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Load Flow

A load flow or power flow is power system jargon for the steady-state solution

of a power system network subject to certain operational constraints, such as:

Generation supplies the demand (load) plus losses.

Bus voltage magnitudes remain close to rated values.

1

Transformer tap settings are within limits.

Transmission lines and transformers are not overloaded.

Load flow solution gives the nodal voltages and phase angles and hence the

power injection at all buses and power flows though transmission units such as

lines, cables and transformers.

Load flow calculations are performed for power system planning, operational

planning and in connection with system operation and control.

Load flow studies are performed to investigate the following features of a power

system network:

1. Flow of MW and MVAr in the branches of the network.

2. Busbar (node) voltage.

3. Effect of the following changes on system loading:

(a) Rearranging circuits and incorporating new circuits.

2

(c) Injecting in-phase and quadrature boost voltages.

4. Optimum system running conditions and load distribution.

5. Minimising system losses.

6. Optimum rating and tap-range of transformers.

7. Improvements from change of conductor size and system voltage.

Studies will normally be performed for various load conditions to ensure the

KWCn v1.31

Load Flow

voltage, (b) generation, (c) branch power flows, and (d) circuit system loss.

Conventional nodal or loop analysis is not suitable for load flow studies because

loads are normally given in terms of power rather than impedance. Also,

generators are considered as power sources, not voltage or current sources.

Together with the power and voltage constraints, the load flow problem becomes

a nonlinear numerical problem formulated as a set of nonlinear algebraic

equations and the numerical solution must therefore be iterative in nature.

A load flow solution of the power system requires mainly the following steps:

1. Formulation of the network equations (load flow equations).

2. Suitable mathematical technique for solution of the equations

(Gauss-Seidel, Newton-Raphson, and Fast Decoupled methods).

1. real and reactive powers, P & Q.

2. bus voltage magnitude and angle, |V | & .

Among these 4 quantities , only 2 can be specified and the remaining 2 are

4

Depending upon which quantities have been specified, the buses are classified

into three categories:

Bus Type

Quantities Specified

Quantities to be obtained

P, Q

|V |,

P , |V |

Q,

|V |,

P, Q

KWCn v1.31

Load Flow

3.1

Bus Classification

the voltage magnitude and phase angle through the load flow solution loads.

2. Generation, PV or voltage control bus: The voltage magnitude and real

power are specified. Often limits to the value of the reactive power are giving as

well. It is required to find out the reactive power generation and the phase angle

5

3. Slack, swing or reference bus: Bus voltage magnitude and angle are

specified, typically 1.0/0o , whereas its power P , Q are obtained through the

load flow to cover any power loss, which is not known precisely in advance of

the calculation, or mismatch of load and power generation system frequency

control generators. This bus voltage angle will be taken as the reference. There

shall be only one such bus in a power system, and usually, the one with the

largest generation is assigned as the slack, swing or reference bus.

3.2

Load flow formulation can be established by using either the loop or bus frame of

reference.

loop:

V = ZI

bus:

I =YV

where

Z : impedance matrix

V : voltage vector

Y : admittance matrix

I : current vector

1. data preparation is simple

2. its formation and modification is easy

3. the bus admittance matrix is a sparse matrix (i.e. most of its elements are zero)

save computer memory and computational effort.

KWCn v1.31

Load Flow

= V1 y11 + (V1 V2 )y12 + (V1 V3 )y13

= V1 (y11 + y12 + y13 ) V2 y12 V3 y13

= V1 Y11 + V2 Y12 + V3 Y13

Three-bus system

y11 is the shunt charging admittance

I2

I1

at bus 1 and y12 is the series admittance

1

2

between bus 1 and 2, and

y12 = y21

I13

I12

I21

I 23

I11

Y11 = y11 + y12 + y13

I22

Y12 = y12

Y13 = y13

where

7

I33

I31

I3 = V1 Y31 + V2 Y32 + V3 Y33

I 32

3

I3

Y11

I1

I2 = Y21

Y31

I3

Y12

Y13

Y22

Y23

Y32

Y33

V1

V2

V3

or

I =YV

8

Ii =

3

X

Yij Vj

for

i = 1, 2, 3

j=1

Ii =

n

X

Yij Vj

for

i = 1, 2,. . . , n

where

Yii =

j=1

n

X

yij

j=1

Yij = yij

It can be shown that the nodal admittance matrix is a sparse matrix (only a few

number of elements are non-zero) for an actual power system.

KWCn v1.31

Load Flow

Y11

Y

21

Y = 0

Y41

Y51

Y12

Y14

Y22

Y23

Y32

Y33

Y34

Y43

Y44

Y54

Y15

y12 = y21

y23 = y32

Y45

y14 = y41

y34 = y43

y15 = y51

Y55

Yij = Yji = yij = yji

4

y45 = y54

Yij and Yij are non-zero only if there is a connection between bus i and j .

The diagonal element of each node is the sum of admittances connected to it.

The off-diagonal element is the negated admittance between the nodes.

3.3

Network Models

normal procedure for a load flow study is to assume a balanced system and to

use a single-phase representation equivalent to the positive sequence network.

10

Shunt admittances are add to the diagonal elements, Yii , corresponding to the

nodes at which they are connected.

Modelled as a equivalent.

Contribute to both the diagonal and

off-diagonal matrix elements

y ij

y ii

y jj

KWCn v1.31

Load Flow

Tapped Transformers:

1:a

Ij

Ii

ay

Ii

Ij

Vj

aVi

Vi

(a2 - a)y

(1 - a)y

11

Ij

y (Vj aVi )

Ii

aIj = y a2 Vi aVj

Ii

Ij

3.4

Ii

n

X

Yij Vj

for i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n

j=1

Yii Vi +

n

X

Yij Vj

j=1,j6=i

12

or Vi

1

Yii

1

Yii

Ii

n

X

j=1,j6=i

Pi jQi

Vi

Yij Vj

n

X

j=1,j6=i

Yij Vj

with Si = Vi Ii = Pi jQi

The above load flow equations are nonlinear and can be solved by iterative methods

such as the Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson methods.

KWCn v1.31

Load Flow

3.5

Power Calculations

Si = Pi + jQi =

Vi Ii

n

X

= Vi

Yij Vj

j=1

ji

13

Pi + jQi = |Vi |e

n

X

jij

|Yij |e

jj

|Vj |e

= |Vi |

j=1

n

X

j=1

Pi

|Vi |

n

X

(1)

(2)

j=1

Qi

|Vi |

n

X

j=1

where

busbar voltage

Vi = |Vi |/i

net scheduled real power

Pi

(calculated)

Vi

Bus i

Qi

Pi

Qi

(scheduled)

(scheduled)

PGi

QGi

(calculated)

PLi

QLi

From

other

buses

14

Gen

Load

The power difference between the scheduled value (Pi(scheduled), Qi(scheduled)),

specified by the busbar generation and load, and the calculated value (Pi(calculated),

Qi(calculated)), derived from the best available busbar voltages and angles, is referred

to as the power mismatch (Pi, Qi) where

Pi = Pi(scheduled) - Pi(calculated)

Qi = Qi(scheduled) - Qi(calculated)

KWCn v1.31

Load Flow

equations.

To start with, a solution vector is assumed. One of the equations is then used to

15

values of the remaining variable. The solution vector is immediately updated in

respect of this variable.

The process is then repeated for all the variables thereby completing one

iteration. The iterative process is then repeated till the solution vector converges

within prescribed accuracy.

2V1 0.5V2 1.5V3 =

I1

=1

I2

= 1.5

I3

In the iterations, the newly computed values are immediately used as soon as they are

16

obtained.

V1

1

V2

2

V1

2

V2

3

V1

4

V1

5

V1

(1 + 150 + 50)/2

100.5000

(-1.5+75+50.25)/1.25

99.0000

(1 + 150 + 49.5)/2

100.2500

(-1.5+75+50.125)/1.25

98.9000

100.2250

98.8900

100.2225

98.8890

100.22225

98.8889

V2

V2

5

V2

KWCn v1.31

Load Flow

4.1

n

X

1

Pi jQi

Yii

Yij Vj

Vi

(3)

j=1,j6=i

In GS method, the new calculated voltage Vik+1 immediately replaces Vik and

is used in the solution of the subsequent equations. Hence, eqn

! (3) becomes:

Vik+1

17

1

=

Yii

i1

X

Pi jQi

Yij Vjk+1

(Vik )

j=1

n

X

Yij Vjk

(4)

j=i+1

For PV bus, Qi is unknown but can be calculated from power eqn (2).

For slack bus, its load flow equation is excluded from the GS calculation as both

its voltage magnitude |Vi | and angle i are specified while the 2 unknown

variables Pi , Qi can be calculated from power eqn (1) and (2), i.e. there are

(n1) load flow equations in total for a n bus system.

Initial unknown voltage magnitude |Vi | and angle i can be set up 1pu and 0o .

4.2

2. Separate out the slack, generator and load buses.

3. Assume any unknown bus voltage to, say, 1pu and 0o .

4. Start iteration process with first bus of the system (i=1).

18

Calculate the new bus voltage, Vi , from the load flow equation (4).

6. Calculate the difference between old and new bus voltages.

7. Using this new value of bus voltage in performing calculations for the next bus of

the system, except for the PV buses whose |Vi | should remain constant.

8. Advance for the next bus of the system and repeat steps 5 to 7 until a new set of

values of bus voltages of all buses in the system is obtained 1 GS iteration.

KWCn v1.31

Load Flow

9. Repeat the iterative process from step 4 to 8 until the difference Vi for all

|Vik+1 | <

where k is the iteration count and is the tolerance level.

4.3

19

Qimin Qi Qimax

Whenever there is a limit violation, Qi will be set to the limit and the bus type will be

switched to load, i.e. PQ, as it is not possible to keep the generator terminal voltage

to the specify voltage (Vsp ) while Qi is being limited.

When bus type switched, the bus voltage is also needed to be corrected to cater for

the Qi being limited. Once, Qi becomes within the limits, the bus type and terminal

voltage can be restored.

4.4

That is all Vik+1 must lie within this tolerance.

4.5

20

Acceleration Factors

method is slow. A large number of iterations is required to obtain an accurate

solution.

Vik+1

= Vik + (Vik+1 Vik )

acc

where is known as acceleration factor and best values for the acceleration

factor lie in the range of 1.1 to 1.6 with 1.4 is the most common used value

in practice.

KWCn v1.31

10

Load Flow

the original nonlinear problem was transformed into a sequence of linear

problems whose solutions approach the solution of the original problem.

simultaneous equations with as many unknowns as equations.

21

5.1

One-Dimensional Case

F(x)

equation F (x)

p+1

= 0 is as follows :

F (xp )

p

=x p

F (x )

F0

F2

F1

F (xp ) is the derivative of F (x) at xp .

where

x2

X2

5.2

x1

x0

X1

N-Dimensional Case

dimensions. All that is needed is an N -dimensional analog to the first

derivations. This is provided by the Jacobian matrix J .

Each of the N rows of J is composed of the partial derivatives of one of the

equations of the system with respect to each of the N variables.

22

xp+1 = xp

1

F (xp )

p

J (x )

(3)

where x and F are column vectors and J is the Jacobian matrix, of the from :

KWCn v1.31

J =

F1

x1

..

..

Fk

xk

..

FN

x1

..

FN

xN

F1

xN

(4)

11

Load Flow

F (xp )

y p

or

= J (xp )(xp+1 xp )

(5)

= J (xp )xp

(6)

where

F (x)

= F (xp ) + yp = 0

(7)

and

xp+1

= xp + xp

(8)

23

1. compute y p

2. compute J(xp )

3. solve for xp by Gauss elimination and back substitution

4. compute xp+1

5.3

First, rewrite the power flow equations (1) and (2) into an alternate form:

Pi

n

X

Gii |Vi | +

(9)

(10)

j=1,j6=i

Qi

n

X

Bii |Vi | +

j=1,j6=i

24

where

Gii

|Yii | cos(ii )

Bii

|Yii | sin(ii )

Then, apply the Newton-Raphson method to form the following mismatch equation:

"

Pi

Qi

"

Pi

i

Qi

i

Pi

|Vi |

Qi

|Vi |

#"

i

|Vi |

KWCn v1.31

(11)

12

Load Flow

Pi

Pi,scheduled Pi,calculated

(12)

Qi

Qi,scheduled Qi,calculated

(13)

Pi,scheduled :

(b) Otherwise (PV & PQ buses): Pi,scheduled = PGi PLi .

(a) Slack bus:

25

Qi,scheduled :

Qi,scheduled = Qi,calculated and Qi = 0

(b) Otherwise (PQ bus): Qi,scheduled = QGi QLi .

(a) Slack & PV bus:

To further improve the convergence, the mismatch equation can be rewritten as:

"

# "

#"

# "

#"

#

Pi

Qi

Pi

i

Qi

i

Pi

|Vi | |V

i|

Qi

|Vi | |V

i|

|Vi |

|Vi |

|Vi |

|Vi |

P1

26

H1,1

..

N1,1

H1,n1

..

N1,m

..

Ni,i

..

..

.. .. Hi,i

..

Pn1 Hn1,1 .. Hn1,n1 Nn1,1 .. Nn1,m n1

Q = J

|V1 |

1

..

Li,i

..

..

.. .. Ji,i

..

Qm

For i

For i

= j,

6= j,

Jm,1

Hii

Pi

i

Nii

Jii

KWCn v1.31

Lm,1

Jm,n1

..

Lm,m

Qi Bii |Vi |2

|Vi | |Vi |

Pi + Gii |Vi |2

Qi

i

Pi Gii |Vi |2

Lii

|Vi | |V i|

Qi Bii |Vi |2

Hij

Pi

j

Nij

|Vj | |V i |

Qi

j

Nij

Q

|Vj | |V i|

j

Hij

Lij

(14)

|Vm |

|Vm |

Jij

..

13

Load Flow

5.4

2. Assume an initial set of bus voltages and set bus n as the reference bus.

3. Obtain the power injections Pi and Qi for all i

= 1, ...(n 1)

27

= 1, ...(n 1)

6. Obtain the Jacobian matrix elements using the best available voltage values.

7. Substitute the values obtained from steps (4) & (6) in equation (14). Solve this

|V |

i

8. Update i and |Vi | for all i, i.e.

ik+1 = ik + i

i|

Vik+1 = Vik (1 + |V

|Vi | )

5.5

operating in steady state is strong interdependence between real powers and bus

voltage angles and reactive powers and voltage magnitudes.

If the P - and Q-V couplings are recognised to be much stronger than the P -V

and Q- couplings the sub-matrices N and J can be ignored. Then separate

equations:

28

[P ]

[Q]

[H] []

[L]

|V |

|V |

(15)

(16)

Instead of the previous 2(n 1) 2(n 1) matrix problem, there are two

more number of iterations to converge because of the approximation.

Techniques such as these are often used in on-line (very fast) load flow solutions

and in the starting (initial stage) of conventional full length load flows.

KWCn v1.31

14

Load Flow

5.6

For i

For i

29

= j,

6= j,

where

Hii

Qi Bii |Vi |2

Lii

Qi Bii |Vi |2

Hij = Lij

further speed-up the solution time and improve the convergence.

1.

cos(i j ) 1

2.

3.

Qi Bii |Vi |2

For i 6= j, Hij = Lij |Vi ||Vj |Bij

For i

30

Pi

|Vi |

Qi

|Vi |

[j ]

Bij

|Vj | [Bij ] [j ]

|Vj |

|Vj |

|Vj | [Bij ]

Bij

|Vj |

|Vj |

(17)

(18)

where [B ] and [B ] are made up of elements of [B] matrix and are constant

and need to be inverted or decomposed once only. Usually in building up [B ],

shunt reactors and off-nominal tap transformers are ignored while in building up

The FDLF is extremely fast. The final result is exact since the iteration will only stop

when P and Q come within the specified tolerance of Pscheduled and Qscheduled .

KWCn v1.31

15

Load Flow

5.7

V1 = 1.05/0o

V2 /

B1

B2

ysh = j0.15

ysh = j0.15

PL , QL

0.1 + j0.2

31

Find V2 by NR method with B1 as the slack bus and initial estimate for V2

P2

Q2

= 1/0o .

"

P2

Q2

"

#"

2

|V2 |

|V2 |

"

P2

2

Q2

2

P2

|V2 | |V

2|

Q2

|V2 | |V2 |

#"

2

|V2 |

|V2 |

Admittance matrix:

A=

where

i.e.

32

yser + ysh

yser

yser

yser =

yser + ysh

1

0.1+j0.2

2 j3.85

2 + j4

2 + j4

2 j3.85

Y12 = 2 + j4 = 4.472/116.56o

Y22 = 2 j3.85 = G22 + jB22 G22 = 2 and B22 = 3.85

H=

J=

KWCn v1.31

P2

2

Q2

2

16

N = |V2 |

L = |V2 |

P2

|V2 |

Q2

|V2 |

"

"

34

1

2|V2 |2 G22 +

2|V2 |2 B22

P2

= 2(3.85) 4.2 = 3.5

2

"

4.2

1.9

2.1

3.5

Q2

= 2 2.1 = 0.1

2

P2

= 3.85 4.2 = 0.35

|V2 |2 B22

2

Q12

P21

PG PL P2 = 0.1 + 0.1 = 0

Q12

"

0

0.15

|V2 |2 G22 +

4.2

1.9

2.1

3.5

1

18.69

21

0.01525 rad

|V21 |

1.0337 p.u.

21

|V21 |

|V21 |

"

KWCn v1.31

#"

21

|V21 |

|V21 |

#"

3.5

1.9

2.1

4.2

0.15

"

P22

0.00037

Q22

0.00596

22 = 0.01475 rad

|V2 |

Q2

= 2(2) 2.1 = 1.9

2

P21

33

Load Flow

J2

4.3080

2.0375

2.2367

3.9199

"

0.01525

0.0337

17

Load Flow

Recall:

35

Y12 = 4.472/116.56o

G22 = 2

P21 = 0.1

P21 = 0

Q12 = 0.35

Q12 = 0.15

[B ] = [B22 ] = [3.85]

[B ] = [B22 ] = [3.85]

From (17):

From (18):

2 =

B22 = 3.85

P2

= 0 rad

B22 |V2 |

21 = 2 + 2 = 0 rad

Q2

= 0.03896 p.u.

B22

|V21 | = |V2 | + |V2 | = 1.03896 p.u.

|V2 | =

Update the calculated power injection (P2 , Q2 ) and mismatch (P2 , Q2 ) with

Repeat the above procedures, as shown below, until the solution converage or the

36

Iter

P2

Q2

P2

Q2

|V2 |

|V2 |

-0.1

-0.35

0.15

0.0390

1.0390

-0.0229

-0.2078

-0.0771

0.0078

0.0020

-0.0193

1.0410

-0.0193

-0.1025

-0.1572

-0.0026

-0.0428

-0.0111

0.0006

1.0299

-0.0186

-0.1216

-0.2010

-0.0216

0.0010

0.0003

-0.0055

1.0301

-0.0132

-0.0977

-0.2122

-0.0023

0.0122

0.0032

-0.0006

1.0333

-0.0137

-0.0940

-0.1989

-0.0060

-0.0011

-0.0003

-0.0015

1.0330

-0.0153

-0.1010

-0.1966

0.0010

-0.0034

-0.0009

0.0003

1.0321

-0.0150

-0.1017

-0.2005

0.0017

0.0005

0.0001

0.0004

1.0323

-0.0146

-0.0996

-0.2009

-0.0004

-0.0002

0.0002

-0.0001

1.0325

-0.0147

10

-0.0996

-0.1998

0.0001

-0.0003

-0.0001

0.0000

1.0324

-0.0148

KWCn v1.31

18

Load Flow

whereas NR requires more memory when rectangular coordinates are used.

complete an iteration, its convergence rate is the slowest (linear convergence

characteristic).

37

NR method has quadratic convergence characteristic and is the best among all

methods from the standpoint of convergence. Typically, only 3 to 5 iterations are

needed to reach an acceptable solution for a large system. It also has the

lowest sensitivity to the choice of slack bus.

For FDLF, the convergence is geometric and it is more reliable than the formal

NR method due to the fact that the elements of [B ] and [B ] are fixed

Q

approximation to the tangents of the defining functions, P

|V | and |V | , and are

not sensitive to any humps in the defining functions.

Time units

Time units

40

Newton-Raphson

Gauss-Seidel

20

38

Gauss-Seidel

Newton-Raphson

0

0

40

80

Number of buses

KWCn v1.31

120

40

80

120

Number of buses

19

T HE H ONG KONG

P OLYTECHNIC U NIVERSITY

Tutorial on Power System Load Flow

1. Fig 1 shows a 4-bus system where all the transmission line series impedances are given

to a common base of 100 MVA while the shunt admittances of the lines are neglected.

Specifications at busbars are given in Table 1 and flat start conditions are assumed.

1

S 14

2

S 23

S 21

S 12

j0.2

S 24

j0.5

j0.33

j0.1

j0.25

4

Load

Bus

1

2

3

4

Fig 1

Real

Reactive

Real

Demand Demand Generation

(MW)

(MVAr)

(MW)

100

80

60

90

50

Load

Voltage

Voltage

Magnitude Angle

(pu)

(deg)

1.04

0

1.02

Table 1

(a) Classify the type of each busbar.

(b) Determine the bus admittance matrix.

(c) Determine the initial power flows S12 , S14 , S21 , S23 and S24 .

(d) Determine the initial power generations and mismatches at the bus 1 and 2.

(e) With justification, what should be the real power generation at bus 1 ?

(f) Recommend a solution method, with justifications, which is suitable for solving

this power flow problem.

2. Fig 2 shows a single-line diagram of a 2-bus power system with parameters detailed in

Table 2. The series impedance of the line is given in per-unit on a common base of 100

MVA with shunt admittance neglected.

S G1

V1 = 1.02 0

1

V2

Z = j0.5

SL1 = 30 + j10

SL2 = 50

Fig 2

Bus

1

2

Real

Reactive

Real

Demand Demand Generation

(MW)

(MVAr)

(MW)

30

10

50

0

Voltage

Voltage

Magnitude Angle

(pu)

(deg)

1.02

0

Table 2

(a) Name the slack bus and write down the bus admittance matrix Y .

(b) Based on the load flow equation given below :

n

X

1 Pi jQi

Vi =

Yij Vj

Yii

Vi

j=1,j6=i

Use Gauss-Seidel with flat start conditions to solve the load bus voltage V2 .

(c) With justification, what should be the reactive power generation at bus 1 ?

3. Fig 3 shows a single-line diagram of a three-bus power system. All the transmission line

series impedances are given in per unit to a common base of 100 MVA while the shunt

admittances are neglected. Specifications at busbars are given in Table 3.

j0.1

200 MW

50 MVAr

j0.1

j0.1

Fig 3

Bus

1

2

3

Real

Demand

PL (MW)

0

200

0

Reactive

Real

Demand

Generation

QL (MVAr) PG (MW)

0

50

0

0

100

Reactive

Voltage

Voltage

Generation Magnitude Angle

QG (MVAr)

V (pu)

(deg)

1.01

0

0

1.02

Table 3

(a) Classify each bus type and determine which of the variables V , , P and Q should

be treated as unknown.

(b) Write down the real power generation at bus 1 by inspecting the data.

(c) Write down the Jacobian matrix in terms of partial derivatives.

(d) Determine the bus admittance matrix.

(e) Given the power flow equations at bus i as follows

Pi =

|Vi |2 Gii +

Qi = |Vi |2 Bii +

n

X

j=1,j6=i

n

X

|Vi ||Vj ||Yij | sin(i j ij )

j=1,j6=i

Derive the general equations for the diagonal coefficients of the Jacobian matrix

and hence find the diagonal coefficients of the Jacobian matrix for the first iteration when the polar form of the Newton Raphson method is used with flat start

conditions.

1

j0.4

200 MW

50 MVAr

j0.2

j0.1

Fig 4

All the transmission line series impedances are given in per unit to a common base of

100 MVA while the shunt admittances are neglected. Specifications at busbars are given

in Table 4.

Bus

1

2

3

Real

Demand

PL (MW)

0

200

0

Reactive

Real

Demand

Generation

QL (MVAr) PG (MW)

0

50

0

0

100

Reactive

Voltage

Voltage

Generation Magnitude Angle

QG (MVAr)

V (pu)

(deg)

1.05

0

0

1.02

Table 4

(a) Classify each bus type and determine which of the variables V , , P and Q should

be treated as unknown.

(b) Write down the bus admittance matrix [Y ].

(c) Using the Fast Decouple Load Flow (FDLF) convention :

P

= B []

|V |

|V |

Q

= B

|V |

|V |

Pi =

|Vi | Gii +

Qi = |Vi |2 Bii +

n

X

j=1,j6=i

n

X

|Vi ||Vj ||Yij | sin(i j ij )

j=1,j6=i

carry out the first load flow iteration using the FDLF method.

5. Fig 5 shows a single-line diagram of 3-bus system with parameters detailed in Table 5.

The series impedance of each transmission line is given in per-unit on a common base of

100 MVA with shunt admittance neglected.

j0.4

80 MW

-30 MVAr

100 MW

j0.4

j0.4

100 MW

-80 MVAr

3

100 MW

60 MVAr

Fig 5

Bus

1

2

3

Load Demand

MW

MVAr

100

0

100

-80

100

60

Specified Power

MW

MVAr

80

-30

0

0

Specified Voltage

pu

degree

1.0

0

Table 5

(a) Name the slack bus and write down the bus admittance matrix Y .

(b) Based on the load flow equation given below :Vi =

n

X

1 Pi jQi

Yij Vj

Yii

Vi

j=1,j6=i

Perform one iteration of the load flow using the Gauss-Seidel method with flat start

conditions to calculate the appropriated voltages at bus 2 and 3.

(c) What should be the real power generation at bus 1 ?

Tutorial Solution on Power System Load Flow

1.

a) Bus

1

2

3

4

Type

Slack

Generator

Load

Load

b)

j5

0

j 3.03

j8.03

j5

j 2

j17 j10

Y =

0

j10 j14

j4

j2

j 4 j 9.03

j 3.03

c)

= j 0.104 pu = j10.4 MVAr

S14 = j 0.126 pu = j12.6 MVAr

S 21 = j 0.102 pu

S 23 = j 0.204 pu

S 24 = j 0.0408 pu

d)

S 2 = S 21 + S23 + S24 = j14.28 MVAr

Bus 1 Slack mismatch = 0 MW

Bus 2 PV bus P mismatch = Pg2 Pl2 Re(S2) = 100 MW

Q mismatch = 0 MW

f)

2.

NR: faster, better convergence, more reliable

FD: even faster & more reliable

j2

j 2

Y =

j 2 j 2

*

1 S2

b) V 2 =

k 1* Y 21V 1 ,

Y 22 V 2

= S L 2 = 0.5 ,

22

= j2 ,

21

= j2

Re(V2k )

Im(V2k )

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1.000000

1.020000

0.963331

0.961106

0.957653

0.957496

0.957271

0.957260

0.000000

-0.250000

-0.231209

-0.245381

-0.244199

-0.245117

-0.245039

-0.245099

| V2k |

V2k

1.000000

1.050190

0.990689

0.991936

0.988298

0.988373

0.988136

0.988140

0.0000

-13.7716

-13.4963

-14.3223

-14.3054

-14.3592

-14.3581

-14.3616

c)

3.

10 MVAr

a) Bus

1

2

3

Type

Known

Unknown

Slack

Load

Generator

V,

P, Q

P, V

P, Q

V,

Q,

c)

P2

2

P

3

2

Q

2

2

P2

3

P3

3

Q2

3

P2

V2

P3

V2

V2

Q2

V2

V2

V2

d)

j10

j 20 j10

j10 j 20 j10

j10

j10 j 20

e)

P2

= (1.01)(10) sin 90 + (1.02)(10) sin 90 = 20.3

2

P3

= (1.02)(1.01)(10) sin 90 + (1.02)(1)(10) sin 90 = 20.502

3

V2

Q2

= 20.3 2(1) 2 (20) = 19.7

V2

4.

a) Bus

1

2

3

b)

Type

Slack

PQ

PV

j 2.5

j5

j 7.5

j 5

j15

j10

c)

P2

V B

2 = 22

P3 B32

V

3

B23 2

=

B33 3

12.5 10

B ' =

10 15

d)

Q2

V2

= [ B 22] =

V2

V2

[ B "] = [12.5]

i.e. no angle difference P2 = 0, P3 = 0

200

P2 = P2schedule P2 =

0 = 2 pu

100

100

P3 = P3schedule P2 =

0 = 1 pu

100

2

1.0 12.5 10 2

1 10 15 3

1.02

1 15 10 2 0.2308

2 =

=

3 87.5 10 12.5 0.98 0.0886

0.2308

2 =

rad

3 0.0886

2

2

= 0.152 pu

Q2 =

50

(0.152) = 0.348 pu

100

Q2

V

= [12.5]

V2

V2

V2 =

0.348

= 0.028 pu

12.5

i.e. V2 = 1 + V2 = 0.972 pu

5.

Z L = j 0.4,

b)

YL = j 2.5,

j5

Y = j 2.5

j 2.5

j 2.5

j5

j 2.5

j 2.5

j 2.5

j5

S3 = 1 j 0.6 pu

c)

V21 =

1 0.2 j 0.5

0.2 + j5.5

j 2.5 j 2.5 =

= 1.1 j 0.04 = 1.1 2.08 pu

1

j5

j5

V31 =

1 1 + j 0.6

1 + j 4.4

j 2.5 j 2.5 =

= 0.88 j 0.2 = 0.9 12.8 pu

1

j5

j5