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Chapter 2

1;
:

I1

SECVION 2.1 Studies Related to Parsanality Variabte


SEC71QN 2.H Studies Relatad to Famly Varlable

j SECTION 2.111 Studies Related ta Academio Aehiavament


t

; i:

Mskivation Variabre

lj

SECTION 2.IV Studie8 Related to Studyyabits Variable


SECTlQN 2. V Studies Related to Teacher Eflectiveness

Variahta
I
I)

SECTION 2. VI Studies Related to Socio Demagraphic Varlable

This chapter covers the background literature that was drawn


upon for the better understanding of the scenario. The bulk of
literature that was compiled for this purpose is arranged in six
sections.

Section 2. 1 talks about the literature reviewed on

personality variable. Section 2. 11 examines the literature related to


the family variable. Section 2. 111 analyses the achievement
motivation variable. Section 2. IV reviews the study habit variable.
Section 2. V covers the teacher effectiveness variable. And section
2. VI describes the related socio demographic variables.
SECTION 2.1: STUDIES RELATED TO PERSONALITY
Paunonen and Ashton (2001) in a large-sample study of 717
subjects, 190 male and 527 female undergraduate students,
described two broad Big Five factor measures, and were compared
with two narrow personality trait measures in the prediction of final
grades in an undergraduate psychology course. The two factors
evaluated as predictors were Conscientiousness and Openness to
Experience (or Intellect).

The traits evaluated, which were

constituents of the respective factors, were need for Achievement


and need for Understanding. In each comparison, the lower level
trait measure did better than its higher level factor measure in the
prediction of course grades. It is concluded that the aggregation of
narrow trait measures into broad factor measures can be
counterproductive from the points of view of both behaviour
prediction and behaviour explanation.

Polleys (2001) carried out a study with the purpose to


investigate the relationships between self-regulated learning (SRL),
personality, and achievement. Specifically, the study investigated
whether a relationship exists between personality and self-regulated
learning, whether a relationship exists between achievement based
on assignment to a remedial group and self-regulated learning, and
whether

achievement

moderates

the

relationship

between

personality and self-regulated learning. Subjects were 126 college


students, approximately half of whom were remedial students. All
subjects completed both the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the
Motivated

Strategies

for

Learning

Questionnaire.

Statistical

measures, including multiple regression correlations, a series of


moderated regressions, and a MANOVA procedure were performed
in analyzing the data. Significant relationships between SRL and
personality were found in 17 instances out of a possible 60 for the
whole group of subjects. The multivariate test found no significant
influence of achievement on SRL. When subjects were separated
into the remedial and non-remedial groups, differing patterns
emerged.

The non remedial group showed relationships in only

seven of the 60 possibilities. The remedial group, however, showed


relationships in 15 of the 60 possibilities.

The JP personality

preference was the most powerful predictor of self-regulated


learning for both remedial and non-remedial groups. Although the
personality-SRL relationships were different in many factors
between the non-remedial and remedial groups, the overall
multivariate test showed no significance; hence, achievement was
not found to be a moderator of the personality-SRL relationships.

25

Review nf Related Lilerciture

Rindermann and Neubauer (2001) investigated the influence

of personality on three aspects of cognitive performance: processing


speed. intelligence and school performance. Stepwise regressions
between personality scales

and

different

processing speed

measures (Zahlen-Verbindungs-Test, Coding Test), psychometric


intelligence

tests

(Kognitiver

Faehigkeits-Test,

Advanced

Progressive Matrices) and school performance (grades) were


calculated in a sample of 280 students from German gymnasiums
(aged 14-16 yrs). Results show a weak multiple correlation of
personality with processing speed (R = 0.32),a medium correlation
with intelligence (R = 0.51) and a high correlation with grades (R =

0.69).

Processing speed tests allow one to measure cognitive

abilities in a less biased form than intelligence tests, whereas school


performance could be influenced in a positive or negative way by
personality factors like self-concept, anxiety or motivation.
Busato et al (1999) investigated the relation between J. D.
Vermunt's (1992) 4 postulated learning styles (meaning directed

[MDl, reproduction directed [RD], application directed [AD], or


undirected [UD] learning styles), the Big Five personality traits, and
achievement

motivation

among

900

university

students.

Extraversion correlated positively with the MD, RD, and AD learning


styles. Conscientiousness was associated positively with the MD,

RD, and AD learning styles, and negatively with the UD learning


style. Openness to experience correlated positively with the MD and

AD learning styles, and negatively with the UD style. Neuroticism


correlated positively with the UD learning style and negatively with

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Chapter 2

--..- ---.

MD and RD learning styles. Agreeableness was associated

positively with RD and AD learning styles. Positive correlations were


found for achievement motivation with the MD, RD, and AD learning
styles, and a negative one with the UD learning style. Regression
analyses confirmed these patterns. Although there was some
systematic overlap for the 4 learning styles with personality variables
and achievement motivation, the authors conclude that it makes

sense to measure these 3 groups of variables separately in


educational settings.
Huo et al (1997) studied the influences of learning motivation
(LM),

intelligence (IT)

and

personality (PE) on

academic

achievement (AA) and their correlations. The Sample consisted of


217 normal Chinese male and 202 normal Chinese female
adolescents (middle school students).

Subjects' IT, PE and LM

associated factors--knowledge of learning, ski ll, movement, social


life, test stress, avoidance of failure, self-responsibility, and
academic expectation--and final scores of Chinese, English
language and mathematics test were assessed. According to the
results, subjects were divided into a high IQ and LM group and a low
IQ and LM group. Multifactor and multi regression analysis were
used to study the main factors influencing AA between male v/s
female and between high IQ, LM vls low IQ, LM subjects, and to
analyze correlations of LM, IT, PE on subjects' language and
mathematics scores. Four optimum grouping
provided.

patterns were

Review of Relater1 Liferattire

27

Johnson (1997) reported a study where they examined the


relationship between specific personality traits and learning styles
and academic achievement in gifted students, resulting in their
becoming underachievers and being considered at-risk in the
educational system.

Additionally, an attempt was made to

determine when the rate of sharpest decline in academic


performance occurs over a five-year period of time which would
have essential implications in intervention strategies to prevent this
occurrence. 'The population consisted of 46 gifted students in a
South Carolina school district. Based on a median-split of average
cumulative end-of-year grades over a five-year period, the students
were categorized into two groups: achievers and underachievers.
The two groups afforded an opportunity to examine differences in
personality traits, learning styles, and academic performance
between the two groups within the population. Two tests, the Sixteen
Personality Factor Questionnaire and the Basic Assessment of
Cognitive Organization, were administered to the participants to
determine personality traits and analyticlglobal learning styles. The
cumulative end-of-year academic grades were used to investigate
whether or not there was an identifiable point in time over a five-year

time span when the sharpest rate of decline in academic


performance occurred.

Results of the Spearman Rank-Order

Correlation Coefficients showed that


correlations

between

ten

personality

there
traits

were

significant

and

academic

achievement, and mean differences between the gifted achievers


and gifted underachievers confirmed that these personality traits
contributed to the academic achievement of these students. There

Chapter 2

28

did not appear to be a significant correlation between analytic and


global perceptual tendency and academic achievement although the
majority of gifted students were either highly flexible.or more global
than analytic. In addition, no particular point of decline in academic
achievement was readily identified.

Findings of this study were

consistent with the review of literature which suggested that


personality factors may be related to academic achievement, and
gifted achievers.
Panda and Samal (1995) presented a comparative study of
personality and academic achievement of adolescent daughters of
working and non-working mothers. The sample consisted of 120
adolescent girls selected from classes Vt ll and X in Bhubaneswar,
out of which 60 had working mothers and 60 had nonworking
mothers. Maudsley Personality Inventory and Psychoticism Scale
were administered on the sample for data collection. It was found
that

working

mothers'

daughters

were

more

extroverted,

independent, confident, emotionally stable, aggressive, and less


anxious than daughters of nonworking mothers.
Chitra, Thiagarajan and Krishnan (1994) studied 6 psychosocial factors that could augment the educational achievement,
prestige and socio-economic status (SES) among scheduled caste
(SC) communities.

The factors studied were: personality,

intelligence, occupational aspiration, SES, social distance, and


awareness of facilities. The personality traits of 104 SC girl students
and 100 non-scheduled caste girl students pursuing a higher

29

Review of Relicled L iterat rare

secondary course were assessed. SC subjects differed from the

NSC group only in their SES, and all 6 psychosocial factors were
equally responsible for the academic achievement in both the
groups. It was concluded that education causes a positive change
in personality, intelligence, and occupational aspiration by narrowing
down the gap between the 2 groups.

Sovik, Frostad and Lie (1994) outlined frequencies and


characteristics of discrepancies between children's IQ and their
basic skill performance among students in 2 different grade levels
, -

and examined the relationship between students' learning strategies


and discrepancies in basic skills.

110 3rd-graders and 148 8th-

graders were observed during group tests in reading and spelling.

32 other subjects from Grades 3 and 8 completed assessments of


individual

achievement

in

reading,

writing,

arithmetic,

and

intelligence. Subjects were also assessed on 6 personality traits:


attention, reflection, working speed, accuracy, feedback, and
persistence.

The frequency of discrepancies between IQ and

academic achievement among subjects with normal IQ was 18.7%


in Grade 3 and 25% in Grade 8. A general relationship was found
between

subjects'

scoring

on

personality

traits

and

the

discrepancies, and a similar relationship seemed to exist between


task-specific strategies and underachievement.
Maqsud (1993) reported on a study of 120 (60 boys, 60 girls)
middle school students in Bophuthatswana on the relation of
academic achievement to self-concept and locus of control and

found that measures of extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism


were related negatively to school achievement.
Maqsud (1993) examined the relationship of extraversion (E),
neuroticism (N), psychoticism (P), academic self-concept, and locus
of control to academic attainment of 120 lower secondary school
pupils in Bophuthatswana (South African region). Results revealed
that E, N, and P are negatively related to academic attainment, while
academic self-concept and internality are positively associated with
measures of academic attainment. No significant sex differences
were found. It was also observed that mean E and N scores of the
subjects of this study were significantly lower than those given in H.
J. Eysenck and S. B. Eysenck's (1975) normative data for English
children of the same age.
Shaughnessy

(1993)

explored

personality

variables

measured by the 16 Personality Factor (16PF) test and their


relevance to success, as defined by the final course grade, in
college calculus courses with 94 students.

Two personality

variables were significant predictors of success as determined by


the final course grade. A Statistical Analysis System multiple
regression procedure found Factor G of the test (conscientious,
conforming, moralistic, staid, rule-bound) to be a significant predictor
of success. Factor G can be considered a measure of persistence

and perseverance. The relevance of Factor A was less clear, but it


was statistically significant in the multiple regression.

3I

Review of
Relccted
-Literrrture
-. - ... --"

Green, Peters and Webster (1991) examined whether


personality profiles, using personality factors, or clusters of
personality factors, are associated with academic .success. 129
medical students completed the

Sixteen

Personality

Factor

Questionnaire (16PF) and were divided into 4 groups dependent on


their academic performance. Most (62%) had no academic
problems, but 16 subjects had serious difficulties, which entailed
delaying qualification by at least 6 months. There was no
relationship between the scores obtained for the subjects' Ist
attempt at A-level and their subsequent medical school academic
performance. Academic success was not associated with any of the
personality factors.
Roy and Veeraraghavan (1990) conducted a study where 60

senior secondary school children completed tests of reading ability


and intelligence and a home background questionnaire. Reading

ability was a function of home background and personal attributes


such as intelligence, interest in reading, reading habits, and
personality traits.

Reading ability also correlated positively with

academic performance, indicating the better the reading ability, the


higher the academic performance.
Trivedi et a\ (1989) examined the role of personality traits and
emotional problems in scholastic achievement. 50 high-achieving and

50 low-achieving undergraduates completed the Cornell Medical lndex


Health Questionnaire, the results revealed that high achievers scored
significantly higher on neuroticism as compared to low achievers,

whereas low achievers scored significantly higher on extraversion.


High achievers scores significantly lower than low achievers on
somatic concomitant of anxiety.
Mehta and Kumar (1985) studied the relationship between
academic achievement and personality, intelligence, study habits.
adjustment, and academic motivation.

60 male and 60 female

postgraduate students were administered the Eysenck Personality


Inventory, a study survey designed by H. D. Carter (1958), a group
general mental ability test designed by S. Jalota, a test of academic
motivation designed by H. Hartley and J. H. Hogarath (1971), and
the Bell Adjustment Inventory. Results indicate that psychological
variables in terms of personality. intelligence, study habits. academic
motivation, and adjustment are not related and are independent of
achievement. There was hardly any regularity of relationship among
the independent variables.
Khursid and Fatima (1984) compared personality traits of 45
low achievers and 45 high achievers selected from 408 students in
Class VII and Vlll of A. B. Inter College. Aligarh, India. Subjects
were selected on the basis of their final examination grades and
were matched with regard to age, grade level, and socio-economic
status (SES). Results of R. B.

Cattell's High School Personality

Questionnaire reveal that high achievers and low achievers differed


significantly on 7 personality factors.

In comparison to low

achievers, high achievers were more reserved, intelligent, obedient,


conscientious, adventuresome, self-sufficient, and self controlled.

Review qf 'Reinfed Literature

33

--

Johnson (I
983) administered a battery of 15 cognitive tests,
the Eysenck Personality Inventory, the 16PF, and the Comrey
Personality Scales to members of 105 families (393 subjects) to
assess the relationship of scores to educational and occupational
levels. Results for 4 groups (males and females of Japanese and
European ancestry) show that family backgroulld, cognitive ability,
and personality appear to be associated with educational attainment
to much the same degree.
Kumar (1983) studied high (HAS) and low achievers (LAs) with
respect to 10 personality needs including autonomy, abasement, and
aggression. From 248 male lntermediate College students, who were
administered

personality

inventory and

whose

scholastic

achievement scores were available, 41 HAS and 25 LAs were


selected for analysis of personality needs. Results show that LAs
scored higher on the need for dominance. HAS scored higher on
needs for endurance and nurturance. Exhibition and endurance were
related to the schotastic achievement of HAS.
Lynn, Hampson and Magee (1983) reported a study on 701
15-year-olds beginning their 5th year of secondary schooling in
Northern Ireland, and were administered a questionnaire battery that
included the Abstract Reasoning scale from the Differential Aptitude
Test, the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and measures
of work ethic, status aspiration, parental occupation and education,.
religion, and school type. Findings on these measures were
examined in light of subjects' performance on public examinations 8

months later, using path analysis. Results show that psychoticism


and status aspiration were significant predictors of educational
achievement. However, the most important predictor of educational
attainment was intelligence.
Abrami, Perry and Leventhal (1982), in Study 1, on 388
undergraduates (a) rated themselves on the Adjective Check List
(ACL),

(b)

viewed

videotape

that

varied

in

instructor

expressiveness and lecture content, (c) evaluated the videotaped


instructor and a test on the lecture, and (d) completed the ACL for
the instructor.

In study 2 , 87 subjects were also exposed to 2

videotaped lectures given 1 week apart. In Study 3, 108 subjects


completed the ACL for themselves and their instructors, evaluated
their instructor's teaching, and completed a test on common course
material. No meaningful or consistent relationship between ratings

and

student

personality characteristics

appeared

to

exist.

Personality characteristics of instructors were related to teacher


effectiveness

ratings.

Ratings

predicted

teacher-produced

achievement equally well for classes that differed in the personality


characteristics of the students enrolled. Teacher effects on ratings
appeared significantly greater than teacher effects on achievement.
Eison (1982) conducted two studies with 51 1 undergraduates
and explored educational and personal differences between learning

and grade-oriented students. Subjects were administered a b a t t e j


of tests that included the 16PF, Achievement Anxiety Test, and

Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Learning oriented subjects

Review of Relccted Litertiture

35

were more emotionally stable, trusting, imaginative, forthright, placid,


self-sufficient, and relaxed than their grade oriented counterparts.
Learning oriented subjects also had better study habits, less
debilitating test anxiety, and higher collaborative and participative
learning styles.
In a study by Kaur and Dheer (1982) 90 first-, middle-, and
later born female college students were administered a structured
interview and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Subjects'
examination grades were used as a measure of academic
achievement.

Findings show that birth order had no significant

effect on either academic achievement or the introversionextraversion dimension of personality.


significantly

affect

neuroticism.

However, birth order did

Firstborns

obtained

higher

neuroticism scores than middle- and later borns, and later borns
obtained higher scores than middle borns. Findings suggest that
middle borns were more emotionally stable than the other 2 groups.
Goh and Moore (1978) examined the relationship between
"personality fitness" and academic achievement.
from 3 educational levels

175 subjects

university, vocational technical

institute, and high school--were administered the Eysenck


Personality

Questionnaire,

Raven's

Advanced

Progressive

Matrices, and an information questionnaire. The personality

dimension of introversion had the highest correlation with


academic performance for the university sample, especially for

students in the "hard sciences." Raven's intelligence score was


the best predictor for the vocational sample.
Merrifield and

Hummel,

(1977)

explored

relationships

between achievement measures and those of aptitude, sex, and


personality traits in a sample of 226 8th-grade students in a
suburban school.

18 aptitude measures (Stanford Achievement

Test) and the 14- scale High School Personality Questionnaire were
administered and factor analyzed; salient tests and scales were
selected as predictors of standardized measures of academic
achievement. Results of a sequential, step-wise multiple regression
analysis indicate that an evaluation of systems test (Figure
Analogies) and a production of systems test (Word Grouping)
together predicted 48-52% of variances in standardized tests of
language, mathematics, and social studies. The finding that, sex
was not a significant predictor of achievement reflected a possible
breakdown in the previously identified strong sex-linked patterns
between traits and achievement.
Brar

(1976)

studied

personality

traits

(extraversion-

introversion and neuroticism) and academic achievement in 70


noncommissioned officers (NCOs), 70 junior commissioned officers
(JCOs), and 50 commissioned officers (COs) in a training college

center of the Indian Army. A substantial negative correlation was


#

found between academic achievement and neuroticism. For NCOs


and COs there was also a strong negative correlation between
academic achievement and extraversion, but for JCOs this

Review cf Relnterl L itemture

. ..- .

37
.--

correlation was positive. Age was not related either to extraversion


or neuroticism.
Paramesh (1976) administered the ~ ~ s e n cPersonality
k
Inventory to 155 high school boys (mean age 16.14 yrs). Scholastic
achievement, as measured by scores on a secondary school
graduation examination, was also assessed.

No significant

relationships between personality and scholastic achievement were


found.

A study by Stewart and Valentino (1976) showed that, the


Wide Range Achievement Test and WAlS or WlSC scores of 180
emotionally disturbed 11-18 year olds were related to the personality
profiles (16 PF or High School Personality Questionnaire) by means
of canonical variate analysis. Results indicate that the emotionally
disturbed adolescent who is low in ego strength, tense, guilt prone,
sensitive, shy, and submissive tends to be more intelligent and
demonstrate higher academic achievement.
Mehryar, Hekmat and Khajavi (1975) has conducted a study
using subject's own ratings of their academic performance.
University students were divided into subgroups of 312 academically
successful and 170 unsuccessful subjects. A comparison of mean
scores of the 2 groups on 9 personality variables covered by
Eysenck's PEN (Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism) 1nventory
r

and the Psychological Screening Inventory showed that academic


success, as rated by subjects themselves, was associated with low

psychoticism, neuroticism, and discomfort but high extraversion and


defensiveness.
Nagpal and Wig (1975) collected health and personality data
on 41 students who had failed the university examination but had
rejoined classes, and on a comparable group of controls. A
structured questionnaire based on these data was prepared,
covering a wide range of nonintellectual and semi-intellectual
factors, and was administered to approximately 1,080 students, a
year's intake at Punjab University in Chandigarh, before their
examinations. Those passing the examination and those failing it
were compared in terms of the questionnaire factors.

Results

indicate that the poor achievers were older, had less well educated
parents, were inadequately motivated, were inconsistent in their
studies, and had poor academic records and poor previous
adjustment.
Cooper, Boss and Keith (1974) obtained school marks in
English, history, mathematics, and science for 582 10th graders.
Personality was measured by the 13 non intellective factors of the
High School Personality Questionnaire. It was shown that Factors
C,

G IF, Q2, and Q3 (Ego Strength vs Ego Weakness, Superego

Strength vs Superego Weakness, Surgency vs Desurgency, SelfSufficiency vs Group Dependency, and Strong Self-sentiment vs
Weak Self-sentiment) were significant discriminators between the
subjects who did well in all 4 subjects and those who did poorly in
them all. Factors A, E, HI and I (Affectothymia vs Schizothymia,

Review of Relcltetl Liternture

.
-

39

Dominance vs Submissiveness, Parmia vs Threctia, and Premsia vs


Harria) were significant discriminators between subjects who
performed better in the sciences than in the humanities.
Hogan and Weiss

(1974) administered the

California

Psychological Inventory (CPI) to 54 male undergraduates who had


been elected

to

Phi Beta

Kappa;

67

undergraduates

of

approximately equal intellectual ability who had not been elected;


and 87 unselected undergraduates.

Significant differences were

found between groups on all comparisons except one.

Phi Beta

Kappa subjects had higher scores for responsibility, socialization,


and self-control compared with the 2 other groups.
Beta

Kappa

high

achievers

were

conscientiousness, industry, and dependability.

The non-Phi

characterized

by

Phi Beta Kappa

subjects were not particularly interested in ideas or cultural pursuits,


not particularly tolerant or empathic, but were stable, pragmatic, and
task-oriented.
Mahmoudi and Snibbe (1974) studied the influence of teacher
expectancy on student performance. Subjects were 107 !ith
graders
and their 5 teachers. The instruments used were the Wide Range
Achievement Test, the Group Personality Projective Test, the
Culture Fair Intelligence Test, the Study of Values, and the StateTrait Anxiety Inventory. The treatment involved reading to each
experimental group andlor its teacher a statement that indicated how
"special" the individuals involved were. It is concluded that
manipulation in the affective domain can influence achievement

scores, but only under certain conditions of expectancy will


significant changes take place.
Bohn (1973) compared biographical, personality, and interest
factors of 74 work-study students who completed several personality
scales including the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) and the
Adjective Check List (ACL), as well as the SVIB. Biographical data
and aspiration levels of persisters and dropouts were very similar.
Persisters were found to be more self-assertive, independent, and
achievement-oriented than dropouts on the basis of the CPI and
ACL scores.
Bohn (1973) had conducted a study where high school
academic achievement, as measured by GPA, was related to ratings
of 11 personality traits, gathered in the course.of a longitudinal study

of personality. GPA was found to be related to many traits, but most


centrally to industriousness and intelligence.
Pandey (1973) administered the 16 Personality Factor
Questionnaire to 350 entering freshmen (219 whites, 131 blacks;

193 males, 157 females) at Lincoln University in Missouri in the fall


of 1969. 75% of the white students achieved "good" academic
standing, 11% became dropouts, and 14% were on probation at the
end of the fall semester. 74% of the black students achieved "good"
academic standing, 6% dropped out, and 20% were on probation at

the end of the fall semester. Analyses of variance indicated (p <

.05)that the good students were humble and submissive while the
dropouts were assertive, stubborn, and independent. Both dropouts

Review of ReI(1terl Liferature

41

and those on probation were assertive, stubborn, and independent.


Dropouts, however, were more intelligent and of stronger superego
strength than probationers.
Gruber and Kirkendall (1973) tested 91 14-17 year old
students in Grades 9-1 1 and examined whether any differences
exist in the nature of relationships between personality traits of the
disadvantaged and others.
achieving

gifted

students

It was found that both high-and lowfrom

disadvantaged

environments

displayed more desirable personality scores than others. A low


degree of relationship among intelligence variables was also
rep0rted.
Berman and Eisenberg (1971) reviewed some previous work
on factors in academic achievement and reported a study using 270
final-year high school students. They correlated final-year grades
with IQ, family and socio-economic data, and CPI scores in order to
define the characteristics of the successful student within a culturally
and economically homogenous group.

Certain personality traits

were found to correlate with achievement, i.e., motivation, sense of


well-being, independence, and conformity. Exceptionally

high

achievement correlated with high IQ, and it is suggested that


identification with parents' values and life models may be relevant.
In a study by Richter and Scandrette (1971) students at Niles
West High School, Skokie, Illinois, were rated by all of their teachers
once each year on the following traits: motivation, industry, initiative,
influence and leadership, concern for others, responsibility, integrity,

and emotional stability. Mean trait ratings of 39 seniors who made


the high honor roll for 7 consecutive semesters were compared with
ratings of 39 seniors matched for sex and IQ who had not achieved
this distinction. Mean differences significant at the .01 confidence
level were obtained for all factors. Mean teacher ratings of dropouts
were compared with mean ratings of subjects who remained to
graduate, matched for sex and IQ. Subjects who graduated were
rated significantly higher on all traits.
Entwistle and Entwistle (1970) administered the Eysenck
Personality Inventory and a questionnaire relating to academic
motivation and study methods to 257 undergraduates.

correlational analysis of these scores in relation to academic


performance at the end of the i s t year shows superiority of the
introverts and subjects with good study methods. lntroverts also
tended to have better study methods, but this only partially explains
their high academic performance. There was no relationship
between neuroticism and attainment. A supplementary approach
used an item-analysis to identify characteristics of successful
students. From this analysis, items which identified good students
were also positively related to stability and introversion.
Bhatnagar (1966) reported that there is a confusion in the
relationship

between

personality

variables

and

academic

achievement due to the (1) use of a wide variety of tools, (2) use of
invalidated techniques, (3) heterogeneity of samples, (4) inadequate
control of

correlated variables, (5)

imprecise definitions of

Review of Rel~tedLitentturr

43

personality traits, (6) diverse methods of identifying over- and underachievers, and (7) inherent weaknesses of the test of significance
used in most studies.
Davids (1966) reported that high achieving boys and girls
tend to have psychological characteristics that differentiate them
from low achievers. They have a higher need for achievement,
dominance, endurance, order, and interception. In addition they
score higher on measures of self assurance, socialization, maturity,
achievement potential, and intellectual efficiency. Academic under
achievers showed a greater need for heterosexual activity and
succorence.

Flaherty and Reutzel (1965) carried out a study to discover


the "non-intellectual aspects of the personality, as measured by the

CPI, which are related to intellectual achievement". 149 students,


(the entire freshman class of Mount Mercy College, a small liberal

arts college for women) were studied during Freshman Orientation

Week. High and low achievers were selected based on the upper
and lower quartiles at the end of the freshman year on the basis of
grade-point average. All scales on the CPI differentiated between
high and low achievers Significant differences were found at the
.001

level

for

dominance,

self-acceptance,

responsibility,

achievement by conformity, intellectual efficiency, and flexibility.


#

Chnpter 2

44

SECTION 2.11: STUDIES RELATED TO FAMILY


Guo and VanWey (1999) asserted that previous research has
consistently found a negative statistical relationship between sib ship
size and children's intellectual development. Two explanations have
been offered for this finding. The prevailing explanation is that the
relationship is causal, suggesting that limiting family size would lead

to more intelligent children. A second explanation maintains that the


relationship is spurious--that one or more undetermined factors
correlated with family size are causally related to intellectual
development. Using data on children from the National Longitudinal
Survey of Youth, they reexamined the issue using change models.
These change models allowed, to control such unmeasured effects
as family intellectual climate, family value system, and family genetic
heritage. They began by replicating in these data, the negative
statistical relationship between three cognitive measures and sib
ship size. They then applied the change models to siblings, and
measured at two points in time as repeated measures of the same
individuals. By considering sib ship size as an individual trait that
changes over time, they controlled for effects that are shared across
siblings and over time. When these shared effects are controlled,
the negative relationship between sib ship size and intellectual
development disappears, casting doubt on the causal interpretation
of the negative relationship, that was conventionally found .

Harvey (1999) examined the effects of early parental


employment on children in the National Longitudinal Survey of
Youth. Minimal effects on children's later functioning were found.

Review of' Relnte ff Literrrt~rre

45

Early maternal employment status and the timing and continuity of


early maternal employment were not consistently related to
children's development. Working more hours was associated with
slightly lower cognitive development through age 9 and slightly lower
academic achievement scores before age 7 but had no significant
relation to children's behaviour problems, compliance, or selfesteem. Early parental employment appeared to be somewhat more
beneficial for single mothers and lower income families. There was
some support for the hypothesis that early parental employment
positively affects children's development by increasing family
income.
Schmitt, Sacco, and Ramey (1999) had examined a
longitudinal data and were used to examine the effects of parental
employment status and school climate on children's academic and
social development. Hierarchical regression, analyses of covariance,
and latent growth modeling were used to assess various aspects of
change as a function of work status and school climate with family
income and education as control variables. Parental employment
was associated with positive changes in social and academic
progress even after controlling for prior developmental level, climate,
and family income. School climate had minimal effect on the
outcome variables. Income and education were related to various
school outcomes.
Cherian and Malehase (1998) attempted to study the
relationship between financial conditions in the home and scholastic

Chanter 2

46

achievement of 234 Standard 7 pupils (103 boys, 131 girls). A


questionnaire was given to the children who were chosen at random
from 34 Junior Secondary Schools in the Mankweng Education
Circuit of South Africa. Pearson correlation coefficient and analysis
of variance showed no relationship between financial conditions at
home and scholastic achievement of children from single parent and
two-parent families.
Deal, Wampler and Halverson (1998) reported an observation
of 143 families with children in earlylmid childhood. Boys' school
behaviour and academic performance were more influenced by
parents' marital relationship and family organization.

Girls were

more influenced by marital communication style and the affective


quality of family interaction.
Finn (1998) identified four types of at-home parental
engagement consistently associated with school performance:
actively organizing and monitoring children's time, helping with
homework,

discussing

school

matters

with

children,

and

promoting reading activities. Research has not consistently linked


parents'

in-school

engagement

and

student

achievement.

Teachers may pay more attention to students with actively


participating parents.

King (1998) reported the relationships between high schod


and college academic performance to Family Environment Scale
scores. The study was conducted with a sample of 346 college
students. Low high-school grade point averages (GPA < 2.5) were

47

Review o f Rein fed Literature

two to four times as common among students with high Conflict, or


low Expressiveness, Cohesion, or Recreation scores.

Moral-

Religious subscale scores were also associated with favorable high


school academic performance as well as increased college
classroom attendance. Control variables included the

Beck

Depression Inventory, Shipley Institute of Living Scale, and reports


of parental divorce or bereavement histories. A primary objective
was achieved in providing simple guidelines for the identification of
students at high risk for psychosocial problems using the Family
Environment Scale.
Marcon (1998) discussed that the proponents of early
childhood education frequently refer to the importance of parent
involvement for children's school success. However, little is known
about characteristics of families that are more likely to become
involved in their children's educational experience.

This study

provided follow-up data on 221 inner-city children (median age =


144 months) previously found to benefit from increased parent

involvement during preschool, kindergarten, and the primary grades.


Demographic and school-related predictors of involvement were
further examined as children made the transition from elementary to
junior high school. Findings indicated that parents whose children
had attended Head Start were significantly more involved in their
children's education at year 8 or year 9 than were parents whose
children had attended pre-kindergarten in the same public school
system. Current involvement was associated with higher grades,

while past involvement had a positive impact on achievement test


scores and school competence.
Nord (1998)

observed that

the

patterns

of

fathers'

involvement in their children's schools, linked to family structure,


are consistent with existing research and with the notion that there
is a division of labour in two-parent families, with mothers taking
more responsibility for child-related tasks, whereas in single-parent
families the lone parent assumes the responsibility. Fathers and
mothers in two-parent families may be operating under the
mistaken assumption that fathers do not matter as much as
mothers when it comes to involvement in their children's school.
The results also support research showing that single fathers and
mothers are more similar in their parenting behaviour than are
mothers and fathers in two-parent families. The involvement of
fathers in their children's schools is also important for children's
achievement and behaviour.

In two-parent households, fathers'

involvement in their children's schools has a distinct and


independent influence on children's achievement over and above
that of mothers. These findings show that fathers can be a positive
force in their children's education, and that when they do get
involved, their children are likely to do better in school.
Nord (1998) discussed that the parent involvement in
children's education is important for children's school successj
however, not all children have parents who are involved in their
schoots. This issue brief examines, factors that are associated with

Review of Related Literature

49

fathers' and mothers' involvement in their children's schools among


children in kindergarten through 12th grade living in two-parent and
single-parent families.

Findings are drawn from data from the

National Household Education Survey (NHES) for 1996. Findings


noted include the following: (1) children in elementary school are
more likely than children in middle or high school to have parents
who are highly involved in their schools; (2) children with more family
resources, as measured by parents' education and household
income, are more likely than children with fewer resources to have
parents who are highly involved in their schools; and (3) children
whose mothers and fathers are highly involved in their schools are
more likely to have greater levels of "social capital" as measured by
activities shared with parents and high parental educational
expectations. The issue brief concluded by noting that by the time
children reach high school, a much smaller proportion than in grade
school have parents who remain highly involved in their schools.
Although part of the decrease is attributable to schools offering
parents fewer opportunities for involvement, parents too are
stepping back as their children grow older. Research suggested,
however, that adolescents benefit when their parents are involved.
Seyfried (1998) conducted a study with the purpose to identify
the factors associated with the academic success of predominantly,
middle-class African American preadolescent students. This study
*

proposed an ecological model that considered the interaction of


family environment, teacher perceptions of social skills, and student
characteristics. The estimated model explained 58% of the variance

in grade point average. Path analysis revealed three direct effects


on grade point average, (a) grade level (negative), (b) teacher
perceptions of social skills, and (c) academic ability.

Findings

revealed that teacher perceptions of social skills was a stronger


predictor of grade point average than academic ability.
Bianchi and Robinson (1997) conducted a study to investigate
the amount of time that children spend on activities that might be
deemed to affect their cognitive and social development and how that
time varies in terms of four family characteristics: parental education,
maternal employment, number of parents in the household, and family
size.

Using 1989-90 time diary data for children in California, the

amount of time children spend reading or being read to, watching TV,
or doing household chores was examined. As anticipated, the findings
revealed that children of highly educated parents spend more time
studying and reading but less time watching TV. However, contrary to
expectations, children of mothers who are employed part-time watch
significantly less l
V than children of mothers at home full time. With
few significant differences across the other variables, the results
reinforce the argument that parental education is the greatest predictor
of the human and social capital investments children receive.
Lam (1997) from their study concluded that the children's
academic achievement has been shown to be influenced by many
family factors, including family structure, socio-economic status, and
parenting styles. This study investigated the relationships among
family structure, socio-economic status, authoritative parenting, and

Review of Rekrted Litercitirre

51
.-

children's academic achievement in a sample of 181 eighth graders


in 2 inner-city schools in the mid western United States. Family's
influence on the child's academic achievement was first examined
with a social address paradigm, then with a family process
paradigm.

The interactive effects of social address and family

process on children's academic achievement were subsequently


examined with an integrated paradigm using path analysis. Results
of the study indicate that authoritative parenting and children's
academic achievement were significantly correlated. Results also
suggested that effective parenting includes: (1) a high degree of
monitoring; (2) a high degree of support or involvement; and (3) a
high degree of psychological autonomy granting. The results also
support the integrated research paradigm as one that can help
researchers better understand the intricate relations among various
family factors and their impact on children.
Moore, Andres and Pepler (1997) reported that the children's
exposure to family violence may lead to increased school difficulties,

as shown in studies demonstrating the relationship between children's


adjustment disorders and stressful family events. To examine the
unique effects of violence on children's cognition, this study compared
the academic performance and conflict levels of two groups of
children, ages 6 to 12, and their mothers: those living in battered
women's shelters and those in homeless shelters.

Seventy-three

families (113 children) from battered women's shelters and 55 families


(82 children) from homeless shelters completed a variety of tests
including the Conflict Tactics Scale, the General Health Questionnaire

and the Child Behaviour checklist. The children completed the Wide
Range Achievement Test, the Digit Scan, and the Children's Locus of
Control Scale. Few significant differences were found among the
children's test results; in addition, the results were similar for
homeless shelter children with no violence in their histories and for
those with past exposure to violence (not within the past year). The
prediction that extreme family violence would lead to extremely poor
school performance also was not supported.

Furthermore, when

families were retested 10 months after leaving the battered women's


shelter, no changes were found in children's cognitive performance.
Although children in shelter situations do experience school
difficulties, the data demonstrate that school performance is not
uniquely affected by family violence.
Rivera (1997) stated in an article that although much
research has been done to determine how familial processes affect
academic achievement, few researchers have directly studied
culturally or linguistically diverse populations, in particular Latinos.
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of
distal

variables

(maternal

intelligence,

maternal

education,

maternal employment and poverty) and of the proximal variables


(home environment and parent child interaction) on the academic
achievement of Latino adolescents. The study utilized the National
Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) for its sample. The study
hypothesized that the effects on Latino adolescents' academic
achievement of maternal intelligence, maternal education, hourly
rate of pay, hours worked weekly by mother, and family poverty

Review of Reluted Literirture

53

status would be mediated through the home environment and the


parent-child interactions.

The observed linear relationships

between the predictor variables, the mediating variables, and the


outcome variables were not as hypothesized.

In almost every

instance and for each group under study, maternal intelligence was
a significant predictor of the academic achievement measures.

Finally, the findings indicated that home environment was a


significant predictor of academic achievement but not a significant
mediator.
Verna, Campbell and Beasley (1997) in a study involving 109
male and 116 female high achieving high school students (ages 16-18)
and their parents investigated the causal linkages among home
environment, self-concepts, prior ability, and socio-economic status on
mathematics achievement, science achievement, and Scholastic
Aptitude Test-Quantitative (SAT-Q) and Verbal scores. Students were
from 47 schools, had a mathematics andlor science grade point
average of 86 percent and above, and had been placed in a gifted
class in their schools. One hundred fifty-three participants were also
semi-finalists or finalists in the Westinghouse Talent Search. Results
of the study showed that prior ability played a major role in influencing

the child's educational achievement; males perceived much more


parental pressure than females; boys showed a greater math selfconcept than females; boys exceeded girls in scores on the SAT-Q and
Verbal score; and socio-economic status was a major contributing
force for family processes and offered a positive connection with prior
ability. A

key finding indicated that pressure for

intellectual

Chupter 2

54

development had direct negative effects on self-concepts for both


males and for females, while exhibiting positive effects for females'
math achievement.
Akimoff (1996) examined how teachers in a Christian school
in the North Bay, California, area, perceive the academic and
behavioural performance of students whose parents are involved in
the school compared to the performance of students whose parents
are not involved. Parental involvement includes parents attending
parent-teacher conferences, open houses, classroom activities and
events; keeping in touch with the teacher through phone calls and
notes; volunteering in the classroom; and being a guest speaker.
Parents also demonstrate their involvement by reviewing the child's
schoolwork, reading with the child, and monitoring the child's
academic progress.

Behavioural performance referred to the

student's ability to interact socially with other students and to comply


with teacher expectations. Seven kindergarten through sixth-grade
teachers (Caucasian female) in a Christian school were asked to fill
out questionnaires and to answer interview questions regarding the
importance of parental involvement.

The results of the study

indicated that parental involvement is essential in helping children


achieve optimum success in school, both academically and
Behaviourally. The results suggest that parental involvement should
be encouraged in the classroom and at home for a number of
reasons, including: (1) parental involvement sends a positive
message to children about the importance of their education; (2)
parental involvement keeps the parent informed of the child's

Re view of Relrited L iteralure

-.

55

performance; and (3) parental involvement helps the school


accomplish more.
Bronzaft (1996) reported that the relationship 'between high
academic achievement and personal characteristics is fraught with

myths. Three studies examined this relationship in academic high


achievers (AHA). In study 1 participants were 529 of 850 members
of the New York Phi Beta Kappa (72 percent return), who have
responded to a 1979 mail questionnaire.

In study 2 participants

were 414 Phi Beta Kappa members (55 percent return). who have
responded to a 1981 mail questionnaire. In study 3 participants
were more than 900 of 2,000 Phi Beta Kappas over 50 years old,
responded to a national mail questionnaire and 20 individuals
responded to telephone interviews.

Major findings include the

following: (1) birth order did not relate to school success; (2)
important for academic performance were fair parental treatment
and self-discipline; (3) families expected and cultivated high
academic achievement; (4) men were more likely than women to
believe that academic achievement and life satisfaction were
strongly related; (5) the love of learning was learned in homes where
parents valued learning and was reinforced in enriched school
environments; (6) older AHAs typically rated their physical and
mental health as good or excellent, and life satisfaction as positive
or very positive. They also indicated high marital satisfaction,
positive relationships with children, and close extended family
relationships; (7) perceived contributors to life satisfaction were
humour, religious beliefs, and good work habits; (8) most AHAs

reported good family relationships; and (9) the most common


vocational choices were education, professional, and business, with
more than half of respondents indicating they were happy with their
occupation.
Sui-Chu and Williams (1996) expanded the parameters of
"parental involvement" in educational research regarding its effect
on academic achievement. The study included talking with children
about school-related activities and helping with homework in the new
definition. Integrating these findings challenged the belief that lowerincome parents are less involved with their children's school
activities.
Huang (1995) in a study attempted to build on research that
has already been conducted to explore some of the factors that
differentiate learning environments that may influence the academic
achievement

of

Asian-American

students.

Their

learning

environments, in terms of parent guidance, teacher support, class


order, satisfaction, and teaching quality, were studied with attention
to gender and language spoken at home.

Subjects were 1,527

eighth-grade Asian Americans of differing ethnic backgrounds from


the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. The student
questionnaire and results from a battery of eighth-grade tests were
used to gather student data. In general, Asian-American students

had favorable learning environments at home and in school.


Students reported good parent support, positive teacher support,
good teaching quality, and satisfaction. Girls had a more favorable

Review

elf Related Literature

57

perception of parental guidance and class order than did boys.


Language-minority students reported less pa rental guidance and
lower class order than students from English-speaking families, and
this was coupled with lower achievement in reading and science
standardized test scores.

Du Bois, Eitel and Felner (1994) examined the effects of


family environment and parent-chiId relationships on school
adjustment during the transition years to early adolescence.

159

4th-6th grade students completed questionnaires at baseline and at


2-year follow-up, concerning family climate, social support at home,
parental

acceptance

and

rejection,

school

grades,

attendance, self-esteem, and school work competence.

school
Results

show that Subjects in families who were supportive and organized


reported higher levels of scholastic self-concept.

Subjects who

reported rejection from parents reported lower levels of self-esteem


and school adjustment.
Keith and Lichtman (1994) measured the influence of parental
involvement on the academic achievement of 1,714 eighth-grade
Mexican American children. They developed and tested a structural
equations model which considered and controlled for diversity of
family backgrounds and values, students' previous achievements,
and other factors.

They found that parental involvement did

influence subjects' academic achievement.


Leveque (1994) reported that the academic achievement of
Native American students in the United States has consistently been

the lowest in the nation.

This study examined the school

performance, involvement of Native parents in the school life of their


children, and assimilation patterns of a specific group of Native
Americans who have lived in Barstow, California, for at least three
generations. The case study approach used participant observation,
ethnographic interview, and documentary analysis.

Analysis of

norm-referenced test data indicated that Native American students


(K-12) in Barstow Unified School District (BUSD) scored as well as,
or better than, the BUSD mean percentile scores for the total student
population and the Caucasian sub population in all areas except
second-grade reading in 1992 and third-grade reading in 1993.
Between 1991 and 1993, the dropout rate for Native American
students was only 10 percent, and the honour roll rate was 30
percent. At least 36 percent of Native students who attended BUSD
between 1988 and 1993 continued their education past high school.
The strongest link between educational opportunities and Native
student achievement was found in the involvement of parents in the
design and implementation of programs.

The Native American

families in Barstow are the descendants of Navajo and Pueblo


railroad workers who chose to come to Barstow (thus assuming
"immigrant" characteristics).

Full assimilation into the majority

culture occurred over three generations.

Thus, the strongest

elements contributing to Native student achievement were parental


involvement and family acculturation patterns.

Vickers (1994) reported a study comparing academically at-

risk elementary students with typical students to determine

Review of R e f ~ f eLiterflture
d

59

differences in family functioning. Researchers collected data on the


fam ities and students and determined that at-risk families were
different in demographics and family functioning a,nd were less
cohesive and adaptable than families not at risk.
Williams (1994) described that two things in particular could
change the status of students in elementary and secondary
education system and make improved academic achievement
possible. One is providing role models that students can relate to in
the classrooms, and the other is getting families involved in their
children's education. A study on family life and school achievement
by Reginald M. Clark argues that the family's main contribution to
the child's success in school is made through the parent-child
relationship.

The overall quality of a family's lifestyle is the

determinant of whether children came prepared for academic


performance. Children who know what is expected of them and who
experience the intergenerational transmission of behaviour patterns
that emphasize education perform better in school. Parents must be
interested in their children's activities.

They must have and

communicate high expectations for school and home performance.


Disadvantaged circumstances must not be used as excuses for
failing to support children or grandchildren, because parent
involvement is the key to academic and social success.
Hill (1993) in his document presented findings from phase IF
of the Victorian Quality Schools Project. This phase, the first of a 3year longitudinal study, sought to identify characteristics of effective

Chapter 2

60

schools and develop a model of teacher and school effectiveness.


Data were derived from four instruments--parent questionnaires,
teacher questionnaires, student records, and teacher records. The
sample of 13,900 primary and secondary students and 930 teachers
was drawn from a total of 90 out of 96 Catholic and independent
schools in Victoria, Australia. The key findings are as follows: (1)
The school profiles provide an effective framework for monitoring
and reporting achievement; (2) schools have considerable influence
on overcoming inequalities stemming from family socio-econom ic
status; (3) early childhood education is important for later
achievement; (4) student attentiveness has a large effect on
achievement; (5) the key to improved educational outcomes is
teacher effectiveness
Maqsud and Coleman (I
993) asserted that research indicates
that parents have a strong influence on the development of their
children's achievement motivation. They reported a study of 180
Bophuthatswana adolescents to determine the effects of living in a
boarding school or with family. They found significantly higher
achievement motivation scores for the adolescents living with family.
Christenson (1992) reviewed research findings with respect to
family influences on student achievement. He identified five family
and home environmental factors that affect student achievement and
whose effects may be altered through intervention: parent
expectations and attributions, structure for learning, home affective
environment, discipline, and parent involvement.

Revir.w of' R ~ l r r t ~Lditerflfurc

61

Keith and Lichtman (1992) in their research investigated the


influence of parental involvement on the academic achievement of

1,714 Mexican-American 8th-grade students, a sub sample of the


National Education Longitudinal Survey (N ELS 88).

A structural

equation model was used to investigate the direct, indirect, and total
effects of parental involvement, previous academic achievement,
and home rules on standardized achievement tests.

Both the

student and the parent surveys were used in the study. Results
indicated the following: (1) parental involvement does influence
positively the academic achievement of 8th-grade MexicanAmerican students; (2) parents who have a high socio-economic
status and whose children have previously obtained high grades
tend to be more involved in their children' education and have higher
educational aspirations for their children; (3) parents are more
)

involved with female children than with male children; (4) parents'
language proficiency does not influence academic achievement but
does influence parental involvement; (5) the strongest influence on
academic achievement was previous achievement (grades); (6)

family rules did not affect students' academic achievement; (7)


Mexican-American males had higher overall academic achievement

when compared to Mexican-American females; and (8) children


whose parents were born outside of the United States had slightly
higher math achievement than children whose parents were born in
the United States.
Paulson (1992) in a study compared adolescents' and
parents' perceptions of parental demands, responsiveness, and

commitment to achievement, and explored the relations between


these perceptions and the adolescents' school achievement. The
subjects were ninth grade students and their - parents. The
adolescents and their mothers and fathers responded to separate
questionnaires containing the same scales for measuring parenting
characteristics

of

demandingness,

responsiveness,

and

commitment. Low to moderate relations between adolescents' and


their parents' reports of the three parenting characteristics were
found. Both mothers and fathers reported significantly higher levels
of all three characteristics for themselves than their adolescents'
reported for them. Boys' reports of both their mothers' and fathers'
parenting

characteristics

significantly

predicted

the

boys'

achievement in school as measured by self-reported grades.


Parents' own reports of their parenting characteristics did not predict
achievement outcome in their sons. Girls' reports of their parents'
parenting characteristics did not predict the girls' scholastic
achievement. Fathers' (but not mothers') reports of their parenting
characteristics significantly predicted achievement outcome in their
daughters.
Feldman and Wentzel (1990) reported the relations among
observed family interaction patterns, preadolescent boys' classroom
self-restraint, and academic achievement. They studied a sample of

65 intact families. Findings identify Behavioural self-restraint, a form


of social competence, as a noncognitive mediator between the
quality of family functioning and academic achievement in early
adolescence.

63

Review o f Relcited Litercitr{re

SECTION 2.111:

STUDIES RELATED TO ACADEMIC


ACHIEVEMENT MO'TIVATION

Anderman and Midgley (1998) reported that research has


,

shown a decline in motivation and performance for many children as


they move from elementary school into middle school; however.
research has also shown that the nature of motivational change on
entry to middle school depends on characteristics of the learning
environment in which students find themselves. This digest outlines
some suggestions for middle school teachers and administrators for
enhancing student motivation and discusses three theories that are
currently prominent and that have particular relevance for young
adolescent students and their teachers. Attribution theory emphasizes

that students' perceptions of their educational experiences generally


influence their motivation more than the objective reality of those
experiences.

Through

instructional

practices,

teachers

can

unknowingly communicate a range of attitudes about whether ability

is fixed or modifiable and convey their expectations for individual


students. Goal theory focuses on the reasons students perceive for
achieving: a task goal orientation represents the belief that the
purpose of achieving is personal improvement and understanding; an
ability goal orientation represents the belief that the purpose of
achieving is the demonstration of ability.

Studies found that the

adoption of task goals is associated with more adaptive patterns of


learning than is the adoption of ability goals. A third motivational
theory of importance for middle school educators is self-determination
theory. This theory describes students as having three categories of
needs: needing a sense of competence, of relatedness to others, and

of autonomy. Most of the research focuses on the last of these three


needs. Within the classroom, autonomy needs could be addressed
through allowing student choice and input on classroom decision
making. It is important to recognize that supporting student autonomy
does not require major upheaval in the classroom or that teachers
relinquish the management of students' behaviour. Even small
opportunities for choice can increase students' sense of selfdetermination. Few educators would argue with the premise that
student motivation is an important influence on learning. Motivation is
of particular importance for those who work with young adolescents.
Considerable research has shown a decline in motivation and
performance for many children as they move from elementary school
into middle school (Eccles and Midgley, 1989). Often it has been
assumed that this decline is largely caused by physiological and
psychological changes associated with puberty and, therefore, is
somewhat inevitable. This assumption has been challenged,
however, by research that demonstrated that the nature of
motivational change on entry to middle school depends on
characteristics of the learning environment in which students found
themselves (Midgley, 1993). Although it is difficult to prescribe a "one
size fits all" approach to motivating students, research suggested that
some general patterns do appear to hold true for a wide range of
students.
r

Dev (1998) reviewed research results from 14 studies that


focus on the intervention methods practiced to enhance academic
intrinsic motivation for students with learning disabilities (LD) and

Review of Relrtetl Liternture

65

measures used to assess academic intrinsic motivation in students


with LD.

Data analysis showed that intrinsic motivation strongly

related to academic achievement in students with LD. .


Goldberg and Cornell (1998) as part of a national study,
administered

measures

of

intrinsic

motivation,

perceived

competence, and academic achievement to 949 academically gifted


second and third graders at the beginning and end of the school
year. Structural equation modeling indicated that intrinsic motivation
influenced perceived competence and that perceived competence
influenced subsequent academic achievement.
Albaili (1997) studied 168 undergraduate students at the
United Arab Emirates University.

Used the "Learning and Study

Strategies Inventory" to examine the differences between low-,


average-, and high-achieving students. They discovered that
motivation was the most powerful discriminating factor separating
the students.
Laurent et al (1997) analyzed the interrelation between
achievement and personal-motivational variables in students at risk
of school failure and students not at risk. Results from 606 third
graders show that students with and without academic problems are
different with respect to certain motivational-affective variables.
Prediction of academic success from affective and motivational
variables was discussed.

McLean (1997) in a study of 69 high-achieving and 55 lowachieving high school students in northwestern Alberta found that
high achievers had significantly more positive scores than low
achievers on motivation for schooling, academic self-concept,
reference-based academic self-concept (perception of others'
views), locus of control (internal), and instructional mastery. Locus
of control was the strongest discriminator between groups.

Bruce and

Singh

(1996) explained

that

students

in

intermediate grades often found the academic demands more difficult


and complex. Four factors are identified: ability, quality, quantity of
instruction, and motivation. They examined the direct and indirect
effects of variables shown to influence academic achievement. They
claimed that motivation and homework are especially noteworthy
since they can be potentially manipulated by schools.
Lucking and Manning (1996) in one of their article examined
factors contributing to low academic achievement among young
adolescents and provides data documenting low achievement in 12to 14-year olds.
achievement

are

Strategies for improving this population's


offered, taking

into

consideration factors

contributing to low achievement, such as difficulty constructing


wholes

during

learning

experiences,

lack

of

motivation,

disenchantment with schooling, and anxiety concerning peers.


#

Tuckman (1996) reported a study where two experiments


involving 226 college students were conducted to determine the
relative effectiveness of increasing students' incentive motivation for

67

Review qf Related Literature

studying and prescribing a text-processing strategy for them to use


in studying. Findings suggested that the use of students' acquired
learning strategies depended on their motivational levels.
Abouserie (1995) in a study of 135 undergraduate students
suggested that students' personality traits in general, and their selfesteem and achievement motivation in particular, have a substantial
influence on their approaches to study and to levels of knowledge
processing.
Fortier (1995) proposed a motivational model of school
performance, based on the theoretical framework of Deci and Ryan
(1985) and structural equation modeling, was prepared and tested
with 263 Montreal (Canada) 9th graders. Perceived academic
competence and perceived academic seIf-determination positively
influenced autonomous academic motivation, which had a positive
impact on school performance.
Karsenti and Thibert (1995) in their paper reported the types
of motivation related to school achievement.

A total of 1428

students from an inner city high school in the Montreal (Quebec)


area participated in the study, 714 males and 714 females. The
students ranged in age from 12 to 18, and approximately 40 percent
were minorities (Hispanic, Asian, Black).

The study used the

"Academic Motivation Scale" (AMS), a measure of motivation


towards

education

based

on

self-determination

theory.

"Arnotivation" indicated that no link between actions and the ensuing


outcomes is perceived; "intrinsic motivation" refers to bei

engaged

"\

in an activity for itself and for the pleasure and satisfaction derived

from participation; "extrinsic motivation" pertains to behaviour in


which the goals of actions extend beyond those inherent to the
activity itself. The results of the study demonstrated that academic
motivation is significantly related to grade point average (GPA), and
that motivation does not occur under the same conditions for boys

and girls or for junior-high and senior-high students. Amotivation


appeared to be a better predictor of school achievement for girls and
junior-high students, while intrinsic motivation seemed to foretell
school achievement for boys and senior high students. These data
revealed that the relationship between GPA and motivation emerged
differently for boys and girls, as for younger and older students. The
data also indicated that amotivation was the type of motivation most
significantly related to GPA for both boys and girls, across all levels
of secondary schooling. The findings suggested that development
of self-determined motivation in adolescent boys and girls should be
an important goal for educators, and that further study of amotivation
could lead to better understanding of adolescent academic
motivation and perhaps help to identify at-risk students.
Lumsden (1995) reported that a multitude of factors affect the
attitudes and behaviours that students bring to the learning situation.
This document discussed some motivation-related terms and
concepts.

It then examined several factors that affect students:

basic beliefs about and attitudes toward learning. The first section
differentiated between the following terms: ability focus and task
focus, performance goals and mastery goals, and learning and

Revbw of Re/c~teclLiterature

69
---

performance. The concept of "motivation to learn" implies that no


external reasons exist for the pursuit of academic activities.
Variables that contribute to the development of motivation to learn
include parent role, developmental changes, self-perceptions of
ability and competence, self-worth and effort, causal attributions,
meaning, autonomy, and relatedness and belonging.
Senecal (1995) assessed the role of autonomous selfregulation as a predictor of academic procastination. He maintained
that academic procastination is often a motivational problem related
to fear of failure. He revealed that students with intrinsic reasons for
studying procastinate less than those with less autonomous reasons
(for example, external regulation).
Chambers (1994) reported a study where a middle school
teacher presented three case studies of seventh-grade students who
began the school year poorly but then decided to change. All three
students had challenging home situations but, after becoming
motivated to succeed, showed dramatic and rapid improvement.

Such motivational changes are seen as stemming ultimately from


reasons intrinsic to the individual student.
Fontaine

(1994)

studied

the

relationship

between

achievement motivation at school and child-rearing practices and


found that more motivated children live in more rigidly structured
families. Fontaine suggested more research on the differential
influences of social context and gender.

Jegede's (1994) reports on a study of 160 Nigerian secondary


students, to determine the influence of achievement motivation and
gender on performance in English language learning: Found that, if
adequately motivated, the students are capable of mastering
English.

He attributed the lack of gender differences to social

change in Nigeria.
Brown and Walberg (1993) contended a study, to examine
the effect of motivational manipulated conditions on students'
mathematics scores, elementary students received either ordinary
standardized test instructions or special instructions (do as well as
possible for themselves, parents, and teachers). Those given special
instructions scored significantly higher in the test, implying that
motivation makes a substantial difference.
Ginsburg and Bronstein (1993) examined familial factors in
relation to 93 fifth-graders' motivational orientation and academic
performance.

High parental surveillance of homework; parental

reactions to grades that included negative control, un involvement,


or extrinsic reward; and over- and under controlling family styles
were found to be related to children's extrinsic motivational
orientation and low academic performance.
Maqsud and Coleman (1993) asserted that research
indicated that parents have a strong influence on the development
of their children's achievement motivation. They also reported a
study of 180 Bophuthatswana adolescents to determine the

effects of living in a boarding school or with family, and found

71

Review of Relcited Liteririure

significantly

higher achievement

motivation scores for

the

adolescents living with family.


Oxford (1993) reported a study where

107 students

participated in a study exploring factors that influence satellitedelivered language achievement. Of the factors (motivation, learning
style, learning strategy use, gender, previous language learning
experience, and course level), student motivation was by far the
most significant determiner, followed by learning strategy use.
Perry (1993) reported attribution retraining, the restructuring
of an individual's explanations for events in his environment, and
has proposed as one method of enhancing college student
motivation and achievement, particularly for high-risk students.
Drawing on previous research and theory, the most promising
strategies for using attribution retraining with this population were
discussed.
Schultz

(1993)

examined

relationships among

socio-

economic advantage, achievement motivation, and academic


performance in an urban elementary school population of 130
African-American and Hispanic fourth- through sixth-grade students.
Results indicate that socio-economic advantage and achievement
motivation are significant mediators of academic performance
among minority children, independent of intellectual ability.

Valas and Sovik (1993) reported the effects of the controlling


strategies of the mathematics teacher on student achievement,

interest, and mathematics self-concept were demonstrated in a


longitudinal study involving 161 seventh graders and 164 eighth
graders. This empirical test of the self-determination theory of Deci
and Ryan provides insight into student motivation.
Wambach (1993) described a study of motivational factors
influencing 19 first-year students who made the dean's list their first
quarter in college, despite a poor academic performance in high
school. He applied Weiner's attribution theory of motivation. Most
students attributed their prior academic performance to a lack of
motivationleffort.
Wigzell and Al-Ansari (1993) presented that the problem of
failure and underachievement in foreign language learning is
associated with negative attitudes and poor motivation rather than
lack of aptitude.

Results of a survey of low achievers at the

University of Bahrain are reported.


Bergin (1992) in his study investigated relationships between
secondary students' school achievement, leisure activities, and
motivation. Leisure activity variables predicted school achievement
but were weak compared to motivation variables, which were weak
compared to goals for college. Number of leisure activities and hours
spent in leisure activities correlated positively but weakly with grade
point average.

,.

Celay and Tapia (1992) in their study, reported three models


of achievement motivation in the classroom. Results with 755 high

Review of Related Literature

--

73

school students suggested that the model of C. S. Dweck and E.S.


Elliott offered a better explanation of the relationships among
achievement

motivation,

attributions,

emotional

reactions,

expectancies, and performance than do the other models.

Deci (1992) reported a study, where students (n=457, ages


8-21) with learning disabilities or emotional handicap were
assessed on self-perceptions and perceptions of home and
classroom contexts. Students' achievement and adjustment were
able to be predicted from the motivationally relevant variables of
self-perception and perception-of-context.
Ford (1992) in his study explored the influences of social,
psychological, and cultural determinants of underachievement as
perceived by 148 intermediate grade African-American students in
gifted,

above

average,

or

average

academic

programs.

Psychological factors played the greatest role in underachievement


or poor achievement motivation. Underachievement behaviours
were noted among students in all academic programs.
Gilbert (1992) reported that clinical psychologist Taibi
Kahler's Process Communication Model is based on six personality
types (dreamers, persisters, promoters, reactors, rebels, and
workaholics).
needs,

the

By satisfying people's individual communication


model

helps

improve

student

motivation and

achievement, enhances staff morale, and reduces the need for


discipline.

Keith and Benson (1992) in their study examined the effects

of

school

learning

variables

(quality,

motivation, academic

coursework, and homework) on high school students'. grades across


five ethnic groups using data from a national longitudinal study.
Results indicated that the variables were important to students'
grades .
Keith and Cool (1992) tested influence of ability, time, quality
of instruction, motivation, and academic coursework on high school
students' (n=25,875) achievement. Intellectual ability and academic
coursework had powerful direct effects on achievement, and
homework had smaller direct effect.

Indirect effects of quality of

instruction and motivation were stronger than direct effects; quality

affected motivation, which affected coursework.


Mitchell (1992) measured the constructs of intrinsic and
extrinsic motivation for college students' learning, examining selfassessed motivation, composite ACT score, and grade point

average (GPA).

Extrinsic motivation more strongly (though

negatively) predicted GPA. There was a significant positive


relationship between GPA and intrinsic motivation.

Motivational

indicators were sensitive to gender differences.


Murray and Warden (1992) presented questionnaire results
concerning self-handicapping, course-related expectancies, and
study habits. Reports that self-handicappers were more likely than
others to make external and unstable attributions. Concluded that
the underlying cognitive mechanism of self-handicapping strategies

Review of RelrtetJ Litemlure


'

75

is a defensive attribution pattern that protects an individual from


making unequivocal causal inferences of inability.
Sylva (1992) suggested that the long-term effects of early
education are mediated by enhanced educational aspiration and
motivation, not cognitive skills per se. This model is discussed with
reference to the Plan, Do, Review Cycle in the HighlScope
curriculum and the experimental work of Dweck and Legett on the
development of mastery orientation.
Watkins and Hattie (1992) conducted a research with 1,266
Australian secondary school students and supported 2 propositions
critical to the motive-strategy congruence model of J.

(1985).

B. Biggs

Students tend to use learning strategies congruent with

motivation for learning, and congruent motive-strategy cornbinations


are associated with higher average school grades.
Grolnick (1991) reported an investigation of relations among
children's perceptions of their parents, motivation, and school
performance for 456 children in grades 3 through 6, and suggested
that perceived maternal support and involvement are associated
with perceived competence, control understanding, and perceptions

of autonomy, whereas paternal support is related to perceived


competence and autonomy.
Smith (1991) reported a study where motivational aspects of
seventh graders' and ninth graders' decisions to adopt or reject
educational goals advocated by parents are studied using 988

adolescents, both black and white, for whom questionnaire and


achievement test data are available. Both social structure and the
interpersonal environment appeared to

influence adolescent

inclinations toward parental goals.


Pintrich and De-Groot (1990) in a study, on relationships
among student motivational orientation, self-regulated learning, and
classroom academic performance were examined for 173 seventh
graders.

Results provided empirical evidence for considering

motivational and self-regulated learning components in models of


academic performance.

Involvement in self-regulated learning is

tied closely to student efficacy beliefs.


SECTION 2. IV: STUDIES RELATED TO STUDY HABITS

Entwistle (2001) described the interaction of cognitive and


conative processes in learning with student perceptions of
assessment procedures.

Learning outcomes are viewed as a

function of stylistic preference, approach to studying, awareness of


targets, motivational approach, and suitable response to task
demands. The author commends the notion of composite concepts,
perhaps like a disposition to learn or understand, that appear to
capture real-life experiences of learning. lnterviews with students
that described such experience are offered in support of this notion,
whereas factor analyses of self-reports showed the co varying
r

nature of approaches to studying, stylistic preferences, academic


success, and understanding.

Review qf Related L iterat ure

77

Fajonyomi (2001) examined the effectiveness of study skill


counseling, rational emotive therapy, and a combined treatment in
improving the academic performance in English of 40 Nigerian senior
secondary school students. The effect of gender was also examined.
Three experimental groups were pre tested, treated for 10 weeks and
post tested on the English Language Performance Test.

Results

showed that the 3 treatment models had an equivalent significant


effect on students' performance. There were no differences between
treatment and control groups based on gender. Based on the results
it is recommended that school counselors might use any of these
models in helping low achievers in English, to improve their
performance.
Kovach, Fleming and Wilgosh (2001) carried out a study and

this study was a replication and extension of previous studies


investigating the

relationship between secondary

and post-

secondary students' thoughts about achievement and their study


habits.

The focus group interviews were conducted to further

explore student perceptions. The findings indicated that students


with a more incremental view of intelligence reported better study
habits. Similarly, students who reported liking school more or who
considered themselves to be good students all reported better study

habits. High school students, however, indicated that they perform


less than 50% of the study habits identified in the Study Habits
Inventory-High School (SH I-HS).

A positive correlation was

observed between students' reported grades, their study habits, and


their thoughts about achievement.

Chapter 2

78

Rosenfeld, Richman and Bowen (2000) in their investigation


compared school outcomes for 827 middle and 988 high school
students who differed in the extent to which they. perceive their
parents, friends, and teachers, alone and in combination, as
important sources of social support. Findings indicated that middle
and high school students who perceived high supportiveness from
all 3 sources of support, as opposed to none, 1, or 2, had better
attendance; spent more hours studying; avoided problem behaviour
more; had higher school satisfaction, engagement, and self-efficacy;
and obtained better grades. Positive school outcomes were
promoted when teacher support is perceived in combination with
perceived support from parents and friends.

Implications of the

results for human service providers were presented.


Boone (1999) had conducted a study to determine the
effectiveness of self-directed instruction (SDSS) on student
attention, study skills, and grade averages for reading, mathematics,
science, and social studies when contrasted with a comparison
group receiving teacher directed study skills (TDSS) instruction and
a control group receiving no special study skills instruction (NSS).
Inquiry of teacher reactions to explicit study skills instruction was of
secondary interest. The study involved a total of 80 participants.
Three students were dropped due to excessive absences which
resulted in 77 participants, an experimental group (N = 25). q
comparison group (N = 26), and a control group (N = 26). The selfdirected study skills intervention for the experimental group and the
teacher-directed study skills intervention for the comparison group

Review of'Related Litemture

79

were conducted for 4 weeks for a total of 8 sessions. The control


group received no special study skills instruction. The instruments
used were the Attention Problems Scale and the Study Skills Scale
from the Teacher Rating Scales of the Behaviour Assessment
System for Children (BASC) and quarter grade averages in the
areas of mathematics, reading, science, and social studies.
Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance
were used in the analyses. The results supported the effects of the

use of cognitive self-instruction in the area of study skills at the post


treatment measure and attention problems at the follow up measure.
The results failed to support a treatment effect for the cognitive selfinstruction intervention in mathematics, reading, science, and social
studies quarter grade averages. However, qualitative data revealed
that instruction of attention focusing, and study skills is a positive
approach to increasing student engagement in school tasks.
Suggestions for further studies included increasing the number of
training sessions and integrating the training sessions as part of the
regular classroom routine.
Silver (1999) reported that current research reveals that there
are many factors affecting academic achievement.

The overall

purpose of this research was to empirically evaluate the hypothesized


structural relationships among five social cognttive latent variables

and a latent GPA variable.

Data were collected for the latent

constructs of study skills self-efficacy, learning goal orientation,


performance goal orientation, perceived future consequences, and
persistence, as each is defined under the social cognitive theoretic

perspective, as well as grade point average. Of the 398 community


college students administered the survey in a sample of convenience,
386 consented to participate. Data were screened and cases were

excluded on the basis of outlying response patterns and excessive


amounts of missing data. The resulting data set contained 338 cases.
The initial specified structural modet hypothesized that SSSE would
have a direct relationship with estimated GPA, and would indirectly be
related to GPA through all of the constructs within the model.
Findings showed that study skills, self-efficacy and persistence have
a direct positive relationship to grade point average for this sample.

Not surprisingly, indirect relationships to GPA were detected for


perceived future consequences and performance goals. The
performance goals construct was negatively related to persistence.
There was also a direct negative relationship between future
consequences and persistence. Individuals with a greater focus on
the future social rewards of doing well academically (good grades
lead to a personal payoff, such as rewards from my family, money,
graduation, etc.) demonstrated lower persistence responses. Finally,
the practical significance for the GPA construct in the study, also
termed effect size, was.44 (R2 =.44, p e.05). This finding allowed the
interpretation that, overall, this research does contribute to our
understanding of academic achievement and the role of self-efficacy
for self-regulated study behaviours, goal orientation, perceived future
consequences, and persistence.

Albaili (1997) examined the differences between low-,


average- and high-achieving college students on the Learning and

of Reluted Liternture
-Review
.-.- . .-A.

.- .

81

--

Study Strategies Inventory scales. A total of 168 18-26 year old


undergraduate students at the United Arab Emirates University were
classified into 3 achieving groups based on their grade point
average scores. The low-ach ieving students scored significantly
lower than the average- and high-achieving students on all of the
scales. However, no significant differences were observed between
the average- and high-achieving groups on any of the scales.
Furthermore, a stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that
motivation was the most powerful discriminating factor that
separated low-achieving students from their high-achieving peers.
=

Al-Hilawani and Sartawi (1997) investigated the influence of

GPA, academic majors, and academic levels on the study skills and
habits of female university students. 480 female students (mean
age 21 years) from all majors in the Faculty of Education at the
United Arab Emirates University participated in this study. The
statistical analysis indicated that students who had high GPA
achieved significantly better on the study skills and habits
instruments than did students who had low GPA. Students majoring
in special education and educational psychology obtained a
significantly higher score than did students in the "other majors"
classification (e.g., Pre-School Education, Elementary Education,

and Arts Education). However, the statistical analysis revealed that


there were no significant differences on study skills and habits due
to student's academic levels.

Learning centers and introductory

courses on good study skills and habits are recommended to help


university students who have academic problems.

Chapter 2

82

Hess (1997) reported that an important contributing factor to


academic success in college is the presence of adequate study
habits that allow students to learn independently.. According to
recent research, optimal classroom performance is achieved when
learners exhibit a variety of' useful study habits, use deep and
surface level processing of information, and effectively monitor their
own reading comprehension. In the current study, four hypotheses
were tested: (I)lndividuals who employ a greater number of
productive study habits achieve higher levels of academic success
than those who employ fewer; and those who use more deep level
study than surface level study will achieve higher levels of academic
success than those who primarily rely on surface level study. (2)
lndividuals who employ a greater number of productive study habits
will achieve higher levels of reading comprehension than those who
employ fewer; and those who use more deep level study than
surface level study

will

achieve higher

levels of

reading

comprehension than those who primarily rely on surface level study.


(3) lndividuals who employ a greater number of productive study

habits will achieve higher levels of meta comprehension than those


who employ fewer; and those who use more deep level study than
surface level study will achieve higher levels of meta comprehension
than those who primarily rely on surface level study. (4) lndividuals
who employ more meta comprehension will comprehend what they
read better than those who use less meta comprehension. To test
these

hypotheses,

106

students

were

assessed

on

the

EstesIRichards Study Habits Inventory, and were graded on their


performance in a Learning and Development Class, completed a

Review of Related Liternt ure

83
-

questionnaire about their self-monitoring activities (to assess meta


comprehension), and responded to comprehension questions about

a reading passage. Participants were also asked if they like to read,


and additional information was obtained on a variety of indices. The
results supported hypotheses 1, 2 and 3, but not 4. Because of
instrument unreliability, the link between meta comprehension and
reading comprehension was not well tested in the current
investigation. Additional research is needed to clarify, replicate, and
extend these findings.
Jegede, Jegede and Ugodulunwa (1997) conducted an
experimental analysis of the effects of achievement motivation and
study habits on Nigerian secondary school students' English
language performance that was carried out in 1990. The two
hypotheses tested were that each of the treatment groups would
perform significantly better in English than the control group and that
the students treated for the combination of improved study habits
and higher achievement motivation would perform better in English
than any of the other groups (study habit, achievement motivation,
and control). The sample consisted of 160 students in 10th grade,
selected from 4 schools in Nigeria. Students' entry and exit
achievement motivation, study habits, and English language
performance were examined. Analyses of covariance were used to
test the significance of the resuIts, and both hypotheses were

,.

supported.

Chapter 2

84

Abdullahi (1996) examined the extent to which the study habits


of secondary school students influence their academic performance.
198 male and female secondary school students (aged .I
5-20 years) in
Kwara State, Nigeria completed the Study Habit Inventory. The
subject's scores in English language from the Junior Secondary School
Examination were used as the criterion measure. Results indicated
that the subjects's study habits predicted objective achievement on the
English test, indicating that students share some measure of blame for
poor academic performance.

Study habit patterns showed that,

although the students spent much time on study period procedure, they
showed very little concentration and consultation with their teachers.
Hancock (1996) studied behaviours common to elementary
school students and were incorporated into a questionnaire
administered to 793 fourth and sixth graders.

Factor structures

varied by sex and grade level, but gender differences in study


strategies apparent by grade six may be the source of persistent
gender differences in academic achievement.
* Verma (1996) explored the effects of study habits and locus

of control on academic performance of secondary school students in


different school courses. The study was conducted on 504 male
students studying in tenth class in ten secondary schools of Delhi.
Two instruments "Study Habits Inventory" by B.V. Patel and the
Hindi version of "Ratter's Internal External Locus of Control" by
Kumar and Srivastava were employed for data collection. The
results of the study yielded that study habits had significant effect on

Review oPRelcrted Literature

85

academic performance in Hindi, English and Social Studies; and


locus of control had significant effect on academic performance in
English, Hindi, Math, General Science and Social . Studies. The
interaction effect of the 2 variables, however, emerged as significant
in Math and General Science.
Jones et al (1995) investigated the academic skills and
conceptions of intelligence of 7th-12th graders. 371 subjects were
administered the Study Habits Inventory: High School Scale and the
Thoughts About Achievement Scale. Results showed that subjects
showed

incremental views

of

intelligence in

both studies.

Conceptions of intelligence were related to study skills. The more


incremental the subject's conceptions of intelligence, the better their
study skills tended to be. In Study 1, subjects with an incremental
view consistently exerted more effort when studying than did
subjects with an entity view. This relationship was less consistent in
Study 2 . Study skills improved from Grade 7 through 8, and then
decreased through Grade 11, due to the use of rote memorization.

A slight improvement was noted in Grade 12. It was concluded that


study skills programs need to address attitudinal variables, in
addition to teaching specific skills.
Loranger (1 994) examined the study strategies of successful
and unsuccessful learners to determine whether successful learners
differ qualitatively in their information processing from unsuccessful
learners. He found that, the successful students were more active,
purposeful, and flexible in their strategy use. He found that although

unsuccessful students were less efficient in their use of learning


strategies, they were satisfied with their academic performance.
Meyer (1994) in a study found systematic, structural gender
differences between male (n=266) and female (n=144) college
students in perceptions of and approaches to learning. It is argued
that gender variation in study behaviour is an important but often
neglected source of variation in student learning that can and should
be managed by educators.
Freeman and Morss (1993) examined the study habits of 31
Asian and Asian-American college students in the Midwest, using indepth interviews.

Study habits were categorized into 7 factors.

Analysis indicated that these students studied regularly, studied for


long periods of time, and were very intense.

They used study

groups and adaptive study approaches. They did not make much
use of external aids but focused on comprehension of material
presented in their textbooks. Results may have some implications
for students whose focus has shifted from reading the textbook to
other forms of study.
.Thomas (1993) proposed three developments that lend
support to the idea that schools must help teach study skills: (1)

advances in cognitive psychology suggested that children are active


learners; (2) society's concern for at-risk students; and (3) growing
demands for improved student performance. There is evidence that
systematic

study

skills

instruction does

improve

academic

performance. Study skills entail a beneficial study environment, self-

Re view of Related Literature

87

management, and time and stress management, as well as the more


traditional skills of effective listening, reading comprehension, notetaking, and sophisticated writing skills. Motivation is essential for
instilling study skills. Research suggested that Behavioural selfmanagement,

mood

management,

and

self-monitoring

are

successful tactics in developing motivation. Development of study


skills should be addressed at every educational level. Programs to
enhance teachers' preparation to teach study skills are important,
because the perception they are unprepared negatively affects
student performance. Efforts in Oregon demonstrated both the need
to develop study skills and the outlines of some successes.
Students' eagerness to acquire study skills dissipates quickly,
demanding

strong

commitment

from

school

boards,

administrators, teachers, parents, and students to make study skills


instruction maximally effective.
Panda (1992) investigated the study habits of disadvantaged
and non - disadvantaged adolescents in relation to their sex and
academic

achievement.

200

9th

and

10th

graders

(100

disadvantaged with 50 boys and 50 girls, and 100 nondisadvantaged with 50 boys and 50 girls) were randomly matched
with age, sex, area of living, and birth order. A study habits inventory
and academic achievement tests were used for data collection.

High achieving subjects had better study habits than low-achieving


subjects. Boys had significantly better study habits than did girls.

Jones et al (1991) investigated the academic strengths and


weaknesses of high school seniors: the academic behaviours (ABs)
that discriminate between high academic achievers and low
academic

achievers;

and

the

relationship

procrastination, and academic achievement.

between

AB,

Subjects were 175

12th graders from 3 high schools and their parents.

Subjects's

academic skills were significantly, though modestly, related to their


academic achievement.

Subjects demonstrated very few overall

strengths, and many weaknesses, in their ABs. Two of the strengths


reported were related to what they learned previously to new course
materials and to everyday life. Procrastination was related to study
habits.

Results demonstrated a significant need for teachers to

become more involved in improving students' academic skills.

. Kaur (1991) examined the

relationship between home and

school environments and the study habits of 80 male and 80 female


students attending Grades 8-10 in India.

Results of self-report

questionnaires indicated that 85% of boys studied at home


according to a planned schedule.

Among girls, who had more

housework responsibilities than did boys, 82.5% used a planned


schedule. 72.5% of parents of girls and 68.75% of parents of boys
were interested in their children's homework. Over 90% of boys and
girls were satisfied with their schools's facilities, teacher's teaching
methods, and the grading system.

Matt, Pechersky, and Cervantes (1991) examined the


influence of high school study habits on achievement in high school

Review of Relc fed Literrrfure

89

and during the Ist semester of college, using data from 159 female
and 93 male freshmen. The same study habits that contributed to
success in high school were found to be unrelated to academic
achievement during the 1st semester in college. Findings suggested
that college freshmen need to acquire new study habits to be
academically successful.
Kohli and Bains (1986) studied the effects of study habits and
attitudes and of means of improving habits and attitudes on the
academic performance of bright underachievers attending high
schools in Chandigarh, India. The 20 experimental subjects were
chosen from 300 subjects administered tests of verbal and
nonverbal

intelligence.

The

identified

underachievers

were

administered a study habit inventory by B. V. Patel and a test to


assess need to achieve before and after the intervention10
experimental group underachievers were given individual counseling
for a 2-months period. Pre- and post counseling test results and
performance on tests taken before and after the intervention
indicated that individual counseling had a positive effect on study

habits and the need to achieve for bright underachievers.


Estes and Richards (1985) administered a Study Habit
Inventory to 168 9th- and 10th-grade students to examine the
relationship between study habits and test performance. The data
were factor analyzed to yield 3 constituents of study practices:.
Distractibility, Compulsiveness, and Inquisitiveness. These factors
accounted for over 50% of the total variation of the items in the

inventory.

Tests of hypothetical relationships between habits of

study and test performance suggested that test performance is


monotonically

related to

study

behaviours

associated with

inquisitiveness, particularly for studying as part of homework


preparation. Compulsivity is also related to performance but only in
the distinction between students and those receiving other test
scores. Distractibility, although it was the most reliable study habits
scale, was found to bear virtually no relationship to test
performance.
Kops and Belmont (1985) tested the hypothesis that some
poor school achievers are deficient in planning and organizing skills.

20 low-achieving 2nd graders (mean age 96.3 months) and 20


average-achieving 2nd graders (mean age 93.7 months) were
administered 5 school-like tasks involving pictures, shapes, letters,
words, and numbers; the mazes subtest of the WPPSI; and the Trail
Making Test. The tasks used were designed to yield equivalent and
high success rates so that the subject's method of approach to the
tasks could be examined independently of available skills and
effects of failure on performance. Results suggested that (1) many
children who are seriously failing in the early years are inefficient or
poor task planners and organizers, often remaining fixed on a given
approach; (2) this characteristic may be related to lagging or
deficient language skills, but not to spatial organizing skills; and (3)
school failure may result from specific cognitive deficiencies andlor
failure to effectively organize available cognitive skills. Planning and

organizing are discussed in relation to set, spatial organization,


language, memory, and attention.

. Mehta and Kumar (1985) reported the relationships of


academic achievement with intelligence, personality, adjustment,
study habits and academic motivation. They studied the relationship
between academic achievement and personality, intelligence, study
habits, adjustment, and academic motivation.

60 male and 60

female postgraduate students were administered the Eysenck


Personality lnvehtory, a study survey designed by H.

D. Carter

(1958), a group general mental ability test designed by S. Jalota, a


test of academic motivation designed by H.

Hartley and J.

H.

Hogarath (1971), and the Bell Adjustment Inventory. Results indicate


that psychological variables in terms of personality, intelligence,
study habits, academic motivation, and adjustment were not related
and were independent of achievement. There was hardly any
regularity of relationship among the independent variables.

. Pate1 (1985)

investigated the impact of study habits on

academic achievement among 76 intellectually backward students in


the 8th standard at rural and urban schools in Gujarat, India.
Correlation analyses of results on the Study Habits Inventory by B.

V. Patel (1974) and terminal examination grades revealed that study


habits were an important determinant of school achievement for both
boys and girls in rural as well as urban settings.
+

Patel (1985) investigated the impact of study habits on

academic achievement among 76 intellectually backward (IQ 78 or

Chapter 2

92

below) students (Std. VIII) at 3 rural and 3 urban schools in Gujarat,


India. Results of the Study Habits Inventory devised by M. B. Patel
(1974) demonstrated a positive correlation between study habits and
academic achievement in all 4 study groups--urban boys, urban
girls, rural boys, and rural girls. In addition, girls revealed better
study habits than boys.
Wolfenden and Pumfrey (1985) reviewed various studies in
the field of behaviour, study habit, attitudes and academic
attainment and strategies for study habits. Research has indicated
that there is more likely to be a higher correlation between study
habits and academic attainment than between study habits and
intellectual ability.

Study attitudes have been found to be most

strongly influenced by an individual's social and psychological


needs.

Two major kinds of achievement motivation have been

identified, including the orientation to success and the disposition to


avoid failure. It has been suggested that the more students know
about factors such as the state of their own knowledge, their ability
to learn, and techniques for learning, the better they will be able to
study. A distinction is made between deep and surface approaches

to learning, and qualitative and quantitative approaches to assessing


study habits were discussed.
Chinnian and lyengar (1984) studied the influence of
cognitive and non cognitive factors on the scholastic performance &
72 students (aged 12-16 yrs) of an English-medium school in India.
Subjects were administered tests of intelligence, numerical ability,

Review of ReI~iterlL iternlure

93

abstraction, and vocabulary and a questionnaire covering goals and


interests, motivation, study habits, and family and peer relations.
The most consistent finding was that most underachievers, as
compared with high and normal achievers, showed certain
modifiable personal characteristics, such as less effective, less
persistent, and less systematic work habits.
Christian (1983) administered a study habits inventory and a
need achievement test to 79 female and 68 male high school
students to investigate the relationship of need achievement to sex
and to motivation.

Results indicated no significant differences

between scores of males and females and a positive correlation of


study habits with motivation.
Ladouceur and Armstrong (1983) reported a study on 39 high
school students designated by their teachers as at risk for academic
problems received 10, 50-minutes weekly Behavioural treatment
sessions that included self monitoring, study skill training, anxiety
reducing procedures, and assertiveness training. The academic
performance of these subjects was compared at 4 times during the
year to that of 30 students at risk who agreed to participate in
treatment but were placed on a waiting list (motivated controls), 43
at-risk students who refused to participate (unmotivated controls),
and 43 students not at academic risk. Subjects in the intervention
group significantly improved their performance from the 1st to the

4th assessment, and both the intervention and not-at-risk groups


performed significantly better than did the untreated, non motivated

Chapter 2

94

control group. Subjects in the latter group failed to improve their


grades, suggesting that without direct and systematic help, students
with potential school problems do not find ways of solving their
difficulties by themselves.
Rao, Parvathi and Swaminathan (1983) conducted a study on

70 male and 70 female 15-16 year olds, whose mothers were either
employed or not employed outside the home, completed a
questionnaire on study habits. No effects of sex or maternal
employment were found for reading and note-taking, habits of
concentration, allotment of time, or social relationships. However,
an interaction effect was found by which daughters with nonworking
mothers showed more favorable attitudes and study habits.
Chauhan and Singh (1982) conducted a study to find out the
difference in the study habits of boys and girls and the difference in
the study habits of children with parents from different professions.
500 10-12 years olds were selected randomly from both rural and
urban areas. Subjects with parents from 5 types of professions were
selected: agriculture, government service, business, teaching, and
defense services.

Subjects were administered a 45-item study

habits inventory covering 7 major areas: home work, work


organization, reading organization of

habits, preparation for

examination, general habits, interests, and environment of the


institution.

Analyses revealed no sex differences.

Subjects of

teachers achieved the highest score on the inventory, followed by


subjects whose parents worked for the government and defense

Review of Related Literature

services.

95

Subjects with parents from agriculture had the lowest

score. Suggestions for parents and teachers on how to improve


children's study habits are provided.
Zarb (1981) studied the relationship between academic
achievement and 6 non-academic variables in normal Grade 10
students (30 males, 98 females) from a working-class urban
neighbourhood. The variables were (1) study habits, (2) self-concept
relative to peers, (3) acceptance of education system, (4) selfconcept relative to family, (5) general achievement motivation, and

(6) academic self-concept. The battery of measures included the


Academic Self-concept Scale and Survey of Study Habits and
Attitudes. Results indicated that academic self-concept and study
habits were significant predictors of GPA for both male and female
samples.

These

results

suggest

that

contrary

to

popular

assumptions (probably erroneously based on clinical samples), the


best students in a normal population were not necessarily those with
a high family and peer self-concept, but those who have developed
good study habits and realistically perceived themselves as
academically successful. General achievement motivation was a
3rd significant predictor for males only. This probably reflected a
persistent tendency for competitive traits to be associated more
strongly with successful males than successful females, especially in

a working class population with a large southern European


immigrant component.

Chapter 2

96

Markle and Rinn (1978) conducted a study to help


underachieving students improve academic performance, and an
achievement motivation training program was developed for use in
an outpatient setting. Significant pre- to posttest differences for 23

8-44 years old participants were noted for achievement imagery,


hours studying per week, and days studying per week. Significant
differences were also obtained for GPA before training and grades
at I-years follow-up.

Srivastava (1977) inter correlated 6 variables--study habit,


general adjustment, reading ability, academic motivation, and total
number of problems in family, school, economic, and recreational
areas of life. All were found to differentiate significantly between
4 groups of achievers--under, over, high, and low. Each variable

was further correlated with the achievement and intelligence


scores of these 4 groups. Phi coefficients were employed, each
of which was converted into chi squares to find its level of
significance.

Results indicated the following: (a) All the 6

variables significantly correlated with each other except reading

ability and total adjustment. (b) Reading ability, study habit, and
academic motivation were more strongly related to achievement
than the 3 measures of personality. ( c ) Except for reading ability,

all the variables had a low correlation with intelligence.


Dhaliwal and Saini (1975) studied aspects of over- and
underachievement, and tested the adequacy of the operations used
to compute achievement indices. Results included the finding that

Review of Related L ifercrti4re

97

over- and underachievement are related to the student's study


habits, motives, adjustment, and feelings of security and insecurity.
Harris and Trujillo (1975) conducted a study where both a selfmanagement approach, teaching the

principles of

behaviour

modification and self-control (n=36), and a group discussion


technique, involving discussion of study habits and problems (n= 4 I ) ,
led to improvements in GPAs compared with a no-treatment control
group (n = 36) for low-achieving junior high school students.
Subjects in both treatment groups reported improvement in their
academic abilities relative to those of other junior high school
students after the program. More than those in the group discussion
condition, those in the self-management group also reported that
they were more likely to have a specific time and place to study and
that the program had increased their efficiency and time spent in
studying.
Hinrichsen (1972) obtained estimated self-reported study
behaviours from

144 undergraduates. A

step-wise

multiple

regression indicated the best predictor of grade point average

(GPA), as Verbal Scholastic Aptitude Test scores. Variables which


significantly increased were effective study time per week (p < .001)
and facilitating test-anxiety as measured by the Achievement
Anxiety Test (p < .05). Results indicated that estimated selfreported study behaviours may be as useful as on-going records in
predicting GPA.

Wittmaier (1972) administered the Achievement Anxiety Test

(AAT) to 300 undergraduates. 4 groups of 13 subjects each were


selected to investigate the relationship of facilitating @.AT+) and
debilitating (AAT-) test anxiety and study habits. Subjects with low
AAT- scores had more effective study habits and avoided delaying
academic tasks. This suggested that test anxious subject's (high
AAT-) test performance is partially affected by ineffective pre
examination behaviour.
Gopal (1970) established the effect of factors, e.g., individual
intelligence of the pupils and of their scholastic achievement. 500
8th grade boys of high school were selected at random. The
following

independent

variables

were

selected:

individual

intelligence, study habits, socio-economic status, and school


attitude; the dependent variable was scholastic achievement
expressed in grade marks. Intelligence was measured by using the
CIE group intelligence test; the socio-economic status was
expressed numerically by using 8. Kuppuswamy's Socio-economic
Status Scale. Study habits were determined by asking a series of
prepared questions and using a rating scale. Measurement of school
attitude was based on the Likert technique of attitude scale
construction. Achievement was measured by using the Jamia
Achievement Test Battery and taking the cumulative score on social
studies, general science, and mathematics. The techniques of
multiple correlation and multiple regression were applied, and
correlation coefficients, regression equation, and its coefficients
were determined. It was found that the student's intellectual level

Review of' Relcrted Liternture

99

was the predominant factor which determined his scholastic


achievement. 64% of the variations in achievement are accounted
for by variations in intelligence (r=.8). Socio-economic status was
related to intelligence (r=.45); no substantial relationship existed
between study habits or school attitude and intelligence.
Jain and Robson (1969) attempted to ascertain, on the basis
of an objective survey, the relative importance of 8 different aspects
of study processes for 99 high-, 164 middle-, and 11I low-attainment
subjects. Subjects were under- and postgraduate male students of
the 8 main Universities of India. A new Study Habits Inventory was
developed in the Hindi language for this purpose. High attainers as

a group were superior in their study practices. Working habit was


found to be most important from the guidance point of view for all the

3 groups.
SECTION 2. V: STUDIES RELATED TO TEACHER
EFFECTIVENESS

Hutto (2001) reported that there has been extensive research


conducted on student achievement (Anderson, 1994; Brookover,

1979; Fuchs, 1986;Wiggins, 1996) and techniques that enhance


learning. There has further been considerable research that focused
on teacher evaluation (Anderson, 1979; Berliner, 1976; Got~redson,

1 995;Moses, 1 997;Scriven, 1 988). However, little research exists


that addresses the relationship between student achievement and
teacher performance.

Treka (1994) stated that 'teaching and student outcomes are


connected' and that 'an increase in teaching experience was
associated with an increase in student achievement': The purpose
of this study was to examine the relationship between scores
received by teachers on the new PDAS (Professional Development
and Appraisal System) for Domain Vl ll (Improvement of Academic
Performance for All Students on the Campus) and student
achievement scores as measured by the TAAS (Texas Assessment
of Academic Skills). Domain Vlll of the PDAS focused on student
performance. The criteria for this domain required that the teacher
become familiar with every students' prior performance.

The

assumption was that teachers who have personal knowledge of


each student were more attentive to the differences and therefore
customized the lesson to insure that all students were successful.
The research design used was quasi-experimental as certain
independent variables were beyond the control of the researcher.
The independent variables were the scores of the teacher in all ten
criteria of Domain Vlll of the PDAS appraisal system while the
percentile score for students in math and reading (on TAAS) were
the dependent variables. The null hypotheses for this study were
tested at .05 level of statistical significance. Findings of the research
revealed that there was a significant increase in the TAAS scores for
math and reading after the implementation of Domain Vlll of the

PDAS appraisal system. Grade level had little influence on TAAS


scores. Those criteria that had the greatest influence on student
achievement were: alignment of instruction, appropriate sequence of
instruction, appropriate materials, monitoring of student performance

Review of Related Literature

101

and attendance, interacting with students in at-risk situations, having

an intervention plan in place, having a campus wide program of


action, and the campus rating attribute.
Kuklinski and Weinstein (2001) described a path model of
teacher expectancy effects and was evaluated in 376 1st-5th grade
urban elementary school children.

The roles of classroom

perceived differential treatment environment and developmental


differences and one mediator (children's self-expectations) of
teacher expectancy effects on children's year-end achievement
were examined. Significant differences in effects and effect sizes
were presented. A significant age-related decline in direct effects

on ending achievement was interpreted as evidence that teacher


expectations may tend to magnify achievement differences in the
early grades, but serve to sustain them in later grades. Support for
indirect

effects

(teacher

expectations

-->

children's

self-

expectations --> ending achievement) was limited to upper


elementary grade classrooms and was perceived as high in
differential treatment. In contrast to prior research that emphasized
small effect sizes, the present analyses document several
instances of moderate effects, primarily in classrooms in which
expectancy-related messages were most salient to children. These
results underscore the importance of explicit attention to the
inclusion of moderators, mediators, and multiple outcomes in

efforts to understand teacher expectancy effects.

Quandahl (2001) asserted that over the years, educational


researchers have investigated factors considered to affect learning.
Numerous correlational and experimental studies have found
associations

between

achievement

patterns

and

teacher

instructional behaviours (e.g., Anderson, Evertson, Brophy, 1979;


Rosenshine, 1995). Teacher effect studies represent an important
area of research from which a picture of effective teaching is
emerging.

The purpose of this study was to differentiate the

instructional practices of kindergarten teachers who were more


effective, effective, and less effective in producing high student
achievement. The teacher sample consisted of nine kindergarten
teachers from the 1996-97 school year. Archival record data were
collected from 208 students (107 students who attended full-day
kindergarten and 101 who attended half-day kindergarten during the

1996-97 school year), from four schools with ethnically diverse


students and substantial numbers of students on free and reduced
lunch.

Teacher observation data and an instructional practices

questionnaire (constructed from findings of previous teacher


effectiveness studies) were used to compare the teachers'
instructional practices.

Teacher effectiveness was measured by

analyzing the class mean, the dispersion of student scores, as well


as the extent to which the teacher was effective in producing
consistently high achievement across subject areas from various
measures of achievement. Additionally, student scores from first
grade were examined to

identify teachers whose students

maintained or increased in cognitive achievement. The quantitative


data were matched with the corresponding qualitative data to

Review of R~lntedLifemture

103

differentiate instructional similarities and differences of teachers who


were more effective, effective, or less effective in promoting high
achievement with kindergarten students. The results of this study
indicate that kindergarten instruction differs substantially from school
to school and from class to class. One more effective half-day
kindergarten teacher's students did as well or better on kindergarten
and first grade assessments, when compared with many of the fullday kindergarten classes. Additionally, this study found that high
academic achievement in kindergarten does not necessarily lead to
high subsequent achievement. Two out of the three kindergarten
teachers, who were identified as more effective in producing high
student achievement on kindergarten assessments, were not
effective in producing high student achievement in first grade.
These teachers self-reported a less developmental approach to
kindergarten instruction. These findings suggested that it is possible
to discern some common characteristics of teachers who are more
effective, effective, or less effective in producing high kindergarten
achievement. Teachers who were identified as effective generally
self-reported a more developmental philosophy and practices.
Interestingly, the effective teachers' students had high first grade
academic achievement. Students of one teacher who was classified
more effective and self-reported

a developmental approach,

maintained high achievement in first grade. These results suggested


that disregarding developmentally appropriate instructional practices.

in kindergarten to produce high student achievement may be


counter productive.

While rote drill and practice to ensure high

student performance may produce short-term gains, concern should


be focused on the cognitive development of children over time.
Radmacher and Martin (2001) investigated college teachers'
ages and personalities, and students' course grades, gender,

enrollment status, academic abilities, and ages as predictors of


student evaluations of faculty. An evaluation form containing 7 items
reflecting the personality trait of extraversion and 8 items reflecting
teaching effectiveness was used to collect data from 351
undergraduates. Teachers' extraversion (.79) and teachers' ages

(-.08)
were correlated highest, and students' gender was correlated
lowest (.08) with teaching effectiveness.

Hierarchical regression

revealed that teachers' extraversion was the only significant


predictor of student evaluations (beta = .76, p < .001) after
controlling for enrollment status, course grades, and student ages.
Forte (2000) described that the ultimate goal of education is
to increase the knowledge and skills of students. Many factors

affect student achievement. There were several studies that


suggested that the single greatest factor affecting student
achievement is teacher effectiveness. The challenge then became
to improve and strengthen the effectiveness of teachers in an
effort to increase students' academic achievement. To accomplish
this, teacher training must be provided through a professional
development program that impacts instructional practices in the
classroom. The intent of this study was to stress the importance
of professional development programs that are designed to

Review of Relirterl L itenit ure

105

. - -

improve instructional practices and impact on student academic


gains. This study examined a professional development program
in the Direct Instruction Reading Program at an urban elementary

school. Training was provided for third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade


teachers. The design of this professional development program
was based on well-researched instructional strategies that had

been found to increase the level of transfer of knowledge and


skills, gained from training, to the classroom. The goal of this
study

was

to

determine

the

impact

of

the

professional

development program on teacher performance and student


achievement in reading as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic
Skills. Professional developing in the Direct Instruction Reading
Program was provided for all participating teachers over the 19971998 school year.

Teacher performance data were obtained

through a professional development survey, training forms, and


classroom

observation forms.

Student

achievement

data

consisted of 1997 ITBS reading scores (pretest) and 1998 ITBS


reading scores (posttest). This year-long study was evaluated
quantitatively and qualitatively. The results of the study suggested
that the professional development program did impact teacher
performance and student achievement. The findings generated
from this study can be used to focus attention on the importance
of the development and design of professional development
programs and to support the notion that professional development
can impact teacher performance and student achievement.

Goldwater and Nutt (1999) reported that little is known about


the

relationship between teachers' family-of-origin variables,

impacting their work attitudes and interpersonal skills, and students'


academic outcome. This study investigated whether goodness of fit
between teachers' and students' backgrounds is associated with
subjective grading and objective achievement at school. 101 7th
graders and 20 of their teachers completed the Self-Report Family
Inventory. Similarity between teachers' and students' work-culture
variables was associated with the subjective grading practices of
teachers. The self-report data also revealed effective teacher and
successful student profiles.
Johnson (1999) examined teachers' perceptions of school
climate in 59 elementary schools in a southwestern U S . city.
They were assessed using the School Level Environment
Questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses led
to the use of 35 of the original 56 items arranged in five of the
original eight factors. Factor scores were calculated and used in
further

analyses.

Using structural

equation

modeling, a

statistically significant, positive relationship was found between


school mean, teachers' perceptions of school climate and school
mean student achievement. School climate was also found to be
related to teachers' perceptions of how good schools were for
students and to teacher job satisfaction. A second model, adding
school mean teacher characteristics, did not improve the overall
model, though it resulted in a smaller, non-significant relationship
between school climate and student achievement. A third model,

Review cf Relcrted --L-iterntcrre


.

--

107

adding community and school context variables also was not a


better model.

It did, however, show such strong relationships

between community and school context and student achievement


that other relationships in the model were overwhelmed. Overall,
schools with higher student achievement; more experienced, non
minority, female teachers; with fewer low income and limited
english proficient students; and in communities with higher family
income and higher adult education levels had more positive
school climates.

This study revealed the need for better

measures of the effectiveness of schools, particularly regarding


teacher characteristics and teacher effectiveness. It also pointed

out that teachers' perceptions of school climate are important and


should be part of school effectiveness assessment as well as a
focus for school faculty and administrat ion improvement efforts.

Lin and Lawrenz (1999) explored the feasibility and validity


of using a time-series design in the assessment of teaching
effectiveness.

One outstanding beginning chemistry teacher, 1

experienced chemistry teacher, and 2 classes of students taught by


the 2 teachers participated in the study. Despite the constraints
inherent in the design, the results indicated that time-series
procedures were effective for monitoring student learning and
assessing teaching effectiveness. The time-series data revealed a
sharp drift of the learning curve in the "treatment" stage.
Additionally, the data showed high correlations with established
tests and discrimination between high and low achievers. The

results of the time-series methodology reported here were


corroborated by analyses of videotapes of the classroom teaching.
Hirsch (1998) in his report outlined current research on
teacher policy, summarized legislation from the 1997 legislative
session, and forecasts teacher policy trends for 1998. The report is
intended to assist states in examining and improving teacher policies
by providing information about how other states have approached
the issue. Current research demonstrated that teacher quality is the
most significant factor affecting student achievement, hence
education and qualifications of teachers is an important factor in
determining student success. The 1997 legislative session saw
numerous states address key components of teacher policy,
including teacher certification, salary and other benefits, professional
development, and tenure and dismissal. The year 1998 promised to
be another busy year for education and teacher policy according to
National Conference of

State

Legislatures

(NCSL)

survey.

Legislators will have to work to increase teacher quality by creating


more rigorous teacher certification requirements. Projected teacher
requirements and the demand for new educators provided states
with a window of opportunity to reshape the composition of their
teacher corps over the next decade.

States hoped to enhance

future teacher quality through more rigorous licensure and


professional development requirements and to establish recruitment
programs to diversify the teaching population.

Review of R ~ l r t t ~Literofure
d

--- -

109

Karsenti and Thibert (1998) in their study took an in-depth,


global look at the entirety of the teaching practices of six
elementary school teachers in Canada who were .known to be
highly motivating instructors. The study investigated the interaction
between teaching practices and the change in elementary-school
student motivation. Three teachers were chosen for their reputation
as great motivators, while the other three were randomly selected
in schools from the same sociological context; the students of
these teachers also participated. Teachers were interviewed, their
classes were observed, and their teaching materials were
examined. Documents and other qualitative data were analyzed by
ethnographic content analysis, and a motivation scale was applied
to students.

Results indicated that effective teachers seem to

emphasize, effort more than ability, using attribution feedback to


favor student motivation. Effective teaching was also related to the
sharing of classroom management responsibilities with students,
and with creating a classroom culture in which students were held
accountable, had self-determination, and believed that through
effort they could succeed. Planning and decision making for these
teachers showed awareness of the importance of creating a
classroom context in which students were highly motivated, and
they were aware when students were not motivated.

Student's

perceptions of the teachers actions were more important for


influencing motivation than the teacher's real actions themselves.
Mendro (1998) comments on J. Frymier's (1998) viewed that
teachers should not assume or accept responsibility for student

learning and then summarized some evidence showing the strong


connection between school and teacher effectiveness measures and
student achievement. Mendro also noted some of the benefits of
school and teacher effectiveness measures external to their function
as measures of performance. Next, policy issues arising from the

use of student data and the associated research were considered.


Finally, Mendro concluded with some cautions about using
effectiveness measures in teacher accountability systems.
Anderson (1997) discussed in detail the collaborative efforts
of a team of elementary school and university educators working
within the context of a professional development school (PDS) to
foster culturally responsible pedagogy, inspire reflective practice,
and enhance student performance. He Concluded that the PDS
experience increases teacher effectiveness and accountability.
Behrman

(1997)

examined

determinants

of

cognitive

achievement in rural Pakistan, controlling for cognitive ability, family


background, various school quality measures, and educational
attainment.
effectiveness.

Estimates indicated substantial variation in school


Investments that improve teacher quality and

increase student exposure to teachers are likely to have higher


returns than those that improve physical infrastructure and
equipment.
P

Horton and Oakland (1997) tested the hypothesis that


students learn best when teachers use strategies consistent with
students' temperament-based learning style.

Analysis of 417

11 1

Review o f Reluted Litemture

seventh

graders

did

not

support

the

hypotheses-Student

achievement was significantly higher when instructional strategies


that were designed to promote personalized learning were used.
Ortiz (1997) in his study examined whether teacher
behaviours (such as teacher enthusiasm, level of lesson difficulty,
teacher voice volume and inflection, teacher use of inquiries, and
teacher use of positive feedback) were related to student academic
engagement in an inner city day care center. Data were collected by
videotaping 13 teachers and 94 ethnic minority children in the day
care center. Analysis indicated that all five teacher behaviours were
related to student academic engagement, although none of these
correlations was

statistically significant.

Student

academic

engagement was also found to be significantly correlated with


measures of emergent

literary skills.

Results suggest that

educational researchers include engagement among their outcome


variables, and that educators add fostering student engagement to
the goal of increasing student academic achievement.
Peterson (1 997) in his literature review addressed four
variables related to school climate: teacher efficacy, collegiality (as
promoted by the principal, shared decision making, and staff
development), student achievement, and parent involvement.
Schools attempting reform should consider how each of these
variables can contribute to a positive school climate and improve the
chances for lasting, meaningful school reform.

Wright (1997) reported the relative magnitude of teacher


effectiveness on student achievement. It was examined, after
considering the effects of classroom heterogeneity, student
achievement level, and class size on academic growth in the context
of the Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System.

ResuIts

showed teacher effectiveness to be dominant factors that affecting


students gain.
Wright, Horn, and Sanders (1997) in a project, used samples
from 2nd-8th grade Tennessee classrooms to examine the relative
magnitude of teacher effects on student achievement while
simultaneously considering the

influences of

intra-classroom

heterogeneity, student achievement level, and class size on


academic growth. Results showed that teacher effects were
dominant factors affecting student academic gain and that the
classroom context variables of heterogeneity among students and
class sizes have relatively little influence on academic gain. Thus, a
major conclusion was that teachers make a difference.
Bressoux (1996) examined the effects of teachers' training on
pupils' achievement in French and mathematics. He compared the
effectiveness of three samples of (French) elementary teachers with
different levels of experience and training, using a multilevel model.
Results showed that training and experience enhance novice
teachers' effectiveness. Neither training nor experience significantly
affected instructional equity.

Review o f Reltted Literrrture

113

Chamot and O'Malley

(1996) described the Cognitive

Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA), an instructional


model designed to increase the achievement of Eng-lish-languagelearning students, by integrating content-area instruction with
language development activities and explicit instruction in learning
strategies. The report included examples of ways in which CALLA
teachers actively foster school achievement with their students.
Gavlick (1996) proposed a model postulating a relationship
between faculty research activity, instructor behaviours; and student
achievement is advanced, based on two causal models, one linking
research activity and instructional effectiveness and another
validating student evaluations as good indicators of instructional
effectiveness,
importance of

as

measured

distinguishing

by
and

student

achievement.

The

isolating specific teaching

behaviours is emphasized.
Holmes (1996) reported a study in which two teacher
evaluation

instruments

were

administered

to

students

in

undergraduate classes at a Christian college and at a Christian


university. The Student Evaluation of Educational Quality (SEEQ)
was used as a high-inference evaluation form and the Teacher
Behaviour Inventory (TBT) was used as a low-inference rating form.
The sample included 414 students from one college with a
multicultural population and 67 students from one college with a
homogeneous ethnic population. Results indicated that in both the
college and the university, no relationship was found between

ethnicity and student evaluations of teachers.

In the multiethnic

setting, differences were found between the ratings of teacher


behaviours by Caucasian students and the students from the
remaining ethnic groups (p <). The Caucasian students tended to
rate teachers lower in the areas of structuring and interaction, and
higher in the areas of interest and pacing than the students from the
other ethnic groups represented. Student ratings of teacher
behaviours were significantly related to students' overall evaluation
of teachers and classes. The behaviours that were significantly
related to the evaluations differed for each ethnic group. Student
evaluations of teachers and ratings of teacher behaviours were
significantly, though weakly, related to achievement. The areas of
evaluations and ratings that were related to achievement were
different for each ethnic group.
Phillips (1996) reported the comparison of two fourth-grade
teachers who effected different patterns of achievement (either
expected achievement or high achievement) among their students
(including those with learning disabilities or low achievement). They
found important differences in terms of pacing and format of
instruction, student involvement in the lessons, motivation, emphasis
on achievement, and instructional planning.
Zigarelli in 1996 using National Educational Longitudinal
Study data for 1988, 1990, and 1992, assessed the effects of six
effective

schoots

variables

on

student

achievement

level.

Regression analysis of the data indicated that the most important

Review c# Related L iternt ure

.-

115

effective schools characteristics were an ac hievement-oriented


school culture, principal's autonomy in hiring and firing teachers, and
high teacher morale.
Hughes (1995) examined the goal-setting segment of a
professional growth evaluation model to ascertain the quality of
goals

developed, and the

level of efforts related to

the

implementation of those goals. Additionally, the study examined the


perception of teachers and their supervisors regarding the
relationship between this type of teacher evaluation model and the
improvement of student academic achievement.
Koon and Murray (1995) in a study of the validity of student
ratings of college faculty focused on the relationship of student
outcomes to faculty ratings. Subjects were students of 36 full-time
instructors; outcome measures included subject matter knowledge,
student self-ratings, and measures of short- and long-term
motivation (interest in the subject matter). Results supported va tidity
of student ratings.

A 2-part questionnaire was developed by Papandreou (1995)


and presented to 528 graduating high school students in Cyprus in
7994-95.

Part 1 consisted of four questions on student gender,

academic performance, and area of studies. Part 2 consisted of 41


statements or factors of effective teaching; each factor was rated
individually and as part of the group by the students. Grade point
average was the criterion for viewing the data of this study; 4 groups
of students were identified based on grade point. Results yielded 26

Chapter 2

116

forms of effective teaching based on this average.

Overall, the

seven most important factors associated with promoting effective


teaching, as perceived by students, were: (1) correction of student
errors; (2) variety in teaching practices; (3) display of teacher
liveliness during the lesson and eye contact with students; (4)
movement of teacher around the room; ( 5 ) ending the lesson with a
content review; (6) clear and complete directions by the teacher; and
(7) the use of appropriate student ideas. It was found that teacher

effectiveness was viewed differently by good and poor students: the


higher the academic performance of the student, the higher the
degree of recognition of forms of effective teaching.
Ross (1995) reviewed researches on teacher efficacy and
concluded that teachers who believed that they were effective in
setting more challenging goals for themselves and their students;
took responsibility for student outcomes, and persisted when faced
with obstacles to learning. The article suggested that efforts to
improve schools should include attention to teacher efficacy.
Schmidt and Moust (1995) in thus study tested a causal
model of the influence of tutor behaviour on student achievement
and interest in the context of problem-based learning. Data were
gathered from 524 tutorial groups involving students in the health
sciences curriculum at the University of Limburg in the Netherlands
during

1992-93. Correlations among the 261 tutors' socid

congruence, expertise use and cognitive congruence behaviours,


and small-group functioning and students' self-study time, intrinsic

Review of Related Literature

117

interest in the subject matter, and level of achievement were


analyzed using structural equations modeling. The study found that
the tutors' level of expertise use and social congruence not only
directly affected their level of cognitive congruence but also affected
other elements of the model. The level of cognitive congruence
influenced tutorial group functioning, which in turn affected student
self-study time and intrinsic interest. The results suggested that
subject-matter expertise, a commitment to the students' learning and
their lives in a personal, authentic way, and the ability to express
oneself in the language used by the students are all determinants of
learning in problem-based curricula.

995) drew on existing theories and research to


Schonwetter (I
further uncover the mysteries of the college teachingllearning
paradigm, particularly the causal links between effective instruction
and student learning of novel lecture material. The experimental
design involved 380 introductory psychology students and consisted
of a Lecture Expressiveness (low, high) by Lecture Organization
(low, high) 2 x 2 design. Four teaching conditions were defined by
the following manipulations: low expressivenessllow organization,

low expressiveness 1 high organization, high expressiveness I low


organization,

high expressiveness I

high organization. The

dependent variables included student attention and achievement.


The results extended previous correlational research. For instance,
organization showed consistent differences in student attention and
achievement: (1) organization influenced students' perceived and
actual attention;

(2)

organized teaching

impacted students'

perceived and actual achievement outcomes; and (3) organized


teaching influenced lower levels of information processing. These
findings and their implications are discussed at length and
suggestions are made for classroom instructors and college
students to capitalize on organization as an effective teaching
behaviour.
Schrag (1995) stated that ultimately, student progress
depended on teacher quality and motivation, the resources and
support that teachers receive, and students' own efforts. Uninspired
teachers shou Id watch more innovative colleagues and accept their
constructive suggestions.

Nurturing a pedagogical culture of

collaboration should lie at the heart of efforts to improve teacher


accountability.
Stone (1995) defined the term "empowerment" as it applies to
teachers and to children. He suggested the foundation needed for
empowering includes respect, validation, and success. He also
discussed the characteristics of ownership, choice, decision-making,
intrinsic

motivation, responsibility,

collaboration,

and

self-evaluation

independence, risk taking,


as

factors

involved

in

empowerment.
Greenwood (1994) in his article described a multi step
method for identifying effective teacher-developed instructional
procedures and translating them for wide-scale use. The method
employed both objective and naturalistic assessments of academic
gain and engagement and was used to identify effective practices of

Review of'Relnted Literrrtirre

119

teachers of 59 fourth - and fifth-grade students with learning


disabilities.
Pierce (1994) reported a case study that examined how one
effective middle school teacher of primarily high-risk students
created a classroom environment that enhanced learner outcomes.
Analysis of data collected through participant observation and
interviews indicated that the normative nature of this particular
classroom was intimately entwined with academic learning.
Tymms (1994) described a longitudinal study that extended a
British comprehensive monitoring system--the A Level Information
System (ALE)--to examine the effects of effective and ineffective
departments on their pupils as they moved on to University and paid
employment. A total of 2,578 students took their A-level exams in

1988 and completed questionnaires toward the end of their


coursework. Of these, 1,167 students (47%) were sent follow up
questionnaires in

1993. It was

hypothesized that effective

departments could have negative long-term consequences as they


pushed their students on to courses for which they were unprepared.

This might adversely affect students' self-esteem and academic


achievement. Regression analysis indicated that the impact of
having attended effective rather than ineffective departments was
slight; rather, the people and life experiences that students
encountered after graduation exerted significant influence. It is
recommended that monitoring and accountability systems focus on
teachers' short-term impact.

Watson (1994) described that if teachers of students with


behaviour disorders are to be more effective, there must be several
changes in pre service education. Teachers need .training in one
predominant theoretical philosophy, in remediation of academic
deficits, in competent use of behaviour management skills, and in
writing individualized education programs.
Weber and Omotani (1994) in their research suggested that,
when teachers believe that, they can influence student learning. they
usually do. Low-efficacy teachers blame failure on students' family
background and motivation, deprecate low achievers, and stratify
their classrooms according to ability. Teacher self-efficacy can be
strengthened by

improving teacher

socialization procedures,

reducing beginning teachers' responsibilities, fostering collegial


relationships, and designing appropriate evaluation systems.
Joyce (1993) reported a study where four educators
responded to the article in this issue, which suggested that statistical
data do not support a link between student achievement and staff
development.

The responses revisit the research used in the

original article, suggested that the link exists and discussed how
future research could be improved.
March (1993) in this study examined the efficacy of
Techniques of Responsive Intervention to Validate Effective
Teaching (TRIVET) as a model for training administrators and
teachers to provide instructional leadership through effective
classroom appraisal. The study dealt with the first of a multi-step

121

Review uf Relcrtetl Litercrfure

process to have principals and teachers impact what happens in the


classroom by retraining administrators and teachers in how to use a
systematic research-based approach of classroom .appraisal and
analysis. The 45 teachers and 11 principals who volunteered for
training and who constituted the 1991-92 cohort were administered a
survey questionnaire prior to the beginning of the training. The
participants completed the same questionnaire 1 year later. With
regard to the effect of TRIVET on student achievement gains, Ohio
achievement tests show that pupils with TRIVET trained teachers
did a bit better than their peers; and that they had improved
attendance,

slightly

better

grades,

and

improved

reading

competency. In addition, the program also showed reduced teacher


isolation, and the groundwork was laid for a culture of teaching
evaluation, change, and excellence.
Orlich (1993) investigates the link between staff development
and student achievement, examining studies that were published or
accessed in ERIC and that used standardized achievement tests to
evaluate students.

The article reviews studies related to and

different from Hunter's model, noting that statistical data do not


support the link.
Schalock (1993) argued that teacher assessment should be
extended to include students' learning gains. The conditions that
must be met for such an assessment system to be implemented are
described, and some alternative strategies for extending the focus of

teacher evaluation and program evaluation to include student


learning are discussed.
C hilcoat (1992) gives guidelines to help teacher produce

instructional

messages

understand.

The

that

behaviours

match

students'

presented

abilities

facilitate

to

greater

acquisition of teacher talk by focusing student attention, reducing


the complexity of the message, leading students to key points that
maintain student attention, and aiding in future recall.
Black (1992) stated that most praise coming from teachers is
ineffective or damaging because the compliments fail to encourage
students.

Praise should have three qualities: contingency,

specificity, and credibility. Praise is most effective if it is personal,


sincere, and focused on improvement and if it allows students to
judge their own behaviour and achievements without comparisons
and competition.
Ross (1992) reported the relationships among student
achievement, teacher efficacy, and interactions with 6 history
teaching coaches were studied for 18 seventh and eighth grade
history teachers in 36 classes. Student achievement was higher
when teachers had more contact with coaches and when teachers
had more confidence in education's effectiveness.
Sonnier and Sonnier (1992) describes the Sonnier Model of
Educational Management, which provides a way to measure the
teacher-effectiveness of a lesson, as determined by students'

123

Review of Relo fed Literature

cognitive achievements with relation to affective attainments.


Cognitive achievement is determined by grades earned. Data are
co-valued

with

relation

to

affective

attainments.

Teacher-

effectiveness is determined by the number of students having


learned a lot and having enjoyed the lesson.
Belkin (1991) warns that, without the expectation of joy, there
will be no creative personality. Argues that the main purpose of the
teacher's activity is to create a success situation for every student.
Suggests steps to creating a success situations bank that will allow
teachers and students to share successful ideas and avoid illusory
successes.
Ellsworth and Monahan (1991) through this study analyzed
the impact of the Developmental Discipline Management System

(DD) on teaching effectiveness and student achievement in special


needs classrooms.

DD was developed as a human centered,

systems approach to education. Its core philosophy was to help


each child achieve self mastery and mastery of subjects and to help
teachers feel the importance and dignity of working with children.

The population for the study consisted of all certified Chapter One
teachers and their assigned students in the primary grades of an
inner city Arizona school district. Teachers received 15 hours of
training in DD. The teachers in this inner-city district who chose to
use the program in their second and third grade classes during the
school year were the experimental group. The control group
consisted of teachers who chose not to use the program. Student

Chapler 2

124

learning was assessed using the California Achievement Test as a


pretest and a post-test administered to the children in each of the 31
classrooms. Academic achievement in the classrooms using DD
significantly increased over that of the control group. Results of a
teacher confidence survey showed expression of confidence and
satisfaction with DD and a belief that the program had significantly
improved their teaching.

At the end of the year the district

administrator rated each of the teachers with a competency


evaluation tool. The 18 DD teachers received significantly higher
ratings in 5 areas. The teacher assessment tool is appended.
Rugh (1991) reported the findings of a study that described
effective teaching practices in Pakistan elementary schools and
made recommendations for improving teacher effectiveness are
presented in this paper. The research project was conducted by
Basic Research and Implementation in Developing Education
Systems (BRIDGES) of Harvard University (Massachusetts). During
1988-89, a total of 63 fourth- and fifth-grade teachers were observed
in 32 schools, teaching a total of 265 lessons. The teaching
practices of teachers whose students had better achievement test
scores than those of other students were compared. Findings
indicate that effective teachers were more likely to use systematic
logical

sequences, which

involved

implementing synergistic

practices, variety, and feedback and monitoring; adapting to their


contexts;

organizing

environment;

and

instructional time;
facilitating

an

orderly

learning.

Policy

creating

independent

recommendations are made to formulate a clear statement of

Review
-- crf Related Literuture

--

125

objectives; review assessment practices; provide teacher incentives;


improve the quality of learning materials; offer practical in service
training; and provide instructional leadership.
Zalud and Reyes (1990) discusses effective teaching and
components of lessons which vary with situations and can be
targeted for enhancement. Offers guidelines for providing corrective
feedback and four teacher behaviours that will lead to improvement
in student achievement.
Evertson and Randolph (1989) examines second and third
grade data from Project STAR, a reduced class size study.
Observers viewed teachers, some of whom received in service
training on effective teaching and class type. Observers' narratives
and ratings of class activities and interaction indicated little change
in teaching practices regardless of class type or training.

Finn

(1989) reported that the researchers followed up on fourth graders


from Project STAR, a reduced class size experiment. Using norm
and criterion-referenced achievement tests and teacher ratings of
student effort, initiative, and behaviour, they found significant small
class carry-over effects on every achievement measure and
significant participation differences in small class students.
Folger (1989) in a paper summarizes policy and research
implications of several studies on Project STAR, noting relationships
between class size and student achievement, class size and
teaching, and theories of class size effects. It recommends using
class reduction to improve achievement and suggests future

research on teaching styles, curriculum objectives, and intra


classroom organization.
Folger (1989) discusses Project STAR, a fou r-year study of
class size reduction on student achievement in the early elementary
grades. The paper reviews research on class size, puts Project
STAR in context, describes its design and introduces several articles

noting research implications for policy debate about class size.


Folger and Breda (1989) reported that Tennessee's four-year
Project STAR provided one-third class size reduction in early
elementary school.

Small class students in all types of schools

scored significantly higher than regular class students in reading and


math. The article discusses lessons learned and cost-effective ways
to reduce class size.
Mitchell (1989) in their article reanalyzes and expands upon
data from Tennessee's Project STAR which examined the effects of
class size reduction on student achievement in the primary grades. It
describes six competing theories of class size impact on achievement
and test performance, settling on the student grouplmodeling
interpretation of study data.
Dietzer and Annis (1987) discusses recent empirically
supported practical techniques for improving teacher effectiveness
and student performance. Teachers should consider students'
individual differences, students' need to achieve, and their fear of
failure and should convey a positive attitude and enthusiasm.

Review of Related Liternt~rre

- -

127

Sptga and Kiser (1987) explored the relation between


subscales of the Student Instructional Report (SIR), overall
teacher rating (OTR), and student achievement. SIR ratings and
scores on an end of term test were obtained from 61 0
undergraduates in 24 introductory psychology classes. The mean
of the students' ratings on each SIR subscale and the mean

posttest score for each class were used as the unit of analysis.
Student's OTR was predicted by how the same students rated
how explicitly the instructor stated course objective, how clearly
the instructor emphasized major points, and how well the
instructor managed teaching mechanics. These same variables
were unrelated to overall academic achievement.

Superior

achievement was predicted by student ratings that indicated


factors such as the instructor being academically demanding and
covering material at a somewhat fast pace.
Coatney (1985) discusses major findings and educational
implications in the Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study under the 3
categories

of time,

instructional processes, and

classroom

environment. The study found that 3 kinds of time were predictors of


student academic achievement: allocated time, engaged time, and
academic learning time. Effective teachers were able to diagnose
accurately level of skill, prescribe appropriate tasks, interact with
students with regard to academic content, discuss lesson structure,
and give clear directions. An effective classroom environment was
characterized by an academic focus and by student responsibility for
academic work and cooperation on academic tasks.

128

Chapter 2

McKinney (1984) reviewed and reported resu Its from several


previous studies indicate that enthusiastic teachers may "seduce"
students into higher achievement and better ratings of the teacher's
performance.

The

present study

examined whether

high

enthusiasm increases achievement and ratings or ether low


enthusiasm simply decreases achievement and ratings by including
a medium level of enthusiasm. 57 undergraduates were randomly

assigned to 1 of the 3 treatment groups. The teacher, an actoruniversity professor, taught the same lesson to each of the 3 groups,
varying only his level of enthusiasm.

There were no significant

differences among the 3 groups on achievement; however, Ss in the


high and medium groups rated the teacher as being more effective
than the Ss in the low enthusiasm group. Findings provide evidence
for the "seduction" hypothesis, but only for student ratings of teacher

performance.

Phye (1984) determined whether 202 high- and lowperforming students in an educational psychology class viewed
individual characteristics of instruction differently and determined
which teaching characteristics best predicted overall judgments of
teaching effectiveness. All Ss rated instructor effectiveness on a 5point scale. Findings show that low performers rated the instructor
significantly lower than did high performers. High and low performers
based their judgments on different characteristics, with high
performers viewing organization and planning as important and low
performers viewing class time efficiency, written presentation,
respect, tolerance, and relevance of work as important.

129

Re view of Related L itemture

Smith (1984) conducted a study on 160 high school socialstudies students where each assigned to 1 of 8 groups defined by
possible

combinations

of

teacher

uncertainty

conditions

(uncertainty vls no uncertainty), 2 teacher bluffing conditions


(bluffing vls no bluffing), and 2 lecture-notes conditions (with vls
without a lecture-notes handout) to investigate the effect of teacher
vagueness and use of lecture notes on Ss' comprehension and
performance.

Each group was presented with a social-studies

lesson, after which they were tested on comprehension of the


material. Each group then completed a lesson evaluation. Results
show that teacher uncertainty significantly reduced achievement,
and lecture notes significantly increased achievement.

Ss rated

lessons lower on 4 evaluation items when they received lecture


notes.

It is suggested that low-inference indicators of teacher

effectiveness should be developed and that training and evaluation


should focus on these indicators.

Englert

(1983)

examined

specific

teacher

behaviours

associated with the academic achievement of mildly handicapped


students. Two groups (N = 17) of undergraduate teacher trainees
found to

be differentially effective

in accomplishing student

performance outcomes were contrasted on specific direct-instruction


variables. Ss were observed twice during a 12-wk practicum program
during which pupils' academic gains were recorded. Results suggest
that Ss who maintained a high presentation rate with many correct
pupil responses per minute were more successful in effecting pupil
achievement than Ss with a slower presentation and correct rate.

Galbo (1983) reviews the literature on the effects of teacher


anxiety on student achievement, teacher effectiveness, and
classroom climate. Various studies have addressed the anxiety of
student teachers and beginning teachers, the effect of teacher
anxiety on teacher attrition, the effect of teacher anxiety on
classroom climate and student motivation, the relationship between
teacher anxiety and teacher-student interactions, and the effect of
teacher anxiety on test anxiety in students. Overall results of these
studies are limited and inconclusive.
Tollefson et al (1983) reported a study where 356 male and
464 female undergraduates, representing all the schools of a
university, completed a teacher effectiveness questionnaire (TEQ)
the last week of the semester. The TEQ yielded scores on 3
factors: Teaching style, Class Organization, and Workload.
ANOVA revealed significant differences for groups of male and
female upper- and lower-division Ss expecting high and low
grades.
Abrami, Perry and Leventhal (1982) in Study 1, 388
undergraduates (a) rated themselves on the Adjective Check List
(ACL),

(b)

viewed

videotape

that

varied

in

instructor

expressiveness and lecture content, (c) evaluated the videotaped


instructor and a test on the lecture, and (d) completed the ACL for
the instructor. In Study 2, 87 Ss were also exposed to 2 videotaped
lectures given 1 wk apart. In Study 3, 108 Ss completed the ACL for
themselves and their instructors, evaluated their instructor's

131

Review of Relirted Litertrfure

teaching, and completed a test on common course material. No


meaningful or consistent relationship between ratings and student
personality

characteristics

appeared

to

exist..

Personality

characteristics of instructors were related to teacher effectiveness


ratings. Ratings predicted teacher-produced achievement equally
well for classes that differed in the personality characteristics of the
students enrolled. Teacher effects on ratings appeared significantly
greater than teacher effects on achievement.
Guskey

(1982)

investigated whether

change

in

the

instructional effectiveness of teachers influences the relationship


between naturally formed teacher expectations and student
achievement outcomes. Data were gathered from 44 intermediate

and high school teachers who participated in an in-service training


workshop on mastery learning strategies.

Correlations between

teachers' initial expectations for students' achievement and students'


final examination scores, final grades, and teachers' follow-up
expectations for students were all significantly lower in mastery
classes of those teachers who experienced some positive change in
their instructional effectiveness. Implications regarding related
teacher perceptions and classroom behaviours are discussed.
Lester (1982) reported a study where 47 college students
rated their instructor on the last day of class as they were taking the
final examination. There was no evidence that Ss' evaluations were
affected by their course performance.

Cohen (1981) used meta-analytic methodology to synthesize


research on the relationship between student ratings of instruction
and student achievement, using data from 41 independent validity
studies reporting on 68 separate multisection courses relating
student ratings to student achievement. The average correlation
between an overall instructor rating and student achievement was

-43; the average correlation between an overall course rating and


student achievement was -47. While large effect sizes were also
found for more specific rating dimensions such as Skill and
Structure, other dimensions showed more modest relationships with
student achievement. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis
showed that ratingfachievement correlations were larger for full-time
faculty when students knew their final grades before rating
instructors and when an external evaluator graded students'
achievement tests. Results provide strong support for the validity of
student ratings as measures of teaching effectiveness.
Centra and Potter (1980) examines a model for investigating
school and teacher variables that influence student achievement.
The structural model, presented in the 1st part of the review,
includes examples of variab tes and their expected relationships to
each other and to student learning outcomes. Variables are grouped

as (1) school or school district conditions, (2) within-school


conditions, (3) teacher characteristics, (4) teaching behaviour, (5)
student characteristics, (6) student behaviour, and (7) student
learning outcomes. A summary of some of the school effects and
teacher behaviour research, presented in the 2nd and 3rd sections

Review of Reluted Literature

133

of the review, generally supports the expected relationships among


variables in the model.
Howard and Maxwell (1980) in their study on the correlation
between grades of instruction and student satisfaction has been
interpreted as providing support for a grading leniency bias model;
that is, easy graders receive better evaluations than hard graders
because they are easy graders. Two alternative models that explain
the correlation of grades with satisfaction are delineated. A student
characteristics model (student motivation) is contrasted with the
grading leniency bias model in 2 studies.
between-class

relationships

among

Study 1 considered
grades,

satisfaction,

performance, and student motivation for the IDEA (Instructional


Development and Effectiveness Assessment System) data from
several thousand college and university classes across the US.
Study 2 considered within-class relationships among grades,
satisfaction, performance, and motivation for 19 large university
classes.

Both studies demonstrate that the relationship between

grades and student satisfaction might be viewed as a welcome


result of important causal relationships among other variables rather
than simply as evidence of contamination due to grading leniency.
Marsh

and

Overall

(1980)

examines

undergraduates'

evaluations of teaching and were validated against both cognitive


and affective criteria of effective instruction. Ss randomly enrolled in
1 of 31 sections of a course in computer programming.

They

completed a pretest, evaluated teaching at the middle and end of the

course, and completed a standardized final examination. Sections


did not differ significantly on pretest measures of ability and interest.
Sections of Ss who, on the average, rated their instructors more
favorably also did better on the final examination, felt better able to
apply course materials, and were more inclined to pursue the
subject further. End-of-term ratings correlated more highly with each
of the criteria than did the midterm ratings. Finally, although both
cognitive and affective criteria of effective teaching were correlated
with different components of S ratings, the cognitive and affective
criteria were not correlated with each other.

This indicates the

importance of considering multiple criteria in the evaluation of


effective teaching.
Braskamp, Caulley and Costin (1979) studied self-ratings
and student ratings of 17 instructors who served as teaching
assistants in a large introductory psychology course for 2
consecutive semesters were compared with student achievement
on an externally constructed final examination.

Instructor self-

ratings and student ratings demonstrated good convergent validity


during the 2nd semester, especially on scales measuring student
involvement in the classroom, teacher support, and teacher skill.
There was significant discriminant validity, but student ratings on
1

all scales were more highly inter correlated than were the
instructor ratings.

Student ratings of the instructor's control of

classroom correlated with achievement during the 2nd semester.

135

Re view of Related Literature

(1979)

Hoffman

F.Costin (1978) found

reported that

consistent positive correlations between student ratings of teacher


skill and students' performance on an externally developed final
examination.

The present author suggests that these results

indicate that teachers who are evaluated by their students as being


more effective are more effective.
Perry, Abrami and Leventhal (1979) reported that teacher
differences in expressiveness controlled the degree to which lecture
content

affected

student

ratings

differently

from

student

achievement. The present experiment with 245 university students


attempted to replicate statistically this Expressiveness * Content *
Measures interaction in a factorial design which investigated 4
simulated classes.

The interaction was found for the high-

incentivelno-study-op portunity class and the high-incentivelstudyopportunity class, which most resembles typical classes, but not for

the low-incentivelstudy-opportunity class or the low-incentivelnostudy-opportunity

class,

which

most

resembles

educational

seduction research. In only the high-incentivefno-study-opportunity


class did probes of the interaction replicate education seduction
research in which content affected ratings and achievement similarly
only for low expressiveness.
Chaikin (1978) in Exp 1, 60 9- and 60 Ibyr-old students
watched a videotaped session given by a female teacher. A physical
attractiveness stereotype was found in ratings of the teacher; a
teacher who looked attractive was rated as more competent and

Ciznptcr 2

136

better able to stimulate and motivate students than an unattractive


teacher.

Exp II used 40 5th-grade children who participated

individually in a lesson given by a female teacher. Close behaviours


by a teacher (eye contact, leaning forward, smiling, and head nods)
produced more positive ratings than distant behaviours by the same
teacher (little eye contact, leaning away, frowning, and side to side
head movements). No effects on academic performance measures
were found in either study due to teacher characteristics.
Costin (1978) reported the results of a 4-yr study show that
moderate but consistent positive correlations support the validity of
student ratings of teachers as predictors of students' performance.
Frey (1978) analyzed student ratings of instructions in terms
of 2 global factors-pedagogical

skill and rapport. Ratings on the

skill factor did not covary with class size or the leniency of the
instructor's grading but did correlate with a reasonable external
criterion of student learning. Ratings of rapport correlated inversely
with class size and directly with average class grade and showed
only a weak relationship to the external criterion of student learning.
Kavanaugh (1978) raises questions concerning the evaluation
of teacher effectiveness. The following may need to be considered
among the criteria of effectiveness: a teacher's expectations for
students,

personal

qualities,

affective

processes,

cognitive

measures, product measures of pupils, interaction analyses, and


students' ratings of teachers. The author questions whether a single
instrument has been published which measures adequately all the

Review of Reluted L iternture

137

factors that may have to be considered in the analysis of a teacher's


effectiveness.
Kinicki and Schriesheim (1978) reported a review of research
on teachers as leaders shows that current approaches have
produced unclear and inconsistent results.

A new approach--

viewing teachers in a situational context--is suggested.

7 55

students filled out 2 questionnaires; the Ist (administered during the


5th wk of class) contained measures of teacher leadership
behaviour and student role clarity, and the 2nd (administered during
the 10th wk) measured overall student satisfaction with the class.
Student performance was also assessed at the 10th wk.

It was

found that (a) student performance significantly correlated with


teacher supportiveness and directiveness under low role clarity but
not high role clarity, and (b) the differences in these correlations
were statistically significant.
Centra (1977) correlated student ratings of instruction with
examination performance in 72 sections of 7 courses. In 2 of the
courses, students had been randomly assigned to sections. The
pattern of correlations across the courses indicated that global
ratings of teacher effectiveness and the value of the course to
students were most highly related to mean examination performance

(12 out of 24 product-moment and partial correlations were .58 or


above). Ratings of course objectives, course organization, and the
quality of lectures were also fairly well correlated with achievement.
Ratings of other aspects of instruction, such as the teacher-student

Chapter 2

138

relationship or the workload difficulty of the course, were not highly


related to achievement scores.
Chapman, Holloway and Kelly (1977) 238 high school
students in a personalized system of instruction course in
psychology rated teachers' specific behaviours and classroom
characteristics. High and low achievers differed significantly in their
ratings of business-like behaviour of the teacher, excitement, course
difficulty, and teacher enthusiasm. Previous academic performance,
however, was a more important predictor of academic achievement
than were student ratings. When previous academic performance
was considered, teacher enthusiasm continued to contribute
significantly to the discrimination of high and low achievers.
Crawford et al (1977) obtained data from 28 2nd- and 3rdgrade teachers who

were

consistent

in

obtaining

student

achievement gains on the Metropolitan Achievement Test.

21

dyadic interaction process variables obtained from the Texas


Teacher Effectiveness Project Coding System were entered into
factor analyses which showed more congruence between the factor
structures of the whole-class contexts (morning and afternoon) than
between those data subsets and reading group factors. Resulting
factor scores were correlated with achievement criteria. Although
significant correlations were few in number, the data suggest that in
higher socio-economic status classes, verbal praise was particularly
ineffective; also, successful teachers in lower social status
classrooms interacted privately with students (instead of during

139

REview of Related Literal ure

public discussions). Effective teachers in lower and higher social


status classes placed an emphasis on fast-paced activities during
reading groups.
Leventhal, Perry and Abrami (1977) reported that previous
research in college settings on the correlation between teacher
ratings and student achievement has produced inconsistent results.
Discrepancies may be due to study-to-study differences in teacher
andlor student characteristics. 237 university students were tested
to investigate a student-based explanation of the discrepancies.
Lecturer quality and student perception of lecturer's experience (a
student characteristic) were manipulated in a 2'2 design in which
achievement and ratings were measured. Major findings indicate
that (a) the ratingstachievement relationship varied with students'
belief about lecturer experience, supporting a student-based
explanation of the discrepancies that supplements a previous
teacher-based explanation; and (b) lecturer quality affected ratings
much more than achievement, threatening the field use of ratings
when predictions are made without regression equations about a
teacher's impact on student achievement.
Reavis and Derlega (1976) reported the results of a study
with 184 male 8th graders show that in a situation of intermediate
favorableness, Ss rated the person-oriented teacher more positively
than

the

task-oriented

teacher

in

terms

of

effectiveness,

encouragement, interest, and how much they learned.

In an

unfavorable situation, the opposite occurred. Results support F. E.


Fiedler's (1967) contingency model of leadership.
Sachdeva (1976) reported the qualities of college professors
on 10 statements as viewed by 270 high-achieving and 210 lowachieving students were described.

Most of the Ss attributed

greatest importance to the teaching role of their professors. The


high-achieving Ss wanted their professors to guide them toward
independent thinking, whereas the low achievers were more
concerned with course organization, presentation of subject matter,
and grading procedures of their professors.

Dusek (1975) reviews and discusses the literature on how


teacher bias affects children's learning and performance. Findings
indicate that bias effects may exist in tutoring or where teachers
have few students and that teachers do form expectations of
students' performance. Directions for future research on teacherbias effects are suggested.
Start (1974) criticizes current methods of assessing teacher
effectiveness as ambiguous and not expressed in terms of pupil
learning.

Specifying what dimensions of learning the school is

responsible for can lead to the development of criteria for successful


learning. Progress on these criteria could be taken as measures of
teaching effectiveness. It is concluded that the task is difficult but

necessary.

Review of Related Literature

--

14 1

Nair (1973) explored the hypotheses that (a) high academic


achievement is correlated with high teaching efficiency and (b)
teaching ability is not related to the socio-economic background of
the individual. 80 teacher trainees responded to a questionnaire on
socio-economic status, and academic achievement was deduced
from Ist degree university examination grades. Neither factor was
found to be a good predictive criterion for teacher effectiveness.
Tolor (1973) requested 4 groups of raters (706 students, 90
parents, 21 faculty, and 5 administrators) to name the 4 most
effective and 4 least effective teachers at a secondary school. Ss
were

also asked for

norninations.

standards employed in making their

Results indicate moderate agreement between

different rating groups.

Administrators and faculty had the most

similar perceptions of teacher performance, whereas faculty and


parents agreed least. Students showed no significant agreement
with any of the other rating groups regarding least effective teachers.
Students' judgments were related to class level and self-reported
academic

achievement

suggesting

that

teacher

evaluations

represent a complex interact ional process necessitating the


specification of rater characteristics.
Domino (1971) tested the hypothesis that there is an
interaction between a student's achievement orientation and the
teaching style he is exposed to, which differentially affects both the
amount of learning that takes place and the degree of expressed
satisfaction with the scholastic environment. 100 college freshmen,

Chapter 2

142

selected because of extreme scores on the achievement via


conformance and achievement via independence scales of the cpi,
were assigned to introductory psychology sections taught in either a
conforming or an independent manner. An analysis of scores on a
final examination consisting of multiple-choice items and essay
questions, as well as their ratings of teacher effectiveness and
course evaluation, indicated a clear interaction effect. Ss taught in a
manner consonant with their achievement orientation obtained
significantly higher means on the multiple-choice items, on factual
knowledge ratings of their essay answers, and on their ratings of
teacher effectiveness and course evaluation.
Rico (1971) developed the Students' Faculty Rating Scale for
evaluating teacher effectiveness on the cognitive, affective,
motivational, disciplinary, and innovative dimensions. Pre testing
with 245 undergraduates indicated the test was reliable (r = .94).
The final scale was administered to 1,985 Ss in 72 classes. The
influence of student sex, academic level, grade estimate in course,
and department on the evaluations was examined. No significant
sex or academic class differences were found in ratings of teacher
effectiveness. Law and engineering students tended to rate their
teachers as more effective than the commerce, secretarial,
education, and liberal arts students. Ss expecting a high grade in
the class rated the teachers significantly higher (p < -01) than those
expecting low grades. Results support the assumption of a
multidimensional nature for teacher effectiveness. Ss placed major

Review of Related Literature

143

importance on the affective, followed by the cognitive, disciplinary,


motivational, and innovative.
Scheuer (1971) assumed that effective teachers of the
disturbed and maladjusted possess the same characteristics as
effective therapists, a research project investigated the relationship
between personality attributes and effectiveness in teachers in this
area. Ss were 17 male and 3 female teachers and 169 9-17 yr. Old
students. Teacher effectiveness was rated by 4 supervisors using
the 20-item teacher competency checklist. The teacher-pupil
relationship inventory was used to measure the personality variables
of empathic understanding, congruence, level of regard. and un
conditionality of regard. A significant gain in academic achievement
level was found in those pupils who saw their teachers as
possessing a high degree of these attributes.
Section 2. VI:

STUDIES RELATED TO SOClO DEMOGRAPHIC


VARIABLE

Bellow (2001) in a current project tested a model which


predicted that social, environmental, and personality factors would help
explain academic achievement as well as scores on intelligence tests.
The participants were 190 African-American high school students
recruited from a magnet school, neighborhood school, and an
academic enrichment program.

The sample was composed of 65

males (34%) and 125 females (66%).

Students were individually

administered the Kaufrnan Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT), the Measure


of African American Identity (MAAI), the Castenell Achievement

Motivation Scale (CAMS), modified questions from the Parental Belief


Interview (PBI), and modified questions from the Future Expectations
subscale of the Cognitive Home Environment Scale (CHES).
lncreased levels of achievement motivation, parental expectations,
educational aspirations, and ethnic identity were related to higher
academic achievement. The prediction model demonstrated a
significant link between higher educational aspirations, better school
achievement, and higher scores on intelligence tests.

Academic

outcomes co varied significantly with IQ test scores. Gender had a


meaningful impact on the structural equation model.

This study

demonstrated the importance of motivational, cultural, and family


factors on influencing scholastic outcomes.
Hunsaker's (1995) review of the literature looked at family
influences on the achievement of economically disadvantaged
youth, with an emphasis on relationships among families, academic
achievement, and gifted education. Theoretical perspectives on the
study of families have focused primarily on families as static systems
and families as dynamic systems and, more recently, on families as
interactive systems. Correlation between single parenting and low
academic achievement has been found, though the presence of
extended family members appears to overcome this problem in
many instances, and processes that support academic achievement

may also mediate this relationship. The importance of schools and


communities in supporting families and the family culture is stressed.
Studies specific to gifted education have found status variables that
correlate directly with identification of students as gifted, and that

Re view o f Related L itercrtrr re

145

indicate the importance of focusing on individual expressions of


giftedness within cultural contexts when evaluating gifted students
within economically disadvantaged families.
Kifer (1975) proposed a conceptual model which relates
patterns of academic achievement to the personality characteristics

of learners which was tested by a quasi- longitudinal study. Results


provided strong evidence for a model which emphasizes the
tnf luence of histories of successful academic achievement on
personality characteristics, and suggested that rewards for academic
achievement provided by the home are related to both high
achievement and positive personality characteristics. Instructional
models such as mastery learning and the manipulation of time
variables were discussed in terms of their potential for providing
students the means both to perform well and to develop positive
personality characteristics.
Nagpal and Wig (1975) collected health and personality data
on 41 students who had failed in the university examination but had
rejoined classes. A structured questionnaire based on these data

was prepared, covering a wide range of nonintellectual and semiintellectual factors, and was administered to approximately 1,080
students, a year's intake at Punjab University in Chandigarh, before
their examinations. Those passing the examination and those failing
it were compared in terms of the questionnaire factors.

Results

indicated that the poor achievers were older, had less well-educated
parents, were t nadequately motivated, were inconsistent in their

Chapter 2

146

studies, and had poor academic records and poor previous


adjustment.
Niebuhr (1995) in a paper presented the findings o f a study
that examined relationships between several antecedent variables
(student ability, family environment, and school climate) and student
academic achievement. The research also examined the role of
motivation as

moderator

between ability

and

academic

achievement, and as a mediating variable between family


environment and academic achievement and between school
climate and academic achievement. The study was conducted in a
small town in the Southeast United States. A survey questionnaire
was administered to 241 high school freshmen, of whom 76 were
black, 158 were white, and 7 were classified as "other." Findings
indicated that student motivation showed no significant effect on the
relationship between ability and academic achievement. However,
motivation acted as a moderating variable between ability and
academic achievement for black students. The findings suggested
that the elements of both school climate and family environment
have a stronger direct impact on academic achievement.

It is

recommended that school-family programs be developed to facilitate


student motivation and improve teacher-student relationships.
In a study conducted in 1975, Orme investigated the
relationship of personality, ability, and school achievement in 112
11- year old elementary school children. Subjects were administered
the Junior

Eysenck Personality Inventory and the

Colored

Review o f ReIcrted Litercrture

147

Progressive Matrices, and data were correlated with school


performance. Results showed that (a) intelligence was the major
determinant of school achievement, (b) bright subjects tended to
come from smaller families than dull subjects, (c) relatively unstable
subjects had a better level of school achievement than stable
subjects, and (d) extraversion-introversion had no effect on school
achievement.
Reis et al (1995) conducted a 3-year study and compared the
characteristics of high ability students who were identified as high
achievers with students of similar ability who underachieved in school.
Qualitative methods were used to examine the perceptions of students,
teachers, staff, and administrators concerning academic achievement.
Successful students had supportive adults in their lives, and
participated in multiple extracurricular activities.

High achieving

students characteristically had a strong belief in self and resilience to


negative factors.
Stewart and Landine (1995) developed thesis that Study
Skills were best presented from a meta cognitive perspective. As
students develop self-regulatory skills along with procedural skills
they were best able to make effective use of study skills techniques.
They have presented a model of meta learning that brings together a
number of variables that may influence learning outcomes.
Pryor (1994) reported a study of 310 ninth grade students and
their parents in five communities which was conducted to look at the
relationships

between

parent-school

bonding,

student-school

bonding,

academic

achievement,

and

other

variables.

Questionnaires were developed for both parents and students


asking questions about attachment, commitment, beliefs about
school, participation in school events, and communication from the
school. Focus groups and telephone interviews provided additional
information about family-school relationships. Results indicated: (1)
the greater the parents' bonding to school, the greater the student's
bonding; (2) student's bonding was closely related to academic
achievement; and (3) there was no direct relationship between
parent-school bonding and students' report of their academic
achievement. Overall, the study supported the hypothesis that the
greater the parents' bonds of social attachment to their child's
school, the greater the student's bonds of attachment.
Ford (1993)

examined family

achievement

orientation

(parental beliefs regarding education) perceived by 73 fifth-grade


and 75 sixth-grade African-American students 59 males and 89
females) in an urban school district. Studies showed, that these
perceptions affect students'

achievement orientation. Family

demographic variables contributed little to achievement orientation.


But family achievement orientation is very influential.