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[WorldHistory]500MockQuestionsonColonization,
DecolonizationRevolutions:French,American,
RussianUnification:Italy,Germany,WorldWars&
More
PostedByMrunalOn15/10/2013@8:59pmInHistory|56Comments

Prologue
ImperialismandColonization
IndustrialRevolution
Socialism,Communism,Capitalism,Revolutions
France,America,Russia
China,Japan
Germany,Italy,WorldWars
DecolonizationPostWW2

Prologue
From2013,UPSChasintroducedworldhistoryasasyllabustopicforGeneralstudiespaper1.
Thereislackofgoodqualitymockquestionsonthistopicforpractice.Therefore,Ive
collectedquestionsfromfollowingpreviousexams:
Last12termendexamsofIGNOUBA,MAhistorycoursecode:EHI6,EHI7andMHI2
PreviouspapersofUPSC(History)OptionalSubjectPaperIIfrom1979to2012
OldNCERTClass10(ArjunDev):alltherelevantchaptersalreadyuploadedon
Mrunal.org/History
Someofthesequestionsareoutsidethesyllabusand/orbeyondthe(expected)
difficultylevelofGeneralStudiesMainspaper,henceReadersdiscretionisadvised.
OfficialUPSCsyllabusisfollowing:
Historyoftheworldwillincludeeventsfrom18thcenturysuchasindustrialrevolution,world
wars,redrawofnationalboundaries,colonization,decolonization,politicalphilosophieslike
communism,capitalism,socialismetc.theirformsandeffectonthesociety
Wherecanyoufindanswers?
thefoundationmaterialformostofthesequestions=availableinOldNCERTs,uploadedon
Mrunal.org/history
foradditionalpointstomakeupa101215markscontent,selectivestudyofthoseIGNOU
courses:EHI6,EHI7,MH2(fromEgyankosh.ac.in)orArjunDev/NormanLowe/JainMathur
andsearchgoogle/Britannicaasandwherenecessary.

ImperialismandColonization

ImperialismandColonization
Discussthebasicfeatureofcolonialisminwhatwayscolonialismisdifferentfrom
imperialism?
Europeanconquestoftheworld
ExplaintheworkingsofImperialisminthecontextofanyoneimperialistcountry.
Inwhatwaysarecolonialismandimperialismrelatedtoeachother?
Define:Mercantilism,Colonialstate,CantonSystem
Whatiscolonialism?Giveanaccountofthedifferentstagesofcolonialism.
WriteanoteontheprocessoftheexpansionoftheworldbyEuropeanpowers.
WriteanoteontheprocessthroughwhichtheEuropeanpowersconqueredtheentireworld.
Criticallydiscussthevarioustheoriesofimperialism.
DiscussthemeasurestakenbytheBritishstatetowardsmodernisation.
WhatwastheimpactofColonialismonAfrica?Discuss.
Writeanoteontheimperialistrivalriesthatdevelopedinthelate19thandtheearly20th
century.
Definenation.Whatistheprocessthroughwhichnationshaveemergedintheworld?
DiscussthemainfeaturesofdirectcolonialdominationbyEuropeanpowers
DiscussthethreestagesofBritishcolonialisminIndia.
MakingoftheBritishNationState
Examinethefeaturesofcolonialismwithreferencetothestagesthroughwhichitdeveloped.
WriteanoteonTheoriesofImperialism
Whatiscolonialism?Discussthevariousstagesofcolonialism.
Acleaverconquerwillalwaysimposehisdemandsontheconqueredbyinstallments.
After1757theregrewupaStateofBengalwhichwasasponsoredstateaswellasa
plunderedstate.
AssesscriticallytheeconomicimpactoftheBritishruleinIndiatilltheendofthenineteenth
century.
AttheendofthebattleofSedan(1870),Europelostamistressandgainedamaster.
By1914,thesickmanofEuropewasnolongerjustTurkey:itwasEuropeitself.Explain.
Coloniesarelikefruitswhichclingtothetreeonlytilltheyripen.
CriticallyexaminetheculturesystemintheDutchEastIndies(Indonesia)duringthe
nineteenthcentury.Whywasitdismantled?
CriticallyexaminetheDutchcolonialpolicyinIndonesia.
Discusstheemergenceofneoimperialisminthelatenineteenthcentury.
DiscusstheviewthattheBritishrulebroughtabouteconomicchangesinIndiatoservethe
needsoftheimperialeconomyandestablishadependentformofunderdevelopmentinthis
country.
ExplainhowAmericanimperialisminPhilippinesdifferedwithEuropeanimperialismin
IndonesiaandIndoChina.

ExplaintheBritishpolicyofSubordinateunionofIndianStateswithBritishIndiafrom1858
onwards?HowdidtheGovernmentofIndiaimplementthispolicyduringthisperiod?
HollandwasengagedinasystematicexploitationofIndonesiainthenineteenthcentury.
Elucidate.
IfimperialismisviewedasaphaseofthestruggleforpowerbetweenStates,itsresultmust
bejudgedintermsofitsroleinpowerpolitics.
ImperialismandColonialismhavelongemployedasinstrumentsofnationalpolicy.
InallthelongannalsofImperialism,thepartitionofAfricaisaremarkablefreak.
Mercantilistphilosophywasbaseduponabeliefthatprivate&ampsocialinterestsarenot
necessarilyinharmony.
Newimperialismwasanationalistic,notaneconomicphenomena.
Onegreateffectofthegeographicaldiscoveriesofthe15thcenturywasthegrowingbelief
thatAmerica,AsiaandAfricaweretobeusedextensivelyforthebenefitofEuropeans.
OrientalismproducedaknowledgeofthepasttoservicetheneedsoftheColonialStates.
Elucidate.
Plantationsandmines,jute,banking,insurance,shippingandexportimportconcernsinIndia
wererunthroughasystemofinterlockingmanagingagencies.
PortugalandSpain,thepioneersinworldexploration,werealsofirstintheracetoconquer
overseascountries
RabindranathTagoresnationalismwasbasedonaCatholicinternationalism.
TheBritishconquestofSindwasbothapoliticalandmoralsequeltothefirstafghanwar.
Comment.
TheBritishindustrialpolicyinthenineteenthcenturyruinedtheIndianhandicrafts.
TheBritishRajhadadeeplyracistaspectanditultimatelyexistedtoprotectcolonial
exploitation.
TheChristianMissionarypropagandafrom1813onwardswasofteninsensitiveandwounding.
ThecountriesintheMiddleEastbecame,after1919,thesceneofconstanteffervescenceand
somestrikingchanges.
TheCrimeanWarwasthemostuselesswareverwaged.
Thediscoveryofthenewworld,coincidingwiththeswiftdiffusionofprintedbooks,taught
theEuropeansthatTruthisthedaughternotofauthority,butoftime.
Theeducatedmiddleclassinthe19thcenturyoftenfoundthedomainofreasontobe
oppressive,asitimpliedthehistoricalnecessityofcivilizingscolonialrule.
TheforcesoffreetradeandtheBritishdeterminationtocreateapoliticalandadministrative
environmentconductivetotradeandinvestmenthadshapedtheBritishpolicytowardsIndia
inthefirsthalfofthenineteenthcentury.Elucidate.
TheGovernmentofIndiafromCanningtoCurzonwasregardedasawhitemansburden
ratherthanasacalltocreativeeffortorthepreparationforanewera.
TheIndianMiddleClassfirmlybelievedthatBritainhadimposedacolonialeconomyonIndia

whichhadimpoverishedthecountry.
TheMontagueDeclaration(20August1917)wasobservedmorecloselyintherealmof
imperialrelationsthananythingelse.
Theperiod1919to1945isimportantinthehistoryofEgyptfortheexplanationofits
resourcesbyGreatBritainandriseofstrongnationalism.Discuss.
Therailways,insteadofservingasthecatalystofanindustrialrevolutionasinWestern
EuropeandtheUSA,actedinIndiaasthecatalystofcompletecolonization.Examine.
TheriseandexpansionofBritishempirewasanaccidentratherthantheresultofadeliberate
policyanddesign.Criticallyexaminethisstatement.
ThesimultaneousexpansionofEuropeanpowersoverseasduringthelastquarterofthe19th
centurybroughtthemintofrequentcollisionsataremotepointsalloverAfricaandAsia.
ThesponsorsoftheoverseasexpansionofEuropewerenationalmonarchies.
ThetreatiesmadeattheParisPeaceconferencein191920wererepletewithunstable
compromises,reflectingmorematerialismthanidealism.Elucidate.
TracethestagesinthepartitionofAfricaafter1870.Howdiditaffectinternationalrelations?
TracethevariousstagesofEuropeanimperialisminAfricainthenineteenthcentury.
WhatdoyouunderstandbyImperialism?HowdiditaffectthepeopleofAsiainthe
nineteenthcentury?
Whatdoyouunderstandbyimperialism?Statebrieflyitsuniquefeaturesinthecaseof
Africa?
WhatwastheculturesystemintheDutchEastIndies(Indonesia)duringthe19thcentury?
Whywasitdismantled?
WriteacritiqueonthepartitionofAfricafrom1870to1914,withparticularreferenceto
GermanysimperialdesignsintheContinent.
Describethesteps,givingexamples,bywhichtheimperialistcountriestookovermostof
Africa.
WhywereAsianandAfricancountriessoeasilydominatedbytheWesternpowers?
HowdidnationalismhelptomakeimperialismpopularinEurope?
DescribetheemergenceoftheUnitedStatesofAmericaasanimperialistpowerGive
examples
Explainthemeaningofthefollowingterms,withexamples:Sphereofinfluence,exploitation,
extraterritorialrights,protectorate,MonroeDoctrine,Dollardiplomacy.
PreparemapsofAsiaandAfricashowingthecoloniesandspheresofinfluenceofthevarious
imperialistpowersbeforetheFirstWorldWar
WriteanessayonSlaveryandSlaveTradeandtheStrugglefortheirAbolition
Howdidtheempiresofthenineteenthandtwentiethcenturiesdifferfromtheempiresof
ancienttimesforexample,thoseoftheMauryas,theRomansandofAlexander?
Discussthedifferencesbetweentheimperialistexpansionduringthesixteenthtothe
eighteenthcenturiesand1870to1914

NameanddiscusssomeofthebigproblemsfacedbynewlyindependentcountriesWhyare
theirproblemsalsotheproblemsofallcountries?
DiscussthelongtermimpactofimperialistcontrolonthecountriesofAsia,AfricaandSouth
America
TheEasternQuestionhasalwaysbeenaninternationalquestion.Elucidate.

IndustrialRevolution
ExplainwhytheIndustrialRevolutionledtotheemergenceofimperialism
AnalysethedifferentwaysinwhichindustrializationtookplaceinEurope.
CriticallydiscusstheprocessofindustrializationinBritain,FranceandGermany.
HowdidindustrialrevolutionimpactthefamilysysteminEurope?
HowdidtheindustrialisationofRussiatakeplaceintheperiodpriortotheRussian
Revolution?
HowwasRussiaindustrializedduringthe19thcentury?Examine.
GiveacriticalaccountoftheAgriculturalRevolutioninWesternEuropeinthesixteenthand
seventeenthcenturies.Howdiditaffectthesocialandeconomiclifeofthepeople?
TheIndustrialRevolutionbroughtaboutgreatchangesinthesocialandeconomiclifeof
Europe.Explain.
TheIndustrialRevolutionChangedEnglandincharacterandculture.
TheIndustrialRevolutionputmobilityintheplaceofstability.
Theperiod1500to1700inEuropehasbeencalledtheheydayoftheCommercialRevolution.
ExplainthecausesthatledtothisRevolutionexamineitsimpactonsociety.
TheprocessofindustrializationinsomeothercountriesofEuropewasdifferentfromthatin
England.
WhatwastheextentofindustrializationinwesternEuropebytheendofthenineteenth
century?
WhoeversaysIndustrialRevolution,sayscotton.Comment.
IdentifythemainfeaturesofindustrialdevelopmentinIndiafrom1914to1947withspecial
referencetotheemergenceofaclassoffactorylaborers.
Whatconditionsaremostfavourableoressentialforindustrialization?
GiveexamplestoshowthattheIndustrialRevolutionwithitsdemandforrawmaterialsand
marketsmadenationsmoredependentononeanother.
DescribetheconditionswhichprevailedinindustrialcitiesandfactoriesastheIndustrial
Revolutionspread.Howtheseconditionswereslowlyimproved?
TheIndustrialRevolutionwasamixedblessing.
Whydoesindustrializationaffectfarming,transportation,communication,tradeandhowdoes
itresultintheneedformoreeducation?
Howdoesindustrializationhelpinraisingthelevelorthestandardofliving?
Wouldyousaythatindustrializationwasanaturalstepinmansprogress?Whyorwhynot?

Socialism,Communism,Capitalism,Revolutions

TheideologyofSubhashChandraBosewasacombinationofnationalism,fascismand
communism.
WhatwerethefeaturesofthelowermiddleclassesandtheworkingclassesinEuropeinthe
18thcentury?
Analyzethechangesinsocialstructureasaresultofmodernizationinthewesternworld.
CritiquesofCapitalistEconomy
ExplaintheviewsofRousseau,KarlMarxandMahatmaGandhionthenatureofState.
HowdidanationstatesystemdevelopamongthecountriesofEuropeinthe19thcentury?
Howdidthenationstatesdevelopin19thcenturyEurope?
Howwasthesocialistpatternofindustrializationdifferentfromthecapitalistone?
LiberalTheoryoftheState
MakeacomparisonbetweentheCapitalistandtheSocialistpatternsofindustrialization.
Marxondemographicchange
TransitionfromFeudalismtoCapitalism
Define:Warcommunism,WelfareState,Comintern
Whatdoyouunderstandbythestate?WhatistheMarxistunderstandingofthestate?
Whatdoyouunderstandbythestate?Writeanoteonthemajortheoriesofthestate.
Whatiscapitalistindustrialization?Writeanoteonthevarioustheoriesfortheemergenceof
capitalism.WriteanoteontheEuropeanpenetrationoftheNewworld.
Whatisnationalism?Writeanoteonitsemergenceinmodernworld.
Writeanoteoncommercialcapitalism.
Writeanoteonthesocialistcritiqueofcapitalisteconomy.
CommentontheformationoftheNationStateinBritain.HowwastheBritishnational
identityfostered?
Defineanddiscussthecharacteristicsofindustrialcapitalism.
Defineclasssociety.Distinguishbetweenpremodernandmodernclasssociety.
AnalysethefactorsthathelpedthegrowthofnationalisminEasternEurope.
WriteanoteontheChartistmovement.
ReviewthebackgroundoftheChartistMovement.Despiteitsfailurehowhadtheirdemands
beenmetinthesucceedingyears?
TherootsofChartismarepartlypoliticalandpartlyeconomic.Elaborate.
DiscusssomefeaturesofthesocialistEuropeinthepostwarworld.
DiscussthedevelopmentofnewsocialclassesinEurope.
DiscussthepoliticaltransitioninBritainbetween17801850.
DiscussthepositionofthepeasantrywiththedevelopmentofcapitalisminEurope.
DiscusstheprocessthroughwhichBritainmadeatransitiontoamodernpolity.
DiscusstheroleofbureaucracyinthefoundationoftheModernStateinEurope.
DiscusstheroleofthebureaucracyintheformationofmodernEuropeanstates.
WhatwasthenatureofindustrialcapitalismasitdevelopedinFrance?

WhatledtotheeconomiccrisisinEuropein1929?
Whatwasthenatureoftheliberaldemocraticregimesthatdevelopedduringtheperiodafter
theFirstWorldWar?
WhatwastheprocessthroughwhichamodernclasssocietyemergedinEurope?
WhydidtheFirstSocialistRevolutiontakeplaceinRussia?
WriteanoteonmodernstateandpolityasitdevelopedinEurope.
WriteanoteonthedevelopmentofindustrialcapitalisminEngland.
Writeanoteontheemergenceofnewsocialgroupsin19thcenturyEurope.
DiscussthesignificanceofIndustrialCapitalisminEurope.
DoctrineofFreeTrade
HowdidIndustrialCapitalismdevelopinEngland?
HowdidthelandedclassesinEnglandrespondtothechangesintheeconomy?
HowdidtheOttomanEmpirebreakdownandmakewayfortheemergenceofanationstate
system?
Revolutionsof1848
TheWorkingClass
WastheBritishstateabletodevelopanotionoflibertybetween17801850?
WhatarethecharacteristicfeaturesofnationalismasitdevelopedinEurope?
Whatarethemainfeaturesofindustrialcapitalism?
Whatarethemainfeaturesofthemodernstateandpolity?
Whatdoyouunderstandbyclasssociety?Discuss.
Whatdoyouunderstandbynationalism?HowdidnationalismdevelopinEurope?
Whatisclasssociety?Discussthetransitiontothemodernclasssociety.
WriteshortnoteaboutReformActof1832inBritain
Whatissocialism?WhydidthefirstsocialistrevolutionoccurinRussia?
WhatledtotheRevolutionsof1848inEurope?Whatwereitsconsequences?
WhatwasthedemographicpatterninEuropeinthe18thand19thcenturies?
AccountforthegrowthofLiberalisminBritaininthenineteenthcentury.Howfardidit
influencethecontemporarysocialandeconomicissuesinthecountry?
DiscussthenatureoftheleadershipandprogrammeoftheCongressSocialistparty.
EffectofBritishliberalismonthesocialoreconomiclifeofthepeopleofEngland.
FrancewasmorefertilethanBritaininproducingnewSocialisttheoriesandmovements,
thoughtheyborelessconcreteresultsinFrancethaninBritain.
MarxianCommunismisprimarilytheoffspringofGermanHegelianismandFrenchSocialism.
MostoftheEuropeanRevolutionsof1848werenationalistaswellaspopularinsurrection
againstforeignruleandrepressivepolicyofMetternich.
PresidentFranklinRooseveltsNewDealhadthewishtostartthepoliticaleconomyinafresh,
morepromisingdirection.Doyouagree?
Protestantismcontributedsubstantiallytotheriseofcapitalism.

RousseauspoliticalphilosophycontainstheseedsofSocialism,AbsolutismandDemocracy.
TheBillofRights(1688)setthesealonParliamentarysupremacyinEngland.
ThecapitalismwhichgavetheEuropeanempirestheirapparentsolidarityandpermanence
alsohastenedtheirdownfall.
Thecharacteristicmotiveofthisperiod(18301871)wasnotsomuchLiberalismas
Nationalism.
TheCommunistinternationalandtheLeagueofNationsbothannouncedtheendofthe
BalanceofPower.
Theemergenceofleftwinggroupinthe(Indian)congressradicalizeditssocialeconomic
agenda.
Theperpetuationoftheeconomicmalaisewasthemaincauseofthepoliticalinstabilityof
Europeduringthenexttwodecades(191939).Explain.
Thepromptingsoftheheartaremoretobetrustedthanthelogicofthemind.Rousseau.
TracethegrowthofcapitalisminBritainintheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies.Why
wasFrance,ascomparedtoBritain,lateindevelopingthecapitalistspiritandthe
institutionalframeworkofcapitalism?
TracethegrowthofCapitalisminEnglandintheseventeenthandeighteenthcenturies.How
diditaffecttheWageSysteminthecountry?
TracetheriseandgrowthoftheNewEuropeanSocietyintheinterwarperiod.
Explainthemeaningofthefollowingterms:IndustrialRevolution,capital,capitalism,
socialism,protectivetariff,laissezfaire.
Whatarethemainfeatureswhichdistinguishcapitalismfromfeudalism?
Howdidthegrowthoftradeunionshelptoputonendtotheideaoflaissezfaire?
Studytheweaknessesanddisadvantagesofproducinggoodsandservicesunderthecapitalist
systemofproduction.Whataretheadvantagesthatasocialistsystemcanhaveoverasociety
basedoncapitalism?
Explainthefollowingterms:ThirdEstate,Bourgeoisie,Proletariat,Junkers,ParisCommune,
MeansofProduction,Socialism,UtopianSocialists.
Twomarkers:Jefferson,Washington,ThomasPaine,LouisXVI,Voltaire,Rousseau,
Montesquieu,Napoleon,SimonBolivar,Mazzini,Garibaldi,Cavour,Bismarck,Babeuf,Karl
Marx,RosaLuxemburg.
WhenwastheFirstInternationalformed?Whatwereitsmaincontributionstothegrowthof
thesocialistmovement?
WhenwastheSecondInternationalformed?Forwhichothergreateventisthatyear
important?WhatwerethemainaimsoftheSecondInternational?
Explaintheconsequencesoftheeconomiccrisisof192933.
What,inyourview,ledtothecollapseoftheSovietUnionandofthecommunist
governmentsthereandmothercountriesofEurope?Doyouthinkthiscollapsemeansthat
ideasofsocialismarenolongerrelevant?Discuss.

DiscusstheSecretsocietymovementinEurope.
CriticallyexaminetheNewDealofFranklinD.Roosevelt.Didhewanttointroduceasortof
socialism?

France
FrenchpoliticalwritersoftheeighteenthcenturywereinfluencedbyLockeandalsobythe
curiouscontrast.Whichtheyperceivedbetweenthegovernmentofhiscountryandtheirown.
HowdidNapoleonBonapartehealthewoundsofFranceinflictedbytheRevolutionand
correcttheerrorsperpetratedbyitsleaders?
HowdidNapoleonfusetheFrenchoftheancientregimewiththeFranceofthepost
revolutionaryear?
HowdidNepoleonBonapartfusetheoldFrancewiththenew?
IfmonarchicalmisroleignitedtheFrenchrevolution,loftyideasbothinspiredandsustained
it.
NapoleonwasthechildoftheRevolution,butinmanywayshereversedtheaimsand
principlesofthemovementfromwhichhesprang
NoeventasencompassingastheFrenchRevolutionoccursinanintellectualvacuum.
TheconnectionbetweenthephilosophersandtheoutbreakoftheFrenchRevolution(1789)is
somewhatremoteandindirect.
TheFrenchRevolution(1789)reallyachievedfarlessthanwhatitintendedtoeffect.Doyou
agree?
TheFrenchRevolution(1789)soughttoremoveboththereligiousandsecularpropsofthe
existingsocialorder.Elucidate.
TheFrenchRevolutionattackedprivilegesandnotproperty.
Themostimportantsinglefactorintheyearsfollowing1919wastheFrenchdemandfor
security.
TheNapoleonicEmpirewasdoomedbecauseofitsinherentandselfdefeatingcontradictions.
Elucidate.
Thewritingsofthephilosophershadatremendousinfluenceonthemindsofthepeopleand
createdarevolutionaryawakeningintheirmindsandformedtheintellectualcreedofthe
FrenchRevolution
TowhatextentdidNapoleonseconomicwarwithEnglandbecomehisundoing?
WhatweretheidealsoftheFrenchRevolutionof1789?Howfarisitcorrecttosaythatit
overthrewmercantilismandthesurvivingrelicsoffeudalismandcontributedtothepolitical
supremacyofthemiddleclass?
WhatwerethemainideasbehindtheFrenchRevolution?
Explainwhythefollowingdocumentswererevolutionarywhentheywerewritten:
DeclarationofIndependence,DeclarationoftheRightsofManandCitizen,Communist
Manifesto,
ExplaintheimpactoftheFrenchRevolutionontheSpanishcoloniesinAmerica.

CulturalLegacyoftheFrenchRevolution
WhatisthelegacyoftheFrenchRevolutionforthemodernworld?
WhatwastheimpactoftheFrenchRevolutiononthesocialandpoliticallifeofFrance?
DiscusssomeaspectsofagricultureinFranceduringthe18thcentury.
WriteanoteonBonapartism.WhatledtothefailureoftheSecondEmpireinFrance?
WriteanoteontheprocessthroughwhichamodernstatedevelopedinFrance.
DiscussthefactorsleadingtotheFrenchevolutionof1789.
DiscusstheimpactoftheFrenchRevolutiononpoliticalsystemsinEurope.
Explainhowrepressionwascombinedwithmobilisationofpopularsupportunder
Bonapartism.
ExplaintheroleofmassesinoverthrowingtheAncientRegimeinFrance.
LandedclassesinFrance
2markerseach:TheBourgeoisie,TheGirondins
TheJacobinRepublicandTerror
WhatarethesalientfeaturesofmodernpoliticsasitdevelopedinEuropeaftertheFrench
Revolution?
WhatledtothedownfalloftheAncientRegimeinFrance?

America
CriticallyexaminethenatureoftheAmericanWarofIndependence.
WhatwerethedistinguishingfeaturesofAmericansocietybeforetheAmericanrevolution?
Howdidtheyaffectthesubsequentrevolutionaryprocess?
DiscussthecharacteristicsofprerevolutionaryAmericansociety.
DiscusstheimportantfactorsresponsiblefortheAmericanRevolution.Whatweretheeffects
oftheRevolution?
HowdidthepeculiarityofbeinganewsocietyaffecttheAmericanRevolution?
TheAmericanRevolution
Thenotionofliberty
AtthenewsoftheDeclarationofIndependencecrowdsgatheredtocheer,firegunsand
cannonandringchurchbellsinPhiladelphia.Bostonandotherplaces,butthereweremany
peopleinAmericawhodidnotrejoice.
NoTaxationwithoutrepresentation.
TheAmericanRevolutionwasanaturalandevenexpectedeventinthehistoryofcolonial
peoplewhohadcomeofage.
TheAmericanRevolutionwasessentiallyaseconomicconflictbetweenAmericancapitalismas
Britishmercantilism.
TheAmericanWarofIndependencedeprivedGreatBritainofoneempire,butitstrengthened
thefoundationsofanother.
TheAmericanwarofIndependencetransformedEuropeansaswellasAmerica.
TheGreatDepression(192834)wasattendedbymomentousconsequencesintheeconomic

aswellasinthepoliticalsphere.
Tosomeextent,theAmericanWarofIndependenceinspiredtheFrenchRevolution
WhatwerethefactorsthatworkedinthedraftingoftheAmericanConstitution?Doyou
agreeetheUSconstitutionbeinganEconomicDocument?
HowfarisitcorrecttosaythateveryfeatureoftheAmericanConstitutionwasultimatelyof
EnglishOrigin?
ExplainbrieflytheconditionsthatbroughtabouttheAmericanandFrenchrevolutions.
WriteanoteonPeopleRevoltwhenConditionsbecomeUnbearable,usingtheeitherFrench,
RussianorAmericanrevolutionsasevidence.
ExaminetheissuesinvolvedintheAmericanCivilWar.Wasitacontestbetweentwoseparate
nations?

Russia
WhatwerethemainfeaturesofindustrialisationinRussia?
Bolsheviks
WhatisthesignificanceoftheRussianRevolutioninthemodernworld?
WhatledtotheRussianRevolutionof1917?Whatwasitslegacy?
WriteanoteontheOctoberRevolutioninRussia.
WriteanoteonthesignificanceofRussianRevolutionfor20thcenturypolitics.
CollectivizationofAgricultureinUSSR.
AccountfortheoverthrowoftheTsaristregimeinRussia.
AnalyzethecausesoftheRussianRevolutionsof1917.WhywasthesecondRevolution
significantinmorethanoneway?
ExaminethecausesoftheRussianRevolutionof1917andindicateitssignificanceinworld
history.
InRussia,Leninwasthefatherofsocialism,organizeroftherevolutionandthefounderofthe
newRussiansociety.Examinethestatement.
LeninsroleintheRussianRevolutionof1917
TheimpactoftheFrenchRevolution(1789)wasinitiallyconfinedtheEurope,but,thatofthe
RussiaRevolution(1917)wasglobal.Criticallyreview.
TheRussianRevolution(1917)wasaneconomicexplosionhastenedbythestupiditiesofthe
autocraticGovernments
TheRussianRevolutionof1917wasasinglerevolutionwhichdevelopedtwophases.
Elucidate.
WhatwerethecausesforthesuccessofBolshevikRevolutionof1917?Discussitssignificance
inthehistoryoftheworld.
StalinistRussiawasadespoticregime.Criticallyexaminethisview.
Explainthefollowingterms:Bolsheviks,Mensheviks,Soviet,FebruaryRevolution,October
Revolution,BloodySunday,CommunistInternational
DescribethesocialandeconomicconditionsinRussiabeforetheRevolutionof1917.Howdid

RussiasparticipationintheFirstWorldWarhelpcreateconditionsforthefalloftheRussian
autocracy,
WhatwerethemainobjectivesoftheRussianrevolutionaries?
DescribetheimmediateconsequencesoftheOctoberRevolutiononRussiasparticipationin
theFirstWorldWar,theownershipofland,andpositionofthenonRussiannationalitiesof
theRussianempire.
ExplaintheattitudeoftheUSSR.towardsthemovementsforindependenceinAsia.
DiscusstheimpactoftheRussianRevolutionontheworld.
DiscusstheviewthattheRussianRevolutionwasbroughtaboutbyasmallgroupof
revolutionarieswithoutthesupportofthemasses.

China
WhatwerethebasiccharacteristicsoftraditionalChineseeconomy?Whatwastheattitudeof
Chinesebourgeoisietowardsthe1911Revolution?
ExaminethemainfeaturesoftheMayFourthMovement.
By1861,ChinamaybesaidtohavebeenfullythoughgrudginglyopenedtotheWesterner.
CriticallyanalysisthecauseandtheresultsoftheChineserevolutionof1940
DiscussthecircumstancesleadingtotheChineseRevolutionof1949andanalyseits
significance.
DiscusstheinternalproblemofChinaaftertheFirstWorldWarandaccountforthe
establishmentofCommunistruleintheChinain1949
Dividedintospheresofinfluencebyforeignpowers,Chinainthe19thcenturypresenteda
sorryspectacle.HowdidChinareacttoit?
Examinethecircumstancesinchinaintheyears194549.WhatdidtheUnitedStatesdoto
resolvetheconflictbetweentheNationalistsandtheCommuniststhere?
HowdidtheTreatyPortSysteminChinadevelopbetween1840and1860?Whatwasits
inferenceonChineseattitudetoforeigners?
ImportanceoftheOpiumWarinthehistoryofChina.Giveacriticalaccountoftheprogress
ofmerchantalisminthe17thcentury.Howfarisitcorrecttosaythatitpavedthewayfor
theIndustrialRevolution?
ReviewthepoliticalcircumstancesinChinaintheyears194549leadingtotheestablishment
oftheCommunistruleintheland.HowdidtheUnitedStatesseektoresolvetheconflict
betweentheNationalistsandthecommunistsintheperiod?
TheTreatyofNankingisthebasicactintheimposingbutunstablestructureofinternational
relationswhichgovernedChinaforahundredyears.
WiththeproclamationinNankingofaChineseRepublicwithSunYatSenasthePresidentin
1911,theoldChinawiltedrapidly.
Theyears1840to1860confrontedtheChingdynastyandthepeopleofChinawith
unprecedentedcrisesduetoimperialistdesignsofwesternpowers.Discusscritically.
TowhatextentdidtheWesternpowersbringChinaundertheirdominationwithout

annexation?
TracethedistinctphasesoftheSinoJapaneseWar.Assessitspoliticaleconomicandcultural
impactonChina,bothoccupiedandfree.
Whyistheperiodfrom1842to1900consideredashalfacenturyofhumiliationsinthe
historyofChina?WhatwasthereactionofChina?
Alllongmarchesbeginwithsmallsteps.
AnalysethefactorsresponsibleforthevictoryoftheCommunistsinthecivilwarinChina
during194549.
AnalysethenatureandimpactofTaipingRebellion.
AnalysethevariousfactorsresponsiblefortheearlynineteenthcenturycrisisinChina.
BoxerRebellion
Cantonsystem
CommunistPartyofChina
CriticallyanalysethefactorsresponsibleforBoxerRebellion.Whatwasitssignificance?
DescribethemaincharacteristicsoftraditionalChineseeconomy.
DiscusstheagrarianprogrammeoftheTaipings.Whydidtheuprisingfail?
DiscusstheChineseresponsetoWesternimperialisminthe1840s.
DiscussthecontributionofSunYatSenintheChineseliberationmovement.
DiscusstheemergenceofnationalisminChina.Explainitsimportantfeatures.
DiscussthefactorsthathinderedthegrowthofcapitalisminChina.
DiscussthefactorswhichledtotheBoxerUprising.ExplaintheBoxerProtocol.
DiscusstheimpactofOpiumWarsonChina.
DiscusstherelationshipbetweenreligionandpeasantrevoltsinChina.
DiscusstheroleofMaoTseTungintheChineseRevolution.
TheannouncementofthecreationofthePeoplesRepublicofChinaonOctober1,1959byMao
ZedongendedthecivilwarbetweentheChineseCommunistParty(CCP)andtheNationalist
Party(KMT).Elaborate.
Discusstheroleofstudentsandintellectualsinthedevelopmentofnewcultureafterthe
revolutionof1911.
WhatledtotheemergenceoftheNewCulturemovementinChinaaftertherevolutionof
1911?Whatwastheroleofintellectualsinthismovement?
DiscusstheroleofSunYatSenintheantiimperialiststruggleinChina.
DiscusstheroleofthecommunistpartyinthesuccessoftheRevolutionof1949inChina.
DiscussthesignificanceoftheBoxerprotocol.
DiscussthesignificanceoftheMayfourthmovementinChina.
DiscussthesociopoliticalreasonsbehindtheemergenceofMarxisminChina.
ExaminetheattitudeofChinesebourgeoisietowardsthe1911Revolution.
ExaminethemainfeaturesoftheMayFourthMovement.
ExplaintheunequaltreatiessignedaftertheOpiumWars.

Manchukuo
OpenDoorPolicy
TheWuchangRebellion.
WhatledtotheTaipingUprising?Whydiditfail?
WhatwastheChineseresponsetoWesternimperialisminthe1840s?
WhatwastheimpactoftheOpiumtradeonChineseeconomy?
WhatwastheimpactofWarlordismonChinesesociety?
WhatwastheLongMarch?Diditachieveitsgoals?
WhatwasthenatureofChineseresponsetowesternimperialisminthesecondhalfofthe
nineteenthcentury.DiscussthegrowthofJapaneseindustrialeconomybetweenthetwo
WorldWars.
WhatwasthesignificanceoftheMayFourthMovementinChina.
WhatweremainreasonsforthefailureoftheTaipingRebellion?
WhatwerethecausesoftheOpiumWars?HowdidtheyaffectChinasrelationswiththe
Westernpowers?
WhatweretheinitiativestakenbytheMeijigovernmenttoestablishacentralizedpolitical
system
WhatwerethemainfeaturesoftheselfstrengtheningmovementinChina?Examine.
WhatweretheTwentyOneDemands?DiscussthereactionofChinaonthesedemands.
WriteanoteonthesignificanceoftheChineseRevolutionof1949.
WriteanessayonSunYatSenandtheriseofNationalisminChina.
Kuomintang

Japan
HowdidJapandevelopbetween1868and1894?DidtheRestorationofMeijimarkasharp
breakwiththepast?
HowdidtheJapaneseoccupationofSouthEastAsiancountriesduringtheSecondWorldWar
giveaboosttonationalizeintheregions?Explainwithexamples.
ShowhowthepresenceofaweakandhelplessChinanextdoorbroughtabouttheriseof
militarismandcollapseofdemocracyinJapan.
TheAngloJapaneseTreaty(1962)marksamilestoneinthedevelopmentofJapanasan
Asiaticpower.
Theyears18531894witnessedthetransformationofJapan.Explain.
TracethegrowthofmilitarisminJapanintheinterwaryears.Whatinternationalreactiondid
itprovoke?
Describetheimperialistexpansionofjapanupto1914
MilitarisminJapan
AnalysethemainfactorsresponsibleforthedeclineoftheTokugawaShogunate.
AnalysethesignificanceofAngloJapanesealliance.
AngloFrenchrivalryinJapan

DiscussthecausesoftheRussoJapaneseWar.Whatwasitsimpactonthenationalismin
Asiancountries?
DiscusstheeconomicpoliciesoftheMeijigovernment.
DiscussthefactorswhichledtothedeclineoftheTokugawashogunateinJapan.
DiscussthemainfeaturesofMeijiconstitution.
DiscussthemajorcharacteristicsoftheMeijipoliticalsystem.
DiscussthenatureofJapaneseimperialismuptotheSecondWorldWar.
DiscussthepoliticalandeconomicimplicationsoftheAlliedoccupationofJapan.
Discussthepoliticalandeconomicreformswhichcontributedtowardsthemodernisationof
Japan.
DiscussthestagesofJapansemergenceasanimperialistpowerduring18941912.
ExplainthedevelopmentsintheeconomyofJapanpriortoWorldWarII.
ExplainthevariousideologiesbehindtheexpansionistpolicyofJapan.
OutlinethestagesofJapansemergenceasanimperialistpowerduringtheperiod1894
1912.
WhatwastheimpactoftheRussoJapaneseWar?
WhatwasthepoliticalimplicationoftheAlliedForcesoccupationofJapanaftertheSecond
WorldWar?
WhatwerethemaineconomicreformscarriedoutinJapanaftertheFirstWorldWar?
Whatwerethepoliticalandeconomicreformswhichcontributedtowardsthemodernizationof
Japan?
WhatweretheprimaryissuesintheeconomicdevelopmentofJapanbetween18681885?
WhatwerethevariousideologiesbehindtheexpansionistpolicyofJapan?
WhatwastheroleofpoliticalpartiesinJapanbetweenthetwoWorldWars?
DiscussthesignificanceoftheAngloJapanesealliance.
AccountfortheriseofmilitarisminJapanbetweenthetwoWorldWars.Howdiditaffectthe
peaceoftheworld?
WriteaNoteonZaibatsu

Germany
WriteanoteonZolleverein(CustomsUnion)
DidtheWeimarRepublicrepresentliberaldemocraticexperimentinGermany?How
successfulwasthisexperiment?
DiscussBismarcksroleinGermanunification.
DiscussthechangesbroughtbyNaziruleinGermany.
DiscusstheroleofBismarckinunificationofGermany.
WriteanoteontheemergenceofNationalisminGermany?
DiscusstheemergenceofNationalisminGermany.
DiscusstheGermanNationalIdea.
ExplaintheemergenceofthetwoGermaniesinpostwarEurope

Gestapo
StateandSocietyinNaziGermany
BesmirchcreatedanewGermanywiththepolicyofbloodandiron.
BismarckunitedGermanynotbymajorityofvotesandspeechesbutbyapolicyofBloodand
iron.InthelightofthisstatementassessthecontributionofBismarcktotheunificationof
Germany.
ComparisonofthefascistregimeinItalywiththeNationalSocialistregimeofGermanyis
almostinevitable.Thesimilaritiesareobvious,butthereisonepointofdifferencewhichis
worthmentioning.
CriticallyexaminethemainfeaturesoftheforeignpolicyofNaziGermany.
WhatweretheweaknessesanddifficultiesoftheWeimerRepublic?HowdidHitlersucceedin
establishinghisdictatorship?
HitlerdidnotreallywantaworldWar.HisintentionwasonlyashortwarwithPoland.
Hitlerwasacreatureflungtothetopbythetidesofrevolutionarychange,orthe
embodimentofthecollectiveunconsciousnessofapeopleobsessedwithviolenceanddeath.
HowdidthepolicyofappeasementescalatetheproblemofNaziaggrandizement?
IsolationofFranceconstitutedthekeystoneofBismarcksforeignpolicy.Elucidate.
ItisoneoftheironiesofhistorythatNapoleonwasthecreatorofmodernGermany.
Napoleonkindledthenationalsentiment,butGermanunitywasachievedbyBismarck.
Discuss.
ThepoliticalunificationofGermanywasaccomplishedsolelybyBismarck
TheUnificationofGermanywastheonethingBismarckwasdeterminedtoprevent.
TherewasanelementofsysteminHitlersforeignpolicyHisoutlookwascontinental.
WasGermanunificationachievedmorebycoalandironthanbybloodandiron?

Italy
CommentbrieflyontheculturalbackgroundofItaliannationalism.
Discussthemainfeaturesoftherevolutionsof1848.
DiscusstheemergenceofNationalisminItaly.
HowdoyouexplaintheriseoffascisminEurope?.
ItalianNationalism
Whatarethegeneralfeaturesoffascism?
WhatisFascism?DiscussthefoundationofFasciststateinItaly.
WhatledtotheriseoffascisminItaly?Discussthenatureofthefasciststate.
CorporateStatewasMussolinisanswertosociopoliticalproblemsofhiscountry.Elucidate.
ExtremenationalismoftheFascistVarietyhasvariousfacesinvariouscountries,butithas
everywherecertaincommoncharacteristics.
TherootsoftheriseofFascismlayinPeaceTreaties.
TheunificationofItalyandthatofGermanyconstitutedacontrastinrespectofthewaysthey
wereaffectedandimpacttheyleftonlaterinternationalpolitics.Elucidate.

TheunificationofItalycompletedthedestructionoftheEuropeanorder.
TracethecourseofthemovementforItalianUnificationfrom1848withspecialreferenceto
thecontributionofMazzini.
TracethevariousstagesthatledtotheUnificationofItalybetween1848and1870.
WhatweretheobstaclestoItalianunificationtill1852?Howandwithwhatmethodswasthe
unificationofItalyachieved?
DescribethedifferentstagesintheunificationofGermanyandItaly.
WhatwerethemainfeaturesofthefascistandNazimovements?
DescribetheconsequencesofthevictoryoffascismonItalyandGermany.
WhatwerethemainaimsoftheforeignpoliciesofItaly,GermanyandJapan?
WhatweretheviewsofJawaharlalNehruandtheIndianNationalCongressonfascism?

WorldWars
HowdidthetwoWorldWarsaffectpoliticsinthe20thcentury?
WhatweretheconsequencesoftheadventofNuclearWeaponsinWW2?
ChemicalWarfare
WriteanoteonthenatureofthetwoWorldWars.
Discusstheimplicationsoffirstworldwaronhumansociety.
Discusstheimplicationsofsecondworldwaronhumansociety.
HowdidthetwoWorldWarsaffectthepoliticsandeconomyofEurope?
Whataremainfeaturesofmodernwarfare?
AnalyzetheprovisionsoftheTreatyofVersaillesof1919andexaminethevalidityof
Germanysobjectionstothetreaty.
AnysingleexplanationfortheoutbreakoftheFirstWorldWarlikelytobetoosimple.An
amalgamoffactorsintellectual,social,economicaswellaspoliticalanddiplomatic
contributedtothishorrifyingconflictofmonumentalpropositions.Explain.
Inthelongrun,theLocarnoTreaty(December1925)wasdescriptivebothoftheTreatyof
VersaillesandoftheCovenant.
InthepostSecondWorldWarscenariofriendsinwardidnotremainfriendsinpeace.
Examinethetruthofthisviewintheperiodofyourstudy.
ShowhowtheSpanishCivilWarapreludetoWorldWarII.
TheManchuriancrisisdecidedthefateoftheleagueofNations.
ThepeaceofVersailleslackedmoralvalidityfromthestart.
TheTreatyofVersailleswasmerelyanarmisticefortwentyyears.
TheWars(FirstWorldWars)mostpermanentcontributiontothespiritorthepostWaryears
wasdisillusion.
ThustheLeaguesoughttoachievetoprofoundestofallpsychologicalrevolutionstotransform
thewarmentalityofmanintoapeacementality.
TreatyofVersaillescontainedtheseedsoffutureconflicts.
UntilDecember1941thebattlefieldoftheSecondWorldWarwasexclusivelyEuropeanand

AtlanticthereafteritbecamealsoAsiaticandPacific.
WhatledtotheformationoftheBerlinRomeTokyoaxis?Indicateitsimpactoninternational
politics.
ExplainthebasicreasonsfortheconflictsbetweenEuropeannationsfromthelatenineteenth
centurytotheearlyyearsofthetwentiethcentury.
WhatwerethecountriescomprisingtheTripleAllianceandtheTripleEntente?Whatwere
themainaimsofthesegroupings?
WhatismeantbythePanSlavmovement?WhydiditaddtotheconflictbetweenRussiaand
Austria?
ExplainthereasonsfortheentryoftheUnitedStatesintheFirstWorldWar.
Whythewarthatbrokeoutin1914iscalledtheFirstWorldWar?
ExplaintheconsequencesoftheFirstWorldWaronGermany,Austria,HungaryandTurkey
WhatwerethepurposesforwhichtheLeagueofNationswasestablished?
WhydidRussiawithdrawfromthewarafterthe1917Revolution?
Onamapoftheworld,showtheareasinAsiaandAfricawhichcausedconflictsamong
variousEuropeancountriesAlsoshowtheEuropeancountrieswhichemergedasindependent
statesaftertheFirstWorldWar.
Howwastheworldredividedamongthevictoriouspowers?Prepareamaptoshowthe
territorieswhichweretakenoverfromthedefeatedcountriesbythevictoriouscountries.
HowfarwereimperialistrivalriesthebasiccauseoftheFirstWorldWar?
Doyouthinkthepeacetreatieslaidthefoundationsofajustandstablepeace?Discuss.
Howisitthatanotherwiseminorincidentledtotheoutbreakofaworldwar?Discuss.
WhatismeantbythetermAxisPowers
Describethemaineventsbetween1936and1939whichcreatedconditionsforanotherworld
war
WhatdidtheWesternpowersdotocountertheaggressiveactsofJapan,ItalyandGermany
between1931and1938?
Explaintheterms:PhoneyWar,SecondFront,theBattleofBritain
DoyouthinkWesternpolicyofappeasementofthefascistpowersbroughtabouttheSecond
WorldWar?Why?Orwhynot?
Whatwasthebasicreasonforthepolicyofappeasement?
DoyouthinktheUnitedStateswasjustifiedinusingtheatombombagainstJapan?
WhydidtheSovietUnionsigntheNonAggressionPactwithGermany?Whatdidshegain
fromit?Discuss
WhatweretheimmediateconsequencesoftheSecondWorldWarinEurope?
ForatiredandtimidgenerationMetternichwasthenecessaryman.
TheBrusselsTreatyof17March,1948pavedthewayfortheformationofNATO.
TheinternationalsituationthatconfrontedthepeacemakersinPariswasinthebrutalrealities
ofhistory,theresultofatemporaryredistributionofthebalanceofpowerintheworld.

TherewasnotonlyadifferenceofprinciplesatParis(PeaceConference)butaclashof
personalities.
WhatdoyouunderstandbythenotionofTotalWar?Howdiditaffectmilitarystrategy?

Decolonization,Nationalism,RedrawingBoundaries
PostWW2
WriteanoteontheissueofTheKoreanQuestion
Explainthevariousapproachestowardsdecolonization.
WhatisDecolonization?WritewithreferencetoDecolonizationinIndia.
WriteanoteonDecolonizationgivingreferencetoFrenchandBritishdecolonization.
WriteanessayonthenatureofinternationalrelationsduringthepostWorldWarperiod.
WhatwasthenatureofpoliticsandeconomyinEuropeaftertheSecondWorldWar?
Discusscriticallytheemergenceofthemoderndemocraticpolity.
DiscussthenatureofpoliticsinpostwarEurope.
WhatwasthenatureofpoliticsandeconomyinEuropeaftertheSecondWorldWar?
Writeanoteontheemergenceoftheunipolarworld
ExplaintheprocessofeconomicreconstructioninpastworldwarEurope.
Whatwerethekindofchallengesfacedbytheliberaldemocraticpolitiesintheinitialyearsof
the20thcentury?
theEuropeannationsinemphasizingtheirsolidarity,theirEuropeansindealingwith
AsiancountriesinevitablygaverisetoafeelingofAsianness.
ArabnationalismandoiltheseweretheprincipalFactorsincomplicatingtherelationsof
MiddleEasterncountrieswiththeoutsideworld.
AsianNationalismisjustaproductofWesternimpactontheAsianintelligentsiainthelast
decadesofthenineteenthcentury.
BothfreedomandpartitionweretheworkofIndianmiddleclasses.
DiscusstheaimsoftheestablishmentoftheArabLeagueandassessitroleinsafeguarding
theinterestsoftheArabnations.
Europefacedpeacein1945politicallydisorganizedandeconomicallycrippled.Elaborate.
ExplainthecircumstancesleadingtotheemergenceofThirdWorldandanalyzeitsimpacton
worldaffairs.
GiveabriefaccountofthestruggleagainstApartheidinSouthAfrica.
NascentnationalisminIndoChinadevelopedwithinbothanAsianandaEuropeancontext
withbutscantyreferenceineithercasetotraditionalistconsiderations.
NominallythenewTurkeywasrepublicananddemocratic.
OneofthelastStrongholdsofoilimperialismandEuropeancolonialismit(MiddleEast)
cultivatesafierynationalismasaweaponagainstforeignoppression
OneofthemostimportantconsequencesoftheSecondWorldWarwasdivisionofEurope,
easternandwestern.
TheArabnationalismhadapeculiarcharacter.Itstoodfornationindependenceforseparate

ArabStatesaswellasfortheunityofallArabsirrespectiveoftheirstateboundaries.
Examine.
TheCollapseofBerlinWallin1989broughtnewideasofcooperationinEurope.
Thedecolonizationledtothebreakupofempires.
TracethegrowthofArabnationalismafterthe,FirstWorldWar.Howfarwasitareactionto
oilimperialism?
TurkishrenaissanceguidedbyKemalPasharevolutionizedtheTurkishlifeamanylevels.
Amplify.
UnderMustafaKemalsdictatorshipTurkeywasrapidlynationalized.
WhydidVietnamgothroughthirtyyearsofwaraftertheSecondWorldWar?
WouldyouarguethattheNonAlignedMovementplayedacrucialroleindismantlingthe
colonialism?
WriteacriticalnoteontheprocessofdecolonizationacceleratedbythesecondWorldWar.
IdentifythemainstrandsintheEgyptiannationalistmovementinthefirsthalfofthepresent
centuryandexplaintheroleplayedinitbyZaghlulPasha.
IdentifythemainstrandsintheNationalistMovementinIndonesiabetweenthetwoWorld
Wars.HowdidJapaneseoccupationoflandinfluencethecourseoftheMovement?
DescribethegrowthofnationalmovementsinAsiaaftertheFirstWorldWar.NametheAsian
countrieswhichwontheirindependencebetween1919and1939
TracethehistoryofthefreedommovementsinAsiancountries.
WhatwerethemainaimsoftheforeignpolicyoftheUnitedStates?Whatwasthereasonfor
themilitaryinterventionoftheUnitedStatesinVietnam?Whatwereitsconsequences?
WhatwastheimpactofthePortugueserevolutionof1974onthePortuguesecoloniesin
Africa?
Whatismeantbynonalignment?Whydidmostofthenewlyindependentcountriesfollow
thispolicy?
TracethehistoryofthefreedommovementsinAfrica
DescribethechangeswhichhavetakenplaceinSouthAfricaafter1989
TracethedevelopmentsthatledtothecollapseoftheSovietUnion.
DescribethemainchangeswhichhaveoccurredinGermanyandthecountriesofSouthern
Europesince1989
DiscussthefactorswhichledtotheweakeningofimperialismaftertheSecondWorldWar
SomecountriesofAsiahadbecomemembersofmilitaryalliances.Doyouthinkithelpedin
strengtheningtheirindependence?Why?Orwhynot?Giveargumentswithexamples
DiscusstheimpactoftheemergenceofAsianandAfricancountriesasindependentnations
ontheworld.
DoyouthinkthepostColdWarworldisasaferplacetoliveinandthereisnodangerofany
countrydominatingoverothercountriesunliketheColonialtimes?

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