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- Signal Processing: An International Journal (SPIJ), Volume (4) : Issue (2)
- Application of Signal Analysis for Fault Diagnosis in Transformer by Discrete Wavelet Transform
- Wate Marking
- Application of Wavelet Synchrosqueezing Transform
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- Final Year Project - Medical Image Classification Using Support Vector Machine
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- 01501881 SPIHT Image Compression on FPGAs
- Influence of Coupling Capacitor Voltage
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- Lung_Sound_Recognition_Algorithm_Based_on_VGGish-B.pdf

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National Taiwan Ocean University

Keelung 202, Taiwan, ROC

Email: bQM&&ul.ntou.edu.hy

ABSTRACT

In this paper, *e propose a novel method of encoding an

image without blocky effects. The method mcorporates

the wavelet transform and a self-development neural

network-Vitality Conservabon (VC) network [11 to

acheve sigtllficant mprovement in mage compression

performance The implementationconsists of three steps.

First, the image is decomposed at different scales using

wavelet transform to obtain an orthogonal wavelet

representation of the image Each band can be

subsequently processed in parallel. At the second step,

the discrete Karhunen-Loeve transform is used to extract

the pmcipal components of the wavelet coefficients.

Thus, the processing speed can be much faster than

otherwise. Fmally, results of the second step are used as

input to the VC network for vector quanbzation Our

simdabon results show that such implementauon can, in

much less time, achieve superior reconstructed images to

other methods [2].

1.

the VC network. Before training the VC network, we

first apply the dlscrete Karhunen-Loeve transform to

wavelet coefficients to obtain an optimal set of basis data.

Doing so can greatly reduce the quantizatoin errors and

training time. The block diagram of the compression

system is shown in Fig. 1. The organization of h s paper

is as follow. Section 2 briefly describes the wavelet

transforms used in t h ~ spaper and a quick review of

wavelets in general. In Section 3 we briefly describe the

discrete Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) "form

which is used

to transform the wavelet coefficients. Section 4

introduces the VC network, followed by simulation

results in Section 5.

Wavelet transforms are multiresolution decompositions

that can be used to analyze signals and images. They

describe a signal by the power at each scale and position

Edges can be located very effectively in the wavelet

transform domain. For image processing applications,

one can use the hierarchical wavelet decomposition by

Mallat [4]. The G and H filters are applied to the image

in both the horizontal and vertical directions, and the

filter outputs subsampled by a factor of two, generating

three orientation selective high-pass subbands, GG, GH,

HG, and a low-pass subband HH. The process is then

repeated on the HH band to generate the next level of the

decomposition, and so on. As shown in Fig. 2, one

octave of decomposition leads to four subbands. Fig. 3

shows the wavelet image of Lena decomposed in this

manner. Therefor, ten subbands are obtained by iterating

three times of such decomposition. The low-resolution

INTRODUCTION

tranmt digtal images requving high bit-rates over

channels mth lmted bandwdth, have demanded

improved image compresslon techruques Neural

network and wavelet transform [5] have been used for

mage compression with some success in the past.

Unsupemsed networks based on compeatwe learning

algorithms [3] have been successfully applied to learmng

vector quantlzatlon In th~s paper, we apply a

compebtive type self-development neural network,

namely the VC network [l] to l e m g vector

quanUzatlon The purpose of this study is to design an

4104

the frequency of a node being accessing by input vectors

largely depends on input distribution. In practice, the real

winning probability of each node cannot be possibly

known. So one can define vitality vdo for an arbitrary kh

node as the measure of wining frequency &er an input

presentation at time t. Since the winning node is the only

node that has the right to update its weight vector, after

the kh node is a selected as the winning node, we not

only update its weight vector, but also add Av+(Q to uk(r).

On the other han4 a quantity of do-(@ is subtracted

from vital~ty of rest non-wining nodes. Vitality

consewation is defined as

produce one low-resollution version of the image and six

subbands which contain image details.

The wavelet decomposition is an alternative

representation of images. To compress an input image

data using transform, we have to decide which

coefficients to send and how many bits to encode them.

Our compression algorithm consists of talung the lowpass subband in full, and then deciding which

coefficients within tlhe remaining subbands to keep.

Hence, the basic idea is this: the smaller the support of

the wavelet, the less nonzero wavelet coefficients will

correspond to an edge:, so the more efficient will be our

compression scheme. In this work, we choose the

Daubechies-4 wavelet [5]. The second step of the

compression system is to apply the discrete KarhunenLoeve transform to the coefficients other than the wresolution subband. .

M/t

k=l

an initial vitality I.@), the vitality U&) at time t can be

formulated as

where

principal component analysis, is an optimal transform in

the sense of mean-squareerror and is useful in a variety

of applications such as data compression, image

processing, and pattem recognition. IUT is an

orthogonal transform whose basis vectors are

eigenvectors of the specified covariance matrix of input

data. At the second stage in Fig.l, we use the discrete

KLT to extract the remaining subbands. Then the

Karhunen-Loeve Expansion (KLE) will give the optunal

set of basis vectors [6]. The KLE projects the ndimensional data vectors onto the k-dimensional

subspace spanned .by the k eigenvectors which

correspond to the k largest eigenvalues of the covariance

matrix of the data set ( n > k). Due to the decrement in

dimensions of the data, the processing speed at next

stage can be much faster, and the resulting compression

ratio higher than other methods. In the following, we

propose a selfdevelqpment neural network to quantize

the results of the second stage.

Wk(i) =

otherwise

0,

(3)

exceeds a threshold Ob,, in order to achieve better

codeword representations, a new node is generated from

the high vitahty node. Note that a mother node is always

a winning node, but the reverse is not true. Also assume

at t=m-Z the vitality of a winning node udm-1)2 q-.

Given the fact that equal parhtioning the probability

space yields maximum entropy, the new born node and

its mother node should share the vitality equally.

Therefore, after a node-generation the vitality of the new

node (and its mother node) is given by

(4)

learning rate q(!, is used and its initialization has great

effect on the final results. Normally any initial value ??,&

(0< qw, < I) monotonically decayed by a factor y (e.g.

0.9) can do the job. In order to speed up the learning

process, the original region represented by nwrnshould be

partitioned as quickly as possible into two equal regions.

This can be achieved if larger values of q(t) is assigned

In this Section we de!;crilx the selfdevelopment neural

network based on competitive leaming in conjunction

4105

growing in node number may result in early convergence

(at

10.001), and ends up incomplete training. Thus,

it is vital to keep growing speed and quality of l e a m g

in balance during the traimng process. To avoid the

insufficient learning, it is mportant that the next new

node not be generated until after sufficient number of

input vectors has been presented.

31.673 dE3. Using a bit rate of 0.058 bpp, the PSNR can

be 30.012dJ3, as shown in Fig.4(c). Therefore, our

proposed method indeed can preserve the image details

and edges very well, whtch is particularly evident in the

ham of the compressed Lena image in Fig.4(b) and

Fig.4(c)

5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

compression that incorporate the wavelet transform and

VC neural network. The wavelet transform used here

attempts to exploit the blocky effect of the human eye,

pelding encouraging results. The discrete KLT gives the

optimal set of basis vector so that image quality and

speed of training network can be improved sigIllficantly.

After KLT, we train the VC network for learning VQ

applied to image compression. We have empirically

shown that the proposed method can achieve high

compression ratio while maintaining good visual quality

through the use of bit allocation in the subimages.

6. CONCLUSIONS

performance is measured by using the Mean-Squared

Error (MSE)

MSE =

1

-E

E(?;

- f j ) 2

,=1

psm

= 10 log 1o

[-]

f (m, )

is the

7. REFERENCES

compressed images, we will use the PSNR.

VQ, Neural Processing Letters. Vol. 5, 3, pp. 209217, 1997.

T. De* K. Pwhi, and V. Cherkassky, Combining

neural networks and the wavelet transform for

image compression, Proc. IEEE Intnl Con$,

pp.637-640, 1993.

S. C. Ahalt, A. K. Krishnamuthy, P. Chen, and D. E.

Melton, Competitive learning algorithms for

vector quantization, Neural Networks., vol. 3, pp.

277-290, Oct. 1990.

S. Mallat, A theory for multiresolution signal

decomposition; The wavelet representation, IEEE

Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 11, pp. 674693, 1989.

I. Daubechies, Orthonormal bases of compactly

Lena, as shown in Fig. 4(a). The image is 512x512

pixels in size. The PSNR values are calculated. Our

results achieve better picture quality for a given

compression ratio than the standard image compression

methods. The performance of our approach is compared

to other compression approaches. Among the diflerent

methods reported, we consider four well-known methods:

Ho and Gersho obtained a result of PSNR =30.93dl3 at

0.36 bpp, using the variable-rate multistage VQ [7].

High PSNR values were obtained by Amir Averbuch,

Danny Lazar and Moshe Israeli used entropy coded and

LGB algorithtq and they achieved PSNR = 31.76dE3 at

0.136 bpp [SI. Also,Mare Antonini, and Michel Barlaud

had PSNR=30.85-dB at 0.37 bpp [ 9 ] .Finally, the EZW

method achmed PSNR=33.17dl3 at 0.25bpp and 27.54

dl3 at 0.0625 bpp [lo].

R. C. Gonzalez and P. Wintz, Digital Image

Processing, Addison-Wesley, 1987.

Y. Ho and A. Gersho, Variable-rate multi-stage

vector quatization for image coding, in Proc.

IEEE ICASP, New York, Apr. 1988.

A. Averbuch, D. Lazar and M. Israeli, Image

abundant throughout the image compression literature.

Lena is compressed using out method to a bit rate of

0.150 bpp, as shown in Fig. 4(b). The resulting PSNR is

4106

[lo] J. M. Shapiro, Embedded image codmg using

zerotrees of wavelet coefficients, Signal proc.

IEEE Trans. vol. 41, pp. 3445-3462,Dec. 1993.

multiresolution dwomposition, Image proc. IEEE

Trans. vol. 5, pp. 4-15, Jan. 1996.

[9] M. Antonini and M. Barlaud, Image coding using

wavelet transfom~,Image Proc. IEEE Trans. vol.

Low-resolution

subband

-7bFHGd

KLTI

Image

==$

VCNI

ReconstImage

ruction %ssed

Waveet

decomp

osi-tion

==$

KLT3

==$

VCN3

=-=)

LL subband

oflewl8

512

HL subband

~

jj

256

:

LH subband

Ofleve18

I1

HH wbband

le$8

256

256

256

image is divided into four subbands using separate filters.

4107

@@-pass coefficientstimes 4).

PSNR = 3 1.673. (c) compressed image at 0.058 bpp, PSNR = 30.0 12

41 08

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