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Misterul razelor
cosmice a fost
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02.15.2013 | Vizualizri: 200

Razele cosmice ar putea sta la originea vieii pe Pmnt

raze cosmice+ZOOM

Galerie foto (1)

Razele cosmice particule de mare vitez ce lovesc n mod constant planeta noastr
i au originile n explozia supernovelor, confirm o nou cercetare ce rezolv acest
mister astronomic.
Protonii constituie 90% din aceste raze ce lovesc atmosfera Pmntului. Razele
cosmice au fost descoperit acum un secol de fizicianul austriac Victor Franz Hess.

Oamenii de tiin postulaser dou ipoteze pentru a explica originea acestor

protoni: exploziile supernovelor din galaxia noastr, Calea Lactee, sau jeturi
puternice de energie ce originau din guri negre aflate n alte locuri din Univers.
Majoritatea oamenilor de tiin nclinau spre ipoteza ce indica supernovele ca sursa
acestor raze cosmice, ns nu existau dovezi care s ateste acest lucru, explic
Stefan Funk, astrofizician la Universitatea Stanford i coautor al noii cercetri.
Noul raport a fost prezentat n cadrul conferinei anuale a AAAS (American
Association for the Advancement of Science), fiind totodat publicat n ediia de
astzi a jurnalului tiinific Science.
n ultimul secol am aflat multe lucruri noi despre razele cosmice, pe msur ce
acestea ajungeau aici. De asemenea, am avut suspiciuni puternice despre sursa
accelerrii lor, dar nu am avut dovezi clare n acest sens, a explicat Funk.
Folosind un instrument NASA, Telescopul Spaial Fermi Gamma-ray, cercettorii au
analizat de-a lungul a patru ani datele generate de rmiele a dou supernove
aflate la mii de ani-lumin distan de Terra, gsind astfel dovezile mult-cutate.
Pentru prima dat am putut detecta dovezile clare ce explic accelerarea protonilor.
Gndii-v c este vorba despre cele mai gigantice explozii din galaxia noastr, iar
acestea dau energie celor mai mici elemente pe care le cunoatem, a explicat Funk.
Rmiele supernovelor ce au permis aceast descoperire sunt cunoscute sub
numele de IC 443 i W44 i se afl la 5.000 i respectiv 9.500 ani-lumin de Terra,
conform NASA.
Cercettorii au descoperit c undele de oc ale supernovelor duc la accelerarea
protonilor aproape de viteza luminii, transformndu-i astfel n raze cosmice.
Atunci cnd aceti protoni energetici se ciocnesc cu protoni statici aflai n gaze sau
n praf, ei dau natere razelor gamma cu semnturi distincte, oferind astfel
cercettorilor dovezile ferme de care aveau nevoie pentru a confirma locul de
natere al razelor cosmice, a explicat Funk.
Cu toate acestea, nu au fost rezolvate toate misterele referitoare la razele cosmice.
Dei am demonstrat c rmiele supernovelor accelereaz razele cosmice,
urmtorul pas va fi s stabilim cu exactitate modul n care fac acest lucru i s
identificm pn la ce energii pot face asta, a mai spus Funk.

De asemenea, cercettorul a subliniat c exist anumite sugestii care afirm c

razele cosmice au produs primele mutaii ce au fcut viaa posibil pe Terra, fiind
posibil totodat ca ele s produc picturile de condens ce duc la formarea norilor.

This article is about the astronomical object. For other uses, see Quasar (disambiguation).

Artist's rendering of ULAS J1120+0641, a very distant quasar powered by a black hole with a
mass two billion times that of the Sun.[1] Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

Quasars (/kwezr/) or quasi-stellar radio sources are the most

energetic and distant members of a class of objects called active galactic
nuclei (AGN). Quasars are extremely luminous and were first identified as
being high redshiftsources of electromagnetic energy, including radio
waves and visible light, that appeared to be similar to stars, rather than
extended sources similar to galaxies. Their spectra contain very
broad emission lines, unlike any known from stars, hence the name
"quasi-stellar." Their luminosity can be 100 times greater than that of the
Milky Way.[2] Most quasars were formed approximately 12 billion years
ago, and they are normally caused by collisions of galaxies, with the
galaxies' central black holes merging to form either a supermassive black
hole[3]or a binary black hole system.
Although the true nature of these objects was controversial until the early
1980s, there is now a scientific consensus that a quasar is a compact
region in the center of a massive galaxy surrounding a
central supermassive black hole.[4] Its size is 1010,000 times

the Schwarzschild radius of the enclosed black hole. The energy emitted
by a quasar derives from mass falling onto the accretion disc around the
black hole.


Emission generation
History of observation
Role in celestial reference systems
Multiple quasars
See also

External links

Nature timeline
view discuss edit















Simple life
Complex life
Land life

Big Bang (-13.8)

Earliest galaxy

Earliest quasar

Omega Centauri forms

Andromeda Galaxy forms

Milky Way disk forms

Universe expansion accelerates

North Star forms

Alpha Centauri forms

Earliest Earth (-4.54)

Earliest life

Earliest oxygen

Atmospheric oxygen

Earliest sexual reproduction

Cambrian explsn

Earliest humans

Axis scale: Billions of years ago.
also see {{Life timeline}}

Quasars show a very high redshift, which is an effect of the metric

expansion of space between the quasar and the Earth.[5] When the
observed redshift of quasars is interpreted in terms of Hubble's law, it is
inferred that quasars are very distant objects. Quasars inhabit the very
center of active, young galaxies, and are among the most luminous,
powerful, and energetic objects known in the universe, emitting up to a
thousand times the energy output of the Milky Way, which contains 200
400 billion stars. This radiation is emitted across the electromagnetic
spectrum, almost uniformly, from X-rays to the far-infrared with a peak in
the ultraviolet-optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources
of radio emission and of gamma-rays.

A Hubble picture showing a quasar core

Quasar QSO-160913+653228 is so distant its light has taken nine billion years to reach us,
two thirds of the time that has elapsed since the Big Bang.[6]

In early optical images, quasars appeared as point sources,

indistinguishable from stars, except for their peculiar spectra. With
infrared telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope, the "host galaxies"
surrounding the quasars have been detected in some cases.[7] These
galaxies are normally too dim to be seen against the glare of the quasar,
except with special techniques. Most quasars, with the exception of 3C
273whose average apparent magnitude is 12.9, cannot be seen with small
The luminosity of some quasars changes rapidly in the optical range and
even more rapidly in the X-ray range. Because these changes occur very
rapidly they define an upper limit on the volume of a quasar; quasars are
not much larger than the Solar System.[8] This implies an astonishingly

high power density.[9]The mechanism of brightness changes probably

involves relativistic beaming of astrophysical jets pointed nearly directly
toward Earth. The highest redshift quasar known (as of June 2011) is ULAS
J1120+0641, with a redshift of 7.085, which corresponds to a comoving
distance of approximately 29 billion light-years from Earth (see more
discussion of how cosmological distances can be greater than the lighttravel time at metric expansion of space).
Quasars are believed to be powered by accretion of material
into supermassive black holes in the nuclei of distant galaxies, making
these luminous versions of the general class of objects known as active
galaxies. Since light cannot escape the black holes, the escaping energy is
actually generated outside the event horizon by gravitational stresses and
immense friction on the incoming material.[10] Central masses of 105 to
109 solar masses have been measured in quasars by using reverberation
mapping. Several dozen nearby large galaxies, with no sign of a quasar
nucleus, have been shown to contain a similar central black hole in their
nuclei, so it is thought that all large galaxies have one, but only a small
fraction are active (with enough accretion to power radiation) and so are
seen as quasars. The matter accreting onto the black hole is unlikely to
fall directly in, but will have some angular momentum around the black
hole that will cause the matter to collect into an accretion disc. Quasars
may also be ignited or re-ignited from normal galaxies when they merge
and the black hole is infused with a fresh source of matter. In fact, it has
been suggested that a quasar could form as the Andromeda
Galaxy collides with our own Milky Way galaxy in approximately 35 billion


The Chandra X-ray image is of the quasar PKS 1127-145, a highly luminous source of X-rays
and visible light about 10 billion light years from Earth. An enormous X-ray jet extends at least
a million light years from the quasar. Image is 60 arcsec on a side.RA 11h 30m 7.10s Dec -14
49' 27" in Crater. Observation date: May 28, 2000. Instrument: ACIS.

More than 200,000 quasars are known, most from the Sloan Digital Sky
Survey. All observed quasar spectra have redshifts between 0.056 and
7.085. Applying Hubble's law to these redshifts, it can be shown that they
are between 600 million[13] and 28.85 billion light-years away (in terms
of comoving distance). Because of the great distances to the farthest
quasars and the finite velocity of light, we see them and their surrounding
space as they existed in the very early universe.
The power of quasars originates from supermassive black holes that are
believed to exist at the core of all galaxies. A survey of the 40 nearest
galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope in the 90's revealed Doppler
shifts of the stars near the core of those galaxies were rotating about
tremendous masses with very steep gravity gradients, suggesting black
Although quasars appear faint when viewed from Earth, they are visible
from extreme distances because quasars are the most luminous objects in
the known universe. The quasar that appears brightest in the sky
is 3C 273 in the constellation of Virgo. It has an average apparent
magnitude of 12.8 (bright enough to be seen through a medium-size
amateur telescope), but it has an absolute magnitude of 26.7.[2] From a
distance of about 33 light-years, this object would shine in the sky about
as brightly as our sun. This quasar's luminosity is, therefore, about 4
trillion (4 1012) times that of our Sun, or about 100 times that of the total
light of giant galaxies like our Milky Way.[2] This assumes the quasar is
radiating energy in all directions, but the active galactic nucleus is
believed to be radiating preferentially in the direction of its jet. In a
universe containing hundreds of billions of galaxies, most of which had
active nuclei billions of years ago but only seen today, it is statistically
certain that thousands of energy jets should be pointed toward us, some
more directly than others. In many cases it is likely that the brighter the
quasar, the more directly its jet is aimed at us.
The hyperluminous quasar APM 08279+5255 was, when discovered in
1998, given an absolute magnitude of 32.2. High resolution imaging with
the Hubble Space Telescope and the 10 m Keck Telescope revealed that
this system is gravitationally lensed. A study of the gravitational lensing of
this system suggests that the light emitted has been magnified by a factor
of ~10. It is still substantially more luminous than nearby quasars such as
3C 273.
Quasars were much more common in the early universe. This discovery
by Maarten Schmidt in 1967 was early strong evidence against the Steady
State cosmology of Fred Hoyle, and in favor of the Big Bang cosmology.
Quasars show the locations where massive black holes are growing rapidly
(via accretion). These black holes grow in step with the mass of stars in

their host galaxy in a way not understood at present. One idea is that jets,
radiation and winds created by the quasars shut down the formation of
new stars in the host galaxy, a process called 'feedback'. The jets that
produce strong radio emission in some quasars at the centers of clusters
of galaxies are known to have enough power to prevent the hot gas in
those clusters from cooling and falling onto the central galaxy.
Quasars' luminosities are variable, with time scales that range from
months to hours. This means that quasars generate and emit their energy
from a very small region, since each part of the quasar would have to be
in contact with other parts on such a time scale as to allow the
coordination of the luminosity variations. This would mean that a quasar
varying on a time scale of a few weeks cannot be larger than a few lightweeks across. The emission of large amounts of power from a small region
requires a power source far more efficient than the nuclear fusion that
powers stars. The release of gravitational energy[14] by matter falling
towards a massive black hole is the only process known that can produce
such high power continuously. Stellar explosions
supernovas and gamma-ray bursts can do likewise, but only for a few
weeks. Black holes were considered too exotic by some astronomers in
the 1960s. They also suggested that the redshifts arose from some other
(unknown) process, so that the quasars were not really so distant as the
Hubble law implied. This 'redshift controversy' lasted for many years.
Many lines of evidence (optical viewing of host galaxies, finding
'intervening' absorption lines, gravitational lensing) now demonstrate that
the quasar redshifts are due to the Hubble expansion, and quasars are in
fact as powerful as first thought.[15]

Gravitationally lensed quasar HE 1104-1805.[16]

Play media
Animation shows the alignments between the spin axes of quasars and the large-scale
structures that they inhabit.

Quasars have all the properties of other active galaxies such as Seyfert
galaxies, but are more powerful: theirradiation is partially 'nonthermal'
(i.e., not due to black body radiation), and approximately 10 percent are
observed to also have jets and lobes like those of radio galaxies that also
carry significant (but poorly understood) amounts of energy in the form of
particles moving at relativistic speeds. Extremely high energies might be
explained by several mechanisms (see Fermi acceleration and Centrifugal
mechanism of acceleration). Quasars can be detected over the entire
observable electromagnetic spectrum includingradio, infrared, visible
light, ultraviolet, X-ray and even gamma rays. Most quasars are brightest
in their rest-frame near-ultraviolet wavelength of 121.6 nm Lymanalpha emission line of hydrogen, but due to the tremendous redshifts of
these sources, that peak luminosity has been observed as far to the red as
900.0 nm, in the near infrared. A minority of quasars show strong radio
emission, which is generated by jets of matter moving close to the speed
of light. When looked at down the jet, these appear as blazars and often
have regions that appear to move away from the center faster than the
speed of light (superluminal expansion). This is an optical illusion due to
the properties of special relativity.
Quasar redshifts are measured from the strong spectral lines that
dominate their visible and ultraviolet spectra. These lines are brighter
than the continuous spectrum, so they are called 'emission' lines. They
have widths of several percent of the speed of light. These widths are due
to Doppler shifts caused by the high speeds of the gas emitting the lines.
Fast motions strongly indicate a large mass. Emission lines of hydrogen
(mainly of the Lyman series and Balmer series), helium, carbon,
magnesium, iron and oxygen are the brightest lines. The atoms emitting
these lines range from neutral to highly ionized, leaving it highly charged.
This wide range of ionization shows that the gas is highly irradiated by the
quasar, not merely hot, and not by stars, which cannot produce such a
wide range of ionization.
Iron quasars show strong emission lines resulting from low
ionization iron (FeII), such as IRAS 18508-7815.

Emission generationEdit

This view, taken with infrared light, is a false-color image of a quasar-starburst tandem with
the most luminousstarburst ever seen in such a combination.

Since quasars exhibit properties common to all active galaxies, the

emission from quasars can be readily compared to those of smaller active
galaxies powered by smaller supermassive black holes. To create a
luminosity of 1040 watts (the typical brightness of a quasar), a supermassive black hole would have to consume the material equivalent of 10
stars per year. The brightest known quasars devour 1000 solar masses of
material every year. The largest known is estimated to consume matter
equivalent to 600 Earths per minute. Quasar luminosities can vary
considerably over time, depending on their surroundings. Since it is
difficult to fuel quasars for many billions of years, after a quasar finishes
accreting the surrounding gas and dust, it becomes an ordinary galaxy.
Quasars also provide some clues as to the end of the Big
Bang's reionization. The oldest known quasars (redshift 6) display
a Gunn-Peterson trough and have absorption regions in front of them
indicating that the intergalactic medium at that time was neutral gas.
More recent quasars show no absorption region but rather their spectra
contain a spiky area known as the Lyman-alpha forest; this indicates that
the intergalactic medium has undergone reionization into plasma, and
that neutral gas exists only in small clouds.
Quasars show evidence of elements heavier than helium, indicating that
galaxies underwent a massive phase of star formation,
creating population III stars between the time of the Big Bang and the first
observed quasars. Light from these stars may have been observed in
2005 using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope,[17] although this observation
remains to be confirmed.
Like all (unobscured) active galaxies, quasars can be strong X-ray sources.
Radio-loud quasars can also produce X-rays and gamma rays by inverse

Compton scattering of lower-energy photons by the radio-emitting

electrons in the jet.[18]

History of observationEdit

Picture shows a cosmic mirage known as the Einstein Cross. Four apparent images are
actually from the same quasar.

The first quasars (3C 48 and 3C 273) were discovered in the late 1950s, as
radio sources in all-sky radio surveys.[19][20][21][22] They were first noted as
radio sources with no corresponding visible object. Using small telescopes
and the Lovell Telescope as an interferometer, they were shown to have a
very small angular size.[23] Hundreds of these objects were recorded by
1960 and published in the Third Cambridge Catalogue as astronomers
scanned the skies for their optical counterparts. In 1963, a definite
identification of the radio source 3C 48 with an optical object was
published by Allan Sandage and Thomas A. Matthews. Astronomers had
detected what appeared to be a faint blue star at the location of the radio
source and obtained its spectrum. Containing many unknown broad
emission lines, the anomalous spectrum defied interpretation a claim
byJohn Bolton of a large redshift was not generally accepted.
In 1962 a breakthrough was achieved. Another radio source, 3C 273, was
predicted to undergo five occultations by the moon. Measurements taken
by Cyril Hazard and John Bolton during one of the occultations using
the Parkes Radio Telescope allowed Maarten Schmidt to optically identify
the object and obtain an optical spectrumusing the 200-inch Hale
Telescope on Mount Palomar. This spectrum revealed the same strange
emission lines. Schmidt realized that these were actually spectral lines of
hydrogen redshifted at the rate of 15.8 percent. This discovery showed
that 3C 273 was receding at a rate of 47,000 km/s.[24] This discovery
revolutionized quasar observation and allowed other astronomers to find
redshifts from the emission lines from other radio sources. As predicted
earlier by Bolton, 3C 48 was found to have a redshift of 37% of the speed
of light.

The term quasar was coined by Chinese-born U.S. astrophysicist Hong-Yee

Chiu in May 1964, in Physics Today, to describe these puzzling objects:

So far, the clumsily long name 'quasi-stellar radio sources' is used to

describe these objects. Because the nature of these objects is
entirely unknown, it is hard to prepare a short, appropriate
nomenclature for them so that their essential properties are obvious
from their name. For convenience, the abbreviated form 'quasar' will
be used throughout this paper.
Later it was found that not all quasars have strong radio emission; in fact
only about 10% are 'radio-loud'. Hence the name 'QSO' (quasi-stellar
object) is used (in addition to 'quasar') to refer to these objects, including
the 'radio-loud' and the 'radio-quiet' classes.
One great topic of debate during the 1960s was whether quasars were
nearby objects or distant objects as implied by theirredshift. It was
suggested, for example, that the redshift of quasars was not due to
the expansion of space but rather to light escaping a deep gravitational
well. However a star of sufficient mass to form such a well would be
unstable and in excess of the Hayashi limit.[25] Quasars also show
'forbidden' spectral emission lines which were previously only seen in hot
gaseous nebulae of low density, which would be too diffuse to both
generate the observed power and fit within a deep gravitational well.
[26] There were also serious concerns regarding the idea of cosmologically
distant quasars. One strong argument against them was that they implied
energies that were far in excess of known energy conversion processes,
including nuclear fusion. At this time, there were some suggestions that
quasars were made of some hitherto unknown form of
stable antimatter and that this might account for their brightness.[citation
needed] Others speculated that quasars were a white hole end of
awormhole.[27][28] However, when accretion disc energy-production
mechanisms were successfully modeled in the 1970s, the argument that
quasars were too luminous became moot and today the cosmological
distance of quasars is accepted by almost all researchers.
In 1979 the gravitational lens effect predicted by Einstein's General
Theory of Relativity was confirmed observationally for the first time with
images of the double quasar 0957+561.[29]
In the 1980s, unified models were developed in which quasars were
classified as a particular kind of active galaxy, and a consensus emerged
that in many cases it is simply the viewing angle that distinguishes them
from other classes, such asblazars and radio galaxies.[30] The huge
luminosity of quasars results from the accretion discs of central
supermassive black holes, which can convert on the order of 10% of

the mass of an object into energy as compared to 0.7% for the p-p
chainnuclear fusion process that dominates the energy production in Sunlike stars.
This mechanism also explains why quasars were more common in the
early universe, as this energy production ends when the supermassive
black hole consumes all of the gas and dust near it. This means that it is
possible that most galaxies, including our own Milky Way, have gone
through an active stage, appearing as a quasar or some other class of
active galaxy that depended on the black hole mass and the accretion
rate, and are now quiescent because they lack a supply of matter to feed
into their central black holes to generate radiation.

Role in celestial reference systemsEdit

The energetic radiation of the quasar makes dark galaxies glow, helping astronomers to
understand the obscure early stages of galaxy formation.[31]

Because quasars are extremely distant, bright, and small in apparent size,
they are useful reference points in establishing a measurement grid on
the sky.[32] The International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) is based
on hundreds of extra-galactic radio sources, mostly quasars, distributed
around the entire sky. Because they are so distant, they are apparently
stationary to our current technology, yet their positions can be measured
with the utmost accuracy by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). The
positions of most are known to 0.001 arcsecond or better, which is orders
of magnitude more precise than the best optical measurements.

Multiple quasarsEdit
A multiple imaged quasar is a quasar whose light undergoes gravitational
lensing, resulting in double, triple or quadruple images of the same
quasar. The first such gravitational lens to be discovered was the doubleimaged quasar Q0957+561 (or Twin Quasar) in 1979.[33] A grouping of two

or more quasars can result from a chance alignment, physical proximity,

actual close physical interaction, or effects of gravity bending the light of
a single quasar into two or more images.
As quasars are rare objects, the probability of three or more separate
quasars being found near the same location is very low. The first true
triple quasar was found in 2007 by observations at the W. M. Keck
Observatory Mauna Kea, Hawaii.[34] LBQS 1429-008 (or QQQ J14320106)
was first observed in 1989 and was found to be a double quasar; itself a
rare occurrence. When astronomers discovered the third member, they
confirmed that the sources were separate and not the result of
gravitational lensing. This triple quasar has a red shift of z = 2.076, which
is equivalent to 10.5 billion light years.[35] The components are separated
by an estimated 3050 kpc, which is typical of interacting galaxies.[36] An
example of a triple quasar that is formed by lensing is PG1115 +08.[37]

Quasars in interacting galaxies.[38]

In 2013, the second true triplet quasars QQQ J1519+0627 was found with
redshift z = 1.51 (approx 9 billion light years) by an international team of
astronomers led by Farina of the University of Insubria, the whole system
is well accommodated within 25 (i.e., 200 kpc in projected distance). The
team accessed data from observations collected at the La Silla
Observatory with the New Technology Telescope (NTT) of the European
Southern Observatory (ESO) and at the Calar Alto Observatory with the
3.5m telescope of the Centro Astronmico Hispano Alemn (CAHA).[39][40]
The first quadruple quasar was discovered in 2015.[41]
When two quasars are so nearly in the same direction as seen from Earth
that they appear to be a single quasar but may be separated by the use of
telescopes, they are referred to as a "double quasar", such as the Twin
Quasar.[42] These are two different quasars, and not the same quasar that
is gravitationally lensed. This configuration is similar to the optical double
star. Two quasars, a "quasar pair", may be closely related in time and
space, and be gravitationally bound to one another. These may take the
form of two quasars in the same galaxy cluster. This configuration is

similar to two prominent stars in a star cluster. A "binary quasar", may be

closely linked gravitationally and form a pair of interacting galaxies. This
configuration is similar to that of a binary star system.

Radio astronomy

The Very Large Array, a radio interferometer in New Mexico,USA

Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial

objects at radio frequencies. The initial detection of radio waves from an

astronomical object was made in the 1930s, when Karl Jansky observed
radiation coming from the Milky Way. Subsequent observations have
identified a number of different sources of radio emission. These
includestars and galaxies, as well as entirely new classes of objects, such
asradio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, and masers. The discovery of
thecosmic microwave background radiation, regarded as evidence for
theBig Bang theory, was made through radio astronomy.
Radio astronomy is conducted using large radio antennas referred to
asradio telescopes, that are either used singularly, or with multiple linked
telescopes utilizing the techniques of radio interferometry and aperture
synthesis. The use of interferometry allows radio astronomy to achieve
high angular resolution, as the resolving power of an interferometer is set
by the distance between its components, rather than the size of its

Radio telescopes

Radio interferometry

Very Long Baseline Interferometry

Astronomical sources
See also
Further reading


External links

Before Jansky observed the Milky Way in the 1930s, physicists speculated
that radio waves could be observed from astronomical sources. In the
1860s, James Clerk Maxwell's equations had shown that electromagnetic
radiation is associated with electricity and magnetism, and could exist at
any wavelength. Several attempts were made to detect radio emission
from the Sun including an experiment by German astrophysicists Johannes
Wilsing and Julius Scheiner in 1896 and a centimeter wave radiation
apparatus set up by Oliver Lodge between 1897-1900. These attempts
were unable to detect any emission due to technical limitations of the
instruments. The discovery of the radio reflecting ionosphere in 1902, led

physicists to conclude that the layer would bounce any astronomical radio
transmission back into space, making them undetectable.[1]
Karl Jansky made the discovery of the first astronomical radio
source serendipitously in the early 1930s. As an engineer withBell
Telephone Laboratories, he was investigating static that interfered
with short wave transatlantic voice transmissions. Using a large directional
antenna, Jansky noticed that his analog pen-and-paper recording system
kept recording a repeating signal of unknown origin. Since the signal
peaked about every 24 hours, Jansky originally suspected the source of
the interference was the Sun crossing the view of his directional antenna.
Continued analysis showed that the source was not following the 24-hour
daily cycle of the Sun exactly, but instead repeating on a cycle of 23 hours
and 56 minutes. Jansky discussed the puzzling phenomena with his friend,
astrophysicist and teacher Albert Melvin Skellett, who pointed out that the
time between the signal peaks was the exact length of a sidereal day, the
timing found if the source was astronomical, "fixed" in relationship to the
stars and passing in front of the antenna once every Earth rotation. [2] By
comparing his observations with optical astronomical maps, Jansky
eventually concluded that the radiation source peaked when his antenna
was aimed at the densest part of the Milky Way in
the constellation of Sagittarius.[3] He concluded that since the Sun (and
therefore other stars) were not large emitters of radio noise, the strange
radio interference may be generated by interstellar gas and dust in the
galaxy.[2] (Jansky's peak radio source, one of the brightest in the sky, was
designated Sagittarius A in the 1950s and, instead of being galactic "gas
and dust", has since be found to be emitted by electrons in a strong
magnetic field from the complex of objects found in that area).[4][5]
Jansky announced his discovery in 1933. He wanted to investigate the
radio waves from the Milky Way in further detail, but Bell Labs reassigned
him to another project, so he did no further work in the field of astronomy.
His pioneering efforts in the field of radio astronomy have been
recognized by the naming of the fundamental unit of flux density,
the jansky (Jy), after him.
Grote Reber was inspired by Jansky's work, and built a parabolic radio
telescope 9m in diameter in his backyard in 1937. He began by repeating
Jansky's observations, and then conducted the first sky survey in the radio
frequencies.[6] On February 27, 1942, James Stanley Hey, a British
Army research officer, made the first detection of radio waves emitted by
the Sun.[7]Later that year George Clark Southworth,[8] at Bell Labs like
Jansky, also detected radiowaves from the sun. Both researchers were
bound by wartime security surrounding radar, so Reber, who was not,
published his 1944 findings first.[9] Several other people independently
discovered solar radiowaves, including E.

Schott in Denmark[10] and Elizabeth Alexander working on theNorfolk


The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is the world's largest fully steerable radio

At Cambridge University, where ionospheric research had taken place

during World War II,J.A. Ratcliffe along with other members of
the Telecommunications Research Establishment that had carried out
wartime research into radar, created a radiophysics group at the
university where radio wave emissions from the Sun were observed and
This early research soon branched out into the observation of other
celestial radio sources and interferometry techniques were pioneered to
isolate the angular source of the detected emissions. Martin
Ryle and Antony Hewish at the Cavendish Astrophysics Groupdeveloped
the technique of Earth-rotation aperture synthesis. The radio astronomy
group in Cambridge went on to found the Mullard Radio Astronomy
Observatory near Cambridge in the 1950s. During the late 1960s and
early 1970s, as computers (such as the Titan) became capable of handling
the computationally intensive Fourier transform inversions required, they
used aperture synthesis to create a 'One-Mile' and later a '5 km' effective
aperture using the One-Mile and Ryle telescopes, respectively. They used
the Cambridge Interferometer to map the radio sky, producing the
famous 2C and 3C surveys of radio sources.[15]


First 7-metre ESO/NAOJ/NRAOALMA Antenna.[16]

Radio astronomers use different techniques to observe objects in the radio

spectrum. Instruments may simply be pointed at an energetic radio
source to analyze its emission. To image a region of the sky in more
detail, multiple overlapping scans can be recorded and pieced together in
a mosaic image. The type of instrument used depends on the strength of
the signal and the amount of detail needed.
Observations from the Earth's surface are limited to wavelengths that can
pass through the atmosphere. At low frequencies, or long wavelengths,
transmission is limited by theionosphere, which reflects waves with
frequencies less than its characteristic plasma
frequency. Water vapor interferes with radio astronomy at higher
frequencies, which has led to building radio observatories that conduct
observations at millimeter wavelengths at very high and dry sites, in order
to minimize the water vapor content in the line of sight. Finally,
transmitting devices on earth may cause radio-frequency interference.
Because of this, many radio observatories are built at remote places.

Radio telescopesEdit
Main article: Radio telescope

An optical image of the galaxy M87 (HST), a radio image of same galaxy
using Interferometry (Very Large Array-VLA), and an image of the center section (VLBA)
using a Very Long Baseline Array(Global VLBI) consisting of antennas in the US, Germany,
Italy, Finland, Sweden and Spain. The jet of particles is suspected to be powered by a black
hole in the center of the galaxy.

Radio telescopes may need to be extremely large in order to receive

signals with high signal-to-noise ratio. Also since angular resolution is a
function of the diameter of the "objective" in proportion to the wavelength
of the electromagnetic radiation being observed, radio telescopes have to
be much larger in comparison to their optical counterparts. For example, a
1-meter diameter optical telescope is two million times bigger than the
wavelength of light observed giving it a resolution of roughly 0.3 arc
seconds, whereas a radio telescope "dish" many times that size may,
depending on the wavelength observed, only be able to resolve an object
the size of the full moon (30 minutes of arc).

Radio interferometryEdit
Main article: Astronomical interferometry
See also: Radio telescope Radio interferometry

The difficulty in achieving high resolutions with single radio telescopes led
to radio interferometry, developed by British radio astronomer Martin
Ryle and Australian engineer, radiophysicist, and radio astronomer Joseph
Lade Pawseyand Ruby Payne-Scott in 1946. Surprisingly the first use of a

radio interferometer for an astronomical observation was carried out by

Payne-Scott, Pawsey and Lindsay McCready on 26 January 1946 using a
SINGLE converted radar antenna (broadside array) at 200
MHz near Sydney, Australia. This group used the principle of a sea-cliff
interferometer in which the antenna (formerly a World War II radar)
observed the sun at sunrise with interference arising from the direct
radiation from the sun and the reflected radiation from the sea. With this
baseline of almost 200 meters, the authors determined that the solar
radiation during the burst phase was much smaller than the solar disk and
arose from a region associated with a large sunspot group. The Australia
group laid out the principles of aperture synthesis in their ground-breaking
paper submitted in mid-1946 and published in 1947. The use of a seacliff interferometer had been demonstrated by numerous groups in
Australia, Iran and the UK during World War II, who had observed
interference fringes (the direct radar return radiation and the reflected
signal from the sea) from incoming aircraft.
The Cambridge group of Ryle and Vonberg observed the sun at 175 MHz
for the first time in mid July 1946 with a Michelson interferometer
consisting of two radio antennas with spacings of some tens of meters up
to 240 meters. They showed that the radio radiation was smaller than
10 arc minutes in size and also detected circular polarization in the Type I
bursts. Two other groups had also detected circular polarization at about
the same time (David Martyn in Australia and Edward Appleton withJames
Stanley Hey in the UK).
Modern Radio interferometers consist of widely separated radio telescopes
observing the same object that are connected together using coaxial
cable, waveguide, optical fiber, or other type of transmission line. This not
only increases the total signal collected, it can also be used in a process
called Aperture synthesis to vastly increase resolution. This technique
works by superposing ("interfering") the signal waves from the different
telescopes on the principle that waves that coincide with the
same phase will add to each other while two waves that have opposite
phases will cancel each other out. This creates a combined telescope that
is the size of the antennas furthest apart in the array. In order to produce
a high quality image, a large number of different separations between
different telescopes are required (the projected separation between any
two telescopes as seen from the radio source is called a "baseline") - as
many different baselines as possible are required in order to get a good
quality image. For example, the Very Large Array has 27 telescopes giving
351 independent baselines at once.
Very Long Baseline InterferometryEdit
Main article: Very Long Baseline Interferometry

The Mount Pleasant Radio Telescope is the southern most antenna used in Australia's VLBI

Beginning in the 1970s, improvements in the stability of radio telescope

receivers permitted telescopes from all over the world (and even in Earth
orbit) to be combined to perform Very Long Baseline Interferometry.
Instead of physically connecting the antennas, data received at each
antenna is paired with timing information, usually from a local atomic
clock, and then stored for later analysis on magnetic tape or hard disk. At
that later time, the data is correlated with data from other antennas
similarly recorded, to produce the resulting image. Using this method it is
possible to synthesise an antenna that is effectively the size of the Earth.
The large distances between the telescopes enable very high angular
resolutions to be achieved, much greater in fact than in any other field of
astronomy. At the highest frequencies, synthesised beams less than
1 milliarcsecond are possible.
The pre-eminent VLBI arrays operating today are the Very Long Baseline
Array (with telescopes located across North America) and the European
VLBI Network (telescopes in Europe, China, South Africa and Puerto Rico).
Each array usually operates separately, but occasional projects are
observed together producing increased sensitivity. This is referred to as
Global VLBI. There are also a VLBI networks, operating in Australia and
New Zealand called the LBA (Long Baseline Array),[17] and arrays in Japan,
China and South Korea which observe together to form the East-Asian
VLBI Network (EAVN).[18]
Since its inception, recording data onto hard media was the only way to
bring the data recorded at each telescope together for later correlation.
However, the availability today of worldwide, high-bandwidth networks
makes it possible to do VLBI in real time. This technique (referred to as eVLBI) was originally pioneered in Japan, and more recently adopted in
Australia and in Europe by the EVN (European VLBI Network) who perform
an increasing number of scientific e-VLBI projects per year.[19]

Astronomical sourcesEdit
Main article: Astronomical radio source

See also: Radio object with continuous optical spectrum

A radio image of the central region of the Milky Way galaxy. The arrow indicates a supernova
remnant which is the location of a newly discovered transient, bursting low-frequency radio
source GCRT J1745-3009.

Radio astronomy has led to substantial increases in astronomical

knowledge, particularly with the discovery of several classes of new
objects, including pulsars, quasars[20] andradio galaxies. This is because
radio astronomy allows us to see things that are not detectable in optical
astronomy. Such objects represent some of the most extreme and
energetic physical processes in the universe.
The cosmic microwave background radiation was also first detected using
radio telescopes. However, radio telescopes have also been used to
investigate objects much closer to home, including observations of
the Sun and solar activity, and radar mapping of theplanets.
Other sources include:

Sagittarius A, the galactic center of the Milky Way, with one
portion Sagittarius A* thought to be a radio wave emitting supermassive black
Active galactic nuclei and pulsars have jets of charged particles which
emit synchrotron radiation
Merging galaxy clusters often show diffuse radio emission [21]
Supernova remnants can also show diffuse radio emission; pulsars are a
type of supernova remant that shows highly synchronous emission.
The cosmic microwave background is blackbody radio/microwave emission

Georges Lakhovsky. Electroterapia

Scris de Gabriel Sabin Mateuc
luni, 01 noiembrie 2010

Georges Lakhovsky (1869-1942), inginer i biofizician francez de origine rus nscut la

Moscova, a emigrat n Frana n 1913, n ajunul primului rzboi mondial. Prin 1920 a fcut
observaii asupra dezorientrii porumbeilor voiajori n vecintatea emitoarelor de unde
electromagnetice din gama de radiotelegrafie (TSF). A eaborat o teorie conform creia psrile se
orienteaz n spaiu datorit recepionrii anumitor unde (savanii n domeniu au fcut multe
experimente i au ajuns la concluzia c psrile cltoare i mai ales porumbeii voiajori au o mare
sensibilitate la cmpuri magnetice).
Lakhovsky a nceput s cerceteze influena undelor hertziene asupra celulelor vii i a undelor de
provenien cosmic asupra vegetalelor. A stabilit o legtur clar ntre calitatea i buchetul unic al vinurilor de Bordeau
intensitatea activitii magnetice datorate erupiilor solare.
Urmare a cercetrilor sale, el a emis ipoteza c celula vie funcioneaz ca un circuit electromagnetic oscilant, ipotez a
uluitoare i astzi pentru oamenii de tiin att de dogmatizai. Lakhovski a imaginat un model electric echivalent, circu
elemente de circuit (rezisten R, inductan L, capacitate C) i a postulat c toate celulele vii posed atributele asociat
circuitelor electrice. Aceste trei proprieti electrice (R, L, C), dac sunt corect configurate, genereaz oscilaia recurent
un aport energetic exterior minim, de o anume frecven, potrivit. Efect cunoscut sub numele de rezonan.
A considerat celula vie ca avnd funciile de receptor, transformator i emitor de unde, iar interaciunea sa cu mediul
regularizeaz procesele interne. Prin urmare, sntatea organismului cruia aparine celula depinde de factori de ordin
vibraional. A presupus c dac cele trei funcii sunt n concordan, celula e sntoas, iar un dezechilibru ntre aceste
favorizeaz sau genereaz apariia bolii.

n 1923 a construit aparatul denumit Radio-Celulo-Oscilator, prima mainrie terapeutic,

constituit dintr-un emitor de unde ultrascurte (UUS) n jur de 150 MHz generate ntr-un tub cu
vid de tip Crookes.
Anul urmtor, n 1924, a intrat n legtur cu profesorul Jacques Arsne DArsonval (1851-1940)
de la Collge de France, o somitate a lumii medicale din acea epoc i care i-a deschis porile
spre spitalul Piti Salpetrire din Paris unde profesorul crease nc din 1893 un serviciu de
Primele cercetri ntreprinse de Lakhovsky n acest spital s-au desfurat pe vegetale inoculnd bacteria agrabacterium
tumefaciens unor mucate (geranium) pentru a dezvolta tumori canceroase. Tratate cu sistemul su, plantele s-au vind
n mai puin de 3 sptmni, iar n dou luni au fost complet refcute, n timp ce plantele martor, inoculate i netratate,
murit dup 30 de zile.
Aparatul therapeutic RCO a fost testat ntre 1924 i 1929 la Salpetrire la serviciul profesorului Antonin Gosset (1872-1
pe bolnavi incurabili i mai ales pe cazuri de cancer inoperabil. Starea general a pacienilor s-a ameliorat (diminuarea
durerilor, reapariia poftei de mncare i a somnului) i s-a constatat o reducere a tumorilor.
Profesorul Gosset a vrut s prezinte rezultatele la Academia de Medicin dar a renunat brusc, fr explicaii i aparent

vreun motiv.

n 1925 Lakhovsky public Secretul vieii: undele cosmice i radiaiile vitale (Le Secret de la Vie: ondes cosmiques et
radiations vitales, ditions Gauthier-Villard, Paris 1925, 261 p.). Trebuie menionat c Lakhovsky i Nicola Tesla (1857
1943) se cunoteau foarte bine i unii biografi afirm c Tesla l-a sprijinit n concepia i realizarea unor aparate precum
MWO. Tesla a publicat nc din 1898 un articol despre posibilitile terapeutice ale curenilor de nalt frecven (High
Frequency Oscillators for Electrotherapy and othe Purpose n in The Electrical Engeneer, Vol. XXVI # 550, 17 nov. 189
477 i prezentat la a VIII-a conferin a American Electro-Therapeutic Association, la Buffalo, New York, 13-15 septemb
Prefaa crii este semnat de ctre profesorul Jacques Arsne dArsonval.
n 1928, doctorul Anastas Kotzareff reia tema i public la paris Traitement par les ondes de cancers incurables,
inoprables et abandonns. Apoi cercetrile lui Lakhovsky sunt preluate n Italia, la spitalul din Perugia de ctre dr.
Vincenzo Riviera, la Bologna, prof. Mazzadroli i Vareton i la spitalul San Spirito din Roma, dr. Sordello Attili. Attili era
serviciului de radiologie i a tratat cu aparatul lui Lakhovsky 300 de bolnavi dintre care 24 au fost canceroi i a obinut
ameliorri semnificative i dou remisii totale. Cercetri de avangard n medicina energetic au mai fost fcute i n al
ri, cum ar fi Suedia i Brazilia.

Oscilatorul cu unde multiple

n 1928 Lakhovsky a inventat un nou aparat, oscilatorul cu unde multiple (OOS Oscillateur Ondes Multiples, MWO
Multi Waves Oscillator) pornind de la ipoteza c amplitudinea oscilaiilor celulare trebuie s aib o anumit valoare pen
organismul s fie destul de puternic ca s poat rezista vibraiilor distructive ale anumitor microbi. Scopul nu a fost acel
a ucide microbii n contact cu celula sntoas, ci de a stimula i ntri oscilaiile celulei.
Oscilatorul a fost construit avnd la baz o bobin Tesla conectat la dou antene speciale ntre care
sttea aezat pacientul. Antenele erau alctuite din inele din cupru concentrice semi-deschise
(rezonatoare radionice) cu deschiderile consecutive diametral opuse, inelele fiind meninute n acelai
plan cu fir de mtase.

Aparatul genereaz unde de nalt frecven (circa 150 MHz) ntr-un spectru
foarte larg pe sarcini statice (pe 10 rezonatoare C). Apare fenomenul corona
produs prin descrcri electrostatice n interiorul i n jurul antenelor. Tesla le
numea electric brush iar Lakhovsky effluvia (efluvii, emanaii). Expunerea pacientului era
Pentru Lakhovsky, orice celul vie, de orice fel, dintr-un esut sau un organ, este un emitor
receptor n miniatur, avnd propria sa frecven: n natur totul este vibraie, n particular, viaa la nivelul celulei este
ameninat de un dezechilibru oscilatoriu. Fiecare celul vie este un minuscul circuit oscilant ce joac rolul de emitorreceptor de unde. Vibraiile tuturor acestor circuite oscilante din organism sunt dependente de undele electromagnetice

Principii de funcionare
Teoria elaborat de Lakhovsky are la baz ideea c oricare boal nu este rezultatul unei dezordini chimice ce se poate
restabili printr-un aport extern de drog sau medicament, ci este rezultatul unei diminuri a nivelului de radiaie i a oscil
celulare, o anomalie a amplitudinii acesteia datorate unui factor extern. Intervenia terapeutic const n inversarea
procesului ce determin aceast diminuare energetic i amplificarea vibraiei fundamentale a celulei i a tuturor armon
Din acest punct de vedere MWO permite celulelor slbite de boal s oscileze ntr-un cmp energetic i de fi supuse un
bi de frecvene. Ele i regsesc frecvenele proprii i intr n rezonan captnd segmentul din spectru ce le lipsete.
Celulele bolnave selecioneaz automat, ntr-un process de rezonan, frecvena bun de care au nevoie.

Iar la spital !
Primele ncercri clinice ale noului aparat au avut loc n 1931 la spitalul St. Louis din Paris, la serviciul doctorului Achille
Louste. Primul pacient, suferind de cancer bucal, a fost vindecat n decursul a patru sptmni. Astfel de aparate au ma
testate cu bune rezultate i la spitalele Val de Grce i Necker, tot din Paris.
Tot n 1931 a aprut cartea lui Lakhovsky Oscilaia celular (LOscillation Cellulaire, Ed. Gaston Dion, Paris, 319 p.),
n 1934, o alta: Cabala; istoria unei descoperiri, oscilaia celular (La cabale; histoire d'une dcouverte, l'oscillation
cellulaire, Ed. Gaston Doin et Cie, 217 p.).

Anul 1937: n timpul unui sejur n Italia l ngrijete pe Papa Pius al XI-lea (1857-1939).
Anul 1939 i-a adus savantului dovada recunoaterii meritelor sale tiinifice: a primit Premiul Internaional la Viena care
fost nmnat de nsui Adolf Hitler (n acel an invada Polonia).
Antinazist convins, a plecat n 1941, la New York, (drept n gura lupului, dar i azi spoiala american atrage). ntreinea
legtura cu un urolog (?) din Manhatten, Tesla avea nc laboratorul su.
Odat ajuns, a nceput tratamentele cu MWO la un spital (?) din New York care a organizat timp de apte sptmni un
clinic pe pacieni atini de artrit sever i asupra unor boli incurabile. Suficient ca s atrag mai mult atenia.

A murit n anul 1942 n urma unui accident auto: contient nc, i-a rugat n zadar pe ocupanii mainii s nu fie dus la s
ci acolo unde avea aparatele. S-a stins dup 24 de ore, odat cu testul clinic i cu tratamentele experimentate cu MWO
spitalele din New York. Au disprut rapid toate aparatele, documentaiile tehnice, rapoartele de cercetare i remarcabile
rezultate nregistrate.
Epilog oscilant

Dup 21 de ani, n 1963, ca n orice fals povestioar american, un fizician, dr. Bob Beck, a gsit
cu totul ntmpltor, evident, ntr-un spital din California (?), un MWO ! Exist totui o foarte mic
probabilitate de a nu fi un fals tipic pe un scenariu cu care suntem deja obinuii.
Fizicianul mpreun cu Thomas J. Brown (ofier sau ce ?) a publicat o sumedenie de articole n
Borderlands Journal i muli dintre cititori s-au apucat s-i construiasc propriile oscilatoare. n
1986, editorul revistei culege acesste articole i public un impozant manual, The Lakhowsky
Multiple Wave Oscillator Handbook: How To Build your own MWO, semnat chiar de acel Thomas J. Brown, fr fizicia
descoperitor; manualul a fost reeditat n 1988 revzut i argumentat. Deci au aprut date noi, probabil tot dintre cele
disprute la moartea savantului.

Este semnificativ c tot ce s-a petrecut n Europa este consemnat n amnunt, date, numele spitalelor, numele persoan
implicate. Peste ocean, datele sunt srace: un urolog din Manhatten , ntr-un spital din California , etc. d
dintr-un spital de pe coasta de est, nu se tie care, un MWO despre care nu se tie dac este original, a ajuns ntr-un s
pe coasta de vest, nu se tie care epidemia informaiilor clasificate. Apoi, cu totul ntmpltor, apare i un noian de d

i pentru a demonstra c nu numai noi suntem depresivi, exist n Bellbrock, Ohio, un rnu cu mecl de tractorist
mulumit, domnul Bruce M. Forrester Jr, cu pancart de Zephyr Technology, ce se prezint pe un site gen danmirahoria
vopsit, colorat, mzglit i cu desene infantile denate ce trdeaz o uoar deplasare de la comportamentul sexual
normal. Forresterul sta prezint un model de MWO amestecat americnete cu raza violet i care, dup aspect,
nendoielnic nu poate furniza cei 150 MHz cu care lucra savantul Lakhovsky.
Medicina energetic.

Pornind de la lucrrile lui Lakhovsky, de la rezultatele cercetrilor lui Rife sau a cine tie cto
pasionai disprui n condiii suspecte mpreun cu documentaiile lor, au aprut o sumeden
aparate i metode de diagnoz i tratament neconvenionale, chiar pentru boli deosebit de g
Nu vom ti ns niciodat dac aceste aparate sau metode sunt aceleai cu cele confiscate d
autoritile americane de-a lungul timpului sau sunt variante mult simplificate, fr eficiena
originalelor i fr a furniza probleme productorilor de medicamente de sintez sau tagmei
chirurgilor ori celei a alopailor.

Un aparat de mare succes comercial se numete chiar Multiwave Oscillator MWO Lakhovsk
Rife tube i antenele arat oarecum la fel cu cele ale savantului francez, o diferen remarca
fiind numrul rezonatoarelor i diametrul maxim al acestora (original 30 cm i dispuse dup o
anumit regul matematic).

Undele mecanice
Def : Unda mecanica reprezinta forma de propagare a perturbatiei im mediu.
Forma - unde plane
- unde sferice
Foarte important : Unda constituie transport de energie.Propagarea se face cu o
anumita intarziere (nu se transmite instantaneu)
II. unde intr-un mediu unidimensional
a) Unde transversale (oscilatia se produce perpendicular pe directia de propagare)
Vt = v T / ; = m / l
t = tensiunea ; =masa unitatii de lungime
b) Unde longitudinale
Ve = v E / f
E - unde de elasticitate ; f - densitate
Fenomenul de propagare depinde de sursa prin FRECVENTA si de mediu prin VITEZA.
o viteza de propagare depinde de natura mediului
Mediu omogen si izotrop
Pentru mediu omogen unda se propaga cu viteza constanta.
In acest mediu unda se propaga identic dupa toate directile.
III. Suprafata de unda. Front de unda
Def : Suprafata de unda reprezinta multimea punctelor care oscileaza in faza.
Def : Frontul de unda reprezinta locul geometric al punctelor la care perturbarea a
ajuns la un moment dat.
Unde - plane
- sferice

Principiul lui huggens

Se considera o cuva cu mercur. d > ?


b) d ~2
Reflexia si refractia undelor
Obs. La suprafata de separare a 2 medii pot aparea fenomene specifice :
1) unda se poate intoarce in mediul de provenienta cu schimbarea directiei de
2) unda poate patrunde prin suprafata in celalalt mediu tot cu schimbarea directiei
de propagare.
Obs. In functie de natura suprafetei de separare , fenomenele pot avea loc separat
sau simultan.
Reflexia undelor
Definitie : intoarcerea undelor in mediul de provenienta, cu schimbarea directiei de
Consideram : 2 medii separate printr-o suprafata plana.Viteza de propagare a undei
in acelasi mediu este aceeasi.
Consideram o unda plana care intalneste suprafata de separare a 2 medii.

Legile reflexiei :
1) Incidenta normala si reflectata se gasesc in acelasi plan.
2) Unghiul de incidenta este egal cu unghiul de reflexie.

Refractia undelor
Definitie : Fenomenul de patrundere a undei in alt mediu cu schimbarea directiei de
Consideram : suprafata de separare a 2 medii caracterizate prin indicii de refractie
diferiti (n1,n2).Unda va avea viteze diferite de propagare in cele 2 medii.

De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liber

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Trebuie pus() n formatul standard.

Are bibliografia incomplet sau inexistent.

Marcat din decembrie 2008.

Marcat din decembrie 2008.

Nu tergei etichetele nainte de rezolvarea problemelor.

Pagina Unda trimite aici. Pentru alte sensuri vedei Unda (dezambiguizare).
Prin und se nelege fenomenul de propagare a unei oscilaii ntr-un mediu material sau spaiu
i care este nsoit de transport de energie. Dup modul de oscilaie a particulelor mediului fa
de direcia de propagare se deosebesc dou tipuri fundamentale de unde: a) unde transversale;
b) unde longitudinale. Exemple de unde transversale: oscilaia unei corzi elastice, vibraia unei
bare care a fost lovit lateral, vibraia membranei unei tobe. Ca exemplu de und longitudinal
se poate da cazul undelor sonore care se propag n aer (sub forma unor varia ii continui
ale presiunii aerului).
Altfel spus, o und este un fenomen fizic ce se propag i se reproduce singur "un pic" mai trziu
n timp i "un pic" mai departe ntr-un mediu sau n spaiu. Asta permite clasificarea anumitor
unde (radio, radar, microunde) n funcie de "lungimea lor de und" i de frecven . Lungimea de
und se definete ca fiind cea mai scurt distan ce separ unda n dou puncte identice ale
sale la un moment dat. Frecvena msoar numrul de ori n care se reproduce fenomenul de
oscilaie ntr-o unitate de timp. Oscilaiile se msoar n Hertzi, (Hz). Un Hertz este egal cu o
oscilaie pe secund. Viteza de propagare a undelor este egal cu viteza luminii.
Exemplul 1 - undele radio : au o lungime de und superioar de 10 cm n spaiu i o frecven
de 150 de mii pn la 3 miliarde de oscilaii pe secund, (150 kHz - 3 GHz)
Exemplul 2 - undele radar i microundele : au o lungime de und cuprins ntre 1 milimetru i
10 centimetri n spaiu i o frecven cuprins ntre 3 - 300 GHz
Exemplul 3 - lumina vizibil : are o lungime de und cuprins ntre 400 i 700 nm

n mecanica cuantic toate obiectele microscopice au o proprietate de und i o proprietate de

particul, dar nu sunt nici una nici alta. Aceasta dualitate und-particul se explic prin faptul c
obiectul cuantic respectiv este perceptibil prin proprietile deinute i nu ca un tot unitar, pentru
moment nu exist niciun cuvnt pentru a desemna acest tot unitar. Fizicienii Jean-Marc LvyLeblond i Franoise Balibar au propus termenul de quanton pentru a desemna obiectul
quantic n sine i nu proprietile sale, dar acest termen nu s-a impus n vocabularul tiin ific .
Dificultatea rezid n faptul c noiunea de und este antinomic noiunii de particul. Percep ia
la nivel macroscopic face s se cread c o particul este un obiect "solid" iar unda este o form
de "energie", ceva n micare, aadar contrar principiului material, solid, fix. Acest sens

etimologic ne face s admitem cu dificultate c un corp poate s aib aceste doua propriet i
"und-particul" n acelai timp. De aceea, aceast dualitate ar trebui interpretat astfel: atta
timp ct obiectul cuantic nu este msurat, el este considerat ca o probabilitate de und; dup ce
a fost msurat, el este considerat ca o particul cu o valoare fix.
Exemplu: dac proiectm o lumin printr-unul din capetele unui cilindru, vedem un cerc pe
ecranul de proiecie. Dac proiecia se face printr-o poziie lateral a cilindrului, vedem un ptrat.
Cum cilindrul nu este nici cerc, nici ptrat, diferena se explic prin modul de proiec ie.

Aceast dualitate und-particul rmne o problem de actualitate deoarece fenomenele de

msur la nivel cuantic se lovesc pe deplin de modul de percep ie al realit ii la nivel
macroscopic. Pentru a iei din impas, au fost propuse cteva soluii precum Interpretaia de la
Copenhaga prin care se susine c fizica cuantic nu descrie realitatea n ea nsi, ci tot ce se
poate cunoate despre realitate. Ultima tentativ de conciliere privind o msur a fenomenelor
cuantice este teoria Decoerenei cuantice .

Lungime de und
De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liber

Reprezentare grafic a lungimii de und

n fizic, lungimea de und (notat cu ) a unei unde sinusoide este o mrime fizic ce
caracterizeaz perioada spaial a undei, adic distana dintre dou puncte din spaiu ntre
care defazajul relativ al oscilaiilor este de 2 radiani. [1]
Astfel de fenomene pot fi de exemplu undele electromagnetice (lumina, undele radio etc.)
i undele mecanice (sunetele, undele seismice etc.). Prin extensie, pentru orice fenomen care se
repet n spaiu, perioada de repetare se poate numi lungime de und. De exemplu
n matematic dac o funcie sinusoidal are ca argument poziia n spaiu, atunci distana la
care funcia i repet valorile se numete lungime de und.
Lungimea de und este legat de viteza de propagare a undei respective i de frecvena ei prin

unde simbolurile reprezint:

= lungimea de und,
v = viteza de propagare a undei n mediul respectiv,
f = frecvena undei, inversa perioadei temporale,

T = perioada undei.
n cazul luminii viteza se noteaz de obicei cu litera c i este 299.792.458
m/s n vid (valoare exact, prin definiia metrului) i doar puin mai mic
n aer. n cazul undelor sonore propagate n aer viteza este de aproximativ
343 m/s la temperatura de 20C.
Lungimea de und are un sens bine definit numai n cazul unei unde
monocromatice, adic de o singur frecven i ale crei oscilaii se repet
la infinit. n acest caz idealizat, lungimea de und este cea mai mic
mrime care ndeplinete relaia

unde u este parametrul oscilant al undei (de exemplu intensitatea

cmpului electric n cazul unei unde electromagnetice, presiunea
instantanee local a mediului n cazul undelor sonore, etc.), x este
poziia de-a lungul direciei de propagare a undei, iar k este un numr
ntreg. Trebuie precizat c formula anterioar este riguros exact numai
n cazul undelor plane care se propag ntr-un mediu omogen.
n timp ce lungimea de und depinde de mediul n care se propag
unda, frecvena undei este constant, cel puin n cazul n care sursa,
receptorul i mediul de propagare sunt n repaus relativ. De aceea, n
precizarea parametrilor undei se prefer adesea frecvena acesteia.
Dac totui o und este descris prin lungimea de und a oscila iilor
sale, trebuie precizat sau convenit mediul de propagare. De exemplu, n
cazul luminii, exist convenia de a considera c toate lungimile de und
se refer la propagarea n vid.

De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liber

Acest articol sau aceast seciune are bibliografia incomplet

sau inexistent.
Putei contribui prin adugarea susinerii bibliografice pentru afirmaiile

Quasarul 3C 273 fotografiat deTelescopul spaial Hubble

Un quasar este un nucleu galactic activ (galaxie activ) ndeprtat, care emite enorme cantiti
de energie. Quasarii au fost identificai iniial ca surse cvasi-punctiforme de radiaie
electromagnetic (incluznd unde radio i lumin vizibil), asemntoare prin aceasta stelelor,
mai curnd dect galaxiilor, care sunt surse extinse. Asfel se explic numele de quasar, o
contracie a denumirii n limba englez quasi-stellar radio source (surs radio cvasi-stelar).

Natura acestor obiecte a fost iniial controversat, rmnnd astfel pn n anii 1980. Astzi
exist un consens tiinific n aceast privin: un quasar este o regiune compact, cu raz de 10
pn la 10.000 de ori raza Schwarzschild a gurii negre supermasive din galaxie, alimentat prin
discul de cretere.

1Informaii generale



4Legturi externe

Informaii generale[modificare | modificare surs]

Nucleu de quasar fotografiat deTelescopul spaial Hubble.

Quasarii arat o deplasare spre rou foarte mare, efect al dilataiei metrice a spatiului cosmic
dintre quasar i Pmnt. [1] Cand deplasarea spre rou a quasarilor este observat dup Legea
lui Hubble, se deduce c quasarii sunt obiecte aflate la foarte mare ndepartare . Quasarii
locuiesc chiar n centrul galaxiilor tinere, active i sunt printre cele mai luminoase, puternice i
energetice obiecte din univers. Quasarii emit pn la o mie de ori mai mult energie dect Calea
Lactee, galaxie care conine ntre 200 i 400 de miliarde de stele. Aceast radia ie este emis n
spectrul electromagnetic, aproape uniform, de la raze X la raze infrarou ndeprtat. Radia ia
atinge vrful n benzile de ultraviolete optice. Unii quasari sunt, de asemenea, surse puternice de
emisie a undelor radio iradiaiei gamma.

Quasarul QSO-160913+653228este att departe nct dureaz 9 miliarde de ani pentru ca lumina
reflectat de el s ating Pmntul, adic dou treimi din timpul care a trecut de la Big Bang.[2]

Proprieti[modificare | modificare surs]

Quasarii sunt prin excelen obiecte cosmice foarte ndeprtate. Cel mai apropiat quasar (din cei
peste 120.000 recenzai pn acum[3] se afl la o distan de 240 megaparseci, (~ 780 milioane
de ani lumin), iar cel mai ndeprtat (numit CFHQS J2329-0301, cu un decalaj spectral de 6,3 [4])
la aproape 13 miliarde de ani lumin. Dac se ia n considerare c Universul s-a nscut n urm
aproximativ 13,7 miliarde de ani, nseamn c lumina acestui ultim quasar a fost emis cnd
Universul avea mai puin de 1 miliard de ani. Astronomii din echipa franco-canadian care a
descoperit acest quasar estimeaz c masa total a gurii negre din centrul su atinge cam 500
de milioane de mase solare.
Cel mai luminos quasar observat vreodat (botezat 3C 273 i aflat n constelaia Virgo) are o
magnitudine aparenta de circa 12,9, ns o magnitudine absoluta de 26,7. Asta nseamn c
dac acest obiect celest ar fi la o distan de aproximativ 33 de ani lumin de Terra, ar lumina la
fel de intens precum Soarele.

Unde radio
De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liber

Undele radio sunt unde electromagnetice utilizate n special pentru transmisii

de radio i televiziune, cu frecvene de la civa kilohertz pn la civa gigahertz (1 GHz =
109 Hz). n anumite aplicaii speciale ns domeniul de frecvene poate fi mult extins. Astfel, n
comunicaiile cu submarinele se folosesc uneori frecvene de doar civa hertz, iar n
comunicaiile digitale fr fir sau n radioastronomie frecvenele pot fi de ordinul sutelor de
gigahertz. Uniunea Internaional a Telecomunicaiilor, forul care reglementeaz
telecomunicaiile prin unde radio, stabilete prin convenie limita superioar a frecven ei undelor
radio la 3.000 GHz.

1.1Pentru transmisii radio i TV se definesc benzile:

2Vezi i

3Legturi externe

Benzi[modificare | modificare surs]

Pentru transmisii radio i TV se definesc benzile:[modificare | modificare surs]


Unde lungi: 153 kHz - 279 kHz

Unde medii: 531 kHz - 1.620 kHz

Unde scurte: 2.310 kHz - 25.820 kHz

Unde ultrascurte: 88 MHz - 108 MHz


Banda I (canalele 2-6): 54 MHz - 88 MHz

Banda III (canalele 7-13): 174 MHz - 216 MHz

Benzile IV i V (canalele 14-69): 470 MHz - 806 MHz

O und gravitaional este o fluctuaie n curbura spaiu-timp care se propag ca o und.

Radiaia gravitaional apare atunci cnd unde gravitaionale sunt emise dintr-un obiect sau de
un sistem de obiecte care graviteaz. Conceptul a fost propus n 1916 de Albert Einstein n
bazateoriei relativitii generale.
n data de 17 martie 2014, o echip de astronomi din cadrul Harvard-Smithsonian Center for
Astrophysics a susinut c a detectat undele gravitaionale asociate inflaiei cosmice ca modele
distincte n radiaia cosmic de fond.[1]
Pe 11 februarie 2016, Observatorul interferometru laser de unde gravitaionale (LIGO) a anunat
c a reuit s detecteze unde gravitaionale generate de contopirea a dou guri negre aflate la
cca. 1 miliard de ani lumin de Terra.[2] Conform studiului publicat n Physical Review Letters[3], n
data de 14 septembrie 2015, la ora 09:50:45 UTC, LIGO a detectat un semnal provocat de
coliziunea a dou guri negre n urm cu aproximativ 1,3 miliarde ani.


Galerie[modificare | modificare surs]

Efectul unei unde gravitaionale polarizat plus pe un inel de particule.

Unde gravitaionale cauzate de o stea neutronic