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Lucrarea 2.



(Echipament TQ)
Obiectiv: msurarea deplasrilor folosind transformatorul diferenial liniar variabil (LVDT)
Pe parcursul experimentului vei:

observa modul de ataare a unui LVDT la un sistem care se deplaseaz liniar

studia caracteristicile unui LVDT
trasa graficul de calibrare a unui LVDT i vei face aprecieri asupra liniaritii, repetabilitii,
acurateei i sensibilitii unui LVDT

Partea (a): caracteristicile unui LVDT

Experimentul ilustreaz modul n care tensiunile de la
bornele nfurrilor secundare ale transformatorului sunt
influenate de deplasarea miezului confecionat din oel
moale. Pentru aceasta, folosind un osciloscop dublu canal,
se vizualizeaz i se msoar (dublul amplitudinii, Vpk+pk i
frecvena) formele de und ale tensiunilor din circuit.
Folosind conectorii, realizai montajul experimental.

Poziionai ansamblul liniar la jumtatea cursei. Vizualizai formele de und ale tensiunilor de la
bornele nfurrii primare i una din nfurrile secunadre i msurai defazajul dintre ele.
Schimbai ntre ele conexiunile sondei osciloscopului la bornele nfurrii secundare i msurai
noul defazaj. Comparai cele dou defazaje.
Atenie: n timpul msurtorilor una dintre cele dou borne ale nfurrii secundare trebuie s fie
conectat la 0V.
Deplasai ansamblul liniar spre dreapta, pn la captul cursei.
Deplasai apoi ansamblul liniar spre stnga (pn la captul cursei), cu pasul de 1 mm (o rotatie
complet a discului gradat), msurnd i notnd tensiunile vrf-vrf (pk-pk) la bornele celor dou
nfurri secundare.

Repetai msurtorile precedente conectnd n

serie cele dou nfurri secundare astfel nct
tensiunile lor s se nsumeze n faz. Sonda
osciloscopului se conecteaz la extremitile
libere din secundar, una dintre cele dou
extremiti fiind conectat la 0V. Observai ce se
ntmpl cu tensiunea din secundar.

Partea (b): caracteristicile difereniale ale LVDT




In aceast parte se va pune n eviden modul de

lucru n montaj diferenial al LVDT pentru msurarea deplasrilor.
Folosind conectorii, realizai montajul experimental, conectnd cele dou
nfurri secundare astfel nct tensiunile lor s se nsumeze n antifaz.

Deplasai ansamblul liniar spre dreapta, pn la captul cursei.

Cu ajutorul osciloscopului msurai tensiunea din secundar pentru o
deplasare complet spre stnga a ansamblului liniar. Reprezentai
grafic tensiunea din secundar n funcie de deplasare.

Partea (c): msurarea deplasrii cu LVDT




Conectai acum extremitatea liber a secundarului (realizat n

montjaj diferenial) la borna de intrare a detectorului sensibil la

Folosind conectorii realizai montajul experimental.

Deplasai ansamblul liniar spre dreapta, pn la captul cursei.

Folosind semnalul de referin de la borna 0o, msurai tensiunile de la ieirea detectorului sensibil
la faz pentru o deplasare complet (cu pasul de 1 mm) a ansamblului liniar.
Repetai msurtorile pentru cazul n care semnalul de referin este luat de la borna 180o.
Reprezentai grafic tensiunea din secundar n funcie de deplasare pentru cele dou cazuri.
Din reprezentrile grafice determinai sensibilitatea sistemului i evaluai liniaritatea lui.


Vpk-pk, 0

Vpk-pk, 180

(Acest material este reprodus pentru studenti dupa manualul de utilizare a SIS - TQ Education

and Training Ltd.)

Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)
Linear variable differential transformers (usually referred to in their
abbreviated form of LVDT), are probably the most commonly used
sensors for accurately measuring displacements up to about 300 mm.
Typically a transformer consists of two closely coupled coils wound around a
soft iron former. These are known as the primary coil and the secondary coils.
When an a.c. voltage is applied to the primary coil, an a.c. voltage is induced in
the secondary coil. This is because of electromagnetic induction.
When an alternating current (a.c.) flows through the primary coil it produces an
alternating magnetic flux. Because of Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic
Induction, an e.m.f. is induced in the secondary coil. The size of the e.m.f.
induced in the secondary coil depends on the amount of the current flowing in
the primary coil and the ratio of primary and secondary turns. Hence the voltage
across the secondary coil depends on the ratio of turns in the windings.
Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction states that when a conductor
moves through a magnetic field an electromotive force (e.m.f.) is induced
across it proportional to the rate of cutting flux.
The linear variable differential transformer is a precision instrument designed and used for
measuring displacement. The linear variable differential transformer is aptly named since its
operating principles can be readily obtained by
considering its name word by word, in reverse order.

Firstly, it is a transformer, obeying all of the

appropriate to this type of device. It has one
primary winding and two secondary windings
connected to provide the difference in their
respective voltage levels at the output. This is
the differential.

It is variable because the magnetic coupling

between the primary and each of the two
secondary coils can be varied to affect the
magnitude of the induced e.m.f.s.

Finally, the design of the whole assembly is

such that the variation in the coupling between
the primary and the secondary coils is linear.

The above figure shows the relative position of the three

windings of an LVDT wound on a hollow former. They lie
along a single axis, the primary winding in the centre and the
two secondary windings on either side. A soft iron core is
positioned in the centre of the windings which is free to move
in either direction within the coils.
Initially assume that the soft iron core is centrally positioned
within the primary winding. When energised by an a.c. signal,
usually at a frequency of 5 kHz or above, the current flowing
produces a magnetic flux in the soft iron core. This flux links
with both of the secondary windings equally and these have
identical e.m.f.s induced across them. This is shown here:

The secondary voltages, Vs1 and Vs2 are in phase with each other and have the same amplitude.
If the two secondary windings are now connected as shown to the right then the two signals will
However, should the soft iron core be moved in either direction the flux linkage to one secondary
winding will increase while the flux linkage to the other
secondary winding will reduce. Similarly, should the core be
moved in the opposite direction the effect will be reversed.
The graph below shows the relative amplitude of the
combined outputs from the secondary windings against
displacement in either direction.
Note that with no displacement the secondary voltage is zero.
This voltage increases with displacement in either direction.
Eventually the linkage is wholly with one secondary winding
and not the other and so the output voltage is at a maximum and unable to increase further
(saturated). This limits the effective working range of the LVDT. For displacements in one direction
only, positive or negative, a measure of the secondary voltage amplitude alone would give an
indication of displacement.
Where displacement is expected to be in either direction then further signal conditioning is
required. This can be achieved by comparing the secondary output voltage with a reference,
usually the primary supply. Whichever of the two individual
secondary voltages is largest controls the phase of the combined
secondary output, either in-phase or antiphase (assuming no
inductive effects in the windings causing their own phase shifts). A
phase sensitive detector may be used to compare the secondary
output voltage with the reference. This produces a signal
proportional to the amplitude of the secondary with a polarity
governed by whether it is in phase or anti-phase with the
reference. To take advantage of this effect to measure
displacement only requires the LVDT soft iron core to be
connected to the object.
Some commercially available LVDTs can be supplied from a d.c. source, and provide a d.c output.
They are based on the same principles as a.c. LVDTs but have built in signal conditioning. The d.c.
is converted to a.c. before being input to the LVDT, and the output is then converted back from a.c.
to d.c. This gives a d.c. output dependant on the position of the
soft iron core.
The LVDT is extremely sensitive and provides resolution down to
about 0.05 mm. They have operating ranges from about 0.1 mm
to 300 mm. Accuracy is 0.5 % of full-scale reading. Because
there is no contact between the magnetic core and the coils,
there is very little friction and wear. If necessary they can be
constructed to withstand shock and vibration. Consequently
LVDTs are in wide use in various applications. These range from
use in machine tools, to robotics and digital positioning systems.
LVDTs often form part of systems which measure force, pressure and acceleration