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24042--Communication engineering

Unit-III

UNIT 3- Angle & Pulse Modulation


1. Define frequency modulation.
Frequency modulation is the process in which the frequency of the carrier signal is changed based on the modulating
Signal (Amplitude).
2. Define Modulation index of Frequency modulation.
Ratio between maximum frequency deviation to modulating frequency.
Modulation index =

Maximum frequency deviation


Modulating Frequency

Mod. Index =

f
fm

3. What are the effects of noise in FM?

The strong noise pulse affects the information signal completely.


The amplitude signal is affected by noise.

4. What are the advantages of FM over AM?

FM receivers are free from disturbances.


In FM, Noise is reduced by increasing deviation.
The efficiency of FM system is high.
Power required is lesser than AM.

5. What are the disadvantages of FM?

A much wider channel is required in FM.


FM circuit is more complex than AM.
More costlier than AM

6. Give applications of FM.

Used in Latest broadcasting systems.


Used in Stereo sound transmission.
Used in Sound signal of TV transmission.

7. Define FM detector. What are the types of FM detector?


FM detection or demodulation is the process extracting modulating (original) signal from the frequency
modulated wave.
The types are:
Slope detector

Phase Shift discriminator or Foster seeley discriminator

Ratio detector

8. What are the drawbacks of slope detector?

It requires three tuned circuits


Alignment of the three tuned circuits is difficult.
Output is affected by AM & so it requires AM limiters.

9. Define Direct & Indirect FM transmitter.


Direct FM Transmitter: It produces the FM signal directly by using master oscillator.
Indirect FM Transmitter: The signal first get phase modulated and then it converted into FM signal.
10. What are the advantages of indirect FM transmitter?

Frequency deviation is small.


Does not require AFC system because crystal oscillator is used.
~~All The Best~~

Sukesh.R Lec/ ECE,


GRG Polytechnic College, CBE-107.

24042--Communication engineering

Unit-III

11. What is FM receiver?


FM receiver is receives the desired RF signal and convert it to Sound signal.
12. What is AFC?
AFC circuit is generally used in all receivers to stabilize the intermediate frequency.
13. What is phase modulation?
In phase modulation, the basic function of modulator is to produce a phase shift. OR Phase modulation is the process
in which the phase of the carrier signal is changed based on the modulating Signal.
14. Define pulse modulation.
Pulse modulation is used to transmit analog information such as continuous speech or data. The continuous waveforms
are sampled at regular intervals. It is transmitted only at the sampling times together with synchronizing pulses.
15. What are the types of pulse modulation?

16. Define PAM.


In Pulse Amplitude Modulation, the signal is sampled at regular intervals. Amplitude of each sample is made
proportional to the amplitude of the signal at the instant of sampling.
17. What are the types of PAM?
1. Single polarity PAM

2. Double polarity PAM.

18. Define sampling theorem.


Sampling theorem states that if the sampling rate in any pulse modulation system exceeds twice the maximum
signal frequency, the original signal can be reconstructed in the receiver with minimum distortion.
Sampling rate of pulse modulating system > 2*Max. signal frequency
19. Define PWM.
In Pulse Width Modulation, the signal is sampled at regular intervals. Width of each sample is made proportional to
the amplitude of the signal at the instant of sampling.
20. What are the advantages & disadvantages of PWM?
Advantages:

No need to synchronize between the transmitter & receiver.

Disadvantage: The transmitting power varies with respect to pulse width.


The transmitter must be powerful to handle maximum width pulses.
21. Define PPM.
The amplitude & width of the pulses are kept constant. But the position of each pulse with respect to the position of a
reference pulse is varied in accordance with the amplitude of the signal at the instant of sampling.
22. What are the advantages & disadvantages of PPM?
Advantages: It requires constant transmitter power.
Disadvantages: It depends on transmitter-receiver synchronization.

~~All The Best~~

Sukesh.R Lec/ ECE,


GRG Polytechnic College, CBE-107.

24042--Communication engineering

Unit-III

23. Define PCM.


Pulse Code Modulation is a digital process. It samples the signal to standard level and converted to binary codes
(digital 0 & 1). In that the signal is continuously sampled, quantized and encoded.
24. Define sampling.
Sampling is a process of taking samples at regular intervals from the signal.
25. Define quantizing.
It is process of converting actual sampling level to standard level. It is process of rounding off the actual sample level
to fixed level.

(OR) It is a process of mapping (dividing) an analog (modulating) signal into several equivalent

discrete levels (range or steps).


26. Define encoding.
Encoder changes the quantized samples to respective binary codes [ digital 0 & 1] .
27. Define DPCM.
In DPCM, the difference in the amplitude of two successive samples is transmitted rather than the actual sample. Fewer
bits are required for DPCM. It works on the principle of prediction. The value of the present sample is predicted from
the past samples.
28. Define Delta modulation.
Delta modulation uses a single bit PCM code to achieve digital transmission of analog signals The present sample is
compared with the previous sample value and the indication, whether the amplitude is increased or decreased. If it
decreased, logic 0 is transmitted. If it increased, logic 1 is transmitted.
29. What are the advantages & disadvantages of DPCM?
Advantages: DPCM requires less bandwidth compared to PCM.
Its signal to noise ratio is better than DM
Disadvantages: More sensitive to noise and it is more complex
Requires high sampling frequency.
30. What are the advantages & disadvantages of DM?
Advantages: DM transmitter & receiver require very simple & inexpensive hardware.
Smaller signaling rate & No need of ADC in delta modulation.
Disadvantages: Granular noise & transmission channel noise is produced
Severe slope overload distortion is produced.
31. What is quantizing noise?
The error caused due to the difference of actual and standard level introduces some distortion. This is known as
quantizing noise.
32. What is companding?
It is the process of signal compression and expansion. It is used to overcome the problems of quantizing error and
noise. It improves the quality of the signal being transmitted.
33. Expand PAM, PWM, PPM, PCM, DPCM, DM.
PAM

Pulse Amplitude Modulation

PWM -- Pulse Width Modulation


PPM

-- Pulse Position Modulation


~~All The Best~~

Sukesh.R Lec/ ECE,


GRG Polytechnic College, CBE-107.

24042--Communication engineering
PCM

-- Pulse Code Modulation

DPCM Differential Pulse Code Modulation


DM -- Delta modulation
Part B
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

--- 12 Marks.
Explain frequency modulation with expression.
Compare AM & FM
(6 Marks)
Explain varactor diode modulator.
Explain slope detector with neat diagram.
Explain phase discrimination detector with neat diagram.
Explain ratio detector with neat diagram.

7. Explain direct FM transmitter with neat block diagram.


8. Explain indirect FM transmitter with neat block diagram.
9. Explain stereo phonic FM transmitter with neat block diagram.
10. Explain FM receiver with neat block diagram.
11. Explain Stereo phonic receiver with neat block diagram.
12. Explain AFC circuit (6 Marks)
13.Explain phase modulation and phase modulator circuit.
14.Compare FM & PM (6 Marks)
15.Explain PAM generation & detection
16.Explain PWM generation & detection
17.Explain PPM generation & detection
18.Explain PCM generation (Transmitter) & detection (Receiver)
19.Explain DPCM generation (Transmitter) & detection (Receiver)
20.Explain Delta Modulation generation (Transmitter) & detection (Receiver)
21.Write a short note on quantizing noise (6 Marks)
22.Write a short note on companding (6 Marks)

~~All The Best~~

Sukesh.R Lec/ ECE,


GRG Polytechnic College, CBE-107.

Unit-III