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25th ARRB Conference Shaping the future: Linking policy, research and outcomes, Perth, Australia 2012

STUDY ON WASTE POLYVINYL CHLORIDE MODIFIED


BITUMEN FOR PAVING APPLICATIONS
Ambika Behl, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute, India
P.K Jain, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute, India
Girish Sharma, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute, India
ABSTRACT
The world is facing a waste crisis from the most problematic plastic produced today:
polyvinylchloride (PVC). For years throw-away products made of PVC have been a leading cause of
dioxin pollution in incinerators and when burned in fires. In this study PVC pipe waste has been
used as a modifier up to a level of 3% and 5% in making bituminous product for paving application.
PVC is not compatible with bitumen, therefore to make a homogeneous blend, waste PVC was
initially treated with a chemical and then blended with bitumen. The visco-elastic properties of the
bitumen-PVC blend such as storage modulus, loss modulus and phase angle were studied and
compared with those of unmodified bitumen. Later the performance characteristics of bituminous
mix made up of these modified binders were also studied and compared with those of conventional
bituminous mix. The results indicate that PVC pipe waste can be used successfully in road
construction. Strength and stability of the mix increased after incorporation of PVC pipe waste, it
was also observed that addition of PVC pipe waste showed increased resistance to permanent
deformation in terms of rutting.

INTRODUCTION
Today, every vital sector of the economy starting from agriculture to packaging, automobile, building
construction, communication or info tech have been virtually revolutionized by the applications of
plastics. Use of this non-biodegradable (according to recent studies, plastics can stay as
long as 4500 years on earth) product is growing rapidly and the problem is that what to do with
plastic-waste (Bale 2011). If a ban is put on the use of plastics on emotional grounds, the real cost
would be much higher, the inconvenience much more, the chances of damage or contamination
much greater, the risks to the family health and safety would increase and, above all the
environmental burden would be manifold. Hence the question is not Plastics vs. No Plastics but it
is more concerned with the judicious use and re-use of plastic-waste. India has witnessed a
substantial growth in the consumption of plastics and increased production of plastic waste (Verma
2008 and Nair 2011). The plastic waste is now considered as environmental hazard due to the
throw away culture.
If we are to achieve sustainable development, we will need to display greater responsibility
for the ecosystems on which all life depends, for each other as a single human community,
and for the generations that will follow our own, living tomorrow with the consequences of the
decisions we take today. (ICPE 2011)
The world is facing a waste crisis from the most problematic plastic produced today:
polyvinylchloride or PVC, commonly called vinyl. World production of PVC today is at more than 20
million tonnes per year up from 3 million tonnes in 1965 (Greenpeace 2011.).
Bitumen is a useful binder for road construction. The steady increase in high traffic intensity in terms
of commercial vehicles, and the significant variation in daily and seasonal temperature demand

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improved road characteristics. Any improvement in the property of the binder is the need of the hour
(Sangita et al. 2011). The addition of polymers typically increases the stiffness of the bitumen and
improves its temperature susceptibility. Increased stiffness improves the rutting resistance of the
mixture in hot climates and allows the use of relatively softer base bitumen, which in turn, provides
better low temperature performance (Awwad et al. 2007 and Zainab et al. 2011). Use of waste
plastic in bitumen has revealed improved performance, stability, strength and fatigue life, reduction
in overall rutting, and low-temperature cracking of the bituminous surfacing. Apart from solving the
problem of waste disposal, addition of waste plastics in bituminous mix results in reduction in
consumption of bitumen thereby resulting in overall cost reduction (Sabina et al. 2009 and
Vasudevan 2006).
Salient features of the polymer-waste-bitumen mix road (Bale 2011, Vasudevan 2006, Mauskar
2008):

road strength is twice stronger than normal roads

resistance towards water stagnation, plastic in bitumen provides im-permeability to the mix

less bleeding during summer

burning of plastics waste could be avoided

it doesnt increase cost of road construction

it helps to reduce the consumption of bituminous mix vis--vis reduce cost

it helps in protecting our environment from waste plastic.

In this study we report the reuse of waste of PVC pipes in the modification of bitumen for paving
applications. The visco-elastic properties of the modified bitumen and the mechanical properties of
the bituminous mix produced by this modified bitumen are investigated and compared to the neat
bitumen.

EXPERIMENTAL
Materials: Shredded PVC pipe waste (2-4 mm) materials were obtained from a local recycler. The
VG-10 grade paving bitumen from Mathura refinery of India was used. The physical properties of
bitumen are described in Table 1. The mineral aggregate (coarse aggregate (13.2 mm and 6 mm),
fine aggregates (stone dust), lime powder) was obtained from the local quarry and its physical
properties are given in Table 2.
Table 1: Properties of bitumen (VG-10)
Properties

Test Method

Value

Specification IS 73: 2006

Penetration, (25 C, 100 g, 5 s), 0.1 mm

IS 1203-1978

81

80-100

Softening point (ring and ball), C

IS 1205-1978

48

> 40

Ductility at 25 C (5 cm/min)

IS 1208-1978

75+

>75

Specific gravity

IS 1202-1978

>0.99

Viscosity at 60 C, poise

IS 1206-1978

976

>800

Viscosity at 135 C, Cst

IS 1206-1978

270

>250

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Table 2: Properties of mineral aggregates (granite)


Properties

Test Method

Value

MoRTH Specifications

Aggregate impact value, %

IS 2386 (Part IV)

21

24 max

Water absorption value, %

IS 2386 (Part III)

2 max

Specific gravity,

IS 2386 (Part II)

2.63-2.65

2.5-3.0

Combined (EI + FI) Index, %

IS 2386 (Part I)

21.25

30 max

Notes:
El: Elongation Index.
FI: Flakiness Index.

Preparation of blends: Mixing was performed in laboratory using an arrangement of oven, fitted
with a stirrer having a speed regulating system. The frequency of the stirrer was 2000 rpm for
preparing the blends and the time taken was 2-3 hrs. The waste PVC particles were thoroughly
washed and dried at 60 C. After washing the waste PVC was treated with a chemical for
homogeneous dispersion into bitumen. Treated PVC waste material was then used to modify neat
bitumen at two different percentages, 3% and 5% by wt of bitumen. The blends were prepared at a
temperature of 180 C. The resultant blend was stored at room temperature for further work. The
physical properties of bitumen with different percentages of PVC are given in Table 3.
Table 3: Properties of 80/100 pen bitumen with different percentage of PVC content
Properties

%PVC in bitumen 80/100 pen


3% pvc

5% pvc

Penetration at 25 C, 100 g, 5 sec. 1/10 mm

55

44

Softening point, C

55

58

Elastic recovery, %

32

25

4.30

5.0

Viscosity, 150 C, poise

Design of Bituminous Concrete (BC) mix: In the present study 30-45 mm BC mix was designed
as per Indian Road congress (IRC) guidelines section 500-18. The aggregates were blended to
obtain the values of standard BC grading given in Table 4 as specified by Indian Road Congress
(IRC).

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Table 4: Gradation of aggregate in BC mixtures


Sieve Size
(mm)

Percent passing
Specified limits (IRC 500-18)

Adopted

19.0

100

100

13.2

79-100

96.2

9.5

70-88

86.3

4.75

53-71

62.6

2.36

42-58

44.1

1.18

34-48

36.6

0.600

26-38

30.6

0.300

18-28

27

0.15

12-20

18.1

0.075

4-10

7.6

Specimen Preparation: As per the MoRTH (Ministry of Roads and Transport, India) specification
for BC mix, when the specimens are compacted with 75 blows on either face, the designed BC mix
should fulfil the following requirements:
1. Marshall stability value kg (minimum)

= 900

2. Marshall flow value, mm

= 2 to 4

3. Voids in total mix, Vv %

= 3 to 5

4. Voids in mineral aggregates filled with bitumen, VFB %

= 65 to 75

Marshall Samples were made for each binder content at mixing and compaction temperature of
155-160 C and tested for determining the optimum binder content of the mix. The properties at
various percentages of binder content are given in Table 5.
Table 5: Marshall Parameters at various binder percentages
Binder %
by wt. of
mix

Bulk
density,
Gb, gm/cc

Stability,
kg

Flow (mm)

% Air
voids, Vv

VFB* (%)

VMA* (%)

4.76

2.34

1225

3.3

5.74

66.01

16.87

5.21

2.35

1357

3.5

4.65

72.42

16.87

5.66

2.36

1019

3.8

3.66

78.33

16.87

6.1

2.35

910

4.1

3.06

88.39

17.4

* VFB voids filled with bitumen, VMA voids in mineral aggregates.

The optimum binder content was calculated to be 5.5%. The marshal parameters for mixes
prepared with different percentages of PVC pipe waste are given in Table 6.

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Table 6: Marshall parameters of bituminous mix prepared with different percentages of PVC
waste
%pvc

Binder %
by wt. of
mix

Gt*
(g/cc)

Gb*
(g/cc)

% Air
voids,
Vv

% VMA

% VFB

Stability

Control

5.5

2.45

2.35

4.08

17.01

76

1116

5.5

2.45

2.36

3.67

16.65

77.94

1372

5.5

2.45

2.37

3.27

16.3

79.97

2196

* Gt theoretical specific gravity of the mix, Gb bulk density of the marshal specimen.

Rheology of modified bituminous binders: The viscoelastic response of the modified bituminous
binders was evaluated using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer with parallel plate geometry by
measuring complex shear modulus and phase angle. Measurements were taken in the temperature
range 50 C to 85 C. The 25 mm steel plate was used, the gap width set was 1 mm and all
measurements were taken at a frequency of 10 rad/s. The DSR measures a specimen's complex
shear modulus (G*) and phase angle (). The complex shear modulus (G*) can be considered the
sample's total resistance to deformation when repeatedly sheared, while the phase angle (), is the
lag between the applied shear stress and the resulting shear strain. The specified DSR oscillation
rate of 10 rad/s (1.59 Hz) is meant to simulate the shearing action corresponding to a traffic speed
of about 55 mph (90 km/hr). G* and are used as predictors of HMA rutting and fatigue cracking.
Early in pavement life rutting is the main concern, while later in pavement life fatigue cracking
becomes the major concern. While performing the test, the samples were denoted as:
Sample 1: pen 80/100 + 3% PVC
Sample 2: pen 80/100
Sample 3: pen 80/100 + 5% PVC
Figures 1 to 6 shows the viscoelastic behavior of PVC waste modified binders and the neat binder
i.e. pen 80/100.
G is defined as the ability of the material to store energy in the cycle of the deformation and G is
the energy dissipated as heat in the cycle. G and G are plotted as a function of temperature at
constant frequency of 10 radians/sec in Figures 1 and 2.

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10000

Sample 1: 80/100 + 3% PVC


Sample 2: 80/100
Sample 3: 80/100 + 5% PVC

1000

100.0

G'(Pa)

10.00

1.000
50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0
temperature(C)

75.0

80.0

85.0

Figure 1: Effect of addition of PVC pipe waste on storage modulus

Sample 1: 80/100 + 3% PVC


Sample 2: 80/100
Sample 3: 80/100 + 5% PVC

1.000E5

10000

G''(Pa)
1000

100.0
50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0
temperature(C)

75.0

80.0

85.0

Figure 2: Effect of addition of PVC pipe waste on loss modulus

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Sample 1: 80/100 + 3% PVC


Sample 2: 80/100
Sample 3: 80/100 + 5% PVC

10000

1000

|n*|(Pa.s)

100.0

10.00
50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0

75.0

80.0

85.0

temperature(C)

Figure 3: Effect of addition of PVC pipe waste on complex viscosity

Sample 1: 80/100 + 3% PVC


Sample 2: 80/100
Sample 3: 80/100 + 5% PVC

1.000E5

10000

|G*|(Pa)
1000

100.0
50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0

75.0

80.0

85.0

temperature(C)

Figure 4: Complex modulus of neat and waste PVC modified binders at different
temperatures

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90.00

80.00

70.00

60.00

delta
(degrees)

Sample 1: 80/100 + 3% PVC


Sample 2: 80/100
Sample 3: 80/100 + 5% PVC

50.00

40.00

30.00

20.00

10.00

0
50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0

75.0

80.0

85.0

temperature(C)

Figure 5: Comparison of phase angle of neat and PVC waste modified binder

Sample 1: 80/100 + 3% PVC


Sample 2: 80/100
Sample 3: 80/100 + 5% PVC

100.0

10.00

G*/sin

1.000

0.1000
50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0

75.0

80.0

85.0

temperature(C)

Figure 6: Effect of addition of waste PVC on G*/sin

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Mix Performance Tests: A number of tests can be used to characterize the mechanical properties
of BC mixtures. The tests used in this study are retained stability, indirect tensile strength test and
wheel tracking test. Each of these tests is described in detail in the following sections.
Retained Stability Test: Retained Stability is the measure of moisture induced striping in the mix
and subsequent loss of stability due to weakened bond between aggregates and binder. The test
was conducted on the Marshall machine with the normal Marshall samples. The stability was
determined after placing the samples in water bath at 60 C for half an hour and 24 hours.
Retained Stability (%) =

Stability after 24 hours in water bath at 60 C x 100


Stability after 30 minutes in water bath at 60 C

The results are given in Table 7.


Table 7: Retained stability results
Type of mix

Avg. stability
after half an
hour in water
at 60 C

Avg. stability
after 24
hours in
water at 60 C

Avg. retained
stability %

Pen 80/100 bitumen

1116

839

75.2%

1372

1098

80%

2196

1804

82.2%

Pen 80/100 + 3%PVC


Pen 80/100 + 5%PVC

Design
requirement

Minimum 75%
(as per MoRTH
Table 500-17)

Indirect Tensile Strength Test and Tensile Strength Ratio: The tensile strength determined by
tests other than the straight pull test is designated as indirect tensile strength. This test method
measures the splitting tensile strength of bituminous mix specimens by the application of a
diametric compressive force on a cylindrical bituminous mix specimen placed with its axis horizontal
between the plates of a compressive testing machine. The indirect tensile test, which is tensile
strain at failure, is useful in predicting the cracking potential. The test procedure adopted for indirect
tensile and tensile strength ratio was as per AASHTO T283. The test temperature is maintained at
25 C and the specimens are conditioned at 25 C for 2 hours prior to the test. A 0.5 inch (12.7 mm)
wide curved loading strips used to provide a uniform stress distribution. The load at which the
specimen fails is taken as the indirect tensile strength (also referred as the dry indirect tensile
strength) of the bituminous mix.
The tensile strength ratio of the bituminous mixes is used to determine the moisture susceptibility of
the mixes. The standard Marshall samples are prepared for each binder. The specimens are placed
in the water bath maintained at 60 C for 24 hours and then immediately placed in the
environmental chamber maintained at 25 C for two hours. These conditioned samples are then
tested for Indirect Tensile Strength. The indirect tensile strength of these soaked samples are called
wet indirect tensile strength. The ratio of the wet to dry indirect tensile strength is recorded as
Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) of the bituminous mix.
Indirect tensile strength of the specimen is calculated as follows:

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Where, P is the load (kg), d is the diameter in cm of the specimen; t is the thickness of the
specimen in cm. The TSR of specimen was computed by following formula:

Tensile Strenght Ratio TSR

ITS of Conditioned Specimen Set


ITS of Unconditional Specimen Set

100

Results of tensile strength and TSR are given in Table 8.


Table8: Tensile strength ratio
Type of mix

Avg. dry ITS


(kg/cm2)

Avg. wet ITS


(kg/cm2)

Pen 80/100 bitumen

12.15

9.67

Tensile
strength ratio
(%)
79.6

Pen 80/100 + 3%PVC

13.03

10.94

84

Pen 80/100 + 5%PVC

17.43

15.33

87.9

Design
requirement
Minimum 80%
(as per MoRTH
Table 500-17)

Rut depth studies by wheel tracking test: Rutting is an important parameter for design as well as
for evaluation of performance of a bituminous mixture. To check the rutting resistance of the
mixtures, tests were performed by Wheel Tracking Device (WTD), which is destructive test and
involves direct contact between the loaded wheel and the rectangular test specimens. The test was
conducted on the prepared slab specimen of 300X150X50 mm at optimum binder content
containing PVC pipe waste. The test was conducted at 50 C and the resulting rut depth was
measured. The data of rut depth of different BC mixtures are plotted in Figure 1. Also the rut depth
in different cycle range is presented in Table 9. Photo1 shows the view of rutted slabs.
Table 9: Wheel tracking results
No. of passes

Conventional 80/100

Rut depth (mm)


pen 80/100 + 3%pvc

pen 80/100 + 5%pvc

1260

5.82

3.46

2.05

2520

7.32

4.38

2.69

3780

8.26

4.94

3.91

5040

8.96

5.15

4.45

6300

9.29

5.8

5.23

7560

10.01

5.59

8820

10.44

6.56

5.81

10080

10.73

6.88

6.24

11340

11.08

7.09

6.52

12600

11.37

7.57

6.81

13860

11.66

8.01

7.26

15120

11.96

8.37

7.56

16380

12.47

8.63

7.81

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25th A
ARRB Confere
ence Shaping
g the future: Linking policy, research
r
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outcomes, Perth, Australia 2
2012

Photo 1: View of ru
utted slabs

Fig
gure 7: Rut depths
d
vers
sus No. of pa
asses

RES
SULTS AND DISC
CUSSION
N
Physical propertie
es of bitumen
n and minerall aggregate are
a shown in Table 1 and 2 respective
ely.
Resullts of test on aggregate given in Table
e 2 indicate th
hat test value
es meet requirement of In
ndian
Road Congress sp
pecifications (IRC SP 79 2008). Classsification tests were perfo
ormed on bitu
umen,
and th
he results show that the b
bitumen used
d is well withiin the limits of
o pen 80/100
0 bitumen. Similar
tests w
were also pe
erformed on b
blends prepa
ared by mixin
ng 3% and 5%
% of PVC pip
pe waste in to
o pen
80/10
00 bitumen. R
Results are given in Table
e 3 and the re
esults show that the addittion of waste PVC
increa
ases the stiffn
ness of the b
binder. Resultts given in Ta
able 4 showss that the agg
gregate propo
ortions
selectted were welll within the IR
RC specified
d limits. Data given in Table 5 reveals tthat the optim
mum
bitumen content iss 5.5% by we
eight of mix a
and also mee
ets the requirements as de
escribed in IR
RC
sectio
on 500-18.
Visco
oelastic Response of Binder: Resultts in Figures 1 and 2 show
w a decrease
e of G and G
G
modu
uli with increa
asing tempera
atures. G an
nd G moduli of bitumen-w
waste PVC blends are hig
gher
than tthose of neatt bitumen ove
er the entire temperature range as shown in Figure
es 1 and 2. The
T
increa
ase in G refle
ects the incre
ease in the stiffness of the
e bitumen ble
ends, compa
ared with thatt of
pure bitumen.
b
Butt the increase
e in G indica
ates an increa
ase in the visscous respon
nse. The storrage
modu
ulus (G) of wa
aste PVC mo
odified binde
er was higherr than neat biitumen as sh
hown in Figurre 1. It is
maxim
mum for the b
bitumen mod
dified with 5%
% waste PVC
C. The loss modulus (G) of
o modified b
blend

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was significantly higher than the neat bitumen as shown in Figure 2. Higher values of loss modulus
indicate more resistance of the binder to permanent deformation.
Figure 3 shows an increase in complex viscosity by the addition of waste PVC to bitumen over the
entire temperature range. The complex viscosity reduces with increasing temperatures but it is
more for bitumen blends. Figure 4 shows almost linear relationship between complex modulus G*
and temperature. The slopes of the lines are similar for both (3% and 5%) waste PVC modified
bitumen but is higher than the neat bitumen. The 5% waste PVC modified bitumen has the highest
modulus in the temperature range as shown in the Figure 4. Higher modulus at high temperature
indicates better resistance to permanent deformation (rutting).
Figure 5 shows that the phase angle () of waste pvc modified bitumen was lower than that of neat
bitumen. The phase angle of 5% waste PVC modified bitumen was considerably lower than that of
unmodified bitumen. Lower phase angle indicates lower viscous flow and higher elastic response.
This indicates that polymer modified binders have high consistency and elasticity. Figure 6 shows
there was an increase in the G*/sin parameter of the original binder when the waste PVC was
mixed. This indicates that the stiffness of the modified binder increases with the increase in the
percentage of PVC and decreases with the increase in the temperature.
Performance of the Mix: Results given in Table 7 indicates that retained stability of the mix
increased with the incorporation of waste PVC. This indicates that the bond between the aggregate
and the binder becomes stronger with the addition of waste PVC particles. When 3% waste PVC
was added the retained stability of the mix increased up to a value of 80% from 75.5% of the neat
binder and when 5% waste PVC was added the retained stability of the mix increased up to a value
of 82.2%.
The tensile strength ratio of the bituminous mixes determines the moisture susceptibility of the
mixes. TSR is widely accepted test to address damage caused by the ingress of moisture. The
values of TSR of BC containing 3% and 5% waste PVC are recorded as 84% and 87.9% in
comparison to the 79.6% of the control BC mix.
Rutting is a key factor for design as well as evaluation of the performance of bituminous concrete
mixtures. It can be seen from Table 9 and Figure 7 that observed rut depth values for 3% and 5%
waste PVC modified mixes are much lower than that of control mix. Data plotted in Figure 7 indicate
that higher resistance to rutting is observed when waste PVC is added to the binder, indicating
better resistance to permanent deformation. The same was also observed while studying the
viscoelastic response of the waste PVC modified binder, where it showed higher values of complex
modulus,G* in case of modified binders. The increased rutting resistance due to the addition of
waste PVC particles is because of better moisture resistance of the mix containing waste PVC and
also due to the better strength of the mix achieved.

CONCLUSIONS
Based on the results of the laboratory study the following conclusion can be drawn:

PVC pipe waste can be successfully used in paving applications.

The addition of PVC pipe waste to the bitumen enhances both the binders as well as the
mixs properties.

Waste PVC modified binder showed better G and G values which concludes to the
increased stiffness of the binder as well as better viscous response of the binder.

Improved phase angle and complex modulus values were achieved after addition of waste
PVC to the binder. It shows better resistance to the permanent deformation of the mix as
compared to the mix prepared by neat VG 10 binder.

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Use of waste PVC led to the increase in values of indirect tensile strength to resist cracking.

Addition of waste PVC reduced the rutting values of the bituminous mix to a greater extent.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Sincere thanks are due to Dr. S. Gangopadhyaya Director CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi 110025 for his permission to publish this paper.

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AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES
Ambika Behl: is a Scientist in Flexible Pavement Division at CSIR-CRRI. She is working in this
area from last 5 years. She is a Chemical Engineer with Masters Degree in Polymer Technology
and is currently pursuing her PhD in the area of Warm Mix Asphalt from IIT Roorkee, India. She has
done many research projects in the area of modified binders for paving applications. She is a
member of Indian Road Congress and also a committee member of Bureau of Indian Standard.
Dr P.K. Jain: is chief scientist and Head Flexible pavement division at CSIR_ Central Road
Research Institute, New Delhi-110025.He is also coordinator of Academy of Scientific and
Innovative Research and secretary research council. He is member of various committees of Indian
Road Congress and Bureau of Indian Standard. He has over 35 years research experience and
produced over 125 publications. He is responsible for developing a number of standards and
specifications for IRC and BIS related to flexible pavements and bituminous materials.

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25th ARRB Conference Shaping the future: Linking policy, research and outcomes, Perth, Australia 2012

Girish Sharma: is a technical officer in Flexible Pavement Division at CSIR-CRRI. He is a civil


engineer with masters degree in Transportation Engineering from IIT Delhi, India. He has worked in
many research and quality audit projects in the institute. He has a working experience of 14 years in
the area of design and construction of flexible pavements, characterization of pavement materials,
quality monitoring during construction of roads.
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The Author allows ARRB Group Ltd to publish the work/s submitted for the 25th ARRB Conference, granting
ARRB the non-exclusive right to:
publish the work in printed format
publish the work in electronic format
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The Author retains the right to use their work, illustrations (line art, photographs, figures, plates) and research
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including clearing all third party intellectual property rights and obtaining formal permission from their
respective institutions or employers before submission, where necessary.

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