upper chamber and through the filter element, then the filtered oil passes down the

central tube to the lower chamber and out of the unit A magnetic filter can be positioned as
shown in the central tube.

Figure 5 Fine filter

A spring-loaded bypass is shown in the diagram, for lubricating oil filters only, to
ensure a flow of oil should the filter become blocked. The cartridge in the design shown is
disposable although designs exist to enable back-flushing with compressed air to clean the
filter element as required. The filter unit shown will be one of a pair which can be
alternately in service.
In full-flow filtration systems all the oil passes through the filter on its way to the
engine. In a by-pass system most of the oil goes to the lubrication system and a part is
by-passed to a filter. A higher pressure drop across the filter can then be used and a slower
filtration rate. A centrifugal filter can be used in a by-pass system where the oil passes
through a rotor and spins it at high speed (Figure 6). Dirt particles in the oil are then
deposited on the walls of the rotor and the clean oil returns to the sump. This type of filter
cannot block or clog and requires no replaceable elements. It must be dismantled for
cleaning of the rotor unit at regular intervals.

Hollow spindle

Drive chamber

Figure 6 Centrifugal filter

Microbiological infestation
Minute microorganisms, i.e. bacteria, can exist in lubricating oils and fuel oils.
Under suitable conditions they can grow and multiply at phenomenal rates. Their presence
leads to the formation of acids and sludge, metal staining, deposits and serious corrosion.
The presence ofslime and the smell of rotten eggs (hydrogen sulphide) indicates a
contaminated system.
Water in a lubricating oil or fuel oil, oxygen and appropriate temperature
conditions will result in the growth of bacteria and infestation of a system. The removal of
water, or ensuring its presence is at a minimum, is the best method of infestation

prevention. The higher the temperature in settling, service and drain tanks holding fuel or
lubricating oils, the better.
Test kits are available to detect the presence of bacteria, and biocides can be used to
kill all bacteria present in a system. The system must then be thoroughly flushed out.

Exhaust emissions
Exhaust gases from engines and boilers contain atmospheric pollutants which are
principally nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOJ, carbon oxides and unburnt
hydrocarbon particulates. These various pollutants contribute to smog and acid rain, and
carbon oxides contribute to the greenhouse effect, which is increasing global temperatures.
The IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee is considering ways to reduce
the pollutants in exhaust emissions. IMO is to add a new Annex to MARPOL 73/78 to deal
with atmospheric pollution.
The SOx content of emission may be reduced by either a reduction of the sulphur
content in fuels or an exhaust gas treatment system. New engine technology may reduce
NOx formation and thus emissions, while carbon oxides can be reduced by good plant
Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems are in use on some vessels, which are said to
reduce NOX emissions by 90 per cent and carbon oxides by 80 per cent. The equipment has
been successfully operated on new buildings and more recently as a retrofit on existing
Major research initiatives are underway by engine builders, and classification
societies, in cooperation with shipowners, in order to obtain data regarding achievable
targets and suitable methods of measurement. This data will enable IMO and National
Authorities to develop realistic legislation with which owners can readily comply on new
and existing vessels.
The IMO Sub-Committee on Bulk Chemicals has prepared a draft of the new
Annex to MARPOL 73/78, which will be considered at a conference to be held in 1996.
Procedures to bring the amendments into force will be considered and the designation of
special areas with specific emission criteria.


Air Start Explosions

Air Start explosions occur during a start sequence, when oil, which can accumulate in the air start
receivers or on the surface of the start air lines, becomes entrained with high pressure air in the air start
manifold and is ignited. The most infamous incident happened onboard the Capetown Castle in 1960
which killed 7 men.
In 1999, a large container ship, built in 1981 and fitted with a large bore two-stroke engine, suffered
damage when the starting air manifold was blown apart by an internal explosion. This occurred during
manoeuvring when berthing. Fortunately there were no casualties.
Reference to Lloyds Register database has shown that this was not an isolated incident between 1987
and 1999, 11 incidents of explosions in air start systems have been reported and most have been
attributable to unsatisfactory shipboard practices by ships staff, resulting in the presence of oil or
explosive vapour in the manifold.
The source of ignition for these explosions can be attributed to one of the following:

A leaking air start valve. Whilst the engine is running, the hot gases produced as the fuel burns
in the cylinder (at above 1200C) leak past a valve which has not re-seated correctly. The
branch pipe to the air start manifold heats up to red heat. If the engine is stopped and restarted
before the pipe has time to cool, any oil vapour in the air can be ignited and an explosion can
result if the mixture of oil/air is correct.

Fuel leaking into the cylinder whilst the engine is stopped. When the engine then undergoes a
start sequence, and builds up speed, the fuel which has leaked into the cylinder vaporises and
the heat from the compression of the air in the cylinder, as the piston rises, ignites the fuel.
When the air start valve opens as the piston comes over TDC, the pressure in the cylinder is
higher than the air start pressure, and the burning combustion gases pass to the air start
manifold, igniting the oil entrained in the air.

A recent theory by ClassNK has concluded that the principal cause of explosions in starting air
manifolds of marine engines is probably the auto ignition of oil deposited on the inner surface
of the manifold, not backfire from cylinders as previously thought. Auto-ignition conditions
occur because of the high temperature generated by the rapid inflow of high-pressure air, says
the research. This incoming air compresses air downstream of the main starting valve, causing
its temperature to reach as high as 400C which in some cases causes oil deposits in the
manifold to self-ignite leading to an explosion. ClassNK has adapted its safety requirements for
a starting system to account for the findings. It now requires the fitting of rupture discs to the
manifold on engines with a flame arrester in each branch pipe leading to the cylinders. This is
beyond IACS unified requirements, which account for cylinder backfire as the cause of starting
air manifold explosions.

To minimise the risk of explosions, the oil carry over from the compressor should be reduced to a
minimum. Class regulations require that the air compressors air intakes are located in an oil-free
atmosphere, and a drain/filter for intercepting oil/water mist is fitted between compressor discharge
and air receiver. There must be complete separation of compressor discharge and starting air supply to
engines at the receiver which is fitted with a drain and a relief valve.
The air start system must be protected with a non return valve at the starting air supply to each engine.
This is normally part of the automatic valve which opens when an air start is initiated.

In addition to this IACS require that:

For direct reversing main engines >230 mm bore flame arresters or bursting discs are required for each
cylinder fitted between the cylinder start air valve and the manifold.

For non-reversing and auxiliary engines >230 mm bore a single flame arrester or bursting disc is
acceptable fitted at the supply inlet to the starting air manifold.
Although not part of IACS regulations, a relief valve may be fitted to the manifold where flame
arrestors are used instead of bursting discs.
Unsatisfactory practices which have led to explosions in the air start system include:

Tell tales/drains at each end of the starting air manifold found to have been blanked off with
screwed plugs.

Failure to drain starting air receivers and starting air pipes at regular intervals or before

Failure to check for leaking air start valves.

Failure to maintain starting air valves and systems strictly in accordance with manufacturers
recommended practices.

Failure to maintain fuel valves correctly.

Flame Arrestors
The flame trap is manufactured from brass or aluminium alloy which both have a high specific heat
capacity. A number of holes are bored through the thick circular form to allow the air to pass through.
They are fitted in the main air line immediately before the air start valve to restrict the risk of a flame in
the cylinder propagating back to the main air start manifold, by dissipating the heat energy in the flame.

Flame Arrestor MAN B&W L58/64

Flame Arrestor Sulzer RTA

Bursting Disks
The safety cap consists of a bursting disk enclosed by a perforated cylinder and a perforated cover in
order to protect any bystanders, in the event of a burst. The cover is fitted with a tell tale, which shows
if the bursting disc has been damaged. If the bursting disc of the safety cap is damaged due to excessive
pressure in the starting air line, overhaul or replace the starting valve which caused the burst, and
mount a new disk.

If a new disk is not available, or cannot be fitted immediately, then the cover can be turned in relation
to the perforated cylinder, in order to reduce the leakage of starting air.

Relief Valve

The sketch shows a relief valve as fitted

to the air start manifold of Sulzer RTA
2 stroke engines. Its purpose is to
relieve excess pressure in the air start
manifold. It consists of a spring loaded
valve disk which locates on a mating
seat which is bolted to the end of the
air start manifold. When the force
exerted on the disk due to excessive
pressure is greater than the spring force
holding the valve closed, the valve will

Lost Motion

On a two stroke engine, the fuel pumps must be retimed when the engine is required to reverse
direction (i.e. run astern). This is done by moving the fuel pump cams or fuel pump cam follower
positions relative to the crankshaft.

The fuel pump cam follower is moving up the rise

of the cam on the delivery stroke. The cam is
correctly in time with the engine.
If one cylinder of the engine is considered (left), the piston is just before TDC with the engine running
ahead and the crankshaft rotating clockwise. The piston is moving up towards TDC. The picture on the
right shows the fuel cam at this point; where the cam follower is rising up the lift of the cam as it
rotates clockwise. This point can be considered as the start of injection.

Here the fuel pump cam is in the wrong position.

When the piston is just after TDC, fuel delivery
should have finished and the follower should be
approaching the peak of the cam.

If, at this point the engine is stopped, and is started in the reverse direction (astern), the crankshaft now
moves in an anticlockwise direction. Then the piston in this particular unit is now moving down the
cylinder and is just after TDC. At this point fuel injection should have just finished. However, by
studying the picture of the cam (right) it can be seen that the camshaft has reversed direction (because
it is directly driven from the crankshaft), and is also rotating anticlockwise.
In the picture the follower is moving down the cam which means the fuel pump plunger is just
finishing the suction stroke; i.e completely out of time with the engine.
So that the Fuel Pump cam is timed correctly with the crankshaft when the engine is reversed, the fuel
pump cams are rotated by a hydraulic servomotor which changes the position of the cams relative to
the crankshaft. The angle through which the cams are turned is known as the Lost Motion angle.

Although this can be made to happen when the engine is still rotating, it is probably easier to think of
the engine stopped as shown left and the camshaft moving as shown on the animation below. Once the
fuel cams have moved, the engine can then start running in the reverse direction (anticlockwise).

The angle that the cams move through is the lost motion angle.

Because the engine is started using compressed air admitted through the air start valves, the operating
mechanism for these must also be retimed.
This is not the only method of reversing a two stroke engine. Other methods include moving the whole
camshaft axially so that a different set of cams are used, and a rather clever method used by MANB&W which alters the position of the cam followers.
The fuel pump cam on the MAN B&W MC series engine is designed to raise the plunger on the
injection stroke and then keep the plunger at the top of its stroke while the follower stays on the peak
of the cam until just before the next delivery stroke when the follower returns to the base circle of the
cam, and the fuel pump plunger moves down on its suction stroke.
The animation on the left shows the cam follower just beginning to move up the slope of the cam with
the camshaft rotating in anticlockwise direction. (i.e. start of injection)
If the engine direction is reversed at this point, then air will enter the pneumatic cylinder as shown and
will move the piston to the right. The cam follower will be moved across and would finish in the
position shown which would be at the correct fuel pump timing for running astern.

It should be noted that the reversal of the follower only takes place while the engine is rotating. If the
engine had been stopped from running ahead, and then started astern, the fuel pump followers would
move across as the engine starts to rotate, and before the fuel is admitted by venting the fuel pump
puncture valves.
A micro switch shown on the LHS detects whether the follower has moved across. If not, an indicator
light is lit in the control room, However the engine will still start if a follower fails to move, perhaps
due to corrosion in the servo cylinder. A high exhaust temperature deviation alarm would operate
within a short time. Allowing the engine to start in this situation could be useful during manoeuvring in
confined waters.

Two Stroke Exhaust Valve Timing

If a timing diagram for a two stroke engine is examined, it can be seen that the exhaust valve starts to
open at about 110 after TDC (position 4 on the diagram). After the initial blowdown of the exhaust
gas from the cylinder, the scavenge ports are opened at about 140 after TDC (position 5), as the piston
moves down the cylinder.
The position of the scavenge ports is fixed in the cylinder liner, and so it should be obvious that their
opening and closing must be symmetrical about BDC, and therefore they close at 140 before TDC as
the piston moves up the cylinder on the compression stroke. When the engine is operating in the
reverse direction, the timing of the opening and closing of the scavenge ports remains the same.
The exhaust valve can be timed to open and close symmetrically about BDC, and so again it means that
when the engine is reversed, the exhaust valve will open and close at the same time as when the engine
is running ahead. This means that there is no need to alter the position of the exhaust cams for astern

Engine builders may not time the exhaust valve symmetrically about BDC; instead, to achieve more
economical and efficient operation when running ahead may retard the opening of the exhaust valve by
up to 15. For instance the exhaust valve may be timed to open at 125 after TDC and close at 95
before TDC. This of course will mean when the engine is running astern, the exhaust valve will open
and close early.

However, because the engine runs astern for only a very small percentage of it's operating life, the
advantages gained when running ahead far outweigh the disadvantages when running astern.

Scavenge Fires
For a scavenge fire to begin there must be present a combustible material, oxygen or air to support
combustion, and a source of heat at a temperature high enough to start combustion. In the case of
scavenge fires the combustible material is oil. The oil can be cylinder oil which has drained down from
the cylinder spaces, or crankcase oil carried upwards on the piston rod because of a faulty stuffing box.
In some cases the cylinder oil residues may also contain fuel oil. The fuel may come from defective
injectors, injectors with incorrect pressure setting, fuel particles striking the cylinders and other similar
causes. The oxygen necessary for combustion comes from the scavenge air which is in plentiful supply
for the operation of the engines. The source of heat for ignition comes from piston blowby, slow
ignition and afterburning, or excessive exhaust back pressure, which causes a blowback through the
scavenge ports.

Indications of a scavenge fire are loss in power and irregular running of the engine, high exhaust
temperatures of corresponding units, high local temperature in scavenge trunk, surging of turbocharger,
and sparks and smoke emitted from scavenge drains. External indications will be given by a smoky
exhaust and the discharge of sooty smuts or carbon particles. If the scavenge trunk is oily the fire may
spread back-from the space around or adjacent to the cylinders where the fire started and will show
itself as very hot spots or areas of the scavenge trunk surfaces. In ships where the engine room is
designed as UMS, temperature sensors are fitted at critical points within the scavenge spaces. activation
would cause automatic slow down of the engine.

If a scavenge fire starts two immediate objectives arise- they are to contain the fire within the scavenge
space of the engine and to prevent or minimize damage to the engine. The engine must be put to dead
slow ahead and the fuel must be taken off the cylinders affected by the fire. The lubrication to these

cylinders must be increased to prevent seizure and all scavenge drains must be shut to prevent the
discharge of sparks and burning oil from the drains into the engine room. A minor fire may shortly
burn out without damage, and conditions will gradually return to normal. The affected units should be
run on reduced power until inspection of the scavenge trunking and overhaul of the cylinder and piston
can be carried out at the earliest safe opportunity. Once navigational circumstances allow it, the engine
should be stopped and the whole of the scavenge trunk examined and any oil residues found round
other cylinders removed. The actual cause of the initiation of the fire should be investigated.
If the scavenge fire is of a more major nature, if
there is a risk of the fire extending or if the
scavenge trunk is adjacent to the crankcase with
risk of a hot spot developing it sometimes
becomes necessary to stop the engine. Normal
cooling is maintained, and the turning gear
engaged and operated. Fire extinguishing
medium should be applied through fittings in
the scavenge trunk: these may inject carbon
dioxide, dry powder or smothering steam. The
fire is then extinguished before it can spread to
surfaces of the scavenge trunk where it may
cause the paint to start burning if special non
inflammable paint has not been used. Boundary
cooling of the scavenge trunk may be necessary.
Keep clear of scavenge relief valves, and do not
open up for inspection until the engine has
cooled down.
CO2 Scavenge Fire
Extinguishing Installation

After extinguishing the fire and cooling down, the scavenge trunking and scavenge ports should be
cleaned and the trunking together with cylinder liner and water seals, piston, piston rings, piston skirt,
piston rod and gland must be inspected. Heat causes distortion and therefore checks for binding of
piston rod in stuffing box and piston in liner must be carried out. Tightness of tie bolts should be
checked before restarting the engine. Inspect reed valves if fitted, and scavenge relief valve springs. Fire
extinguishers should be recharged at the first opportunity and faults diagnosed as having caused the fire
must be rectified.

To prevent scavenge fires good maintenance and correct adjustment must be carried out. Scavenge
trunking must be periodically inspected and cleaned and any buildup of contamination noted and
remedied. The drain pockets should also be cleaned regularly to remove the thicker carbonized oil
sludges which do not drain down so easily and which are a common cause of choked drain pipes.
Scavenge drains should be blown regularly and any passage of oil from them noted. The piston rings
must be properly maintained and lubricated adequately so that ring blow-by is prevented. At the same
time one must guard against excess cylinder oil usage. With timed cylinder oil injection the timing
should be periodically checked. Scavenge ports must be kept cleared
The piston-rod packing rings and scraper rings should also be regularly adjusted so that oil is prevented
from entering the scavenge space because of butted ring segments. This may and does occur
irrespective of the positive pressure difference between the scavenge trunk and the crankcase space.
Fuel injection equipment must be kept in good condition, timed correctly, and the mean indicated
pressure in each cylinder must also be carefully balanced so that individual cylinders are not overloaded.
If cylinder liner wear is up to maximum limits the possibility of scavenge fires will not be materially
reduced until the liners are renewed.

Crankcase Explosions
September 11th or 9/11 stands out in our minds for obvious reasons. However there was another
9/11, 11th September 1947, when a crankcase explosion on the Reina del Pacifico killed 28 men and
injured 23 and led to the development of crankcase relief valves and oil mist detectors. Of course there
had been crankcase explosions before this, but none which had such devastating consequences.
Between 1990 and 2001 143 crankcase explosions were reported to Lloyds Register which have about
20% of the worlds shipping in its class, so if we use that as a factor, we can estimate the total reported
incidents were 715 in 11 years or about 65 a year. Don't forget that these are reportable incidents, i.e.
those where the damage sustained has warranted a major repair or has resulted in injury. Minor
explosions may have gone unreported, and it is possible that the actual number of incidents is more
than double those reported. - maybe 3 a week!!
Of those incidents reported to Lloyds, 21 explosions happened in two stroke marine diesel engines and
122 in four stroke marine diesel engines. But this doesn't mean that four stroke engines are more likely
to have an explosion; there are 7 times as many four stroke engines at risk than two stroke engines.

Sequence of events leading up to a crankcase explosion

For an explosion to occur there must be a source of air (oxygen), fuel and ignition. Oxygen is present
in the crankcase, but the lubricating oil splashing around in the crankcase is in too large droplets to start
burning at the speed needed to cause an explosion, and the oil/air concentration is too weak.

If, however a mechanical fault develops with the consequent rubbing of moving parts, then a hot spot
will occur. This could happen in the crankcase, chaincase, or camcase. When the temperature of the hot
spot reaches 200C the lubricating oil splashing on to this hot spot vapourises. The vapour then
circulates to a cooler part of the crankcase where it condenses into a white oil mist. The oil droplets in
this oil mist are very small - 5 to 10 microns in diameter. When the concentration of oil mist reaches
50mg/l (about 13% oil mist - air ratio), it is at its lower explosive limit. If this oil mist is now ignited by
the hot spot - and tests have shown that it is necessary for a temperature of about 850C to ignite oil
mist in a crankcase under operating conditions - then an explosion will occur.

Although the most common cause of of a localised hotspot is due to friction, it is not the only cause of
a crankcase explosion. A cracked piston crown, blowby or an external fire have caused crankcase
explosions in the past.

Primary and secondary crankcase explosions

Severity of explosions vary between a puff which may lift a relief valve to a violent explosions which
causes major damage and may injure personnel and cause a fire. Evidence indicates that the longer the
combustion path, the more violent the explosion. This has become an area of concern with the large
two strokes of today which may have a crankcase volume of 500m3 +.
When an explosion occurs a flame front travels down the crankcase with a pressure wave in front of it.
The turbulence caused by moving engine components causing churning and mixing of vapours increase
the speed of the flame front and its area, which contribute to the increase in pressure. Turbulence
caused by venting of the pressure through relief valves can also influence the explosion.

Following the venting of the explosion through the relief valves, there is a drop in crankcase pressure
to below atmospheric pressure. This can cause air to enter the crankcase resulting in another flammable
mixture to be developed resulting in a secondary explosion to occur. The secondary explosion is more
violent and can result in crankcase doors being blown off the engine, and fires starting in the engine
room. If the relief valves do not reseal after lifting, or if they do not lift at all in the primary explosion (
due to lack of maintenance etc), then door(s) may be blown off in the primary explosion, giving a ready
path for the ingress of air, which will make a secondary explosion more likely. Air can also be sucked in
via the crankcase vent, although rules state that this must be as small as practicable and new
installations must have a non return valve fitted.
If a primary explosion occurs, the pressure wave may send a large amount of oil mist out into the
engine room. Although the flame arrestors on the relief valves should prevent ignition of this oil mist
by the flame front, the mist will be sucked up towards the turbocharger where it may be ignited by an
unlagged hot exhaust manifold. This ignition of oil mist can cause severe damage to plant and

Causes of crankcase explosions

The table below (on the next page) gives details of a number of accidents which have occurred since
1995 to large slow speed 2 stroke engines where the cause is known. In a number of cases death or
serious injury to members of the crew occured.


Cause of Explosion


Bearing in PTO gearbox

Inlet pipe for piston cooling oil falling off
Incorrect spring mounted in piston rod stuffing box
Piston rod interference with cylinder frame
Weight on chain tightener falling off
Fire outside the engine
Main bearing
Camshaft bearing
Incorrect shaft in camshaft drive
Crankshaft failure
Piston crown failure
Main bearing
Crankpin bearing
Inlet pipe for piston cooling oil falling off

Cause of Failure
Incorrect tightening
Unauthorised spare part
Incorrect tightening

Unauthorised spare part

Incorrect tightening

A metal subjected to a repetitive or fluctuating stress will fail at a stress much lower than that required
to cause fracture on a single application of load. Failures occurring under conditions of dynamic
loading are called fatigue failures, presumably because it is generally observed that these failures occur
only after a considerable period of service. Fatigue accounts for at least 90 percent of all service failures
due to mechanical causes.
Fatigue occurs when a material is subject to alternating or cyclic stresses, over a long period of time.
Examples of where fatigue may occur in a marine diesel engine are: crankshafts, valve springs,
turbocharger blades, piston crowns, bottom end bolts, piston skirts at the gudgeon pin boss and tie
Stresses can be applied in three ways, torsionally, axially and by bending.
The symbol for stress is the Greek letter sigma s and the units are force/ unit area i.e N/m2 or psi

This is where the material is twisted and untwisted along
its axis. Any rotating shaft driving a load will be subject
to torsional vibration at the natural frequency of the
shaft. However torsional vibration is most easily
visualised in an engine crankshaft where the compression
and firing forces are applied to the crankpin through the
piston and con rod. These forces vary according to angle
of thrust applied by the conrod and the cylinder firing
pressure but are greatest at about 10 either side of TDC.
The crank also has to absorb the inertia loading due to the conrods and pistons, which easily amounts
to several tons on each cylinder.

This is where the material is subject to tension or compression
along its axis. An example of this are the bottom end bolts on a
four stroke engine.
The bolts and their nuts are subject to tensile stress when tightened
and additional varying tensile stress during operation. The total
stress level is high and varies with time, giving rise to the risk of
fatigue. The connecting rod is in compression during the
compression and power strokes, but due to the inertia forces in the
running gear when the piston changes direction between the
exhaust and inlet strokes, the connecting rod is put into tension.
This increases the tension in the bottom end bolts, leading to cyclic

When material is bent, the inside of the bend will be
in compression and the outside of the bend will be in
tension. This type of stress can be easily visualised in
a piston crown under the gas load and is
compounded by the stresses induced by the
difference in temperature on the top surface and the
underside of the crown (thermal stressing).
It also occurs in crankshafts where the gas load on the piston is bending the crankshaft. If the main
bearings are of different heights (i.e out of vertical alignment), then the bending is increased.

Stress Cycles




There are three stress cycles with which loads may be applied to the component under consideration.
The simplest being the reversed stress cycle . This is merely a sine wave where the maximum stress and
minimum stress differ by a negative sign. An example of this type of stress cycle would be in an axle,
where every half turn or half period as in the case of the sine wave, the stress on a point would be
reversed. The most common type of cycle found in engineering applications is where the maximum
stress (smax)and minimum stress (smin) are asymmetric (the curve is a sine wave) not equal and
opposite. This type of stress cycle is called repeated stress cycle. A final type of cycle mode is where
stress and frequency vary randomly. An example of this would be hull shocks, where the frequency
magnitude of the waves will produce varying minimum and maximum stresses.

The S-N Curve

The S-N curve is just a graph plotted of stress, S
against the number of cycles N.
N is a logarithmic scale i.e 105 cycles, 106 cycles
107 cycles etc.
The line plotted for the particular material will
indicate how many stress reversals it can go
through before it fails.
If the material is loaded below the fatigue limit, which in the example shown is 14103 psi (95103
kN/m2) then it will not fail regardless of the number of stress cycles.
Material such as aluminum, copper and magnesium do not show a fatigue limit, therefore they will fail
at any stress and number of cycles. Other important terms are fatigue strength and fatigue life. The
stress at which failure occurs for a given number of cycles is the fatigue strength. The number of cycles
required for a material to fail at a certain stress is the fatigue life.

Crank Initiation, propagation and failure

Failure of a material due to fatigue may be viewed on a microscopic level in three steps:

Crack Initiation: The initial crack occurs in this stage. The crack may be caused by surface
scratches caused by handling, or tooling of the material; threads ( as in a screw or bolt), flaws in
the material, slip bands or dislocations intersecting the surface as a result of previous cyclic
loading or work hardening.

Crack Propagation: The crack continues to grow during this stage as a result of continuously
applied stresses

Failure: Failure occurs when the material that has not been affected by the crack cannot
withstand the applied stress. This stage happens very quickly.

Fatigue failure can be identified by examining the fracture. A fatigue fracture will have two distinct
regions; One is smooth or burnished as a result of the rubbing of the bottom and top of the crack as it
is growing. The second is granular, due to the rapid failure of the material.

Other features of a fatigue fracture are

Beachmarks and Striations. Beachmarks, or
clamshell marks, may be seen in fatigue
failures of materials that are used for a period
of time, allowed to rest for an equivalent time
period and the loaded again as in factory
usage. Striations which can be seen through a
microscope, are thought to be steps in crack
propagation, were the distance depends on the
stress range. Beachmarks may contain
thousands of striations.

Visible beachmarks on a tiebolt failure

Magnification of fatigue failure

showing striations

L7. Low-Speed Engines

Low-speed two-stroke engine designers have invested heavily to sustain their
dominance of the mainstream deep sea propulsion sector formed by tankers, bulk carriers and container ships, and recently extended market opportunities to large twin-screw LNG carriers. The long-established supremacy
reflects the perceived overall operational economy, simplicity and reliability
of single, direct-coupled crosshead engine plants. Other factors are the continual evolution of engine programmes by the designer/licensors in response
to or anticipation of changing market requirements, and the extensive network
of enginebuilding licensees in key shipbuilding regions, notably Korea, Japan
and China. Many of the standard ship designs of the leading yards, particularly
in Asia, are based on low-speed engines. Chinese low-speed engine licensees
have proliferated in recent years to support an expanding domestic shipbuilding industry, and licences have also been arranged in Vietnam.
The necessary investment in R&D, production and overseas infrastructure
dictated to stay competitive, however, took its toll over the decades. Only three
low-speed engine designer/licensorsMAN B&W Diesel, Mitsubishi and
Sulzersurvived into the 1990s to contest the international market. MAN B&W
Diesel was superseded in 2007 by MAN Diesel, which retains MAN B&W as a
brand name for its low-speed engines. The Sulzer diesel engine business became
part of the Wrtsil Corporation in 1997 and the Sulzer brand is no longer used
in the Wrtsil portfolio.
The roll call of past contenders in two-stroke engine design and construction includes names either long forgotten or living on only in other engineering sectors: AEG-Hesselman, Deutsche Werft, Fullagar, Krupp, McIntosh and
Seymour, Neptune, Nobel, North British, Polar, Richardsons Westgarth, Still,
Tosi, Vickers, Werkspoor and Worthington. The last casualties were Doxford,
Gtaverken and Stork, some of whose distinctive engines remain at sea in
diminishing numbers. The pioneering designs displayed individual flair within
generic classifications, which offered two- or four-stroke, single- or doubleacting, and single- or opposed-piston configurations. The Still concept even
combined the Diesel principle with a steam engine: heat in the exhaust gases

and cooling water were used to raise steam, which was then supplied to the
underside of the working piston.
Evolution decreed that the surviving trio of low-speed crosshead engine
designers should exploit a common basic configuration: two-stroke engines with
constant pressure turbocharging and uniflow scavenging via a single hydraulically operated exhaust valve in the cylinder head.
All the three companies now offer electronically controlled (MAN Diesel
ME, Mitsubishi Eco-Engine and Wrtsil RT-flex) versions alongside their traditional camshaft-controlled designs (respectively, the MC/MC-C, LSII/LSE
and RTA series). The ME and RT-flex engines with electronic control of fuel
injection and exhaust valve operation are increasingly popular and well established in service, but some operators retain a preference for the mechanically
controlled models.
Current programmes embrace mini-to-large bore models with short-, longand ultra-long-stroke variations to match the propulsive power demands and
characteristics of most deep sea (and even some coastal/short sea) cargo tonnage. Installations can be near-optimized for a given duty from a permutation
involving the engine bore size, number of cylinders, selected output rating and
running speed.
Bore sizes range from 260mm to 1080mm, stroke/bore ratios up to 4.4:1,
in-line cylinder numbers from 4 to 14 and rated speeds from around 55rev/min
to 250rev/min. Specific fuel consumptions as low as 154g/kWh are quoted
for the larger bore models whose economy can be enhanced by optional Turbo
Compound Systems in which power gas turbines exploit exhaust energy surplus to the requirements of modern high-efficiency turbochargers.
Progress in the performance development of low-speed engines in the
popular ~600mm bore class is shown in Figure 1.
Recent years have seen the addition of intermediate bore sizes to enhance
coverage of the power/speed spectrum and further optimize engine selection.
Both MAN Diesel and Wrtsil (Sulzer) also extended their upper power limits
in the mid-1990s with the introduction of super-large bore modelsrespectively,
of 980mm and 960mm bore sizesdedicated to the single-screw propulsion of
new generations of 6000TEU-plus container ships with service speeds of 25 knots
or more. The 12-cylinder version of the current MAN B&W K98ME design,
delivering 74760kW, highlights the advance in specific output achieved since
the 1970s when the equivalent 12-cylinder B&W K98GF model yielded just
under 36800kW. Large bore models tailored to the demands of new generation
VLCC and ULCC propulsion have also been introduced.
Successively larger and faster generations of post-Panamax container ships
(now with a maximum capacity of 14000TEU) have driven the development
of specific output and upper power limits by low-speed engine designers. To
ensure that container ship designs with capacities exceeding 10000TEU could
continue to be specified with single engines, both MAN Diesel and Wrtsil
extended their respective MC/ME and RTA/RT-flex programmes. Wrtsil raised
the specific rating of the RTA96C design by 4 per cent to 5720kW/cylinder

Pmax (bar)


20.5 mep (bar)





Pscav 3.5



Cm (m/s)

kW/cyl., kW/m


40 kW/t




















Figure 1 Development of key performance parameters for low-speed engines

(~600-mm bore) over a 30-year period (MAN Diesel)

at 102rev/min, and introduced an in-line 14-cylinder model delivering up to

80080kW. (The previous power ceiling had been 65880kW from a 12-cylinder
model.) The debut 14RT-flex96C engine (80080kW at 102rev/min) was completed by Wrtsil licensee Hyundai Heavy Industries in 2007 to power the
first of a series of 8600TEU container ships.
MAN Diesel responded to the challenge with a 14-cylinder variant of the
K98MC and MC-C series, offering outputs up to 80080kW at 94rev/min or
104rev/min, which have since been superseded by the electronically controlled 14K98ME model with ratings up to 87220kW at 97rev/min on a mean
effective pressure of 19.2bar. The first such engine (a Mark 7 version rated
for 84280kW at 104rpm)the most powerful diesel engines ever commissionedwas due for delivery in 2008 to power a container ship.
In 2003 MAN Diesel opened another route to higher powers: a 1080-mm
bore version of the MC engine (now the ME-C) with a rating of 6950kW/
cylinder at 94rev/min, the 14-cylinder K108ME-C model thus offering
97300kW at 94rev/min on a mean effective pressure of 18.2bar. No K108ME-C
enginethe most powerful design in the worldhad been ordered by 2009,
the need obviated by further uprating of the K98ME/ME-C models, whose
Mark 9 version would be capable of delivering the same output as its standard larger bore derivative. (V-cylinder configurations of existing low-speed
engine designs have also been proposed in the past by MAN Diesel to propel
mega-container ships, promising significant savings in weight and length per
unit power over traditional in-line cylinder models. These engines would allow

the higher number of cylinders to be accommodated within existing machinery
room designs [see Figure 2].)
Recent years have also seen renewed activity by all designers at the other
end of the power spectrum, with significant smaller bore engine developments (350500mm) targeting market opportunities from small ship propulsion. Electronic control, initially confined to larger bore designs, has also
been extended to smaller bore models, such as MAN Diesels new ME-B programme, which exploits a stroke/bore ratio of 4.4.
Parallel development by the designer/licensors seeks to refine existing models and lay the groundwork for the creation of new generations of low-speed
engines. Emphasis in the past has been on optimizing fuel economy and raising specific outputs, but reliability, durability and overall economy are now
priorities in R&D programmes, operators valuing longer component lifetimes,
extended periods between overhauls and easier servicing.
Lower production costs through more simple manufacture and easier installation procedures are also targeted, reflecting the concerns of enginebuilder/
licensees and shipyards. More compact and lighter weight engines are appreciated by naval architects seeking to maximize cargo space and deadweight
capacity within the given overall ship dimensions.
In addition, new regulatory challengessuch as noxious exhaust emission
and noise controlsmust be anticipated and niche market trends addressed if
the low-speed engine is to retain its traditional territory (e.g., the propulsion
demands of increasingly larger and faster container ships, which might otherwise have to be met by multiple medium-speed engines or gas turbines).

Figure 2 V-cylinder versions of larger bore MAN B&W engines have been
proposed by MAN Diesel

A number of features have further improved the cylinder condition and

extended the time between overhauls through refinements in piston design
and piston ring configurations. A piston cleaning ring incorporated in the top
of the cylinder liner now controls ash and carbon deposits on the piston topland, preventing contact between the liner and these deposits, which would
otherwise remove part of the cylinder lube oil from the liner wall.
Computer software has smoothed the design, development and testing of
engine refinements, and new concepts, but the low-speed engine groups also
exploit full-scale advanced hardware to evaluate innovations in components
and systems.
Sulzer (since absorbed into Wrtsil) began operating its first technology
demonstrator in 1990, an advanced two-stroke development and test engine
designated the 4RTX54 whose operating parameters well exceeded those of
any production engine (Figure 3). Until then, this group had used computerbased predictions to try to calculate the next development stage. Extrapolations
were applied, sometimes with less than desirable results. The 4RTX54 engine,
installed at the Swiss designers Winterthur headquarters, allowed practical
tests with new parameters, components and systems to be carried out instead

mean effective pressure



















1978 80 82 84 86 88 90 92

1978 80 82 84 86 88 90 92

stroke / bore






mean piston speed














1978 80 82 84 86 88 90 92



1978 80 82 84 86 88 90 92

Figure 3 Evolution of Sulzer low-speed engine parameters from the late 1970s in
comparison with those of the RTX 54 two-stroke technology demonstrator engine

of just theory and calculations. Operating data gathered in the field could be
assessed alongside results derived from the test engine.
The four-cylinder 540-mm bore/2150-mm stroke engine had a stroke/bore
ratio approaching 4:1 and could operate with mean effective pressures of up to
20bar, maximum cylinder pressures up to 180bar and mean piston speeds up
to 8.5m/s. For operating without a camshaftreportedly the first large twostroke engine to do sothe RTX54 was equipped with combined mechanical,
hydraulic and electronic (mechatronics) systems for fuel injection, exhaust
valve lift, cylinder lubrication and starting, as well as controllable cooling
water flow. The systems underwrote full flexibility in engine settings during
test runs.
Sulzers main objectives from the technology demonstrator engine were to
explore the potential of thermal efficiency and power concentration, to increase
the lifetime and improve the reliability of components, to investigate the merits of microprocessor technology and to explore improvements in propulsion
efficiency. A number of concepts first tested and confirmed on the 4RTX54
engine were subsequently applied to production designs. The upgraded RTA2U series and RTA84T, RTA84C and RTA96C engines, for example, benefit
from a triple-fuel injection valve system in place of two valves. This configuration fosters a more uniform temperature distribution around the main combustion chamber components and lower overall temperatures despite higher loads.
Significantly lower exhaust valve and valve seat temperatures are also yielded.
An enhanced piston ring package for the RTA-2U series was also proven
under severe running conditions on the 4RTX54 engine. Four rings are now
used instead of five, the plasma-coated top ring being thicker than the others
and featuring a pre-profiled running face. Excellent wear results are reported.
The merits of variable exhaust valve closing (VEC) were also investigated on
the research engine whose fully electronic systems offered complete flexibility.
Significant fuel savings in the part-load range were realized from the
RTA84T Tanker engine, which further exploits load-dependent cylinder liner
cooling and cylinder lubrication systems refined on the 4RTX54. The 4RTX54
was replaced as a research and testing tool in 1995 by the prototype 4RTA58T
engine adapted to serve as Wrtsils next two-stroke technology demonstrator. This RTX-3 research engine, installed in the Diesel Technology Centre in
Winterthur, subsequently played a key role in developing the electronically
controlled common rail RT-flex design in Wrtsils programme.
A commitment to sustained development was underlined by investment in
a new RTX-4 research and laboratory engine, a four-cylinder 600-mm-bore
facility, which is based on an RT-flex60 design but evolved from a clean sheet
via CAD models and simulations. This engine started running in April 2008
(Figures 4 and 5).
Initially developing 10160kW at a nominal speed of 114rev/min, the RTX-4
was designed to allow its power output to be increased in refining technologies
for future market requirements. The engine exploits all the RT-flex common
rail features with integrated electronic control of all the key processes: fuel

Figure 4 Wrtsils RTX-4 research engine in the Diesel Technology Centre at

Winterthur in Switzerland

injection, exhaust valve operation, cylinder lubrication and air starting. It is

used as a tool for developing and testing future technological steps, the main
areas of research including engine efficiency, emissions reduction, component
reliability, easier manufacture and lower maintenance. Design ideas can be verified before field testing and commercial application, test engines often running
at specific loads far above those of production engines to identify risks quickly
and investigate higher limits.
The importance of curbing exhaust gas emissions to progressively lower
limits was reflected in the RTX-4 engines after-treatment systems support,
which includes a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit capable of reducing
NOx emissions discharge to the atmosphere by more than 90 per cent from the
level at the engine outlet. In addition, the installation is prepared for investigating particulate filters and scrubbers. Scavenge air humidification and exhaust

Figure 5 Development of Wrtsil low-speed engine parameters since 1940

gas recirculation (EGR) systems for NOx emissions reduction can also be
Advanced turbocharging arrangements, including two-stage systems, were
among the projected R&D tasks, some extending the European Union-funded
Hercules environmental research projects in which Wrtsil and MAN Diesel
have participated as leaders. A fully enclosed control room is provided for
controlling and monitoring engine and support system operation from an integrated automation platform.
Wrtsil research engines





Year installed



Bore (mm)



Stroke (mm)



Stroke/bore ratio




Speed, nominal (rev/min)



Mean piston speed (m/s)



Mean effective pressure (bar)



Maximum cylinder pressure (bar)



Output/cylinder (kW)



Power output (kW)



The widest flexibility in operating modes and the highest degree of reliability are cited by Copenhagen-based MAN Diesel as prime R&D goals underwriting future MAN B&W two-stroke engine generations, along with ease of
maintenance, production cost reductions, low specific fuel consumption and
high plant efficiency over a wide load spectrum, high tolerance towards varied heavy fuel qualities, easy installation, continual adjustments to the engine
programme in line with the evolving power and speed requirements of the
market, compliance with emission controls and integrated intelligent electronic
Continuing refinement of the MAN B&W MC and ME low-speed engine
programmes and the development of intelligent engines (see section Intelligent
Engines) are supported by an R&D centre adjacent to the groups Teglholmen
office and factory in Copenhagen. At its heart is the 4T50MX research engine,
an advanced testing facility, which exploits an unprecedented 4.4:1 stroke/bore
ratio. Although the four-cylinder 500-mm bore/2200-mm stroke engine is based
on the current MC series, it is designed to operate at substantially higher ratings
and firing pressures than any production two-stroke engine available today.
An output of 7500kW at 123rev/min was selected as an initial reference
level for carrying out extensive measurements of performance, component
temperatures and stresses, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics,
and noise and vibration. The key operating parameters at this output equate to
180bar firing pressure, 21bar mean effective pressure and 9m/s mean piston
speed. Considerable potential was reserved for higher ratings in later test running programmes.
A conventional camshaft system was used during the initial testing period
of the 4T50MX engine. After reference test-running, however, this was
replaced by electronically controlled fuel injection pumps and exhaust valve
actuators driven by a hydraulic servo-system (Figure 6). The engine was
prepared to facilitate extensive tests on primary methods of exhaust emission
reduction, anticipating increasingly tougher regional and international controls
in the future. Space was allocated in the R&D centre for the installation of a
large NOx-reducing SCR facility for assessing the dynamics of SCR-equipped
engines and catalyst investigations.
MAN Diesel reports that the research engine, with its electronically controlled exhaust valve and injection system, has fully lived up to expectations
as a development tool for components and systems. A vast number of possible combinations of injection pattern, valve opening characteristics and other
parameters can be permutated. The results from testing intelligent engine
concepts are being tapped for adoption as single mechanical units as well as
stand-alone systems for application on current engine types. To verify the layout of the present standard mechanical camshaft system, the 4T50MX engine
was rebuilt with a conventional mechanical camshaft unit on one cylinder. The
results showed that the continuous development of the conventional system
seems to have brought it close to the optimum, and the comparison gave no
reason for modifying the basic design.

Figure 6 MAN Diesels 4T50MX low-speed research engine arranged with a

conventional camshaft (a) and with electronically controlled fuel injection pumps
and exhaust value actuating pumps (b)

An example of the degrees of freedom available is shown by a comparison

between the general engine performance with the firing pressure kept constant
in the upper load range by means of variable injection timing (VIT) and variable compression ratio (VCR). The latter is obtained by varying the exhaust
valve closing time. This functional principle has been transferred to the present
exhaust valve operation with the patented system illustrated in Figure 7. The
uppermost figure shows the design of the hydraulic part of the exhaust valve;
below is the valve opening diagram. The fully drawn line represents control
by the cam while the dotted line shows the delay in closing, thus reducing the
compression ratio at high loads so as to maintain a constant compression pressure in the upper load range. The delay is simply obtained by the oil being
trapped in the lower chamber, and the valve closing is determined by the opening of the throttle valve, which is controlled by the engine load.
Traditionally, the liner cooling system has been arranged to match the
maximum continuous rating load. Today, however, it seems advantageous to
control the inside liner surface temperature in relation to the load. Various possibilities for securing load-dependent cylinder liner cooling have therefore been
investigated. One system exploits different sets of cooling ducts in the borecooled liner, the water supplied to the different sets depending on the engine




Figure 9 Mechanical/hydraulic variable compression ratio system (MAN Diesel)

load. Tests with the system have shown that the optimum liner temperature can
be maintained over a very wide load range. The system is considered perfectly
feasible, but the added complexity has to be carefully weighed against the service advantages.
The fuel valve used on MC engines operates without any external control of its function. The design has worked well for many years but could be
challenged by the desire for maintaining an effective performance at very low
loads. MAN Diesel therefore investigated a number of new designs with the
basic aim of retaining a simple and reliable fuel valve without external controls. Various solutions were tested on the 4T50MX engine, among them a
design whose opening pressure is controlled by the fuel oil injection pressure
level (which is a function of the engine load). At low load, the opening pressure is controlled by the spring alone. When the injection pressure increases at
higher load, this higher pressure adds to the spring force and the opening pressure increases.
Another example of fuel valve development is aimed at reduced emissions. This type incorporates a conventional conical spindle seat as well as
a slide valve inside the fuel nozzle, minimizing the sac volume and thus the

risk of after-dripping. Significantly lower NOx emissions are reported, as well

as reduced smoke and even carbon monoxide, but at the expense of a slightly
higher fuel consumption. This type of fuel valve is included in the options for
special low NOx applications of MC engines (Figure 8).
The 4T50MX engine was used to test a triple fuel valve-per-cylinder configuration, the measurements mirroring Wrtsils results in yielding reduced
temperature levels and a more even temperature distribution than with a
two-valve arrangement. The K80MC-C, K90MC/MC-C, S90MC-T and
K98MC-C engines were subsequently specified with triple fuel valves to
enhance reliability.

Intelligent engines
Both MAN Diesel and Sulzer (before being acquired by Wrtsil) demonstrated camshaftless operation with their research engines, applying electronically controlled fuel injection and exhaust valve actuation systems.
Continuing R&D will pave the way for a future generation of highly reliable
intelligent engines: those which monitor their own condition and adjust

Standard 90MC

Mini sac

Atomizer sac
volume 1990 mm3

Atomizer sac
volume 520 mm3

Figure 8 Reduced emissions result from a fuel valve with a smaller sac volume
(MAN Diesel)

parameters for optimum performance in all operating regimes, including

fuel-optimized and emissions-optimized modes. An intelligent enginemanagement system will effectively close the feedback loop by built-in
expert knowledge.
Engine performance data will be constantly monitored and compared with
defined values in the expert system; if deviations are detected, corrective action
is automatically taken to restore the situation to normal. A further step would
incorporate not only engine optimizing functions but management responsibilities such as maintenance planning and spare parts control.
MAN Diesel explains that to meet the operational flexibility target, it is
necessary to be able to change the timing of the fuel injection and exhaust
valve systems while the engine is running. To achieve this objective with camdriven units would involve a substantial mechanical complexity, which would
undermine engine reliability. An engine without a traditional camshaft is therefore dictated.
The concept is illustrated in Figure 9 whose upper part shows the operating modes, which may be selected from the bridge control system or by the
intelligent engines own control system. The centre part shows the brain of the
system: the electronic control system which analyses the general engine condition and controls the operation of the engine systems shown in the lower part


crash stop



control with
full redundancy


The Intelligent Engine

Cylinder pressure


valve control




lubricating oil

Figure 9 Schematic diagram of the intelligent engine (MAN Diesel)

of the diagram (the fuel injection, exhaust valve, cylinder lube oil and turbocharging systems).
To meet the reliability target, it is necessary to have a system which can
actively protect the engine from damage due to overload, lack of maintenance
and maladjustments. A condition monitoring system must be used to evaluate the general condition of the engine, thus maintaining its performance and
keeping its operating parameters within prescribed limits. The condition monitoring and evaluation system is an on-line system with automatic sampling of all
normal engine performance data, supplemented by cylinder pressure measurements. The system will report and actively intervene when performance parameters show unsatisfactory deviations. The cylinder pressure data delivered by the
measuring system are used for various calculations:

The mean indicated pressure is determined as a check on cylinder load

distribution as well as total engine output.
l The compression pressure is determined as an indicator of excessive
leakage caused by, for example, a burnt exhaust valve or collapsed piston rings (the former condition is usually accompanied by an increased
exhaust gas temperature in the cylinder in question).
l The cylinder wall temperature is monitored as an additional indicator of
the piston ring condition.
l The firing pressure is determined for control of injection timing and
mechanical loads.
l The rates of pressure rise (dp/dt) and heat release are determined for combustion quality evaluation as a warning in the event of bad fuels and to
indicate any risk of piston ring problems in the event of high dp/dt values.
The cylinder condition monitoring system is intended to detect faults such
as blow-by past the piston rings, cylinder liner scuffing and abnormal combustion. The detection of severe anomalies by the integrated systems triggers a
changeover to a special operating mode for the enginethe engine protection mode. The control system will contain data for optimum operation in a
number of different modes such as fuel economy mode, emission controlled mode, reversing/crash stop mode and various engine protection modes.
The load limiter system (load diagram compliance system) aims to prevent any
overloading of the engine in conditions such as heavy weather, fouled hull,
shallow water, too heavy propeller layout or excessive shaft alternator output.
This function will appear as a natural part of future governor specifications.
The fuel injection system is operated without a conventional camshaft using
high-pressure hydraulic oil from an engine-driven pump as a power source and
an electronically controlled servo system to drive the injection pump plunger.
The general concept of the intelligent fuel injection (InFI) system and the intelligent valve actuation (InVA) system for operating the exhaust valves is shown
in Figures 10 and 11. Both systems, when operated in the electronic mode,
receive the electronic signals to the control units. In the event of failure of the

Exhaust valve
piston with

Fuel valves

Injection pipes

Fuel injection
pump with
servo piston



Valve pump with

servo piston

Stroke limiter
Index shaft

Input for

drive unit

Figure 10 Electronically controlled hydraulic systems for fuel injection and

exhaust valve operation on MAN Diesels 4T50MX research engine

electronic control system, the engine is controlled by a mechanical input supplied by a diminutive camshaft giving full redundancy.
Unlike a conventional, cam-driven pump, the InFI pump has a variable
stroke and will pressurize only the amount of fuel to be injected at the relevant
load. In the electronic mode (i.e., operating without a camshaft), the system
can perform as a single injection system as well as a pre-injection system with
a high degree of freedom to modulate the process in terms of injection rate,
timing, duration, pressure, single/double injection, cam profile and so on.
Several optimized injection patterns can be stored in the computer and chosen by the control system in order to operate the engine with optimum injection characteristics at several loads: from dead slow to overload as well as for
starting, astern running and crash stop. Changeover from one to another of the
stored injection characteristics is affected from one injection to the next. The system is able to adjust the injection amount and injection timing for each cylinder individually in order to achieve the same load (mean indicated pressure)
and the same firing pressure (Pmax) in all cylinders, or, in protection mode, to
reduce the load and Pmax on a given single cylinder if the need arises.
The exhaust valve system (InVA) is driven on the same principles as the
fuel injection system, exploiting the same high-pressure hydraulic oil supply

Figure 11 MAN Diesels 4T50ME-X research engine equipped with electronically

controlled fuel injection and exhaust valve systems

and a similar facility for mechanical redundancy. The need for controlling
exhaust valve operation is basically limited to timing the opening and closing
of the valve. The control system is thus simpler than that for fuel injection.
Cylinder lubrication is controllable from the condition evaluation system
so that the lubricating oil amount can be adjusted to match the engine load.
Dosage is increased in line with load changes and if the need is indicated by
the cylinder condition monitoring system (e.g., in the event of liner scuffing
and ring blow-by). Such systems are already available for existing engines.
The turbocharging system control will incorporate control of the scavenge
air pressure if a turbocharger with variable turbine nozzle geometry is used, and

control of bypass valves, turbocompound system valves and turbocharger cut-off

valves if such valves are incorporated in the system. Valves for any SCR
exhaust gas cleaning system installed will also be controlled.
Operating modes may be selected from the bridge control system or by
the systems own control system. The former case applies to the fuel economy
modes and the emission-controlled modes (some of which may incorporate the
use of an SCR system). The optimum reversing/crash stop modes are selected
by the system itself when the bridge control system requests the engine to carry
out the corresponding operation. Engine protection mode, in contrast, will be
selected by the condition monitoring and evaluation system independently of
actual operating modes (when this is not considered to threaten ship safety).
The fruit of MAN Diesels and Wrtsils R&D is now established commercially, their respective electronically controlled ME and RT-flex engines
being offered alongside the conventional models and increasingly specified for
diverse tonnage (Figure 12).
The Wrtsil RT-flex engines being distinguished by common rail fuel injection
An ability to run stably at very low speeds (down to 7rev/min) was among
the merits demonstrated during test-bed trials of the first 12-cylinder RT-flex96C
engine. Very slow running (lower than engines with mechanically controlled
fuel injection) is facilitated by precise control of injection, higher injection
pressures achieved at low speed, and shutting off injectors.
Research and development by Mitsubishi, the third contender in low-speed
engines, has successfully sought weight reduction and enhanced compactness while retaining the performance and reliability demanded by the market.
The Japanese designers current UEC-LS type engines yield a specific power
output of around three times that of the original UE series of the mid-1950s.
The specific engine weight has been reduced by around 30 per cent over that
period, and the engine length in relation to power output has been shortened by
An electronically controlled system for fuel injection and exhaust valve
operation was developed by Mitsubishi and applied to a 600-mm-bore LSII
engine, which entered service as the first production Eco-Engine in mid-2005.
Mitsubishis market share remains minor and heavily dependent on its
domestic business, but the Japanese group seems destined to be the only lowspeed engine designer directly engaged in engine production at its own facilities. The last Sulzer low-speed engine was delivered from the Winterthur plant
in 1988 and MAN Diesel is winding down production of such engines at its
Frederikshavn factory in Denmark, leaving licensees in Europe and Asia as the
sole producers of MAN B&W models.
Wrtsil and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (a Sulzer licensee since 1925)
signed an agreement in November 2002 to design and develop a 500-mm-bore
engine, resulting in an RTA50 series from which the RT-flex50 common rail
version and an MHI 50LSE engine were subsequently created. In addition to a
strengthening development alliance between the groups, Mitsubishis smaller

Figure 12 Cross-section of MAN B&W S70ME-C electronically controlled engine

bore UEC engines (370mm, 430mm and 450mm) have been marketed in the
Wrtsil programme. Another agreement resulted in the joint development of a
new range of 350-mm and 400mm-bore designs for powering small bulk carriers, product and chemical tankers, feeder container ships and reefer vessels.
Announced in 2008, these enginesoffered in mechanical and electronic
versionswill be jointly branded and produced by the partners as rivals to
MAN Diesels ME-B series.
A range of technologies are available or under development to enable lowspeed engines to meet future IMO exhaust emission limits, particularly NOx
controls. The measures include engine combustion refinements, waterfuel
emulsions, direct water injection, EGR and appropriate combinations of these.

Scope for securing lower NOx emission levels through tuning measures alone
is enhanced in electronically controlled engines, whose fuel injection and
exhaust valve operating systems provide greater flexibility and accuracy in settings than is possible with the fixed timings of camshaft-based systems. Such
engines can be more easily adapted in service to economy- or emissions-optimized
modes. SCR systems offer effective exhaust gas after-treatment, cutting NOx
emissions by over 90 per cent.
A future focus on curbing carbon dioxide emissions from shipping can be
addressed by advances in engine thermal efficiency (although scope is limited) and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems. MAN Diesel and Wrtsil have
developed and applied WHR systems in conjunction with specialist suppliers
to boost the overall plant efficiency of large container ship propulsion installations, hence reducing fuel consumption and thus carbon dioxide emissions.


New designs and upgraded versions of established models have maintained the
dominance of medium-speed four-stroke diesel engines in the propulsion of
smaller ships as well as larger specialist tonnage such as cruise vessels, car/
passenger ferries and ro-ro freight carriers. The larger bore designs can also
target the mainstream cargo ship propulsion market formed by bulk carriers,
container ships and tankers, competing against low-speed two-stroke machinery, and dual-fuel versions have found a new volume market in LNG carrier
propulsion. The growth of the fast passenger and ropax ferry sector benefited
those medium-speed enginebuilders who could offer designs with sufficiently
high power/weight and volume ratios, an ability to function reliably at full load
for sustained periods, and attractive through-life operating costs. Mediumspeed engines further enjoy supremacy in the deep-sea vessel genset drive
sector, challenged only in lower power installations by high-speed four-stroke
Significant strides have been made in improving the reliability and durability of medium-speed engines in the past decade, both at the design stage
and through the in-service support of advanced monitoring and diagnostic
systems. Former weak points in earlier generations of medium-speed engines
have been eradicated in new models, which have benefited from finite element
method calculations in designing heavily loaded components. Designers now
argue the merits of new generations of longer stroke medium-speed engines
with higher specific outputs allowing a smaller number of cylinders to satisfy a
given power demand and foster compactness, reliability, reduced maintenance
and easier servicing. Progress in fuel and lubricating oil economy is also cited,
along with enhanced pier-to-pier heavy fuel burning capability and better performance flexibility throughout the load range.
Completely bore-cooled cylinder units and combustion spaces formed by
liner, head and piston combine good strength and stiffness with good temperature

control, which are important factors in burning low-quality fuel oils. Low noise
and vibration levels achieved by modern medium-speed engines can be reduced
further by resilient mounting systems, a technology which has advanced considerably in recent years.
IMO limits on nitrogen oxide emissions in the exhaust gas can generally
be met comfortably by medium-speed engines using primary measures to
influence the combustion process (in some cases, it is claimed, without compromising specific fuel consumption). Wrtsils low NOx combustion technology, for example, embraces high fuel injection pressures (up to 2000bar) to
reduce the duration of injection, a high compression ratio (16:1), a maximum
cylinder pressure of up to 210bar and a stroke/bore ratio 1.2:1. Concern over
smoke emissions, particularly by cruise ship operators in sensitive environmental areas, has called for special measures from engine designers targeting that
market, notably electronically controlled common rail (CR) fuel injection and
fuelwater emulsification.
The number of leading medium-speed enginebuilders with established CR
designsincluding Caterpillar (MaK), MAN Diesel and Wrtsilsuggests
that such systems will eventually dominate production programmes to benefit ship operators and the environment. Significant advantages are delivered
in engine operational flexibility, economy and environmental friendliness by a
system in which the generation of fuel pressure and the injection of fuel are not
In contrast to a conventional system, the injection pressure in a CR configuration is independent of engine speed, and full pressure is always available at
all loads down to idling. Highly efficient and clean combustion is thus fostered
across the engine operating range, yielding economic and environmental merits. An optimum injection pressure and timing can be selected for a given operating modeirrespective of the engine speedand pilot and post-injection
patterns exploited to meet differing demands: for example, invisible exhaust
at the lowest loads and NOx emission reductions at medium loads, without
undermining fuel economy.
The concept of electronically controlled CR fuel systems had been appreciated for many years before the recent wave of R&D and implementation in
engine programmes. Feasible solutions, however, awaited the development of
fast and reliable rail valves and electronic controls. Advances in materials and
manufacturing technology also allowed the creation of systems capable of hand
ling heavy fuel and pressures of 1500bar and above.
Successful automotive diesel applications of CR layouts, in car and truck
power units, were largely driven by stricter emission regulations, which called
for flexible fuel injection systems offering injection rate shaping, free adjustment of injection pressure, variable start of injection and pre- and post-injection
patterns. Current and future emission curbs on shipping stimulated the transfer to marine engines. Increasingly stringent regulations on NOx and smoke
in the exhaust will be difficult to meet without intelligent controls and a flexible
injection system if engine efficiency is to remain the same. Part-load operation

imposes a particular challenge in satisfying invisible smoke requirements without CR technology.

Ease of inspection and overhaulan important consideration in an era of
low manning levels and faster turnarounds in portwas addressed in the latest designs by a reduced overall number of components (in some cases, 40 per
cent fewer than in the preceding engine generation) achieved by integrated and
modular assemblies using multi-functional components. Simplified (often
plug-in or clamped) connecting and quick-acting sealing arrangements also
smooth maintenance procedures. Channels for lubricating oil, cooling water,
fuel and air may be incorporated in the engine block or other component castings, leaving minimal external piping in evidence. Compact and more accessible installations are achieved by integrating ancillary support equipment (such
as pumps, filters, coolers and thermostats) on the engine. Lower production
costs are also sought from design refinements and the wider exploitation of
flexible manufacturing systems to produce components.
The cylinder unit concept is a feature of the modern four-stroke designs,
allowing the head, piston, liner and connecting rod to be removed together as
a complete assembly for repair, overhaul or replacement by a renovated unit
onboard or ashore. This modular approach was adopted byamongst others
MAN Diesel for its L16/24, L21/31 and L27/38 designs, by MTU for its Series
8000 engine, by Rolls-Royce for its Bergen C series, and by Hyundai for its
HiMSEN designs: all detailed in the subsequent chapters.
Compactness and reduced weight remain the key attractions of the mediumspeed engine, offering ship designers the opportunity to increase the cargo
capacity and lower the cost of a given newbuilding project, and the ability to
achieve the most efficient propeller speed via reduction gearing. Mediumspeed enginebuilders can offer solutions ranging from single-engine plants
for small cargo vessels to multi-engine/twin-screw installations for the most
powerful passenger ships, based on mechanical (geared) or electrical transmissions (see Chapter 6). Multi-engine configurations promote plant availability
and operational flexibility, allowing the number of prime movers engaged at
any time to match the service schedule. The convenient direct drive of alternators and other engineroom auxiliary plant (e.g., hydraulic power packs) is also
facilitated via power take-off gearing.
Among the design innovations in recent years must be noted Sulzers use
of hydraulic actuation of the gas exchange valves for its ZA50S engine, the
first time that this concept (standard on low-speed two-stroke engines for many
years) had been applied to medium-speed four-stroke engines (Figure.1).
In conjunction with pneumatically controlled load-dependent timing to secure
variable inlet closing, hydraulic actuation on the ZA50S engine allowed flexibility in valve timing, fostering lower exhaust gas emissions and improved fuel
Variable inlet closing, combined with optimized turbocharging, contributed to a very flat fuel consumption characteristic across the load range of the
engine as well as a considerable reduction in smoke levels in part-load operation.

Figure 1 The first example of the Sulzer ZA50S engine, a nine-cylinder model,
on test. The design (no longer produced) was distinguished by hydraulic actuation of
the gas exchange valves

The ZA50S engine, like the smaller bore ZA40S design it was derived from,
features Sulzers rotating piston, which was also exploited in GMTs upgraded
550-mm bore medium-speed engine.
Wrtsils 46 engine exploited a number of innovations in medium-speed
technology, originally including a twin fuel injection system (featuring pilot
and main injection valves), thick-pad bearings (large bearings with thick oil
films) and pressure-lubricated piston skirts. The twin injection system was later
superseded as advances in fuel injection technology allowed a single-valve system to be applied.
The operating flexibility of MAN Diesels L32/40 design benefits from
the provision of separate camshafts, arranged on either side of the engine, for the
fuel injection and valve actuating gear. One camshaft is dedicated to drive
the fuel injection pumps and to operate the starting air pilot valves; the other
serves the inlet and exhaust valves. Such an arrangement allows fuel injection
and air charge renewal to be controlled independently, and thus engine operation to be more conveniently optimized for either high fuel economy or low
exhaust emissions mode. Injection timing can be adjusted by turning the camshaft relative to the camshaft driving gear, an optional facility (Figure .2).
The valve-actuating camshaft can be provided with different cams for full-load
and part-load operations, allowing valve timing to be tailored to the conditions.
A valve camshaft-shifting facility is optional, the standard engine version featuring just one cam contour (Figure .3).

Figure .2 Optimization of fuel injection timing on MAN Diesels L32/40 engine is

facilitated by turning the dedicated camshaft relative to its driving gear

A carbon-cutting ring is now a common feature of medium-speed engines

specified to eliminate the phenomenon of cylinder bore polishing caused by
carbon deposits and hence significantly reduce liner wear. It also fosters a
cleaner piston ring area, low and very stable lubricating oil consumption, and
reduced blow-by.
Also termed an anti-polishing or fire ring, a carbon-cutting ring comprises
a sleeve insert, which sits between the top piston ring turning point and the
top of the cylinder liner. It has a slightly smaller diameter than the bore of the
liner, this reduction being accommodated by a reduced diameter for the top

Figure 3 Variable valve timing on MAN Diesels L32/40 engine is secured by

different cams for part- and full-load operations

land of the piston. The main effect of the ring is to prevent the build-up of
carbon around the edges of the piston crown, which causes liner polishing and
wear, with an associated rise in lubricating oil consumption.
A secondary function is a sudden compressive effect on the ring belt as
the piston and carbon-cutting ring momentarily interface. Lubricating oil is
consequently forced away from the combustion area, again helping to reduce
consumption: so effectively, in fact, that Bergen Diesel found it necessary to
redesign the ring pack to allow a desirable amount of oil consumption. The
Norwegian engine designer reports that lubricating oil consumption is cut by

more than half and insoluble deposits in the oil reduced dramatically, significantly extending oil filter life. Carbon-cutting rings can be retrofitted to deliver
their benefits to engines in service. Removal prior to piston withdrawal is simply effected with a special tool.
Designers now also favour a hot box arrangement for the fuel injection
system to secure cleaner engine lines and improve the working environment
in the machinery room thanks to reduced temperatures; additionally, any fuel
leakage from the injection system components is retained within the box.
The major medium-speed enginebuilders have long offered 500-mmbore-plus designs in their portfolios. MAN Diesel still fields its L58/64 series
but MaKs 580-mm bore M601 and the Sulzer ZA50S engines have been
phased out, as was Stork-Wrtsils TM620 engine in the mid-1990s. In the
1970s MAN and Sulzer jointly developed a V-cylinder 650-mm bore/stroke
design (developing 1325kW/cylinder at 400rev/min) that did not proceed
beyond prototype testing.
Wrtsils 64 series, launched in 1996, took the medium-speed engine
into a higher power and efficiency territory, the 640-mm bore/900-mm stroke
design now offering an output of 2010kW/cylinder at 333rev/min. A V12cylinder model delivers 23280kW at 400rev/min. The range can therefore
meet the propulsive power demands of virtually all merchant ship tonnage
types with either single- or multi-engine installations. The key introductory
parameters were 10m/s mean piston speed, 25bar mean effective pressure,
and 190bar maximum cylinder pressure. The Finnish designers claimed the
64 series to be the first medium-speed engine to exceed the 50 per cent thermal efficiency barrier, and suggested that overall plant efficiencies of 5758
per cent are possible from a combi-cycle exploiting waste heat to generate
steam for a turbo-alternator.
At the other end of the medium-speed engine power spectrum, the early
1990s saw the introduction of a number of 200-mm bore long stroke designs
from leading builders such as Daihatsu, MaK and Wrtsil Diesel, contesting
a sector already targeted by Sulzers S20 model. These heavy fuel-burning
engines (typically with a 1.5:1 strokebore ratio) were evolved for small-ship
propulsion and genset drive duties, the development goals addressing overall operating economy, reliability, component durability, simplicity of maintenance and reduced production costs. Low and short overall configurations
gave more freedom to naval architects in planning machinery room layouts and
eased installation procedures (Figure 4).
The ~320-mm bore sector is fiercely contested by designers serving a highvolume market created by propulsion and genset drive demands. A number of
new designsincluding Caterpillar/MaKs M32 and MAN Diesels L32/40
emerged to challenge upgraded established models such as the Wrtsil 32.
A Japanese challenger in a medium-speed arena traditionally dominated by
European designer/licensors arrived in the mid-1990s after several years R&D by
the Tokyo-based Advanced Diesel Engine Development Company. The joint venture embraced Hitachi Zosen, Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Mitsui Engineering

Figure 4 MaKs M20 engine represented a new breed of 200-mm bore designs

and Shipbuilding. The 300-mm bore/480-mm stroke ADD30V design, in a V50degree configuration, developed up to 735kW/cylinder at 750rev/min, significantly more powerful than contemporary medium-speed engines of equivalent
bore size. A mean effective pressure of around 25bar and a mean piston speed of
11.5m/s were exploited in tests with a six-cylinder prototype, although an mep
approaching 35bar and a mean piston speed of 12m/s are reportedly possible.
In addition to a high specific output, the developers sought a design,
which was also over 30 per cent lighter in weight, 1015 per cent more fuel
economical and with a better part-load performance than established engines.
Underwriting these advances in mep and mean piston speed ratings are an

anti-wear ceramic coating for the sliding surfaces of the cylinder liners and
piston rings, applied by a plasma coating method. A porous ceramic heat shield
was also developed for the combustion chamber to reduce heat transfer to the
base metal of the piston crown.
A key feature is the single-valve air intake and exhaust gas exchange
(Figure 5), contrasting with the four-valve (two inlet and two exhaust)
heads of other medium-speed engines. The greatly enlarged overall dynamic
valve area and the reduction in pressure losses during the gas exchange period
promote a higher thermal efficiency. The system is based on a heat-resistant
alloy main poppet valve located over the centre of the cylinder and a control
valve placed co-axially against this main valve. The control valve switches the
air intake and exhaust channels in the cylinder cover. Both main and control
valves are driven hydraulically.

Figure 5 The Japanese ADD 30V engine is distinguished by a single-valve gas

exchange system comprising a main valve located at the centre of the cylinder and a
control valve placed co-axially against the main valve. The control valve switches the
air intake and exhaust channels in the cylinder cover. Both valves are driven hydraulically. Side-mounted fuel injectors are arranged around the cylinder periphery

Hydraulic oil
for main valve

Main valve
Spring air
Hydraulic oil
for sub valve
Sub valve

Air intake

Sub valve
Main valve






Air intake

Figure 5

Functioning of the ADD 30V engines single valve gas exchange system

Fuel injection is executed from the side through multiple injectors arranged
around the cylinder periphery instead of a conventional top-mounted central
injection system. Combustion characteristics were optimized by raising the
fuel injection pressure to around 2000bar, thus enhancing the fuelair mixture
formation and fostering low NOx emissions without sacrificing fuel economy.
A computer-based mechatronics system automatically controls the timing of
fuel injection and valve opening/closing to match the operating conditions.
The first 6ADD30V production marine engines, built by Mitsui, were specified
as the prime movers for the diesel-electric propulsion plant of a large Japanese
survey vessel.
Offshore vessel and LNG carrier propulsion market opportunitiesand
the potential of wider mainstream shipping interest as environmental curbs
tightenhave encouraged a number of medium-speed enginebuilders to
develop dual-fuel and gasdiesel designs offering true multi-fuel capabilities
with high efficiency and reliability, and low carbon dioxide emissions. The

engines can run on gas (with a small percentage of liquid pilot fuel) or entirely
on liquid fuel (marine diesel oil, heavy fuel or even crude oil). Switching from
one fuel to another is possible without interrupting power generation (see
Chapter 2).
The high cost of R&D to maintain a competitive programme and continuing investment in production resources and global support services have stimulated a number of joint ventures and takeovers in the four-stroke engine sector
in recent years. Most notable have been Wrtsils acquisition of the former
New Sulzer Diesel and Caterpillars takeover of MaK. Earlier, Wrtsil had
acquired another leading medium-speed enginebuilder, the Netherlands-based
Stork-Werkspoor Diesel. This trend towards an industry comprising a small
number of major multi-national players contesting the world market has continued with the absorption of the British companies Mirrlees Blackstone,
Paxman and Ruston (formerly part of Alstom Engines) into the MAN Diesel
group. Rolls-Royce inherited the Bergen Diesel interests in Norway through
the takeover of Vickers-Ulstein.
Considerable potential remains for further developing the power ratings
of medium-speed engines, whose cylinder technology has benefited in recent
years from an anti-polishing ring at the top of the liner, water distribution
rings, chromeceramic piston rings, pressurized skirt lubrication and nodular
cast iron/low friction skirt designs.
The pressure-lubricated skirt elevated the scuffing limit originally obtaining by more than 50bar, reduced piston slap force by 75 per cent and doubled
the lifetime of piston rings and grooves. Furthermore, it facilitated a reduction in lube oil consumption and, along with the simultaneous introduction
of the nodular cast iron skirt, practically eliminated the risk of piston seizure.
The anti-polishing ring dramatically improved cylinder liner lifetime beyond
100000h, and lube oil consumption became controllable and stable over
time, most engines today running at rates between 0.1g/kWh and 0.5g/kWh.
A further reduction in piston ring and groove wear was also achieved, and the
time-between-overhauls extended to 1800020000h. The ring itself is a wear
part but is turnable in four positions in a four-stroke engine, fostering a lengthy
lifetime for the component.
Such elements underwrite a capability to support a maximum cylinder
pressure of 250bar of which 210230bar is already exploited in some engines
today. Leading designers such as Wrtsil suggest that it may be possible to
work up towards 300bar with the same basic technology for the cylinder unit,
although some areas need to be developed: bearing technology, for example,
where there is potential in both geometry and materials. A steel piston skirt
may become the most cost effective, and cooling of the piston top will probably
change from direct oil cooling to indirect. The higher maximum cylinder pressure can be exploited for increasing the maximum effective pressure or improving the thermal efficiency of the process. Continuing to mould the development
of the medium-speed engine will be NOx and carbon dioxide emissions, fuel
flexibility, mean time-between-failures and reduced maintenance.

Designing medium-speed engines

Investment in the development of a new medium-speed engine may be committed for a number of reasons. The enginebuilder may need to extend its portfolio with larger or smaller designs to complete the available range, to exploit
recently developed equipment and systems, or to enhance the reliability, availability and economy of the programme. As an alternative to a new design, it may
be possible to upgrade an existing engine having the potential for improved
power ratings, lower operational costs, reduced emissions and weight. An
example is the upgrading by MAN Diesel of its 48/60 engine, whose B-version
offers a 14 per cent higher specific output with considerably reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emission rates, a lower weight, and the same length and
height but a narrower overall width than its predecessor (Figure 6).
Having set the output range of the new engine, a decision must be made
on whether it should be built only as an in-line cylinder version or as a V-type
engine as well. In the case of the largest and heaviest medium-speed engines,
the efforts and costs involved in adding a V-type to the existing portfolio
might not be justified if there is a limited potential market for engines above
20000kW. Other restraining factors could be the capacity of the foundry for
casting very large crankcases or difficulties in transporting engines weighing
400 tonnes or more overland.
Once the power per cylinder of the proposed new engine is known, the first
indication of its bore size is determined by the piston load, which relates the
specific output to the circular piston surface. Piston loads have increased with

Figure 6 MAN Diesels 48/60 engine, shown here in V14-cylinder form, benefited
from a redesign that raised specific output by 14 per cent and reduced fuel consumption and emissions

the development of better materials: the original 48/60 engine has a piston load
of 58kW/cm2, while the 48/60B engine achieves 66.4kW/cm2.
The bore and stroke of an engine are interrelated by the strokebore ratio,
which in turn is based on the designers experiences with earlier engines. Some
25 years ago it was not uncommon to design medium-speed engines with very
similar bore and stroke dimensions (so-called square engines); more recently,
the trend has been towards longer stroke designs, which offer clear advantages
in optimizing the combustion space geometry to achieve lower NOx and soot
emission rates. A longer stroke can reduce NOx emissions with almost no fuel
economy penalty and without changing the maximum combustion pressure.
The compression ratio can also be increased more easily and, together with
a higher firing pressure, fuel consumption rates will decrease. Finally, longstroke engines yield an improved combustion quality, a better charge renewal
process inside the cylinder and higher mechanical efficiency.
A good compromise between an optimum strokebore ratio and the costs
involved, however, is an important factor: it is a general rule that the longer the
engine stroke, the higher the costs for an engine per kilowatt of output. The trend
towards longer stroke medium-speed engine designs is indicated by the following table showing the current MAN Diesel family; the first four models were
launched between 1984 and 1995, and the remaining smaller models after 1996.

StrokeBore Ratio















This table is a simplified outline of the initial design process and the reality is much more complex. The final configuration results from considering a
combination of choices, which may have different effects on fuel consumption
rates and emissions. Nevertheless, the usual trade-off between fuel economy
and NOx emissions can be eliminated. The use of high-efficiency turbochargers is also essential.
A decision on engine speed is the next step. The mean piston speed in
metres per second can be calculated from the bore and speed of an engine
using the following formula: mean piston speed (m/s)bore (m)speed
(rev/min)/30. The upper limit of the mean piston speed is primarily given by
the size and mass of the piston and the high forces acting on the connecting
rod and crankshaft during engine running. A mean speed between 9.5m/s and

slightly above 10m/s is quite common for modern large bore medium-speed
engines. Any substantial increase above 10m/s will reduce operational safety
and hence reliability. Since medium-speed engines may be specified to drive
propellers and/or alternators, the selection of engine speed has to satisfy the
interrelation between the frequency of an alternator (50Hz or 60Hz) and
the number of pole pairs.
In designing the individual engine components, two main criteria are
addressed: reducing manufacturing costs and reducing the number of overall
engine parts to ease maintenance.
A valuable summary of the design process is also provided by Rolls-Royce,
based on its development of the Allen 5000 series medium-speed engine in
conjunction with Ricardo Consulting Engineers of the United Kingdom. The
initial functional specification defined a target power of 500kW/cylinder and
a wide application profile embracing industrial and standby power generation, pumping, propulsion and auxiliary power. It was considered essential to
design-in sufficient flexibility to accommodate all key parameters necessary
to ensure superior performance in these sectors well into the 21st century. The
following basic concepts were adopted by the design team:

A power range of 300010000kW in steps of 1000kW

An output of 525kWb per cylinder10 per cent for 1h in 12h required
for power generation (equivalent to 500kWe energy at both 720/750rev/
min synchronous speeds)
l An output of 500kWb per cylinder maximum continuous rating10
per cent for 1h in 12h required for propulsion and pumping over a
speed range of 375750rev/min15 per cent overspeed
l Fuel injection equipment to be of advanced technology, with the flexibility to satisfy future emissions legislation and specified fuel consumption
l Fuel flexibility covering heavy fuel oil and distillates
l High standards of reliability, durability and maintainability
l Condition monitoring capability essential
l Low number of parts.

The choice of brake mean effective pressure (bmep) was crucial to the
competitiveness of the design. It was essential to choose a bmep that would
allow the engine to be sold at a competitive price in pounds per kilowatt output.
Before commencing design work, therefore, a survey of competitive engines
was carried out. The survey showed that bmep levels increased on average by
0.25/0.33bar per year, and predicted that in 1998 the highest rated engines
would have a rating of 25/25.3bar. On this basis, coupled with engine economics, a rating of 26bar bmep was selected for the new design. Cycle simulation
studies showed that this was achievable with a boost pressure ratio of 4.5:1,
provided that the combustion and injection systems were properly matched.
Any significant increase in bmep would dictate the use of boost pressures of
5:1 and, while turbochargers were available to deliver this level of performance,

the special features incorporated in them to achieve it commanded a premium

price and increased the cost of the engine.
To secure the specified power per cylinder of 525kW at a speed of
720/750rev/min (60Hz and 50Hz synchronous speeds), a cylinder bore between
310mm and 330mm was required. It was decided at the onset of the design
process to limit the maximum piston speed to 10.5m/s, which equates to a
stroke of 420mm. The borestroke ratio therefore lay between 1.2 and 1.4,
typical for an engine in the anticipated market sector.
Combustion system design is governed by the customers need for compliance with exhaust emissions legislation and excellent fuel economy. This dictates that the engine should have a high airfuel ratio, a shallow open bowl
combustion chamber and a very high compression ratio. The fuel injection system must be capable of generating at least 1600bar line pressure; an injection
system with built-in capability to vary the injection timing was a key feature of
its specification.
In order to achieve a high trapped airfuel ratio, the valve area should be
high and the ports designed for maximum efficiency with a small amount of
swirl (around 0.20.4 swirl ratio). The bowl shape should be wide and open
with no valve recesses, and the top ring should be placed reasonably high so
that the crevice volume is minimized to secure a high air utilization factor.
A maximum cylinder pressure target of 210bar was chosen with the aim of
achieving excellent fuel economy; this in turn allows a high compression ratio
to be used (in the range 15.516.5:1). An injector nozzle with eight to ten holes
was specified. The combustion bowl design was optimized to ensure excellent
mixing of the fuel sprays to keep the airfuel ratio as homogeneous as possible
and minimize the peak cycle temperatures and hence NOx formation.
The choice of bore size was influenced by considering the following: power
requirement (525kW/cylinder), bmep (30bar maximum), mean piston speed
(10.5m/s), overall length/width/height, specific weight and specific cost.
To fulfil the design concept, the power requirement for the engine was
defined as 500kWe/cylinder continuous rating with a 10 per cent overload
capacity. The maximum continuous bmep is 26.6bar, a limit set by the available boost pressure level from single-stage turbocharging. The limit of 10.25m/s
mean piston speed was selected to allow reliable operation at the maximum
continuous speed without significant risk of piston, ring and liner scuffing
and wear problems. By selecting high values for rated bmep and mean piston
speed, the size of the cylinder components was minimized; this kept the overall
engine size small, with consequent benefits in production costs.
Having set the piston speed and bmep at rated speed, it is possible to
derive the piston area and hence the cylinder bore: 320mm. Having limited the
mean piston speed to a maximum of 10.25m/s at the maximum rated synchronous speed of 750rev/min, the maximum allowable stroke was determined as
410mm. Supporting these decisions, simulation work using the WAVE program was carried out to examine bore sizes from 315mm to 330mm and stroke
sizes from 380mm to 420mm. The results confirmed the selected values.

Factors influencing the choice of cylinder configuration (in-line or V-form)

are weight, cost, installation limitations, stress limitations (crank), vibration
levels, production tooling and market acceptance. From manufacturing, weight,
cost and installation considerations, a V-form family appeared attractive.
V6- and V8-cylinder designs, however, have inherently poor vibration characteristics and attempts to reduce this to acceptable levels would add cost and
complexity to the engines. The following configurations for the new engine
were therefore initially selected: in-line six and eight, and V10, 12, 14 and 16cylinders. (V18 and V20 models were subsequently added to the production
The range of V-angles for competitive engines was from 45 to 60, with
a compromise angle of 50 favoured by several manufacturers. Angles 45
were considered impractical due to close proximity of the lower end of the left
and right bank cylinder liners. For even firing intervals and low torque fluctuations to give acceptable cyclic speed variations, optimum V-angles vary from
72 for a V10 to 45 for a V16 engine. An investigation of the effects of
V-angle on cyclic torque fluctuations concluded that a common angle of 52
was suitable for V12, 14 and 16 engines, while the V10 required an angle of
72 to optimize torque fluctuation and balance.
Simulating the performance of the Allen 5000 series engine was conducted
using a WAVE engine performance simulation model based on the in-line sixcylinder design. For the concept design stage, the basic engine design para
meters, such as fuel injection characteristics and valve events, were chosen and
then fixed. These were based on previous experience and data from engines of
a similar type with the aim of achieving good performance and emission characteristics. The dimensions of the manifolding and air chest were typical for
this size of engine.
For the baseline simulation, an inlet cam period of 248 and an exhaust
period of 278 were chosen, with an injection period of 30 and start of injection at 13 before top dead centre. The port flow data were typical of a current
port design with a good flow performance. The trapped airfuel ratio was set at
31:1 and a compression ratio of 14.5:1 applied.
The initial simulation model used a bore of 320mm and a stroke of
390mm. The results of the simulation showed that at the 10 per cent overload
condition, the predicted Pmax was 227bar and the boost pressure 4.7bar, which
were considered to be excessive. Increasing the stroke to 400mm reduced the
Pmax to 202bar and the boost pressure to 4.2bar. Based on this initial bore and
stroke investigation, larger bore and stroke sizes were examined. This was considered necessary since there was a requirement for the engine to operate at
720rev/min at the same rating of 525kW/cylinder and also at the 10 per cent
overload condition, both of which result in higher cylinder pressures and boost
pressure requirements. Combinations of bore sizes of 320mm, 325mm and
330mm and strokes of 410mm, 415mm and 420mm were assessed for boost
pressure, Pmax and fuel consumption predictions.



CR 13.5
CR 14.5
CR 15.5
CR 16.5


CR 13.5
CR 14.5
CR 15.5
CR 16.5


BSFC (g/kW h)

Pmax (bar)





Start of combustion timing (Deg-ATDC)


Start of combustion timing (Deg-ATDC)

Figure 7 Development of Allen 5000 series engine: effect of variations in compression ratio and start of combustion on maximum cylinder pressure (left) and fuel
consumption (right) at a power rating of 525kW/cylinder

Based on these simulations, it was decided to retain the bore size at

320mm and increase the stroke to 410mm; this would enable the engine to run
at full rating at 720rev/min at the standard injection timing without exceeding
the Pmax limit of 210bar. Having fixed the bore and stroke dimensions, variations in compression ratio and start of combustion were investigated for their
effect on fuel consumption and maximum cylinder pressure (see Figure 7).
Finally, the effect of valve size on performance was assessed before a 96-mm
diameter inlet valve and an 89-mm diameter exhaust valve were selected as the
optimum choice.
Acknowledgements: MAN Diesel, Rolls-Royce and Wrtsil.


The 'round the clock' operation of a ship at sea requires a rota system of attendance
in the machinery space. This has developed into a system of watchkeeping that has endured
until recently. The arrival of 'Unattended Machinery Spaces' (UMS) has begun to erode
this traditional practice of watchkeeping. The organisation of the Engineering Department,
conventional watchkeeping and UMS practices will now be outlined.

The Engineering Department

The Chief Engineer is directly responsible to the Master for the satisfactory
operation of all machinery and equipment. Apart from assuming all responsibility his role
is mainly that of consultant and adviser. It is not usual for the Chief Engineer to keep a
The Second Engineer is responsible for the practical upkeep of machinery and the
manning of the engine room: he is in effect an executive officer. On some ships the Second
Engineer may keep a watch.
The Third and Fourth Engineers are usually senior watchkeepers or engineers in
charge of a watch. Each may have particular areas of responsibility, such as generators or
Fifth and Sixth Engineers may be referred to as such, or all below Fourth Engineer
may be classed as Junior Engineers. They will make up as additional watchkeepers, day
workers on maintenance work or possibly act as Refrigeration Engineer.
Electrical Engineers may be carried on large ships or where company practice
dictates. Where no specialist Electrical Engineer is carried the duty will fall on one of the
Various engine room ratings will usually form part of the engine room
complement. Donkeymen are usually senior ratings who attend the auxiliary boiler while
the ship is in port. Otherwise they will direc t the ratings in the maintenance and upkeep of
the machinery space. A storekeeper may also be carried and on tankers a pump man is

employed to maintain and operate the cargo pumps. The engine room ratings, e.g. firemen,
greasers, etc., are usually employed on watches to assist the engineer in charge.

The watchkeeping system

The system of watches adopted on board ship is usually a four hour period of
working with eight hours rest for the members of each watch. The three watches in any 12
hour period are usually 12-4, 4-8 and 8-12. The word 'watch' is taken as meaning the time
period and also the personnel at work during that period.
The watchkeeping arrangements and the make up of the watch will be decided by
the Chief Engineer. Factors to be taken into account in this matter will include the type of
ship, the type of machinery and degree of automation, the qualifications and experience of
the members of the watch, any special conditions such as weather, ship location,
international and local regulations, etc. The engineer officer in charge of the watch is the
Chief Engineer's representative and is responsible for the safe and efficient operation and
upkeep of all machinery affecting the safety of the ship.

Operating the watch

An engineer officer in charge, with perhaps a junior engineer assisting and one or
more ratings, will form the watch. Each member of the watch should be familiar with his
duties and the safety and survival equipment in the machinery space. This would include a
knowledge of the fire fighting equipment with respect to location and operation, being able
to distinguish the different alarms and the action required, an understanding of the
communications systems and how to summon help and also being aware of the escape
routes from the machinery space.
At the beginning of the watch the current operational parameters and the condition
of all machinery should be verified and also the log readings should correspond with those
observed. The engineer officer in charge should note if there are any special orders or
instructions relating to the operation of the main machinery or auxiliaries. He should
determine what work is in progress and any hazards or limitations this presents. The levels
of tanks containing fuel, water, slops, ballast, etc., should be noted and also the level of the
various bilges. The operating mode of equipment and available standby equipment should
also be noted.
At appropriate intervals inspections should be made of the main propulsion plant,
auxiliary machinery and steering gear spaces. Any routine adjustments may then be made
and malfunctions or breakdowns can be noted, reported and corrected. During these tours
of inspection bilge levels should be noted, piping and systems observed for leaks, and local
indicating instruments can be observed.
Where bilge levels are high, or the well is full, it must be pumped dry. The liquid
will be pumped to an oily water separator, and only clean water is to be discharged
overboard. Particular attention must be paid to the relevant oil pollution regulations both of
a national and international nature, depending upon the location of the ship. Bilges should
not be pumped when in port. Oily bilges are usually emptied to a slop tank from which the
oil may be reclaimed or discharged into suitable facilities when in port. The discharging of
oil from a ship usually results in the engineer responsible and the master being arrested.

Bridge orders must be promptly carried out and a record of any required changes in
speed and direction should be kept. When under standby or manoeuvring conditions with
the machinery being manually operated the control unit or console should be continuously
Certain watchkeeping duties will be necessary for the continuous operation of
equipment or plant the transferring of fuel for instance, in addition to these regular tasks
other repair or maintenance tasks may be required of the watchkeeping personnel.
However no tasks should be set or undertaken which will interfere with the supervisory
duties relating to the main machinery and associated equipment.
During the watch a log or record will be taken of the various parameters of main
and auxiliary equipment. This may be a manual operation or provided automatically on
modern vessels by a data logger. A typical log book page for a slow-speed diesel driven
vessel is shown in Figure 1.
The hours and minutes columns are necessary since a ship, passing through time
zones, may have watches of more or less than four hours. Fuel consumption figures are
used to determine the efficiency of operation, in addition to providing a check on the
available bunker quantities. Lubricating oil tank levels and consumption to some extent
indicate engine oil consumption. The sump level is recorded and checked that it does not
rise or fall, but a gradual fall is acceptable as the engine uses some oil during operation. If
the sump level were to rise this would indicate water leakage into the oil and an
investigation into the cause must be made. The engine exhaust temperatures should all read
about the same to indicate an equal power production from each cylinder. The various
temperature and pressure values for the cooling water and lubricating oil should be at, or
near to, the manufacturer's designed values for the particular speed or fuel lever settings.
Any high outlet temperature for cooling water would indicate a lack of supply to that point.
Various parameters for the main engine turbo-blowers are also logged. Since they
are high-speed turbines the correct supply of lubricating oil is essential. The machine itself
is water cooled since it is circulated by hot exhaust gases. The air cooler is used to increase
the charge air density to enable a large quantity of air to enter the engine cylinder. If
cooling were inadequate a lesser mass of air would be supplied to the engine, resulting in a
reduced power output, inefficient combustion and black smoke.
Various miscellaneous level and temperature readings are taken of heavy oil tanks,
both setding and service, sterntube bearing temperature, sea water temperature, etc. The
operating diesel generators will have their exhaust temperatures, cooling water and
lubricating oil temperatures and pressures logged in much the same way as for the main
engine. Of particular importance will be the log of running hours since this will be the basis
for overhauling the machinery.

Figure 1 Tipycal look book pages

Other auxiliary machinery and equipment, such as heat exchangers, fresh water
generator (evaporator), boiler, air conditioning plant and refrigeration plant will also have
appropriate readings taken. There will usually be summaries or daily account tables for
heavy oil, diesel oil, lubricating oil and fresh water, which will be compiled at noon.
Provision is also made for remarks or important events to be noted in the log for each
The completed log is used to compile a summary sheet or abstract of information
which is returned to the company head office for record purposes.
The log for a medium-speed diesel driven ship would be fairly similar with
probably greater numbers of cylinder readings to be taken and often more than one engine.
There would also be gearbox parameters to be logged.
For a steam turbine driven vessel the main log readings will be for the boiler and the
turbine. Boiler steam pressure, combustion air pressure, fuel oil temperatures, etc., will all
be recorded. For the turbine the main bearing temperatures, steam pressures and
temperatures, condenser vacuum, etc., must be noted. All logged values should correspond
fairly closely with the design values for the equipment.
Where situations occur in the machinery space which may affect the speed,
maneuverability, power supply or other essentials for the safe operation of the ship, the
bridge should be informed as soon as possible. This notification should preferably be given
before any changes are made to enable the bridge to take appropriate action.
The engineer in charge should notify the Chief Engineer in the event of any serious
occurrence or a situation where he is unsure of the action to take. Examples might be, if any
machinery suffers severe damage, or a malfunction occurs which may lead to serious
damage. However where immediate action is necessary to ensure safety of the ship, its
machinery and crew, it must be taken by the engineer in charge.
At the completion of the watch each member should hand over to his relief,
ensuring that he is competent to take over and carry out his duties effectively.

UMS operation
The machinery spaces will usually be manned at least eight hours per day. During
this time the engineers will be undertaking various maintenance tasks, the duty engineer
having particular responsibility for the watchkeeping duties and dealing with any alarms
which may occur.
When operating unmanned anyone entering the machinery space must inform the
deck officer on watch. When working or making a tour of inspection alone, the deck officer
on watch should be telephoned at agreed intervals of perhaps 15 or 30 minutes.
Where the machinery space is unattended, a duty engineer will be responsible for
supervision. He will normally be one of three senior watchkeeping engineers and will work
on a 24 hour on, 48 hours off rota. During his rota period he will make tours of inspection
about every four hours beginning at 7 or 8 o'clock in the morning.
The tour of inspection will be similar to that for a conventional watch with due
consideration being given to the unattended mode of machinery operation. Trends in
parameter readings must be observed, and any instability in operating conditions must be
rectified, etc. A set list or mini-log of readings may have to be taken during the various
tours. Between tours of inspection the Duty Engineer will be on call and should be ready to

investigate any alarms relayed to his cabin or the various public rooms. The Duty Engineer
should not be out of range of these alarms without appointing a relief and informing the
The main log book readings will be taken as required while on a tour of inspection.
The various regular duties, such as fuel transfer, pumping of bilges, and so on, should be
carried out during the daywork period, but. it remains the responsibility of the Duty
Engineer to ensure that they are done.

The loading of fuel oil into a ship's tanks from a shoreside installation or bunker
barge takes place about once a trip. The penalties for oil spills are large, the damage to the
environment is considerable, and the ship may well be delayed or even arrested if this job is
not properly carried out.
Bunkering is traditionally the fourth engineer's job. He will usually be assisted by at
least one other engineer and one or more ratings. Most ships will have a set procedure
which is to be followed or some form of general instructions which might include:
1. All scuppers are to be sealed off, i.e. plugged, to prevent any minor oil spill on deck
going overboard.
2. All tank air vent containments or drip trays are to be sealed or plugged.
3. Sawdust should be available at the bunkering station and various positions around
the deck.
4. All fuel tank valves should be carefully checked before bunkering commences. The
personnel involved should be quite familiar with the piping systems, tank valves,
spill tanks and all tank-sounding equipment.
5. All valves on tanks which are not to be used should be closed or switched to the 'off
position and effectively safeguarded against opening or operation.
6. Any manual valves in the filling lines should be proved to be open for the flow of
7. Proven, reliable tank-sounding equipment must be used to regularly check the
contents of each tank. It may even be necessary to 'dip' or manually sound tanks to
be certain of their contents.
8. A complete set of all tank soundings must be obtained before bunkering
9. A suitable means of communication must be set up between the ship and the
bunkering installation before bunkering commences.
10. On-board communication between involved personnel should be by hand radio sets
or some other satisfactory means.
11. Any tank that is filling should be identified in some way on the level indicator,
possibly by a sign or marker reading 'FILLING'.
12. In the event of a spill, the Port Authorities should be informed as soon as possible to
enable appropriate cleaning measures to be taken.

Periodic safety routines

In addition to watchkeeping and maintenance duties, various safety and emergency
equipment must be periodically checked. As an example, the following inspections should
take place at least weekly:
1. Emergency generator should be started and run for a reasonable period. Fuel oil,
lubricating oil and cooling water supplies and tank levels should be checked.
2. Emergency fire pump should be run and the deck fire mam operated for a
reasonable period. All operating parameters should be checked.
3. Carbon dioxide cylinder storage room should be visually examined. The release
box door should be opened to test the alarm and check that the machinery-space
fans stop.
4. One smoke detector in each circuit should be tested to ensure operation and correct
indication on the alarm panel. Aerosol test sprays are available to safely check
some types of detector.
5. Fire pushbutton alarms should be tested, by operating a different one during each
6. Any machinery space ventilators or skylights should be operated and greased, if
necessary, to ensure smooth, rapid closing should this be necessary.
7. Fire extinguishers should be observed in their correct location and checked to
ensure they are operable.
8. Fire hoses and nozzles should likewise be observed in their correct places. The
nozzles should be tried on the hose coupling. Any defective hose should be
9. Any emergency batteries, e.g. for lighting or emergency generator starting, should
be examined, have the acid specific gravity checked, and be topped up, as required.
10. All lifeboat engines should be run for a reasonable period. Fuel oil and lubricating
oil levels should be checked.
11. All valves and equipment operated from the fire control point should be checked
for operation, where this is possible.
12. Any watertight doors should be opened and closed by hand and power. The guides
should be checked to ensure that they are clear and unobstructed.


The exercises was made for work on Kongsberg Engine Room
Simulator ERS MAN B&W-5L90MC VLCC L11

The ERS ERS-L11 MAN B&W 5L90MCVLCC simulates a very large crude
carrier with a MAN B&W slow speed turbo charged diesel engine as propulsion unit
modelled with fixed and controllable propeller.
The model is based on real engine data that make the dynamic behaviour of the
simulator close to real engine response. Kongsberg has a written statement from the Engine
manufacturer MAN B&W
The electrical plant includes 2 diesel generators, one turbo generator, one shaft
generator/motor, and one 180 kW emergency generator.
The steam plant includes a D-type steam boiler, exhaust boiler, 4 cargo turbines,
ballast turbine and condensing and feed water systems.
Control room operator station and panels and bridge and steering panels are
Simulator training has over the last years proved to be an effective training method
when training engineers, especially where an error of judgement can endanger life,
environment and property. A dynamic real-time computerised simulator can, when it
comes to certain situations, compress years of experience, into a few weeks and give
competence to handle these situations and knowledge of the dynamic and interactive
processes typical for a real engine room. Proper simulator training will reduce accidents
and improve efficiency, and give the engineers the necessary experience and confidence in
their job-situation.
The best way to acquire practical experience is to learn from real life in a real
engine room, but today the efficiency requirements do not allow for this kind of onboard
education, hence the training has to be carried out on a simulator. Practising
decision-making in a simulator environment where decisions and their effects are
monitored opens a unique possibility to evaluate the effect of the decisions.
The opportunities to experiment on specific problems and get answers on questions
as: "what happens if....?" without leading to wrecking of components and resulting off hire

costs is unique. A simulator will give an easy introduction to background theories through
the realistic operation of the simulator. It is important that the trainees experience life-like
conditions on the simulator and that the tasks they are asked to carry out are recognised as
important and relevant in their job-situation. The trainees shall be challenged at all levels of
experience in order to achieve further experience and confidence.


Medium and slow-speed diesel engines will follow a fairly similar procedure for
starting and maneuvering. Where reversing gearboxes or controllable-pitch propellers are
used then engine reversing is not necessary. A general procedure is now given for engine
operation which details the main points in their correct sequence. Where a manufacturer's
instruction book is available this should be consulted and used.

Preparations for standby

1. Before a large diesel is started it must be warmed through by circulating hot water
through the jackets, etc. This will enable the various engine parts to expand in
relation to one another.
2. The various supply tanks, filters, valves and drains are all to be checked.
3. The lubricating oil pumps and circulating water pumps are started and all the visible
returns should be observed.
4. All control equipment and alarms should be examined for correct operation.
5. The indicator cocks are opened, the turning gear engaged and the engine turned
through several complete revolutions. In this way any water which may have
collected in the cylinders will be forced out.
6. The fuel oil system is checked and circulated with hot oil.
7. Auxiliary scavenge blowers, if manually operated, should be started.
8. The turning gear is removed and if possible the engine should be turned over on air
before closing the indicator cocks.
9. The engine is now available for standby.

The length of time involved in these preparations will depend upon the size of the

Engine starting
1. The direction handle is positioned ahead or astern. This handle may be built into the
telegraph reply lever. The camshaft is thus positioned relative to the crankshaft to
operate the various cams for fuel injection, valve operation, etc.
2. The maneuvering handle is moved to 'start'. This will admit compressed air into the
cylinders in the correct sequence to turn the engine in the desired direction. A
separate air start button may be used.

3. When the engine reaches its firing speed the maneuvering handle is moved to the
running position. Fuel is admitted and the combustion process will accelerate the
engine and starting air admission will cease.

Engine reversing
When running at maneuvering speeds:

Where manually operated auxiliary blowers are fitted they should be started.
The fuel supply is shut off and the engine will quickly slow down.
The direction handle is positioned astern.
Compressed air is admitted to the engine to turn it in the astern direction.
When turning astern under the action of compressed air, fuel will be admitted. The
combustion process will take over and air admission cease.
When running at full speed:


The auxiliary blowers, where manually operated, should be started.

Fuel is shut off from the engine.
Blasts of compressed air may be used to slow the engine down.
When the engine is stopped the direction handle is positioned astern.
Compressed air is admitted to turn the engine astern and fuel is admitted to
accelerate the engine. The compressed air supply will then cease.

EXERCISE 1 Operating procedures

Title: Scenario #1-Dead Ship Start
1. The ship has been at the dock or anchorage for a week and no
equipment is running nor is shore power available.
2. Prior to shutting down, the engineers had purified adequate HFO to fill
HFO service tank. They had also filled the DO service tank.
3. The Fresh Water Expansion Tank(s) was left filled 50%. Lube oil
sumps were left 50% full with freshly purified oil.
4. Both starting air tanks were pressed up to 30 bar (485 psig). Service Air
Receiver was pressed up to 7 bar (102 psig).
5. The ship is in a tropical Gulf port. Air temp. is 30 deg.C (86 deg.F), and
sea water is 30 deg.C (86 deg.F). Vessel is in ballast.
6. All other parameters are set at normal condition. The control will be in
the ME Local Control Mode.
The Step Director (SD) will follow the steps necessary to bring the
engine room to the point where the engine is ready to respond to the remote
At this point the SD will create INIT CONDITION #2 READY FOR
Initial Condition #2 will be used to set the initial conditions for future
scenarios. No faults will be inserted in this scenario.


Step Director Action

At the start of Init. Condition #1, "Dead

Ship Start",

All ambients, hull condition, ship load

etc., are set at default values. No power is
Power up the simulator by supplying 24V
to all Control Consoles, operating panels,
Main Switchboard sections and ME Local
Operating Console.

Load Initial Condition #1 DEAD SHIP




Random selection of
pumps and valves are
Verify that all lamps
representing valves,
pumps and controllers are

Ref. sub-systems MD19; MD20; MD56; MD70; MD71; MD72, or Boiler

Console, Main Switchboard and Control Room Console

Press all lamp test pushbuttons and take

printout of selected model drawings.
Select various sub-system displays for
verifying the Dead Ship Condition.

Check Control Room Console and Engine

Room equipment to be certain that all
controls are in the correct position for the
initial conditions of OP Test #1.
Start simulation by pressing "Running"
Start Emergency Generator in MANUAL
from the Main Switchboard in local

-No steam pressure.

-No machinery running.
-No el power.
-All generators
disconnected and stopped.
All Controllers are in
Local Control.

Voltage, on emergency
bus bar (440V)

Ref.. sub-system: Electric Power Plant (MD 70)


Step Director Action



Connect Emergency Generator from the

same location.

Line up Compressed Air System, by:

Draining all Air Coolers and Receivers.
Close when Water Content is zero

Water Content decreases

to zero

Note: Emergency Gen. is battery started

Ref. sub-system 'Compressed Air System' (MD 59)

(The corresponding
valves is lit.) (The
corresponding valves is

Open valves for LTFW Cooling to Air

Open inlet valves to Air Receivers. Open
outlet valves from Air Receivers.

V04440, V0442 and V04444


Step Director Action


Open Service Air Receiver Inlet and

Outlet Valve, and Control Air Drier/press
Reduction Valve


V04460, V04461 V04462, V04463

V04464, V04465 and V04466
Ref. sub-system (MD10) V1135, V1123.

Open for LTFW cooling of Compressor

Air Coolers:
Line up the LTFW system by opening
valves allowing flow through the Air
Compressor Cooler.
Check ME FW Expansion Tank level

Min 1.0 meter

Start Aux. LTFW pump

Aux LTFW pump starts

LTFW Discharge
LTFW starts flowing

Set LTFW controller in AUTO, and

setpoint to 34 deg C.
Line up SW system:

Controller changes to new

output value

Ref. sub-system (MD10) P1001, G1075

V700 and V0670
Ref. sub-system (MD-01) G063, P0632


Step Director Action

Open Sea Chest 1 inlet valve, and FW
Cooler 1 SW Shut Off Valve.



SW Discharge Pressure.
SW starts flowing

Open SW overboard Shut Off Valve and

SW Recirc Line Shut Off Valve
Start Aux SW Pump

Set SW Controller in Auto, and Setpoint

to 20 deg C.

Controller changes to new

output value. Observe the
flow in overboard and
recirc lines

Prepare DG1 for start-up:

DG1 Oil Sump 50% full

Line up DG1 LO system

Set DG1 El. LO Pump in Auto
Line up DG1 Start Air Line

LO pump starts and runs

till normal LO press is
obtained and then stops.
Start Air Press to DG1

Line up DG1 DO System

Check DO Service Tank Level

4,0 meter 50% full

heck FW Exp. Tank Level

Line up DG1 SW System
Reset DG1 trips if any
Set DG1 in Local Control Mode Press
start button DG1.

DG1 accelerating to
approx 1200 RPM

Ref. sub-system 'Diesel Generator 1' (MD 75)



Step Director Action


Raise speed to frequency 60Hz

Emergency Generator
Circuit Breaker is

Adjust voltage to 440V Connect DG1 to

Main Bus Bar

Observe that the AUTO

and Ready and Prior 1 are
lit at PowerChief.

Set DG1 in Remote Control mode. When

all alarms are removed, the Ready Lamp
will light. Select AUTO- mode at Power,
and select Priority 1

Em'gy Gen. stops after a


Set Emergency Generator in AUTO

Start Air Compressors:

Ref. sub-system:'Electrical Power Plant' (MD 70) and Main Switchboard.

Ref. sub-system 'Compressed Air System' (MD 60)

Set Start Air Compressor #2 in Auto at


Set Service Air Compressor in AUTO


Prepare DG2 for stand-by:

DG2 Oil Sump 50% full

Ref. subsystem Diesel Generator no.2 (MD72)


Step Director Action

Line up DG2 LO System

Set DG2 El. LO Pump in Auto
Line up DG2 Start Air Line



LO Pump starts and runs

till normal LO press is
obtained and then stops.
Start Air Press to DG2

Line up DG2 DO System

Check DO Service Tank Level
(MD 03)
Check FW Exp. Tank Level

4,0 meter 50% full

Line up DG2 SW System

Reset DG2 trips if any
Set DG2 in Remote Control mode
Set DG2 in AUTO

READY lamp turns on

Ref. subsystem Pump & Compr. Panel (MD101)

L11. EXERCISE 1_2 Operating procedures

(The Exercise 1_2 continue the Exercise 1_1)
Title: Scenario #1-Dead Ship Start
1. The ship has been at the dock or anchorage for a week but in this
moment two generators are in service.
2. The ship has full electrical power on board.
3. The Fresh Water Expansion Tank(s) was left filled 50%. Lube oil
sumps were left 50% full with freshly purified oil.
4. Both starting air tanks were pressed up to 30 bar (485 psig). Service Air
Receiver was pressed up to 7 bar (102 psig).
5. The ship is in a tropical Gulf port. Air temp. is 30 deg.C (86 deg.F), and
sea water is 30 deg.C (86 deg.F). Vessel is in ballast.
6. All other parameters are set at normal condition. The control will be in
the ME Local Control Mode.
The Step Director (SD) will follow the steps necessary to bring the
engine room to the point where the engine is ready to respond to the remote
At this point the SD will create INIT CONDITION #2 READY FOR
Initial Condition #2 will be used to set the initial conditions for future
scenarios. No faults will be inserted in this scenario.


Step Director Action

Light off oil fired boiler on DO. Check
level in DO Service Tank

4 meter

Ref Subsystem "Fuel oil service tanks (MD05)

Open supply valves from HFO and DO

service tanks to boiler.
Start DO pump and select DO.

Open Primary Steam Drum Vent Valve.

Open Superheater vent and drain valves
Check water level in Primary Drum Refill
if necessary
Install burner with small tip (DO)

Start Combustion Air Fan.

RESET any tripping functions on boiler if
Set all controllers in MANUAL; Master
Controller, FO flow controller, Air Flow

DO Pump starts, DO/HFO

Select Valve in DO

The valve turns green,

indicating open valve
0 mm

Ref Subsystem "Fuel oil service tanks (MD05) V327, and V367
Ref Subsystem "Oil fired Boiler" (MD 83) and Boiler Console R 05634,
Ref Sub-system "Oil fired Boiler" (MD 82) and Boiler Console

Ref Sub-system "Boiler Combustion" (MD 84) and Boiler Console


Step Director Action


Controller and Excess Air Controller.

Burner Management is also out of AUTO

Open FO Flow controller to approx. 30%,

Open Air Flow controller to maximum,

otherwise purging will not be completed

Press purge START

When purging is completed, adjust Air
Flow Controller to 15%
Start burner 1 by pressing "burner no 1"
Adjust air and oil to obtain burning with
as little smoke as possible, and as little
oxygen content as possible. by adding
more FO
If the burner by any reason fails to ignite,
purge again and repeat procedure.

The Purging process is "in


Fire is present in Burner

no. 1 Increase in Man
output form FO controller



Step Director Action


Put Air Flow Controller, Fuel Oil

Controller and Oxygen controller on
AUTO, and increase the rate of burning
by manually increasing the output from
the Master Controller

All Controllers except

Master Controller in

Adjust the Master output to 15%

Automatic control of
oxygen controller
Observe increase in temp
in oil fired boiler

Close vent valves when drum pressure has

reached 1 bar (14 psig). Increase the firing
rate by manual increase of the master
Line up the Steam Generator system
Check water level in Steam Generator.


Ref Sub-system "Steam Generator" (MD 82) and Boiler Console

0.0 meter

Adjust if necessary
Set level controller to Man, and output to

Output changes

Open Steam Generator Vent Valve


Check Feed water Tank level

2 meter

Start Main Feed Water Pump

Pump start

Close Steam Generator Vent Valve, when

press is above1 bar (14.2 psig)

Vent flow shut

Set Steam Generator level Controller in

AUTO, set point 0.0 meter

AUTO is lit


Step Director Action

Open main steam supply valve providing
steam for HFO to oil fired Boiler.

Put steam on HFO settling and service

Open for supply of steam to primary
water heating.



Observe rise in Boiler

HFO Heater Outlet Temp
Observe temps. rise.
Boiler DO Select Valve
turns off

Ref Sub-system "Boiler Combustion" (MD 84) and Boiler Console

As the pressure increases above 8 bar

(113,6 psig) stop the burner,
Open for Atomizing Steam Shut Off


Change over to HFO; Boiler DO Select

Valve to HFO


Start Boiler HFO pump

Change Burner type to HFO Set all
controllers in MANUAL, Master
Controller, FO flow controller, Air Flow
Controller and Excess Air Controller.
Burner Management is also out of AUTO

Open FO Flow controller to approx. 10%,

Open Air Flow controller to maximum,
otherwise purging will not be completed
Press purge START
When purging is completed, adjust Air
Flow Controller to 10%

Ref Sub-system
"Boiler Combustion" (MD 84) and Boiler Console

The Purging process is "in


Ref Sub-system "Boiler Combustion" (MD 84) and Boiler Console


Step Director Action

Start burner 1 by pressing "burner no 1"
Put Air Flow Controller, Fuel Oil
Controller and Oxygen controller on
AUTO, Perform the same for Oxygen and
Master Controllers
Set Master Controller to 14 bar(199 psig)

Put Burner Management Control in


Observe proper Control of Steam

Generator level Controller
Line up LO Purifier:
LO Purifier Supply and return valves to
be opened



Fire is present in Burner

no. 1 All Controllers in

Observe change in oil

output from the
Observe that Burner
Management is ready for
automatic control of both
AUTO is lit. If pressure is
above the Master
Controller setpoint, the
burner(s) will
automatically stop.

Approx. 0.0 meter in

Steam Generator drum
Steam flow present.
increase in LO temp inlet

Ref Sub-system "Boiler Combustion" (MD 84) and Boiler Console

Ref Sub-system Lub Oil Purifier (MD08)


Step Director Action



Apply for Steam to LO purifier Heater

LO temp Controller on AUTO, setpoint
88 deg C.
Start LO feed Pump, adjust speed to 20%
Start LO Purifier
Check Operating Water Tank.

Min. 0.5 meter

Adjust Gravity Ring to 25%

Observe Automatic
shooting sequence. If the
control logic fails to
establish normal
automatic condition, it
will try once more.

Put LO Purifier on AUTO


Preparation for start of ME. Line up ME

Fresh Water System by Open ME
Preheater Inlet Valve

Valve V1140 turns green

Close Preheater bypass Valve

Valve V1141 turns dark

Ref Sub-system ME Fresh Water System MD10).

Open ME Preheater steam Valve

FW Gen Bypass valve to be 100%
Start HTFW Pump no. 1
Set Temp Controller in AUTO, Setpoint
80 deg C.

The pump starts, disch

press and cooling flow is
Ref Sub-system PowerChief- Pump/ Compr (MD102), or Main Control


Step Director Action



Set HTFW Pump no.2 in AUTO

When HTFW temp inlet ME is above 60
deg C, shut steam supply to ME preheater,
and open bypass Valve.


Change over to Main LTFW no 1 Set

LTFW Pump no.2 in AUTO
Change over to Main SW Pump no.1 Set
SW pump no 2 in AUTO
Line up ME Lub Oil System:

FW flow and disch. press

Increase in SW flow and
disch. press.

Check ME Lub Oil Service tank

Minimum 1 meter

Ref Sub-system PowerChief- Pump/ Compr (MD102), or Main Control

Ref Sub-system PowerChief- Pump/ Compr (MD102), or Main Control
Ref Sub-system ME Lub Oil System (MD12).

Open LO Cooler no. 1

Open LO Filter no. 1
Open Main Bearing Supply Valve Check
FW flow available.
Start Main LO pump no 1.
Set Lub Oil Controller on Auto, set point
45 deg C
Put LO Pump no.2 on AUTO

V1367 turns open (lamp


Disc. press and LO flow

is present
Change in Output in order
to reach normal condition

Ref Sub-system PowerChief- Pump/ Compr (MD102), or Main Control



Step Director Action

Check Cam Shaft LO System. Refill if

Min 0.7 meter

Ref Sub-system PowerChief- Pump/ Compr. (MD102), or Main Control
Console Ref Sub-system ME Lub Oil System (Md12).

Line up Cam Shaft LO system

Start Cam Shaft LO Pump No.1
Put Cam Shaft LO Pump no.2 on AUTO


Disc. press and LO flow

is present

Adjust Cam Shaft LO temp controller to

set point 45 deg C

Change in Output in order

to reach normal condition

Check level in Cyl LO Tank. Refill if


Min 0.7 meter

Open for LTFW through Cam Shaft and

Main LO coolers
Line up Stern Tube system:

Select the appropriate LO Gravity Tank.

In Ballast, line up inlet and outlet valves
for low Gravity Tanks

Ref Sub-system ME Fresh Water System (MD10).

When vessel is deep laden
the high tank is used.
When lube oil flows
through the stern tube
bearing to the sump tank,
it is automatically
pumped back to the
gravity tank in use.

Check LO Sump Tank

Level min 50%

Set LO Pump 1 on AUTO

Pump starts, Lo Flow and

Disch. press present

Apply cooling flow through Stern Tube

LO Cooler. Open Stern Tube Lub Oil
Cooler Inlet Valve

Flow through LO Cooler.

Ref Stern Tube system (MD54) L3450

G3477, P3463 on MD 54
V3571, G3570


Step Director Action

Line up FO Supply System. Open DO
Supply valve to ME Open HFO Supply
valve to ME Open DO/HFO mixing Valve
to 100%

DO/HFO mixing valve
position 100%
Pump starts, FO supply
Pump disch. press and
flow present

Ref Sub-system Fuel Oil Service Tank (MD05).

Start FO Supply Pump no.1

V0366, V0326
Ref Sub-system ME Fuel Oil System (MD 11).
Set FO Supply pump no 2 in AUTO

Open for Fuel Oil to FO Heater no. 1

Open for FO through FO filter no. 1
Ensure that FO Emergency Shut off"valve
is open. Select ME FO Return Select
Valve to Vent Tank.

Ref Sub-system PowerChief Pump/Compr Control (MD102), or Main

Control Console V105


Step Director Action

Start FO Booster Pump 1
Put FO Booster Pump no 2 on AUTO

Increased disch. press and
presence of FO flow at
MD 02.

P0020, and G0026
Ref Sub-system PowerChief Pump/Compr Control (MD102), or Main
Control Console

Apply steam for heating of FO

Adjust FO Viscosity Controller to 13
Set Viscosity Controller in AUTO


Start Steering Gear Servo Pump no.1 Set

Steering gear pump no. 2 on AUTO

Change in FO Viscosity
controller position.
Pump Starts, Alarm
message disappears

Start Engine Room Fan no.1 and no. 2

R0764 starts

Activate Engine Control Room

V672 opens, SW flow

Ref Sub system ME Fuel Oil System (Md 11).

Ref Sub system Ship Propulsion System (MD58) or Main Control Console

Ref Sub-system PowerChief Pump/Compr Control (MD102), or Main

Control Console
Ref Model Variable Page 5800 Ship Ventilation System or Electrical
consumers (MD 74)



Step Director Action


Aircondition by -Open Air Condition SW

supply valve
-Start Air Condition

through Air Condition

cooler present.
R0763 turns on, and the
temps change accordingly
Blower No 1 starts

Start ME Aux. Blower No 1 locally Set

Blowers on AUTO


Open for LTFW to ME Air Cooler 1 and



Prepare start of Main Engine:

Line up ME start Air System, by opening
ME start air valve V4511.

Blower No 2 starts
automatically if required
Flow through Air Coolers
are present. G1070,
Start air press to ME is

Notify bridge of intention to turn engine.

Check that ME Control is in Local and
Camshaft position to Ahead

Trip lamps turn dark.

Reset ME Fail, Slow Down, or Shut

downs if any activated
Open indicator cocks.
Engage Turning gear.


Rotate engine several turns.

Attempt to turn engine on air.

Engine will not turn due

GEAR interlock logic.

Ref Sub SW System (MD01),
Ref Model Variable Page 5800 Ship Ventilation System or Electrical
consumers (MD 74).
Ref Sub ME Power (MD20).

V1130 & V1131. Ref Subsystem Fresh Water System (MD10).

Ref Subsystem ME Power (MD19)or Main Control Console, AC sect.


Step Director Action

Disengage turning gear.
Turn Engine on Slow turning Air

Shut Down appears
GEAR light is turned off

Ref Sub system ME Power (MD20), or ME local Console.

Shut indicator cocks.

Fifteen minutes prior to stand by, Start

Note sound and rpm and

other parameter changes.

Dead Slow Ahead.

Stop Engine.
Start engine Dead Slow Astern.
Increase ME speed .


Note turbocharger speed

Stop engine.
Start Steering Gear Pump #1

Ref. sub-system: 'Ship Propulsion System' (MD 58)

Set Rudder Control in MANUAL.


Change Rudder Set Point: -15 degrees,

port & starboard
Set Rudder Set Point in Neutral. Transfer
Steering Gear to Auto Pilot.
Store the Initial Condition # 2 READY
Take alarm and event logs.
Stop the simulation by pressing

Change in rudder pos.

Freeze is lit.

L12. EXERCISE 2 Operating procedures

Title: Scenario #2-Dock To Full Power At Sea
This exercise will start out with the scenario 'Ready For Departure' and end with the
condition 'Full Power at Sea, HFO'.
Changing over from DO to HFO will be incorporated in this exercise.
The test will also address the capabilities of the malfunction system.
Furthermore the effect of changing in operational conditions (e.g., weather
condition and fuel quality) is demonstrated.
The initial conditions for OP Exercise #2 will be Init Condition #2 READY FOR
The scenario will terminate after taking Initial Condition #3 FULL POWER AT
SEA HFO which will serve to set the initial conditions for Operational Test #3 and other
future scenarios.
Operational Exercise #2 starts with vessel at dock with engine prepared to respond
to Order Telegraph and steering engine tested.



Step Director Action

Power up the simulator by supplying 24V
to all Control Consoles, Main and
Switchboard sections ME Local Operating
Load Initial Condition #2 READY FOR



Random selection of
pumps and valves are
ME in Stop position lined
up for Diesel Oil, LO
Purif is running. Temp's
and levels are normal

Ref Sub system : (MD 20, MD 101 - 104)

Shut down both starting air compressors.

Stop Start Air Comp. No 1 and 2, and put
them in Manual
Isolate Starting Air Tank #2: Close Start
Air Receiver 2 Inlet and Outlet Valves.

Compressors are stopped,

and in Manual. Press:
above 30 bar
Note starting air supply
available limited to Start
Air tank #1 with no

Ref Sub system Start Air and Compressor (MD60), or Main Control
Console (MD102)

Alternate turning engine ahead and astern

in process of bringing all components up
to temperature without undue stress.

Note number of engine

starts and drop in pressure
in Start. Air Tank #1
Observe Low Start Air

Check Control Room Console and Local

Control Panel to be certain all controls are
in correct position for the initial
conditions of #2



Check steam to HFO fuel heater and

supply for steam tracing,.

Ref Sub system Start Air and Compressor (MD59). V4461 and V4463

Recognize engine had previously been Prepared to Get underway as per

Init Condition #2.


Step Director Action


Open Start Air Receiver 2 Inlet and Outlet


Compressors starts, and

stops automatically
according to Start/Stop set
point approx.30 bar

Start Air Compressors on AUTO. Observe

Auto start of Air Compressors



Shut off cooling water to Start Air

Comp.#1. Continue to manoeuver engine
as proceeding toward departure.

Note rise in air outlet

temp, high outlet temp
alarm, Comp #1 shut
down, Comp #2 start.

At Instructor Station (Bridge) restore

starting air pressure to default value. Set
P4300 at Variable Page 6000 to 30 bar.
Move Instructor Station (Bridge) Engine
Order Telegraph to Stand By.

Start Air Pressure reaches

normal values.

Respond on Control Room Console Order

Telegraph's to Stand By.

Stand By Telegraph at
Instructor Station
Indicated a flashing lamp.
Acknowledge from
Control Room by
resetting the flashing
lamp to steady light
(Stand By).

Ref Sub system Start Air and Compressor (MD59). V4461 and V4463

Ref Sub system Start Air and Compressor (MD59), or Main Control
Console (MD102)
To save time unless it is desired to witness time required to recover.

Variable page 9010, model Variable X07541




Step Director Action


Move Instructor Station's (Bridge)

Emergency Order Telegraph to Dead
Slow Astern. Respond on the Control
Room Console Emergency Order
Telegraph. Move engine control lever to
Dead Slow Astern. Reset Telegraph alarm

Observe engine response,

ME rpm and sound for

Ref Sub system (MD104), or AutoChief section at Main Control Console

At Instructor Station (Bridge) move the

Order Telegraph to Slow Ahead. Respond
on the Control Room Console

Observe rpm of Turbo

chargers, exhaust
temperatures and FO flow

Ref. sub-system 'ME Fuel Oil System' (MD 02).

Start of Engine, Slow Ahead. Departure.

Take fuel meter readings.
Start Exhaust Boiler Circulation pump


G0027 indicates net flow

to ME
Pump starts, alarm

Ref. sub-system 'Steam generation Plant' (MD 80), or Boiler Console


Ref. sub-system 'Exhaust Boiler' (MD 81) or Boiler Console

Set Exhaust Boiler Controller on Auto,



Step Director Action



and adjust set point to 14 bar

Check the FO viscosity control

Viscosity Control in
single control mode

Ref. sub-system 'ME Fuel Oil System' (MD 11).

Steam flow available,

increased temperature
in Bunker Tanks
V0112 turns open
Controller output signal
adjusts accordingly
During a period there is
no HFO flow due to
clogged HFO pipe line
from Service tank

V0206, V0222, V0236 and

V0252. Ref Sub system Fuel Oil Transfer System (MD03)


Step Director Action



Open Steam Supply valves to 100% for

Bunker Tanks
Open ME FO Steam Tracing Valve
Set FO Viscosity Controller on AUTO,
and set point to 13 CentiStoke
Gradually change the HFO/DO Mixing
Valve to HFO.
Ref. sub-system 'ME Fuel Oil System' (MD 02) or viscosity meter.

Shut off steam tracing.


Increase engine speed to full speed from

Instructor Station (Bridge) by moveing
the Order Telegraph to Full Ahead.

Throttle to 100% Load at

AutoChief Console.
Observe activation of
Thermal Limit at
AutoChief control Panel.
Note oil firing ceases and
Exhaust boiler damper is
under PID control to
maintain steam pressure


Line up the Condenser System : Start the

Condenser Vacuum Pump Open Steam

Flow through cooler is


Ref Sub system (MD104), or AutoChief section at Main Control Console.
Ref Sub system (MD84 and 81)

V0673 Ref Sub-system "SW System" (MD 01) L4703 Ref Sub-system
"Steam Condenser System" (MD 86)



Step Director Action


Condenser SW supply Valve Start Main

Condensate Pump

Level in Condenser

Line up the turbogenerator.

Valve opens. TG pipeline

Water index decreases

Ref. sub-system 'Exhaust Boiler (MD 81)

Min 50%

Ref. sub-system 'Steam Turbines (MD 86)

Open valve for drain of ME superheater



Open TG steam line drain valve. Close

when pipeline is empty of water.
Check TG LO tank level
Line up the TG LO system
Set TG LO Priming pump on AUTO

The electrical LO pump

starts and stops in

Ref. sub-system 'Steam Turbines' (MD 86)



Step Director Action


Apply sealing Steam to TG, by open the

TG sealing steam outlet valve and TG
sealing steam supply valve
Open TG Steam Outlet Shut Off Valve
Reset trips if any
Turn on the TG exitation voltage

V4655 and V4656. V4660

Exitation Voltage turns on

Ref. sub-system 'Steam Turbines (MD 86).

Start the turbo generator by slowly

opening the emergency stop valve


Let the turbo generator run for about 2

minutes at low speed ( about 1000 rpm.)

The attached LO pump

starts and after a while the
electrically driven LO
pump stops

Increase slowly until normal speed is

obtained, i.e., 6400 rpm

The TG's governor will

take control as speed is
close to 6400 rpm

Open TG Emergency stop valve to 100%

Open for LTFW cooling water to TG LO
Adjust Frequency and Voltage for
synchronisation to Main Bus Bar.

Ref. sub-system 'Steam Turbines (MD 86)/ Fresh Water system (MD10).

Cooling flow is present

TG takes load

Ref. sub-system 'Electrical Power plant (MD 70)

and Main Switchboard


Step Director Action



Connect TG to Main Bus Bar, and

perform loadsharing. Adjust the
magnetisation if necessary
From the PowerChief Panel, set DG1 and
TG in AUTO. DG1 in priority 1 (less
important). DG2 to be set in priority 2.
Ref. sub-system 'PowerChief generator Control (MD 101) or PowerChief
panel, Main Control Console


Store the Initial Condition # 3 FULL

Take alarm and event logs.

Freeze is lit.




Step Director Action



Stop the simulation by pressing

Select various sub-system displays, Start
simulation by pressing "RUNNING"
Prepare Shaft Generator for operation.

'Simulation Running'
lamp turns on.

Ref. sub-systems: MD 02; MD 20; MD 70; MD 103; MD 104

ME running approximately 70 rpm. The speed on shaft generator and
compensate motor will increase.

Connect bus tie on busbar 2.

Connect the clutch to the ME locally and

transfer to REMOTE.


Start Synchronous Condenser

Connect Shaft Generator (PTO) activate
"CONN" on
PcwerChief panel.
Set Shaft Generator in AUTO

Increase of Cond. Motor speed up to 1800 rpm.

The Shaft Generator will take load.
Load will be sheared between the


Set Shaft Generator on DataChief console

in "AUTO" and priority.

The PowerChief will equalize the load between the other generators and
the shaft generator.



Step Director Action

Take DG 2 out of AUTO and
disconnected. Set DG2 in AUTO after it
has been disconnected.
Take Shaft Generator out ofAUTO.
Switch mode from PTO to PTI on MD73
SG Power take In / Power take OFF
Change the load setting on PTI to
maximum load and supply the ME shaft
Stop the simulation by pressing



DG 2 will start on request and connected.

Shalt Generator power will be reduced and now take electric load and
supply the ME shaft.
The FO consumption and regulator output on ME will be reduced.

L13. EXERCISE 3 Operating procedures

Title: Scenario #3-Full Sea Speed To Anchoring
This operational exercise will simulate the changes in conditions from steady
steaming to arrival at harbor and manoeuvring to anchoring area.
Changing over from HFO to DO will be incorporated in this exercise. The Test will
be initiated by introducing INIT CONDITION #3- FULL SPEED ON HFO.
As previously all functions will work correctly as no faults will be introduced
The only alarms will result from operator error. OPERATIONAL TEST #3 will be
terminated by generating INIT CONDITION #4: 'AT ANCHOR'
This will be used as initial scenario for later exercise illustrating faults.
A printout of selected parameters will be taken and recorded for future checking of


Step Director Action

Select various sub-system displays, Start
simulation by pressing "RUNNING".
Press RUNNING button to start
Line up HFO Separator 2 for transfer of
HFO from HFO Settling Tank No. 1 to
HFO Service Tank.



Same parameter values as

from operational test #2
'Simulation Running'
lamp turns on.

Ref. sub-systems: MD 01; MD 10; MD 20; MD 56; MD 70; MD 71.

Steam flow present.

increase in HFO temp
inlet purifier

Observe recirculation flow to settling tank.

Elmotor current will increase and stabilize and "waiting for speed" light,
until decrease of current and cut of centrifuge clutch.

Ref. sub-systems 'Fuel Oil Settling Tanks' (MD 04) and 'Fuel Oil Service
System' (MD 05)

Open HFO Settling Tank 1 Outlet Valve

Open HFO Settling Tank 1 Inlet Valve
Open HFO Separator 2 suction valve
Open HFO Separator 2 discharge valve
Open HFO Service Tank 1 Inlet Valve

Supply Steam to HFO Separator 2 Heater

HFO temp. Controller on AUTO, setpoint
98 deg C.
Start HFO feed Pump, adjust the Flow
Control valve to 100% open.
Start HFO Separator 2 motor.
Open water supply valve
Check Operating Water Tank.

Min. 0.5 meter


Step Director Action

Start the HFO Separator 2.

When HFO Service Tank is close to full,

reduce the separation of HFO volume to
the ships HFO consumption.
Line up for transfer from Fore Bunker FO
Tank to HFO Settling Tank No.l.Start and
run FO Transfer Pump untill HFO Settling
Tank No.l is filled up.

Observe the barograph on
the water transm. Pop up
window the increase of
water cont. During
separation and "shooting"


Ref. sub-systems 'Fuel Oil Transfer Tanks' (MD 05) and 'Fuel oil Settling
Tanks' (MD 04)

Reduce ME Throttle Setting from FULL

AHEAD to HALF AHEAD from the
Instructor Station (Bridge).

Ref. sub-system (MD 103), or Main Control Console


Step Director Action



Gradual reduction in:

exhaust temp
FO consumption
ships speed

Change the HFO/DO Mixing Valve from

HFO position to DO position.

Gradual reduction in
Steam Contr. Valve to FO

Ref. sub-system 'Fuel Oil Supply System' (MD 05) or Main Control

Throttle setting HALF

Approx. 60 rpm
As Oil Fired Boiler is on
AUTO, burner will ignite
due to lack of ME
Exhaust gas


Give command from Main Control

Console, PowerChief to disconnect TG in

Ref. sub-system MD 104

Ref. sub-system MD 101, or Main Control Console, PowerChief


Step Director Action



AUTO out, and

disconnect command
Autostart of DG2 if not
already connected


Shut down the TG

Gradually close the Emergency Stop

Valve position of V4652

to zero. Auto start of TG
LO pump

Ref. sub-system 'Steam Turbines' (MD 86) or appropriate location in

Engine room

Further reduction in
exhaust temp
FO consump.

Ref. sub-system MD 103, or Main Control Console, AutoChief Indicator


Turn off the TG Excitation Voltage

Shut TG Sealing Steam outlet valve and
supply valve
Shut TG Steam outlet shut off valve
Set TG LO pump in Manual and Stop the


Close FW supply to TG
Set ME Throttle to SLOW AHEAD from
the Instructor Station (Bridge).



Step Director Action

Decrease engine speed to Dead Slow
Ahead from Instructor Station (Bridge) by
moving the Order Telegraph to DEAD
Acknowledge the Command from Bridge
at Emergency Telegraph
Decrease engine speed to Dead Slow
Astern from Instructor Station (Bridge) by
moving the Order Telegraph to DEAD

Acknowledge the Command from Bridge

at Emergency Telegraph


At Ship Speed at 0 set ME stop Command

from Instructor Station (Bridge) by
moving the Order Telegraph to STOP.


Stop FO Transfer pump and close the

suction and discharge valves
Change HFO suction from Settling Tank
no 1 to suction from HFO service tank
Shut down the ME FO Supply system: stop the FO pumps and put them in
Manual. Close the valves


ships speed
Throttle to 30% Load at
AutoChief Console.

Steady light at Telegraph


Throttle to 30% Astern at

AutoChief Console.
Engine starts ASTERN,
Ship Speed decreases
Steady light at Telegraph

Throttle to 0% at
AutoChief Console.
Engine stops, Ship Speed

Ref Sub system (MD104), or AutoChief section at Main Control Console.

Ref Sub system (MD104), or AutoChief section at Main Control Console.



Step Director Action

Shut down the ME LO Supply system: Stop the pump(s) and put them in MAN Close the valves
Shut down the Stern Tube System. Set
Pumps in local and stop the pump(s)
Stop the Steering Gear. Put them out of
Select various sub-system displays, Start
simulation by pressing "RUNNING".
Press RUNNING button to start
Line up all systems required for start of 2
cargo turbines, #1 - 100%, #2 - 75%.
Inert Gas Plant
Open valve Inert Gas Scrubber Sea Chest
& discharge valve



Same parameter values as

from operational test #2
'Simulation Running'
lamp turns on.

Ref. sub-systems: MD 1; MD 10; MD 20; MD 56; MD 70; MD 71.

Boiler line temp.

V23572, V23574

Start Inert Gas Scrubber pump

Open drain to scrubber when sufficient
level in scrubber is obtained
Open Valve Inert Gas fan Suction &
discharge Set press Contr. in Manual,
open 100% to funnel Open Valve 23577

V23543, V23541 V23577


Step Director Action



Inert Gas supply line Start Fan 1

Open valve Deck Seal Sea Chest &

V23530, V23531 V23554

Start deck water seal pump

Open Main deck line valve


Set pressure controller in AUTO

Set O2 analyzer to ON


Open Inert Gas Main Control Valve

Check that the oil fired Boiler functions
on HFO
Large nozzles
Atomizing Steam present
All controllers in AUTO at Boiler
Aux. Condenser Pump running
Aux. Feed water Pump is running
Stop the simulation by pressing

If delivered, or MD84

L14. EXERCISE Insert Faults

Operating procedures
Title: Scenario # 4-Inserting Faults
This operational test will demonstrate steaming at normal full sea speed while
experiencing numerous faults.
The scenario will be initiated using INITIAL CONDITION #3.
The exercise includes demonstration of pre-programmed fault insertion.
In addition it will be demonstrated the introduction of faults on line from the
Several faults will be introduced in order to demonstrate cascading of abnormal
It will be obvious that time will not permit all faults to be demonstrated.
It is also obvious that simultaneous or multiple faults mask the effects of each other.
These two facts will influence this scenario. The ramp effect will be demonstrated
to show its use in testing the alertness of the student.


Step Director Action




Prepare pre-programmed malfunctions as
5 min: FO Booster Pump #1 Motor
Failure (M1303)
10 min: FO Viscosity Controller
Failure (M1312)
15 min: Cyl 1 Injection Valve Nozzle
Wear - Ramp = 0-100% during 18
minutes (M2503).
Set to RUN.
Pre-programmed fault: 5 min after start
ME FO Pump #1 fails

ME FO Pump #2 auto

Reset fault on ME FO Pump #1

Pre-programmed fault:
10 min after start FO Viscosity Controller
fails, i.e., output control signal locked

Fault removed.
Fuel temp out of control.
Viscosity changes

Transfer FO Viscosity Control to Manual

Operation. Restore normal viscosity. After
viscosity stabilized, reset malfunction.
Pre-programmed fault: 15 min after start
Remote Control incr. Fuel
ME1 Cyl.1 Injector Pump starts to
Link Pos. to compensate
detoriate from normal (0) to worn (50) in
for defoliation.
18 minutes.
Cyl.#1 Temp. Dev.
increasing, giving alarm.
Reset fault after 20 minutes.

Variable Parameters
return to normal values

Ref. sub-system 'Fuel Oil Supply System' (MD 02) Fault: M0203

Ref. sub-system 'Fuel Oil Supply System' (MD 02) Fault: M0206

Ref. sub-system 'ME 1 Power' (MD19 and 20)Fault: M1302


Step Director Action

Insert fault: Water leakage into Aft Bilge
Well (M4601) to 2%

Increasing Aft Bilge

Level. Aft Bilge Level
High alarm at 50%.

Acknowledge alarm. Line up Bilge Well


Horn off. Flashing light

goes steady.
Alarm light turns off.

Turn Bilge separator heating on.

The heater is switched off

as temp reaches 80oC

Turn Bilge Separator in automatic



Start Bilge Separator Pump

Bilge Level decreases.

Repair fault: 'Leakage into Aft Bilge

Change SW temp to 15 degC and Air
temp to 20 degC

Main Engine is running at

full speed.

Ref. sub-system 'Bilge Wells' (MD 62) Fault: M4601

Variable List 9002

Let SW Controller reach steady condition

Put SW pumps in Manual

Set SW Temp. Controller in MANUAL,

and output signal according to output
signal as when controller was in Auto
Record readings of FW cooler no.1 outlet
temp Steam Condenser outlet temp
Aircondition cooler outlet temp

Ref. sub-system ' SW System' (MD 01)


Step Director Action

Insert fault: 'Sea Chest Filter 1 Very Dirty'

Open Sea Chest 2 Inlet Valve

SW Pump Disch. Press
All Cooler Outlet Temps.
of SW cooled systems
higher than readings
recorded during normal

Shut off Sea Chest 1 Inlet Valve

Reset Fault.


Prepare Turbocharger #1 & #2 inlet air
filter to foul on ramp from clean (0) to
fouled (50%) in 20 min. (M2402 and
Take records of Exhaust temps.
Start simulation by pressing
Take new records of Exhaust temps and
compare with values for clean filters
Restore clean filter.

Fault: M0111 (high value)

Ref. sub-system 'SW System'(MD01).

Ref. sub-system 'SW System'(MD01).

The system will

establish normal
At 450 deg C (840 deg F)
HI exh. temp alarm and
eng. slow down should
take place.

M2402 M2412


Step Director Action




Note influence on
viscorator and fuel temp.

Start simulation by pressing


Change in levels.


introduce change in HFO specification.
introduce change in Weather Condition
from calm weather to hurricane 10
Beaufort (waves), Wind force: 25m/s,
wind direction: 90 degrees

False alarms will occur,

i.e., ME FW Exp Tank,
HFO service Tank, DG
LO sump tanks. Observe
unsteady ME rpm and
may be slow down


(Variable Page 1129) Variable List 9002.