Sunteți pe pagina 1din 4

MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION 60 (2009) 792 795

MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION 60 (2009) 792 – 795 Sigma phase morphologies in cast and aged super duplex
MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION 60 (2009) 792 – 795 Sigma phase morphologies in cast and aged super duplex
MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION 60 (2009) 792 – 795 Sigma phase morphologies in cast and aged super duplex
MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION 60 (2009) 792 – 795 Sigma phase morphologies in cast and aged super duplex

Sigma phase morphologies in cast and aged super duplex stainless steel

Marcelo Martins a,b, , Luiz Carlos Casteletti c,1

a SULZER BRASIL S/A, Brazil b São Paulo Salesian University Center (UNISAL), Americana Division, Av. Eng. João Fernandes G. Molina, 905 Distrito Industrial 13.213-080 Jundiaí-SP Brazil c Department of Materials, Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo (USP), Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400 13.566-590 São Carlos SP Brazil

ARTICLE DATA

ABSTRACT

Article history:

Solution annealed and water quenched duplex and super duplex stainless steels are

Received 22 July 2008

thermodynamically metastable systems at room temperature.

Accepted 15 January 2009

These systems do not migrate spontaneously to a thermodynamically stable condition

because an energy barrier separates the metastable and stable states. However, any heat

 

Keywords:

input they receive, for example through isothermal treatment or through prolonged

Metals

exposure to a voltaic arc in the welding process, cause them to reach a condition of stable

Heat treatment

equilibrium which, for super duplex stainless steels, means precipitation of intermetallic

Electron microscopy

and carbide phases. These phases include the sigma phase, which is easily identified from

Optical microscopy

its morphology, and its influence on the material's impact strength.

The purpose of this work was to ascertain how 2-hour isothermal heat treatments at 920 °C

and 980 °C affect the microstructure of ASTM A890/A890M GR 6A super duplex stainless

steel. The sigma phase morphologies were found to be influenced by these two aging

temperatures, with the material showing a predominantly lacy microstructure when heat

treated at 920 °C and block-shaped when heat treated at 980 °C.

© 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1.

Introduction

The sigma phase in 2205-type duplex stainless steels solution annealed at 1080 °C and water quenched, precipi- tates through the diffusion of chromium and molybdenum from the delta ferrite to the ferrite/austenite interfaces [1] . The δ / γ interface with high interfacial energy is considered the most favorable site for precipitation of this intermetallic phase. Nucleation of the sigma phase may also occur at the twin boundaries in the austenitic phase and in stacking dislocations.

Small M 23 C 6 -type chromium carbide particles of about 0.1 μm can also be found associated with the sigma phase at δ/γ interfaces. The interfacial precipitation of M 23 C 6 -type carbides is associated with the partition of carbon and chromium in the austenite and ferrite phases, respectively. M 23 C 6 carbide particles are sometimes found completely surrounded by rod-shaped sigma phase particles. Research has focused on the role of preformed particles of M 23 C 6 in the precipitation of the sigma phase in duplex stainless steels. It is thought these M 23 C 6 particles may be preferential sites for nucleation of the sigma phase [1].

Corresponding author. São Paulo Salesian University Center (UNISAL), Americana Division, Av. Eng. João Fernandes G. Molina, 905 Distrito Industrial 13.213-080 Jundiaí-SP Brazil. Tel.: +55 11 45892020; fax: +55 11 45892102. E-mail addresses: marcelo.martins@sulzer.com (M. Martins), castelet@sc.usp.br (L.C. Casteletti). 1 Tel.: +55 16 33739580; fax: +55 16 33739590.

1044-5803/$ see front matter © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.matchar.2009.01.005

MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION 60 (2009) 792 795

793

Table 1 Concentrations of the chemical elements in weight percent.

 

C(%)

Cr(%)

Mo(%)

Ni(%)

Si(%)

Mn(%)

Cu(%)

W(%)

N(%)

P(%)

0.016

25.69

3.80

7.18

0.74

0.52

0.716

0.736

0.22

0.027

Nb(%)

Ti(%)

Al(%)

V(%)

Zr(%)

Co(%)

Sn(%)

Pb(%)

S(%)

Fe(%)

0.014

0.005

0.016

0.049

0.065

0.055

0.007

0.002

0.008

Rest.

The delta ferrite of the duplex structure is usually a metastable phase at temperatures below 1000 °C. The austenitic phase grows spontaneously toward regions of delta ferrite when the material is cooled slowly after being solution annealed. M 23 C 6 particles initially precipitated at the δ/γ interface can become trappedin the regions of newly grown austenite. The preservation of M 23 C 6 particles in the sigma phase can be attributed to the low solubility of carbon in this phase. A lamellar structure composed of M 23 C 6 and γ particles can develop isothermally in 2205-type duplex stainless steels [2]. However, no lamellar mixture of γ and M 23 C 6 can be found in the same material when it is cooled continually, as in the case of solidification cooling, particularly if the carbon content is very low [2]. The preferential growth of these particles in the direction of the delta ferrite is due to the fact that the ferritic phase has a larger quantity of chromium atoms and offers greater diffusivity to this element than the austenitic phase. Hence,migration of the interface toward the ferrite is associated with growth of M 23 C 6 carbides and secondary austenite (γ 2 ). Finally, after the lamellar precipitation is completed, the sigma phase is formed at the front of the lamellar precipitates as a result of the second eutectoid decomposition.

2. Experimental Procedure

The material super duplex stainless steel was prepared in a foundry in a vacuum induction furnace with a 60 Hz network frequency and maximum power of 400 kW. The first step consisted of the foundry design of the test specimens measuring 25 mm in diameter by 300 mm in length using standard software, followed by simulation of the solidification process. The materi- al's chemical composition was identified by optical emission spectroscopy, using a spectrometer with 47 different channels. The solution annealing heat treatments recommended for these materials, as well as aging treatments, were applied in an electric furnace with a capacity of up to 1300 °C. The temperature employed for the solution heat treatment was 1160 °C and the aging temperatures were 920 °C and 980 °C applied for 2 h. Microstructural analysis was conducted in a light optical microscope equipped with a 35 mm film camera, and also with a scanning electron microscope.

3. Results and Discussion

The chemical composition of the material (ASTM A890/A890M Grade 6A [3]), identified by optical emission spectrometry, is described in Table 1 . Low titanium and aluminum contents are employed to avoid the formation of nitrides of these elements, which cause severe embrittlement of the material at both cryogenic and

room temperatures [4]. Niobium is kept at a low concentration because, at concentrations exceeding 0.10% in weight, this element also embrittles super duplex stainless steels [5]. Fig. 1 depicts the microstructures of the material in the conditions of as cast and solution annealed heat-treated at 1160 °C followed by quenching. Fig. 1 (a) shows a microstructure composed of a ferritic matrix in the background, clearly outlined austenite and sigma phase, which nucleated at the δ/γ interfaces and grew in the direction of the ferrite. The ferrite provides stabilizing elements such as chromium and molybdenum. Fig. 1 (b) shows only ferrite and austenite precipitated in the shape of an island. The ferrite/austenite interfaces, as well as the ferrite grain boundaries, are devoid of precipitated secondary phases. The solution annealing heat-treatment at 1160 °C followed by water quenching altered the morphology of the austenite, leaving it more refined and elongated. The aging heat treatments at 920 °C and 980 °C produced significant changes in the microstructure. The ferrite became

changes in the microstructure. The ferrite became Fig. 1 – Optical micrographs of the 6A super

Fig. 1 Optical micrographs of the 6A super duplex stainless steel: (a) in the as cast condition, and (b) solution annealed at 1160 °C and water quenched.

794

MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION 60 (2009) 792 795

794 MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION 60 (2009) 792 – 795 Fig. 2 – Microstructures after isothermal heat treatments

Fig. 2 Microstructures after isothermal heat treatments at (a) 920 °C, and (b) 980 °C.

filled with precipitates and, in the specific case of the treatment at 920 °C, it was almost completely consumed through the following eutectoid reaction:

δ σ + γ 2 :

Fig. 2 depicts optical micrographs of the ASTM A890 GR 6A super duplex stainless steel aged for 2 h at 920 °C and 980 °C. The aging heat treatment at 920 °C caused precipitation of the sigma phase with a predominantly lacy morphology, while the morphology of the austenitic phase, which precipitates in the solid state of these materials, showed a predominantly dendritic formation, unlike the solution annealed condition. On the other hand, the isothermal heat treatment at 980 °C also promoted precipitation of sigma phase in the form of blocks, albeit in smaller quantity. Note the small quantities of ferritic matrix and secondary austenite with a more refined morphology. In this case, the dendritic characteristic of the austenitic phase is less marked than in the sample treated at 920 °C. Scanning electron microscopy images, using secondary and back-scattered electrons, depict in great detail the morphologies of sigma phase precipitated at two different temperatures ( Fig. 3 ). Back-scattered electrons provide an image that takes into account the atomic weight of the chemical elements. Because it contains high concentrations of chromium and molybde- num, the sigma phase appears in a lighter shade of gray than

num, the sigma phase appears in a lighter shade of gray than Fig. 3 – SEM

Fig. 3 SEM micrographs showing: (a) Sample aged at 920 °C using secondary electrons, and (b) Sample aged at 980 °C using back-scattered electrons.

ferrite and austenite [6]. The ferrite and austenite phases, which appear in relief, are clearly visible because of mechan- ical polishing that has worn down the softer phase (γ ) more than the harder one ( δ). This is not visible in the sample treated at 920 °C, which shows only two phases: austenite and sigma phase; the delta ferrite was completely consumed through the eutectoid reaction that produced the intermetallic phase (σ ) and the secondary austenite ( γ 2 ) [6].

4.

Conclusions

Solution annealing at 1160 °C led to complete dissolution of the sigma phase, which precipitated during solidification cooling.

Aging at 920 °C for 2 h caused precipitation of the sigma phase through the eutectoid dissolution of the delta ferrite in secondary austenite and sigma phase. The morphology of the intermetallic phase was mostly lacy, with no sign of precipitations in other geometric shapes.

The isothermal aging treatment at 980 °C altered the morphology of the lacy sigma phase into a block-shaped

MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION 60 (2009) 792 795

795

morphology with nucleation at the δ / γ interfaces and growth in the direction of the delta ferrite. At this specific temperature, the delta ferrite was not totally consumed through the eutectoid reaction. The morphology of the austenite in the aged material, especially the material aged at 920 °C, was predominantly dendritic, while the same phase was more refined in the solution heat-treated material.

REFERENCES

[1] Solomon HD, Devine TM. In: Lula RA, editor. Duplex stainless steels a tale of two phases. Metals Park, Ohio: ASM; 1982. p. 693 756. [2] Laycock NJ, Newman RC. Localized dissolution kinetics, salt films and pitting potentials. Corros Sci 1997;39(10 11):17719.

[3] American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM A890/ A890M-91. Standard practice for castings, iron chromium nickelmolybdenum corrosion resistant, duplex (austenitic/ferritic) for general application. Annual Book of ASTM Standards. V.01.02. Ferrous Castings; Ferroalloys. p.556 569, 1999. [4] Weber J, Schlapfer HW. Austeniticferritic duplex steels. Wintertur Switzerland: SULZER Brothers Limited; 1986. p. 110. [5] Rossitti, Sergio Mazzer. Efeito do nióbio na estrutura e nas propriedades mecânicas do aço inoxidável super duplex fundido SEW 410 W. Nr. 1.4517. Tese (Doutorado) Área Interunidades em Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, 2000. [6] Martins, M. Caracterização microestrutural-mecânica e resistência à corrosão do aço inoxidável super duplex ASTM A890 / A890M Grau 6A, Tese de Doutorado, Universidade de São Paulo, Interunidades EESC-IFSC-IQSC, 2006.