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Guide for the
Field Technician



2005, 2006, 2007

What is vibration? There are three basic types; Linear, Bending and Torsion. Three
basic types of transducers for machinery vibration study; acceleration, velocity and
displacement. Three basic parameters; acceleration, velocity and displacement. So we
need to be able to observe these phenomena in an easily understood way via data
acquisition instrumentation. We can then apply 200-year-old math to decipher the
meaning of the data represented on the instrument.
Shown is a typical modern day vibration acquisition system. There are several good ones
on the market.

It has certainly changed since I bought one of the first ADRE systems in 1981. That
was back in the days of HP-9000 (300) used as controllers for real time analyzers.
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is modern technology applying Jean Baptiste
Fouriers (1768-1830 AD) formula into electronic format displaying time wave form
data into frequency spectra.
This really makes time wave form data from machinery vibrations meaningful and
somewhat easy to interrupt.

2005, 2006, 2007

Mr. Ray Dodd is held in esteem as the guy that fathered the modern day predictive
maintenance (PdM) programs. In the 1970s we were basically carrying a portable
instrument and collecting vibration data via a velocity transducer and recording
that data onto a chart with pen in hand. If overall level vibrations above a certain
magnitude were encountered, then we would pick out the predominate frequencies
and log them as well. A long process but one that proved its worth.
This writing is to serve as a help and guide to assist in diagnostics of vibration problems.
First well make sure that certain terms are defined to avoid confusion.
FUNDAMENTAL: This is running speed or 1X; referred to as the machines
fundamental or fundamental component. Also component fundamental is sometimes
used; i.e. the bearings ball pass frequency fundamental is expressed as component
fundamental to distinguish it from harmonics in a ball pass problem within the spectra.
Always make sure it is defined if used for anything other than running speed.
FIRST HARMONIC: Some confuse this with the symbols 2X and 1X; the first harmonic
(primarily an acoustical term) is also referred to as two times RPM (2X). So, be careful.
One should visualize this as a bell. The bell is the center of concentric circles circles or
harmonics are numbered from the center. The bell is the center and the first circle
encountered is the first harmonic. But in machinery terms, that would be the 2X
component. [The bell, itself being the fundamental or 1X component].
BEARING COMPONENT: BPFI (Ball Pass Frequency Inner Race)
BPFO (outer race frequency)
BSF (Ball Spin Frequency)
FTF (Fundamental Train Frequency) cage problem
Heres the so-called classic bearing equation
= shaft speed in RPM = contact angle Pd = Pitch diameter Bd =
Ball diameter
BPOR = N/2 Bd/Pd (1 Bd/Pd cos)

BPIR = N/2 (1 +

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/Pd cos)

BSF = Pd/2Bd (1 (Bd/Pd)2 cos2)

FTF = /2(1 Bd/Pd cos)
And then theres the easy way: The rule of thumb method.
BPORrot ~ 0.4n

BPIRrot ~ 0.6nFTFrot ~ 0.4

Theres no substitute for experience; again use acceleration, you cant analyze what you
cant see you cant trend what you cant see or your instrumentation doesnt see.
Integration can often drive signals into the dirt or noise floor where theyll be hidden or
camoflogged to death. The noise floor masks or covers them up, and a small acceleration
signal 0.05 gs 0-P (the beginning of trending) at 600 Hz wouldnt be noticed.
Always check the limitations of your system. Transducer selection for a paper machine
should be of very high resolution with as low a frequency response, as temperature will
allow. There are a number of good transducers out there. Always make sure your
acquisition system is within limits of your interest.
Ive seen so-called consultants gather vibration data when the machine of interest was
outside of the limitations of their instrumentation. Naturally, the sub sequential report that
follows is a real gem. This writing is only a field book and to inform you of certain things
that should be of concern to you in your environment. Question your transducer supplier
but make certain they have the product you need or find one who does.
Bearings Natural Frequency: Lack of lubrication excites this frequency and creates a
broad vibration pattern around this frequency region casing this phenomenon to display
in the vibration spectra.
Special Note: A broadened spike or spectral peak (from the peak on top, the shape of the
peak will broaden toward the noise floor) will denote mechanical deterioration. If you see
mechanical deterioration and the bearings natural frequency you may want to inject
grease lubricant very slowly as not to shock the bearing. If theres only a small magnitude
of vibration then you may want to only note it in the report. If its severe and a
determination must be made the addition of lube may give insight as to time of failure or
assist in analysis.
LINE FREQUENCY: 60 Hertz (Hz) USA Power Turbine RPM (3600)/60=60. In Europe
the power is 50 Hertz so the generators are larger and operate at 3000 RPM.
LINE SYNC FREQ: 120 Hz (120 / # poles X 60 = RPM of a given machine) Look for
especially in DC motors. In AC & DC this frequency phenomenon is generally found at
upper harmonics of high frequency problems associated with electrical problems or the
beginning of potential problems.
The electrical frequency is also displayed in fluorescence light bulbs and is used to
calibrate a photo tach. Ive also used it for a trigger.

2005, 2006, 2007

Field balancing using a tach for a trigger device to sync at once per rev.
MEASUREMENT PARAMETERS: Acceleration, Velocity, Displacement and Acoustics
There are contact type and non-contact type. Which is best? That may be impossible to
determine. Large turbo machinery both. The contact type are cheaper and easier as a
rule but are affected by the machines dampening effect caused by bearing type and mass.
Mass determines resonance so the sensors mass should be so that the frequencies of
interest are below its natural frequency. The non-contact sensor (eddy current probe)
provides rotor dynamics and good down to DC. We are not getting into all systems, laser,
all non-contacting as this is only a field reference book.
Bearing cap data are now taken almost exclusively in acceleration. Ive used that
approach since 1980 exclusively. A velocity transducer is sometimes useful for
balancing, apart from that I wont use a velocity transducer and dont integrate an
acceleration spectrum into velocity or double integrate to a displacement spectrum. Those
integrations are only relative, not absolute. I will and do present digitized data in all three
parameters for some. I do not believe in producing a velocity spectrum because it is so
limited as compared to an acceleration spectrum. Velocity (IPS) is a good language to
translate into words and is a common language as it is irrespective of frequency. So, you
can iterate an amplitude and one can understand its magnitude or severity.

2005, 2006, 2007

Overall or Overall level (OA): A term I use often, but not really sure if all are versed in
its meaning. Normally an analyzer has 200, 400, 800 and 1600 lines of resolution.
Imagine a spreadsheet of 400 columns, as thats normal for most PdM programs. The
height is normally 1 Volt with a resolution of 0.005 and automatic scaling. Time
waveform data are broken down into frequency spectra. So, each of the 400 windows has
amplitude: that amplitude for each window is squared. Overall level (OA) is the square
root of the sum of the squares. It is the sixth band in my PdM software. Or in a 200 line
analyzer it would be line 201.
A picture is worth a thousand words. You cant analyze what you cant see. Why waste
your time with a velocity spectrum when it isnt even a true integration from acceleration
to velocity. Integration is relative, not absolute. Work in acceleration and get used to it;
its the right thing to do now and the way of doing in the future. It took some transition
period to get from displacement to velocity. Machines fitted with anti-friction bearings
should always be monitored in acceleration, and use acceleration spectra for diagnostics:
3600 RPM to 5 kHz. Likewise, if Im using a velocity transducer or an eddy current probe
I monitor IPS and mils respectively never integrating the spectra only displaying
digitized data in all three parameters.
Both displacement and acceleration are respective of frequency, therefore velocity is the
language to speak in for clarity and ease of understanding. But in the analysis stage when
gathering acceleration data use acceleration for analysis. Discipline yourself and youll
find over time your PdM program will evolve into planned scheduled maintenance and
youll get maximum life from the machine and eliminate overtime. I have successfully
implemented such programs. Youll tear into a machine and realize that you have gotten
maximum life: no need to pull the magnifying glass out and look for scratches. Ive seen
people do that it stands out that its an excuse for inability or a poor program.

Relationships of sinusoidal velocity, acceleration, & displacement

V=61.44 g/f
V=1.56 g/f
g=0.0511f D
g=2.013 f2D
g=0.016 2Vf
g=0.64 Vf
D=0.3183 V/f
D=0.3183 V/f
D=0.4968 g/f2
D=18.57 g/f2

NOTE: D= inches pk to pk
meters pk to pk
V= inches per second (IPS)
meters per second
f= frequency in Hertz (Hz) or cycles per second (RPM/60)
g= 386.1 IPS2

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Constants for true sine waves only

rms value
rms value
peak value
peak value
average value
pk to pk value

= 0.707 X peak value

= 1.11 X avg value
= 1.414 X rms value
= 1.57 X avg value
= 0.637 X pk value
= 2.0 X pk value




Microphones (acoustics) are not usually associated with machines except for OSHA
sound level measurements.
But, if you have a machine high and away (remote) and dont have transducers mounted,
then a highly directional microphone can assist for frequency analysis.
This will sometimes produces good results and always is better than no approach or
program at all.

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Sound isnt our topic although sound is vibration and vibration is sound. We wont be
getting into media that has so many variables and dampening factors and background
noise etc. But, heres a chart nonetheless.

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In a PdM program we normally are concerned with bearing cap data and sometimes with
permanently installed transducers. However, one must know that the transducer is in
calibration. An outside consultant may choose to use known transducers such as his or
her own accelerometers for bearing cap data. Normally, (for example) I will go into a
control room and acquire data directly from the panel by plugging in to an existing
system such as a Bentley Nevada 3300; this gives me rotor dynamics. But, I also acquire
bearing cap data.

NOTE: A normally good machinery analyses instrument system will cover 20 kHz to 0
Hz or DC and have transducers covering 0.05 Hz to 20 kHz.

They may be phased matched having phase measuring capabilities down 30 RPM within
2%. Phase gathering triggering devices either photo tachs, laser, eddy current probes or
strobes. Set transducers side by side to confirm amplitude/phase integrity as a field check.

High quality tachometer may be necessary

when phase readings arent stable using conventional phase gathering instruments.

2005, 2006, 2007

OUT OF BALANCE CONDITION: Imbalance occurs at running speed and produces a

clean sharp spike at 1X. Running speed vibration is very often misunderstood and gives
many technicians problems. Ive seen technicians attempt to balance rotors with high 1X
and almost nothing else - no 2X or 3X and relatively smooth the rest of the base band.
Misalignment (gross) will totally manifest itself in 1X and youll play havoc attempting
to balance that problem. Bearing problems and faulty machine parts will manifest
themselves into running speed vibration at some percentage as the machine deteriorates.
That percentage may be very small but a bearing flaw (for example) will produce drag
and contribute some magnitude into running speed though its source may not be
determined. Analyze the spectra, different data points, and different positions with phase
data. Correct faults then balance. All too often I see technicians balance and amplitude at
running speed will become acceptable and itll be called good. However, that balance job
didnt magically cure the machine component that also has a fault.
Never just balance a machine to an acceptable vibration level and walk off with out some
analysis to determine machine condition. Imbalance in vertical machines is usually
highest transverse to the flow or in the most flexible direction. Bottom mounted
machines usually reveal higher 1X vibration in the horizontal direction.

Once imbalance has been determined to be the fault, balance the number of planes
necessary to achieve smooth machine operation.
When field balancing one may want to use eddy current probes or existing transducers.
Most large turbo-machinery will have a permanent monitoring system installed that you
can plug into in a control room or local panel.
On paper machine dryer cans where you balance two planes and still have excessive
amplitude: does the phase match - yes, then whip is the problem and requires third plane
balance or further testing. The third plane is the center of the roll.
1X vibration problems. These are imbalance, resonance, bent shaft, external mechanical
run-outs (coupling hub, pulley, etc., machine part, electrical, eccentrics) internal run-outs.
Phase measurements (see photos below) are very useful in determining misalignment and
bent shaft but one of the easiest methods of detective work is to simply shut down the
machine when you can and if practical. This enables you to monitor power off cascading
to a complete stop. Use a good analyzer with capturing capabilities or a tape recorder
when you can.
Often the vibration disappears upon power off if electrical in nature. By monitoring coast
down one may record via instrument tape recorder, or internal capture in a real time
analyzer, information that can identify resonance.


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Once the machine is shut down, physical measurements can be taken; such as shaft run
outs, coupling run outs, alignment, etc. On electric motors you may find a chipped blade
on its fan. A problem can be simple too.
Strobe for phase and/or motion study.

Photo tach for once per sync or trigger.


Running Speed
( 1X )

Two Times or
First Harmonic

Probable Cause

Other Possible Causes

1. Misalignment or Bent Shaft.
2. Resonance
3. Eccentric journals, gears or pulleys.
4. Reciprocating forces.
5. Electrical


1. Misalignment; high in the axial direction.

2. Reciprocating forces.
3. Resonance.
4. Loose bearing or part.

Second Harmonic Misalignment

(shaft to shaft)

1. Excessive axial clearance.

2. Electrical; air gap
3. Internal misalignment
4. Machine part

Fourth 4X

Fifth 5X

Coupling Problem

Machine Part

1. This phenomenon occurs with coupling

problem, but can also be bearing looseness
2. Resonance possibility in slower machines.
3. Machine part.
1. Vane pass in pump
2. Excessive clearance

NOTE: Single volute pumps usually 3 or 5 vanes. Double volute pumps have even
number of vanes. Non-clog pumps normally have two vane impellers. Pumps should have
12% cut water clearance so cavitation can be avoided.

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Sixth 6X

43% typical
can occur @
Half Running
Speed 1/2X

Probable Cause
Machine Part

Oil Whirl


1. In a sleeve bearing - rub (0.01 IPS)

2. Resonance Drive Belts
3. Drive Belts
4. Defective machine parts

Electrical *

Line Sync
(120 Hz)

Rotor Problem

Upper freq.
not harmonic

1. Vane passing
2. Rotor slippage on shaft
(usually found with 4X)
1. Lubrication
2. Oil Whip
3. FTF Fundamental Train Frequency

Line Freq.
(60 Hz)

Upper Harmonic
defective shaft

Other Possible Causes


1. Rotor Bar Problem

2. Eccentric rotor
3. Unequal air gap
4. Unbalanced phases
5. Insulation Breakdown
1. Rotor resonance
2. Torque pulses

1. Gear wear, look for side bands of


2. Fan speed x # blades
3. Cavitation, impeller x # vanes
4. Machine part

Bearing Defects

1. Inner race - BPIR

2. Outer race - BPOR
3. Ball Spin - BSF
4. Cage

Synchronous 2 pole motors operate @ 60 Hz (3600 RPM): A good real time analyzer

may have a resolution of 0.0039 Hz or better with a dynamic range of 120 dB - good for
analysis when a fault is detected: A must for third party consulting. Traceable to the NIST
is a requirement.


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OK, how do we check and solve for these problems?

Lets go to misalignment; it is usually associated with a 2X component along with 3X in
the axial direction. However, gross radial misalignment will manifest itself in 1X and not
even show 2X or 3X. Angular misalignment is usually found at 2X in the axial direction.
Using phase as a tool measure both ends and across the coupling. When searching for an
unknown source, dont form an opinion before youve gathered sufficient data. Ive seen
people try fruitlessly to balance a misaligned machine. It happens too often. Of course a
good maintenance program will have alignment records. And those alignment records
should be truthful and exact so they can be used for an analysis tool. If physical
measurements must be taken one may do so if the situation permits.
Use good field proven techniques and procedures to gather alignment data and/or correct
Bentley Nevada

Fixture Laser

alignment instrument.

Dual Beam


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Of course this one with the big picture is my personal kit (shims are extra): PdMK-2.
The procedures below are for all types of alignment. These are field proven and work.
They will enable you to align in the shortest period of time. The types of alignment are:
Indicator Reverse, Long Spacer Coupling and Rim & Face. The methods for these types
are: Laser (single and dual beam), dial indicators, parallels and micrometers.


SAFETY; lockout and tag. Rack out fuses and chain valves when necessary
Ensure driven machine has no stress from piping or soft foot and that the anchor
bolts are tight
Inspect the feet and base of the machine to be aligned for burrs, roughness, dirt
Evaluate if a temporary spacer is need or useful for this alignment process; note
Inspect coupling and check for run outs
Coupling halves must if possible rotate together for dynamic alignment
Evaluate method of alignment to be used
Which is best suited for this job


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Is axial thrusting a factor

Collect SAG data and record
Install brackets on machines and record machine dimensions
Check for soft foot; correct as necessary
Rough align within 1/16 inch
Record alignment readings
Are they valid?
Mathematically correct and repeat?s thrust a consideration?
Calculate shim and lateral shift change
Via computer? Print and file.
Calculator? Record, plot and file.
Make changes and verify & PLOT
If spacer was used, remove it at this time

2X running speed - mechanical looseness is a prime factor when this type of vibration
occurs. It is radial in nature and usually predominate in the vertical direction. It
sometimes pays to acquire data at the foot or split of a bearing cap. Reciprocating forces;
are you analyzing a compressor?
If you are fortunate enough to have a good vibration lab, you can duplicate most vibration
situations or create experiments for further study. Bentley Nevada markets a good lab kit
complete with eddy current probes and oil whirl attachment.

Measurement techniques are important as well as applying common sense. Approach the
machine like a crime scene. Notice everything; does the foundation appear correct and
properly isolated? Are there cracks on the Floor; stand on each side of the crack - is there
a difference - measure? Can you feel or hear a beat? Use a stopwatch, count the beats
over a five minute period. Ive uncover the source of vibration using this technique. Peck
on a sole plate, is there thud? Are there splits in the case or bearing housings - measure
both sides. Eddy current probes give rotor dynamics, but also take cap readings.


2005, 2006, 2007

Cap readings make up machine and rotor movements. Is there a difference from machine
to base? What about phase end to end, radically. Phase axially: measure every ninety
In low frequency problems, resonance is usually a consideration. Can you alter speed or
other factors? A coast down provides good information. While the unit is down, perform
ring testing - this will give you natural frequency. One problem can excite another.

Another consideration in taking low frequency measurements; low pass filters. Theyre
available in a variety of ranges. Low pass filters can let you blow up low frequency
signals. This works well especially with an analyzer having a 90 dB range or better. Also
real time zooming is a good tool. This can give a resolution of 0.0156 Hz or better; very
good to separate frequency components. Sixty Hertz from running speed; side bands
around 60 Hz such as around 1.2 Hz delta freq and so on.
While were in low frequency stuff, lets consider half running speed. A rub in a sleeve
bearing will show up at and may be very severe at 0.03 IPS (inches per second).
What is a machines mass, dampening factor? A rub at 0.05 IPS is trouble. Also look for
sub-harmonics. In reality; you never want to see a rub.
Sleeve bearings: rubs, excessive clearance, misalignment, lubrication and looseness are
main concerns. Since these bearings ride on a film of oil and the hydraulic pressure
provides certain lift, clearance is an important function. Excessive clearance will cause
harmonic content. Oil whirl is - a riding up and slipping back on the journal; when it
becomes violent it is called whip. Oil viscosity is an important factor and one must
consider the type of oil system.


2005, 2006, 2007

We have oil bath, oil circulation, ring oiled, mist lubed; etc. Lubrication usually isnt a
big problem anymore. I once encountered an oil whirl in a machine with five tilting pad
bearings. If a sleeve bearing is loose in its housing it can produce a 4X component; make
sure the 4X isnt being produced from another source. Again, always consider a phase
The fifth and sixth harmonic (5X & 6X); machine parts and looseness are main
contributors but, the 6X can be generated by a loose rotor and is usually accompanied by
4X. You may have never seen this in print before, but this comes from practical
experience. Just like the misalignment condition manifesting itself exclusive in 1X.
Physically setup that condition in a machine and let it prove itself.
I made this statement in 1983 about acceleration; within ten years everyone will
work in acceleration. Velocity will only be used as the universal language and rightly so.
However, you cant argue with success; if youre using velocity successfully and almost
only worked in velocity: give acceleration a try. Back in 1980 velocity was the new kid on
the block for most. I think youll be glad you switched. Id rather fight than switch back.
There was also a transition period between displacement and velocity. Who works in mils
today for a PdM program? Remember, acceleration is the right thing to do: integrating
to velocity is not absolute only relative. There is no pure integration and you cant
analyze what you cant see.
Anti-friction bearings: use both time waveform and frequency spectra. These bearings
transmit forces more readily than sleeve bearings and the stiffest direction usually reveals
a higher magnitude of vibration. Banding analysis and overall level diagnostics work
On 3600 RPM machines use a base band of 5 kHz. For purposes of resolution I normally
view 2 kHz as my primary base band. But, never limit anything when troubleshooting.
Defective anti-friction bearings are a product of mechanical deterioration. When this
occurs, a sharp spike will broaden: study spectral shape and use shape as a diagnostic
tool. Overall analysis is also useful but always with the frequency spectra. Windowing as
in different base bands is also a tool.
Theres more than just the Hanning window too. Explore! Technical Associates of
Charlotte have a good section on A-F bearings; R-0792-3, page 2. A good analyzer is a
very valuable too. Just any ole black box wont do. Theres more than shown.


2005, 2006, 2007

This has been the common analytical approach since the late 70s. A word of warning;
spike energy is not a good evaluation parameter, never rely on it for a tool. And, it isnt
good at all on low frequency machines; i.e.. paper machine dryer cans. On high RPM
machines note the harmonics of bearing fundamentals. Another factor of detrimental high
frequency vibrations related to A-F bearings - shaft currents. This can be measured (shaft
currents) with a good DMM. You can also have a buildup of static current that discharges
through the bearing. Again, use 5 kHz base band on 3600 & 1800 RPM machines in
conjunction with your normal observance frequencies. If magnitudes of vibration are
observed near the end of the spectra (high frequency region), then you may want to look
at the next higher base band on your analyzer.
With the absence of machine defects, bearing defects having a magnitude of 4-7 gs 0-P
over 5 kHz are nearing failure. This is a broad statement, mass & dampening must be
taken into account. Example: 5 gs 0-P over 5 kHz @ 3600 RPM usually will fail within a
month; maybe a little less, maybe a little more.
But, the same machine situation @ 1800 RPM may take two months to fail plus or minus
a little. Please, this is an illustration, so dont hold me to exact numbers although the
scenario is close. In PdM program mode use trending, if the program is old enough.
Continuous monitoring systems provide good trending information much better than a
monthly or quarterly route program. Monthly or quarterly monitoring programs require a
good chief analysis. Trending is valuable on continuous monitoring programs but has
short comings on anything less.
Lastly, lubrication or lack of it. Check schedules, quantity per time interval, type, etc. A
bearings natural frequency will be excited in the absence of lubrication. Lubrication
makes the wheels go around. Alignment makes them run longer, PdM makes them cost
Got a lube program? Your grease guns should be labeled one shot equals so many
grams! Each grease lubed bearing should be given and exact quantity over a given time
interval (i.e. 28 grams per month; 14 grams per two weeks). Classify machines as to
speed and environment to determine frequency of lubrication.


2005, 2006, 2007

Lubrication is your single most important program; not alignment or balancing or PdM. I
have papers Ive written on grease lubed bearings and quantities per given time interval. I
like to calculate that time/time interval as accurately as possible. If I have a good PdM
program it will fine tune those numbers. Therefore, when a good PdM program is in
place one can know when the lube is lacking. With this in mind; calculations and
estimations can be backed off slightly and fined tuned over time through frequency
Gearboxes: These can be very complicated; I dont consider any to be categorizes as
simple. Correct gearbox set up is essential. It sometimes becomes necessary to stress a
gearbox to achieve internal alignment. I was call on a very high H.P. unit operating at
12.0 gs 0-P @ gear mesh. Upon shut down I inspected and measured clearances. There
was originally internal misalignment. But, it had already worn a pattern. I recommended
to continue operation as distorting the case to correct internal misalignment would only
cause an increase in vibration level. They opted to distort the case. Vibration increased. I
again recommended no action as it would now wear a new pattern and reduce in
magnitude. It was left there and monitored regularly. At 18.0 g it was inspected and then
put back in service to 20.0 gs. This is unusual but not odd. Always use time waveform as
an analytical tool. The defective gear will be modulated or side-banded by the defective
gears shaft speed. Also, look for a small `side spike on the side of defect peak in time
waveform if a gear is cracked or chipped.
A voith coupling (high H.P.) may give you a bit of diagnostic problem as they can have
an amplitude/frequency display in an axial position that appears excessive. But, Its a
characteristic of that box.

Some of these things are only obtained from experience or being around someone with
experience. In troubleshooting always draw on all natural resources available to you.
I believe thats a good philosophy in most all aspects of everything you do. Gear mesh
frequency in most cases is in trouble at or around 10.0 gs (high frequency). Also, look
for half gear mesh. How is the fundamental affected? Use phase.
Sometimes you are put in a position of doing diagnostics above your head. If you gotta,
you gotta: get your feet wet. But, a critical, costly machine?
Maybe its time to call the outside consultant, who? Again, these are guidelines to help
you troubleshoot and solve your problem. Know when its time to call in help. I have
developed these standards with and through others:


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The chief analyst must have at least ten years experience as an analyst with five years
spent as an outside consultant. It shouldnt insult him if you ask for a resume and sample
report as well as references. Is it warranty work; then the work must be traceable to the
NIST, formerly The National Bureau of Standards, now, National Institute of Standards
and Technology.


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