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TRAF{SPORTASI DAN

LII{GKUNGAIY
(Trunsportation und the
Environment)

by
Putu Alit Suthanaya

Program Pascasarjana
Jurusan Teknik Sipil, Fakultas Teknik
LTh{IVERSITAS UDA}{]\{6

a-

MATERI:
. Sustainable Development
2. Sustainable Transportation
3. Effect of Traffic on the Environment
4. KebisinganLalu Lintas (Traffic Noise)
5. Polusi lJdara (Air Pollution)
6. Kapasitas Lingkungan (Environmental
Capacify)
7. Kecelakaan
Lintas (Traffic
1

Lalu

Accident)
8. Amdal
9. Andal Lalin
Literature:
OECD (1973) Effects of Traffic and Roads on the
Environment in Urban Areas. organization for Economic
Co-operation and Development. Paris

Beder, S. (1996) The Nature of Sustainable Development.


Scribe Publications. Newham. Australia.

Newman, P. and Kenworthy, J. (1999) Sustainability and


Cities: overcoming Automobile Dependence. Island Press.
USA.

1. SUSTAINABLE

DEVELOPMEI{T

DevelopmeLt. Economic Growth

and

Sustainabilit-v

r Development has usually been equated


with economic growth;
Economic growth has met the needs of
million of people for food, shelter and
clothing and many people have access
beyond those basic needs, improving
their standard of living and the quality of
their lives;
Most governments in the world aim to
achieve economic growth.

The two words sustainable and


development are contradictory.

Sustainable implies

the elements of

and

management of

long-terrn renewal, maintenance,


recycling, minimal raw material
exploitation

people's needs on a collective basis.

- Development can be interpreted as


economic growth. It can also mean
social, culfural and spiritual evolution.

Definition:
Sustainable Development is development
that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of the future
generations to meet their own needs {World
Commission on
Environment and
Development: Our Common Future, 1990,
p. 87)
This means that:
Economic activity which is carried out now
to meet current requirement should not
degrade or deplete the environment so much
that people will not be able to meet their
needs in the fufure.

Ecotrogically sustainable development

IJsing, conserving and enhancing the


communitylr resources so that ecological
process, on which life depends, are
maintained and the total quality of life, now

and

in the fufure, can be increased

(Commonwealth Government, I 990)

Principle of Sustainable Development


{Int e rnat i o nal Env ir o nm e nt al or g ani s at i o ns)

1. Respect and care for the cofirmunity of


life:
Development should not be at the
expense of other groups or later

generations.
All life on earth is part of one great
interdependent system, which
"

influences and depends on the nonliving components of the planets:


rocks, soils, waters and air.

/-

How to manage development so that


it does not threaten or eliminate other
species.

2. Improve the qualrty of human life:


The real aim of development is to

improve the quality of human life.


Economic growth is an important
component of development, but it
can not be a goal in itself nor can it
go on indefinitely.
Development is real only if it makes
our lives better in all respects such
as: a long and healthy life, education,
access to the resources needed for
standard of livirg, political freedom,
human right, freedom from violence.

3. Conserve the earth's vitality and


diversity
- Conserve

life support systems (the


ecological process that keep the

planet fit for life).

Conserve biodiversity (a11 species of


plants, animals and other organisms)
Ensure that uses
renewable
resources are sustainable (within the
resource's capacity for renewal).

of

4. Minimize the depletion of

rlon-

renewable resources.
- Minerals, oil, gas and coal are ltonrenewable, so they can not be used
sustainably. Their
can be
extended, for example, by recycling,
using less materials,
by
switching to renewable substitutes
where possible.

life

or

by

5. Keep within the " earth's

carrying

capacity

- Needs

a careful management that

bring human numbers and life styles


into balance.

6. Change personal attitudes and practices

- Society must promote values that


support the new ethic and discourage

those that are incompatible with


sustainabilify way of life.

7. Enable Communities to care fbr their


own environments

Communities can contribute to


decisions that affect them and play
an indispensable part in creating a
securely-based sustainable socief

8. Provide a national framework for


integrating development and
conservation

Treat each region as an integrated

system, taking account of the

interactions among land, ait, water,


organisms and human activities;

- Recognize that each system


influences and is influenced by
larger and smaller systems;

Consider people

as the

central

element;

Relate economic policy


env ironmen

tal carrying

to

cap ac ity ;

Promote technologies that

use

resources more efficiently;

Ensure that resource users pay the


fulI social costs of the benefits they
enjoy.

9. Create a global alliance

No nation is self-sufficient. If we are


to achieve global sustainability a
firm alliance must be established
among all countries;
The levels of development in the
world are unequal, and the lowerincome countries must be helped to
develop sustainably and protect their
environments;

Global and shared

resources,
especially the atmosphere, oceans
and shared ecosystems, can be

maruaged only on the basis of


cofirmon puqpose and resolve;
nations stand
gain from
sustainability, and are threatened if
we fail to attain it.

- All

to

The Concept of Sustainability_has Emergesl


from A Global Political Process

It has tried to bring together,


simultaneously, the most powerful needs
of our time:
l.The need for economic development to
overcome poverty;
2.The need for environmental protection
of air, water, soil, and biodiversity,
upon which we all ultimately depend;
3.The need for social justice and cultural
diversity to enable local communities
to express their values in solving these
issues.

Thus Sustainability simply means the


achievement

of

global

environmental

gains along with any economic and social


development.

Economic Development

Sustainable Ilevelopment

Community Development

Ecological Ilevelopment/

Environmental
Protection

Sustainabilitv Goals fbr Cities

The goal of sustainability in a city is the

reduction of the crty's use of nafural


recouraes and production of wastes, while
simultaneously improving its livability, so
that it can beffer fit within the capacities of
local, regional and global ecosystems.

Livability

-l
Resource

Inputs
Land, water,
food, energy,
building
material,
Other
resources

Dynamics of
settlements
Transportation
priorities,
Economic

priorities,
Cultural
priorities

Health, employmert,
income, education,
housiugr leisure
activities,
accessibility, urban
design quality,
community

Waste
outputs
Solid wastg liquid
wasteo toxics, sewage,

air pollutarts,
greenhouse gases,
waste heat, noise

The best way

to ensure reductions in

impact is to reduce resource inputs.

Table 1 Trends

in Certain per Capita

Material Flows in Sydney, 1970


and 1990

r970
Population
Resource Inputs
Energylcapita
Domestic
Commercial
Industrial
Transport
Waste Outputs
Sewage/capita
Air waste lcapita

- coz

rco

- SOx

r NOx
Particulates

2,790,000
88,589
MJ/cap
L0%

tr%
44%
35%

990
3,656,500
1

114,236
MJlcap
9%
6%
47%

38%

108 ton/cap 128 tonlcap


7 .6 ton/cap
9.3 ton/cap
7

.l ton/cap

2A5 kglcap

178 kg/cap

2l kg/cap

4.5 kglcap
18 kg lcap
5 kg/cap

20 kg lcap
31 kg/cap

Sustainability for a city is not only about


reducirg metabolic flows (resource inputs
and waste output*); rt must also be about
increasing human livability (social
amen ity, health, arrd well-being).

- How a city goes about achieving an


integrated approach to
sustainability?

all aspects of

comparisons can be made by


comparing indicators for resource use,
wastes, and livability in different cities. It
is possible to identiff those cities that have
something to contribute to policy debates

City

on sustainability.