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# General Chemistry

## Principles and Modern Applications

Petrucci Harwood Herring
9th Edition

Chapter 6: Gases
Dr. Chris Kozak

Slide 1

## Gas Laws and using them to quantify gases

What are standard conditions, ie. STP?
Stoichiometric Reactions using Gases
Law of Partial Pressure for mixtures of gases
Determine and use the Kinetic Energy of gases
Are all gases ideal? Corrections for real gases
See my Teaching, Chem 1050 website for detailed
Learning Objectives.

www.chem.mun.ca/homes/cmkhome/CMKTeaching

Slide 2

## 6-1 Properties of Gases: Gas Pressure

Gas Pressure
P (Pa) =

Force (N)
Area (m2)

Liquid Pressure
P = g h d
g = 9.81 m/s2, h = height of column, d = density of liquid
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 3

Barometric Pressure
Standard
Atmospheric
Pressure
1 00 atm
1.00
760 mm Hg, 760 torr
101 325 kPa
101.325
kP
1.01325 bar
1013.25 mbar

Slide 4

Manometers

## General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 5

STP
Gas properties depend on conditions.
Define standard conditions of
temperature and pressure (STP).
P = 1 atm = 760 mm Hg
T = 0C

= 273.15 K

## General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 6

A Manometer Question
A liquid with d = 0.854 g mL-1 was used in an open-end
manometer to measure a gas pressure that was slightly greater
than atmospheric pressure, which was 745 mm Hg. In the
manometer, the liquid level was 17.5 mm higher in the open
arm than in the arm nearest the gas sample. What was the gas
pressure in torr?

Slide 7

## 6-3 The Ideal Gas Equation and the

General Gas Equation
Boyle
Boyles
s law
Charless law

V 1/P
VT
Vn

nT
P

PV = nRT
RT
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 8

## The Gas Constant

PV = nRT
PV
R=
nT
= 0.082057
0 082057 L atm mol-1 K-1
= 8.3145 m3 Pa mol-1 K-1
= 8.3145 J mol-1 K-1
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 9

## The General Gas Equation

P 1V 1
P 2V 2
R=
=
n1T1
n2T2
If we hold the amount
and volume constant:

P1
T1

P2
T2

Slide 10

## 6-4 Applications of the Ideal Gas Equation

Molar Mass Determination

PV = nRT

and
PV =

m
RT
M

M=

m RT
PV

## General Chemistry: Chapter 6

n=

m
M

Slide 11

Example 6-10
Determining a Molar Mass with the Ideal Gas Equation.
Propylene is an important commercial chemical
chemical. It is used
in the synthesis of other organic chemicals and in plastics
production. A glass vessel weighs 40.1305 g when clean,
dry and evacuated; it weighs 138.2410 g when filled with
water at 25C (=0.9970 g cm-3) and 40.2959 g when filled
with p
propylene
py
g
gas at 740.3 mm Hg
g and 24.0C. What is
the molar mass of propylene?
Strategy:
gy
Determine Vflask. Determine mgas. Use the Gas Equation.
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 12

Example 6-10
Determine
Vflask = mH2O dH2O = (138.2410 g 40.1305 g) (0.9970 g cm-3)
= 98.41
98 41 cm3 = 0.09841
0 09841 L
Determine mgas:
mgas = mfilled - mempty = (40.2959 g 40.1305 g)
= 0.1654 g

Slide 13

Example 5-6
6-10
Use the Gas
Equation:

PV = nRT
M=

PV =

m
RT
M

M=

m RT
PV

(0 9741 atm)(0
(0.9741
atm)(0.09841
09841 L)
M = 42.08 g/mol
H
C
H2C

CH3

Slide 14

Gas Densities
PV = nRT

and
PV =

m
m
,
n
=
d=
M
V
m
RT
M

m
MP
=d=
V
RT

Slide 15

## 6-5 Gases in Chemical Reactions

Stoichiometry relates gas quantities to
quantities of other reactants or products.
Ideal gas equation relates moles of gas
to V, T and P.
Law of combining volumes can be
developed using the gas law.

## General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 16

Example 6-12
Using the Ideal gas Equation in Reaction Stoichiometry
Calculations.
The decomposition of sodium azide, NaN3, at high
temperatures produces N2(g). Together with the necessary
devices to initiate the reaction and trap the sodium metal
formed, this reaction is used in air-bag safety systems.
What volume of N2(g), measured at 735 mm Hg
g and 26C,,
is produced when 70.0 g NaN3 is decomposed?
2 NaN3(s) 2 Na(l) + 3 N2(g)

## General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 17

Example 6-10
Determine moles of N2:
nN2 = 70 g NaN3

1 mol NaN3
65.01 g NaN3

3 mol N2
2 mol NaN3

= 1.62 mol N2

V=

nRT
P

## (1.62 mol)(0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1)(299 K)

((735 mm Hg)
g)

1.00 atm
760 mm H
Hg

= 41.1 L
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 18

## 6-6 Mixtures of Gases

Gas laws apply to mixtures of gases.
Simplest approach is to use
se ntotal, but....
b t
Partial pressure
Each component of a gas mixture exerts a
pressure that it would exert if it were in the
container
t i
alone.
l

## ie. The total pressure exerted by a

mixture of gases is the sum of the
pressures exerted by each gas if it was
pure
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 19

## Pressure of each gas is proportional to the number of moles

of gas
The total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the
i di id l gases.
individual
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 20

Partial Pressure
Ptot = Pa + Pb +
Va = naRT/Ptot

and

Vtot = Va + Vb+

n
n RT/Ptot
Va
= a
= a
ntotRT/Ptot
ntot
Vtot
t t
t t
n
n RT/Vtot
Pa
= a
= a
ntotRT/Vtot
ntot
Ptot

Th Mole
M l Fraction
F ti
= a The

## General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 21

Partial Pressure
Partial pressure is the pressure of a component of
gas that contributes to the overall pressure.
Partial volume is the volume that a gas would occupy
at the total pressure in the chamber.
Ratio of partial volume to total volume
volume, or of partial
pressure to total pressure is the MOLE FRACTION.

## General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 22

Pneumatic Trough
Total pressure of wet gas (Pgas + PH2O) is equal to
atmospheric pressure (Pbar) if the water level is the same
inside and outside

## Ptot = Pbar = Pgas + PH2O

General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 23

## Some Partial Pressure Problems

1. Suppose you want to fill a pressurized tank having a
volume of 4.00 L with oxygen-enriched air for use in diving,
and you want the tank to contain 50
50.0
0 g of O2 and 150 g of
N2. What will the total gas pressure have to be at 25 C?
2. A sample of oxygen is collected over water at 20 C
C and a
pressure of 738 torr. Its volume is 310 mL. (a) What is the
partial pressure of the oxygen? (b) What would be its
volume at STP when dry?

Slide 24

## 6-7 Kinetic Molecular Theory

Based on the following Model
Particles are point masses in
constant, random, straight line
motion.
Particles are separated by great
distances.
Collisions are rapid and elastic.
No force bet
between
een particles (e
(except
cept
during collisions).
Total
T t l energy remains
i constant.
t t
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 25

## Pressure Assessing Collision Forces

Translational kinetic energy,

ek =

1
mu 2
2

N
V

Frequency of collisions,

v =u

Impulse or momentum
transfer
transfer,

I = mu

Pressure p
proportional
p
to
impulse times frequency

N
mu 2
V

Slide 26

## Pressure and Molecular Speed

Three dimensional systems lead to: P =

1N
m u2
3V

urms =

u2

## Not all molecules are travelling at the same speed.

Speed is here defined as the root mean square speed
speed,
urms.

Slide 27

Pressure
Assume one mole:

PV =

1
NAm u 2
3

PV = RT so:

3RT = N A m u 2

NAm = M:

3RT = M u 2

Rearrange:

u rms =

3RT
M

Slide 28

u rms =

3RT
M

## Lighter gases have faster

speeds.
Increasing the temperature
increases their speed.

## General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 29

Temperature
Modify:

PV =

1
2
1
NAm u 2 = N A ( m u 2 )
3
3
2

PV=RT
PV
RT so:

RT =

ek =

2
N A ek
3

3 R
(T)
2 NA

## Average kinetic energy is directly proportional to

temperature!
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 30

## How does T really affect molecules?

Remember, ek = mu2 = (3/2)(R/NA)T.
Ch
Changes iin ttemperature
t
mean changes
h
iin th
the iintensity
t
it off
molecular motion, the translational kinetic energy!
Heat flow from a hot body to a cold body
body hot molecules
raise the temperature of cold ones by exchanging kinetic
energy through collisions. The exchange of heat/energy
continues
ti
until
til an equilibrium
ilib i
ttemperature
t
iis reached
h d allll
molecules possessing the same temperature/energy!
So, what about absolute zero? As T goes to 0 K, the
translational motion of all molecules stops!
The end of the Universe!
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 31

## Kinetic Molecular Theory Problems

1. If it takes 1.25 minutes for 0.010 mol of He to
effuse
ff
through
th
h a smallll hole,
h l how
h
llong will
ill it ttake
k
for the same amount of ethane (C2H6) to effuse?

Slide 32

## 6-8 Gas Properties Relating to the

Kinetic-Molecular Theory
Diffusion
Net rate is proportional to
molecular speed.

Effusion
Eff i
A related phenomenon.

## General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 33

Grahams Law
rate of effusion of A (u rms ) A
3RT/M A
MB
=
=
=
rate of effusion of B (u rms ) B
3RT/MB
MA

## Only for gases at low pressure (natural escape, not a jet).

Tiny orifice (no collisions)
Does not apply to diffusion.
Ratio used can be:
Rate of effusion (as above) Distances traveled by
molecules
Molecular speeds
Amounts of gas effused.
Effusion times
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 34

## 6-9 Real Gases

Compressibility factor PV/nRT = 1
Deviations occur for real gases
gases.
PV/nRT > 1 - molecular volume is significant.
PV/nRT < 1 intermolecular forces of attraction.

## Red molecules attract the green

molecule making it exert less force on
the wall

## General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 35

Real Gases
At low Pressure, these gases
behave ideally
As pressure increases, the
molecules deviate from ideal
behaviour.
The heavier the gas, the more
weird it behaves
At a critical P and T, some
gases begin to behave like
liquids, but they are NOT
liquids but Supercritical Fluids!
General Chemistry: Chapter 6

Slide 36

P+

n2a
V2

V nb

= nRT

## Know why its important, but you dont need to use

it in this course
n2a/V2 takes into account intermolecular forces
nb describes the volume occupied by the n-molecules

Slide 37