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Digestive

System

Students:
1. Fernanda Pineda Gea.
2. Fernanda Porras.
3. Fernando Rocha.

Teacher:

Johana Cecilia Cruz Salmern.

Answer the following questions:


1-

Where does digestion start?

Digestion begins in the mouth, with the process of chewing food

2-

Where does mastication occur?

The mastication occurs in that mouth.

3-

What is mastication?

The mastication is a mechanical process by which the food with


previously Ingested grinds teeth, is the first step in the digestion
of food. And solid food is called cud.

4-

What does chemical digestion start?

It starts with the secretion of saliva in the mouth at the time of


intake of food.

5-

What does have saliva contain?

The 99% of saliva is water. However, the remaining 1% contains


many important substances for digestion as amylase enzyme
responsible for breaking some simple carbohydrates such as
maltose structure.

6-

When does swallowing begin?

Swallowing begins when the bolus passes through the stomach

7-

What is the trayect of food bolus?

The cud path begins in the mouth and it passes the esophagus
to reach the stomach where it becomes chyme.

8-

What is peristalsis?

Peristalsis is a set of movements of contraction of the digestive


tract that allows the progression of its contents from the
stomach to the anus.

9How does the sphincter remain and what does


the sphincter prevent? The sphincter must remain closed
after the bolus passes through the esophagus and reach the
stomach to prevent gastric reflux.

10-

How is the stomach divided anatomically

11-

What is de Pylorus?

It is a sphincter at the bottom of the stomach, opens and closes


allowing the passage of stomach contents into the intestine
called chyme.

12- What is a rugae?


The purpose of the gastric rugae is to allow for expansion of the
stomach after the consumption of foods and liquids.

13- What are the substances that are mixed in the


stomach? Mixed in the stomach during digestion substances
are:
Hydrochloric acid produced by the parietal cells

Pepsingeno produced by the main cells, precursor of


digestive enzyme pepsin.

14- What cause the released of pepsin in the


stomach?
It is the result of the hormonal and nervous mainly vagal nerve
stimulation in the stomach during digestion.

15- How the bolus does


substance called chymed?

is

transformed

to

During mastication, salivary glands secrete saliva to soften


the food into a bolus (semi-solid lump). Saliva contains the
salivary amylase enzyme, which digests carbohydrates
(starches), and mucus (a thick liquid), which softens food into
a bolus. Ingestion starts both chemical and mechanical
digestion.
In the stomach, food undergoes chemical and mechanical
digestion. Here, peristaltic contractions (mechanical digestion)
churn the bolus, which mixes with strong digestive juices that
the stomach lining cells secrete (chemical digestion). The
stomach walls contain three layers of smooth muscle
arranged in longitudinal, circular, and oblique (diagonal) rows.
These muscles allow the stomach to squeeze and churn the
food during mechanical digestion.
Powerful hydrochloric acid in the stomach helps break down the
bolus into a liquid called chyme.

16-

How and where the chyme does is released?

A stomach enzyme called pepsin breaks down most of the


protein in the food. Next, the chyme is slowly transported from
the pylorus (end portion of the stomach) through a sphincter
and into the small intestine where further digestion and nutrient
absorption occurs.

17- Where the chyme does mixes with pancreatic


Juice?
The duodenum is where most chemical digestion takes place.
Here, bile from the gallbladder and enzymes from the pancreas
and intestinal walls combine with the chyme to begin the final part
of digestion.

18- Explain how digestion causes the hormonal


stimulation of pancreas?
Three chemicals stimulate the pancreas: cholecystokinin,
secretin and gastrin. Cholecystokinin is made by cells in the
intestines when proteins and fats are detected in the digestive
tract. These same cells also make another hormone, secretin,
which stimulates the pancreas. Finally, gastrin, which is
synthesized by cells in the stomach, also makes the pancreas
release its digestive juices.

19- What are the roles of the liver?


The liver regulates most chemical levels in the blood and excretes
a product called bile. Bile helps to break down fats, preparing
them for further digestion and absorption. All of the blood leaving
the stomach and intestines passes through the liver. The liver
processes this blood and breaks down, balances, and creates
nutrients for the body to use. It also metabolized drugs in the
blood into forms that are easier for the body to use. Many vital
functions have been identified with the liver. Some of the more
well-known functions include the following:

Production of bile, which helps carry away waste and break down
fats in the small intestine during digestion
Production of certain proteins for blood plasma
Production of cholesterol and special proteins to help carry fats
through the body Store and release glucose as needed
Processing of hemoglobin for use of its iron content (the liver
stores iron)

Conversion of harmful ammonia to urea (urea is one of the end


products of protein metabolism that is excreted in the urine)
Clearing the blood of drugs and other harmful substances
Regulating blood clotting
Resisting infections by producing immune factors and removing
bacteria from the bloodstream
Clearance of bilirubin (if there is a buildup of bilirubin, the skin
and eyes turn yellow).

20- What are the functions of the galldbladder?


Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a yellowbrown digestive enzyme produced by the liver. The gallbladder
is part of the biliary tract.

21- What happens with the bolus in the different


parts of the intestine?
1-Ingestion:
Mastication permits easier deglutition
(swallowing) and faster chemical breakdown in the
digestive tract. During mastication, salivary glands secrete
saliva to soften the food into a bolus (semi-solid lump).
Saliva contains the salivary amylase enzyme, which digests
carbohydrates (starches), and mucus (a thick liquid), which
softens food into a bolus. Ingestion starts both chemical and
mechanical digestion.
2-Deglutition: the tongue pushes the bolus toward the
pharynx (throat) and into the esophagus, upon entering the
esophagus; peristalsis (wave-like contractions) of smooth
muscle carries the bolus toward the stomach. From the
esophagus, the bolus passes through a sphincter (muscular
ring) into the stomach.
3-Digestion:
- Stomach: In the stomach, food undergoes chemical and
mechanical digestion. Here, peristaltic contractions
(mechanical digestion) churn the bolus, which mixes with
strong digestive juices that the stomach lining cells
secrete (chemical digestion), Powerful hydrochloric acid

in the stomach helps break down the bolus into a liquid


called chyme.
Digestion and absorption: small intestine: The
small intestine is about 20 feet (6 meters) long and has
three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The
duodenum is where most chemical digestion takes place.
Here, bile from the gallbladder and enzymes from the
pancreas and intestinal walls combine with the chyme to
begin the final part of digestion.
- Absorption: large intestine: Once food has passed
through the small intestine, it is mostly indigestible
material and water. It enters the colon (large intestine),
named for its wide diameter. The large intestine has six
parts: the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon,
descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum.

God bless you, Thank you for your time