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Timpurile verbelor in engleza

Present Simple Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv
Exceptie : La pers a III sg verbul se termina mereu in s sau es :
The boy wants a toy car for Christmas. Baiatul vrea o masina de jucarie pentru Craciun.
Atentie: 1. Verbele care se termina in -y la pers a III sg, y se transforma in -ies:
I cry She cries.
I play He plays.
2. Verbele care se termina in o, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch primesc la pers a III sg - es
My mother usually goes to the market in the morning. Mama se duce de obicei in piata
dimineata.
Negativ :
Subiect+ do not/ does not + verb
She does not sing in the school chorus. Ea nu canta in corul scolii.
Interogativ :
do not/ does not + Subiect + verb
Does she want to participate in the competition? - Vrea ea sa participle in competitie?

Present Continuous Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi + ing :
She is cutting the cake in slices. (Ea taie prajitura felii.)
Negativ :
Subiect + Prezentul verbului a fi + not + verb + ing :
She is not talking at the moment, she is eating. (In acest moment ea nu vorbeste, mananca.)

Interogativ :
Prezentul verbului a fi + Subiect + verb + ing :
Is she smiling ? (Ea zambeste ?)

Present Perfect Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
Subiectul + Auxiliarul HAVE la prezent + past participle al verbului de conjugat
We are not going on holiday since the prices have rise. Noi nu mai mergem in vacant deoarece
preturile au crescut.
Negativ :
Subiectul + have/has not + past participle al verbului de conjugat
I havent seen her this morning, she is probably sleeping. Nu am vazut-o de dimineata,
probabil doarme.
Interogativ :
Auxiliarul HAVE la prezent + Subiectul + past participle al verbului de conjugat
Havent you eaten too much chocolate already? Nu ai mancat deja destula ciocolata?

Present Perfect Continuous Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
Subiectul + prezentul perfect al verbului to be (have/has been)+ participul prezent al verbului
de conjugat (baza + ing)
They have been reading a lot of book lately. Ei au citit o multime de carti in ultima vreme.
Negativ :
Subiectul + prezentul perfect al verbului to be (have/has been)+ NOT + participul prezent al
verbului de conjugat
They havent been watching TV this afternoon. Ei nu s-au uitat la tv in acesta dupa-amiaza.

Interogativ :
Prezentul perfect al verbului to be + Subiectul + participul prezent al verbului de conjugat
What have you been doing ? I have been working on a new project. Ce ai mai facut? Am
lucrat la un nou proiect.

Simple Past Tense : Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
S + verbul la forma a II a de pe lista verbelor iregulate
We went to the zoo yesterday. Am fost la zoo ieri.
S + verb + ed pentru cele regulate
I phoned her. I-am dat telefon.
Negativ :
S + aux DO la trecut (did) + not + verbul la infinitiv
We did not finish the project in due time. Noi nu am terminat proiectul la timp.
Interogativ :
Did + S + verbul la infinitiv ?
Did you eat all the chocolate? Ai mancat toata ciocolata?

Past Perfect Tense : Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
S + Past tense al verbului To HAVE + participiu trecut
Atentie: La verbele regulate participiul trecut = verb + ed iar la cele neregulate este forma a 3a
de pe lista verbelor iregulate.
At last she showed me the dress she had bought. Intr-un sfarsit, mi-a aratat rochia pe care sio cumparase.
Negativ :
S + Past tense al verbului To HAVE + Not + participiu trecut
They hadnt gone to Mt. Omu, they had gone to another peak. Ei nu au mers pe varful Omu,
au mers pe alt varf.

Interogativ :
Past tense al verbului To HAVE + S + participiu trecut
Hadnt he loved you? Nu te iubea?

Past Continuous Tense : Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
S + verbul To BE la past tense + verbul de conjugat + ING
I was reading the lesson when the teacher came in. Citeam lectia cand a intrat profesoara.
Negativ :
S + verbul To BE la past tense la forma negativa + verbul de conjugat + ING
They werent looking for Susan; they were looking for her sister. Ei nu o cautau pe Susan, ei
o cautau pe sora ei.
Interogativ :
Verbul To BE la past tense + S + verbul de conjugat + ING
Was he driving too fast when he had the accident? Conducea el prea repede cand a avut
accidentul?

Past Perfect Continuous Tense : Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
S+ had been + participiu prezent

Participiu prezent = verb + ing

I have been thinking of writing you a mail when you called me. Eu ma gandisem sa iti scriu
un mail cand tu m-ai sunat.
Negativ :
S + had + Not + been + present participle
I hadnt been waiting long in a queue when I heard a voice calling my name. Nu stateam de
mult la rand, cand au auzit o voce strigandu-mi numele.

Interogativ:
Had + S + been + present participle
They hadnt been doing their tasks so they didnt get a bonus. Ei nu si-au indeplinit din taskuri
deci nu au primit un bonus.

Simple Future Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
S + will + verbul la infinitiv
You will feel better if you take this pill. - Tu o sa te simti mult mai bine daca iei acesta pastila.
Negativ :
S + will not (wont) + verbul la infinitiv
I wont tell where she is. Nu iti voi spune unde este ea.
Interogativ:
Will + S + verbul la infinitiv
Will you love me in 10 years? O sa ma iubesti si peste 10 ani?

Future Perfect Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
S + will have + past participle al verbului de conjugat

past participle = forma a III a

verbului
Tomorrow at 9 they will have left for Sibiu. Maine la ora 9 ei vor fi plecat spre Sibiu.
Negativ :
S + will not have + past participle al verbului de conjugat
When you phone Julie I will not have arrived at the station. Cand o suni pe Julie eu nu voi fi
ajuns in statie.

Future Continuous Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
S + Will be + present participle
The Health Organisation will be opening a new hospital in this city. Organizatia de sanatate
va deschide un nou spital in acest oras.
Negativ :
S + will not (wont) + present participle
The train wont be arriving any time soon; there was an accident on the road. Trenul nu va
ajunge prea curand, a avut loc un accident pe drum.
Interogativ:
Will + S + be + present participle
Will you be shouting at me if I tell you the truth? Vei tipa daca iti voi spune adevarul?

Future Perfect Continuous Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
S + will have been + present participle al verbului de conjugat

present participle = verbul +

ing
While Michael will have been writing his exercices, Maria will have been playing the violin.
Cat timp Mihai isi va fi scris exercitiile, Maria va fi cantat la vioara.
Negativ :
S + will not have been + present participle al verbului de conjugat
You will not have been working here by this summer. Tu nu vei fi lucrat aici pana in aceasta
vara.

Future-in-the-Past Tense: Forme - Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Afirmativ :
S + would + infinitivul verbului de conjugat
She told me I would be in trouble Ea mi-a spus ca voi intra in bucluc.

Negativ :
S + would not + infinitivul verbului de conjugat
We never thought they would not win. Noi nu ne-am gandit niciodata ca ei nu vor castiga.

Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Pentru verbul in engleza timpurile difera fundamental fata de cele ale limbii romane.
De aceea nu trebuie cautate in permanenta echivalente exacte intre cele doua limbi.
Asa cum ne asteptam exista 3 timpuri de desfasurare a unei actiuni: prezent(present), trecut(past) si
viitor(future).
Verbul la aceste timpuri il voi numi deocamdata simplu. Mai jos se observa ca la randul lor aceste timpuri
ale verbului in engleza (tenses) pot fi: simple, continue, perfecte sau continuu perfecte.
Explicatii generale pentru timpurile verbului in engleza

Timp simplu - verbul reprezinta o actiune prezenta, trecuta sau viitoare nelimitata in timp.
Timp continuu - verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor
care in momentul acela se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune.

Timp perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent, trecut sau
viitor

Timp continuu perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat prezent, trecut
sau viitor si continuind sau nu in acel moment

In limba engleza nu exista conjugari ca in limbile latine (romana, franceza etc)


Verbul in engleza este fie regulat fie neregulat.
Pentru ilustrarea timpurilor in engleza vom folosi un verb regulat
Ca si in romana, verbul in engleza are 2 diateze: activa si pasiva
Verbul in Engleza la Diateza Activa
Actiunea e facuta de subiect
De exemplu luam verbul to work (a munci). In engleza verbul to work e regulat:work - worked - worked
Iar verbul to fall (a cadea) e neregulat: fall - fell - fallen
Desi doar Alice in tara minunilor poate cadea cu verbul la un timp continuu (pentru ca dureaza in timp),
chiar si acest verb are timpuri continui pentru ca apare in diferite expresii:
I am falling in love = Ma indragostesc
My life is falling apart = Mi se duce viata de rapa

Diferente intre timpurile verbelor regulate si timpurile verbelor neregulate nu exista. Ceea ce se poate
observa la verbul neregulat este ca cele trei cuvinte ex: fall, fell si fallen sunt diferite una fata de alta.
Verbele neregulate nu au o regula de formare a celor trei, acestea trebuie memorate. Verbele regulate
adauga ed la forma de baza (prima forma) in cazul formei numarul doi si trei.
To work = A munci (verb regulat)
Present Tense

He has worked

I work

She has worked

You worked

You work

We have worked

They worked

He works

You have worked

Past Continuous

She works

They have worked

I was working

We work

Present Perfect Continuous

You were working

You work

I have been working

He was working

They work

You have been working

She was working

Present Continuous

He has been working

We were working

I am working

She has been working

You were working

You are working

We have been working

They were working

He is working

You have been working

She is working

They have been working

We are working
You are working
They are working

Past Perfect
I had worked
Past Tense

You had worked

I worked

He had worked

You worked

She had worked

Present Perfect

He worked

We had worked

I have worked

She worked

You had worked

You have worked

We worked

They had worked

She will work

I will have worked

Past Perfect Continuous

We will work

You will have worked

I had been working

You will work

He will have worked

You had been working

They will work

She will have worked

He had been working

Future Continuous

We will have worked

She had been working

I will be working

You will have worked

We had been working

You will be working

They will have worked

You had been working

He will be working

Future Perfect Continuous

They had been working

She will be working

I will have been working

Future Tense

We will be working

You will have been working

I will work

You will be working

He will have been working

You will work

They will be working

She will have been working

He will work

Future Perfect

We will have been


working

You will have been working


They will have been working

1.1. I work - Present Tense - Timpul Prezent


Verbul exprima o actiune prezenta nelimitata in timp.
1.Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane este echivalent cu Present Tense din engleza

O actiune prezenta in derulare (mereu, cateodata sau niciodata)


What do you do? I work in a bank. Cu ce te ocupi? Lucrez la o banca

She never works so late

Ea niciodata nu lucreaza atat de tarziu

Un adevar absolut, chiar daca se desfasoara si in clipa asta


The earth spins around the sun. Pamantul se invarteste in jurul soarelui.

Se poate folosi pe post de viitor


The store closes at 9:00pm Magazinul se inchide la 9:00pm.

2.Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu Present Tense din engleza

Atunci cand verbul descrie o actiune care se desfasoara acum (in clipa dialogului) - atunci se
foloseste Prezentul Continuu.
I am working in the garden Lucrez in gradina

Folosind verbul in engleza la prezentul continuu indica faptul ca te referi la clipa asta.
I work in the garden (work e prezentul simplu) - inseamna ca asta e ocupatia ta. De exemplu ca esti
gradinar.

Atentie!: viitorul din limba romana se traduce cu Present Tense in limba engleza dupa: after,
before, when, as soon as, while etc daca exprima o actiune viitoare:
Someday when I am big and strong. Candva, cand voi fi mare si puternic

1.2. I am working - Present Continuous - Prezent Continuu


Verbul exprima o actiune in derulare in prezent care se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune. Este legat de
actiuni concrete.
1. Situatii in care timpul prezent din romana este echivalent cu Present Continuous din engleza

Verbul reprezinta o actiune ce se petrece in clipa asta (simultana cu momentul in care se


vorbeste)
I am working on my new book. Lucrez la noua mea carte.

Verbul descrie o actiune generala dar simultana cu o alta actiune


By the time the alarm goes off I am already
working.

Cand suna ceasul eu deja lucrez (am inceput


lucrul)

2. Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu Present Continuous din engleza

Vezi cazurile timpului prezent 1.1. I work

1.3. I have worked - Present Perfect - Prezent Perfect


Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent
1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Present
Perfect al limbii engleze

Daca actiunea a inceput inaintea momentului prezent si e inca in desfasurare sau daca efectul
ei se vede in prezent
I have worked all my adult life. Am muncit toata viata mea adulta (si inca mai muncesc).

Daca verbul e insotit de un adverb (mereu, cateodata, niciodata etc):


I have never worked so late before. Niciodata nu am mai lucrat atat de tarziu (pana acum).

Atentie: Fata de 1.1. exista urmatoarea diferenta:


I never work so late. inseamna: Nu lucrez atat de tarziu (ca si in romana) adica refuzi ideea pentru ca nu
lucrezi niciodata atat de tarziu, pe cand I never have worked so late before inseamna ca desi nu ai mai
lucrat atat de tarziu, acum lucrezi (atat de tarziu).
2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus al limbii romana NU este echivalent cu Present Perfect din
limba engleza

1. Cand se foloseste Present Perfect Continuous 1.4 I have been working

2. Cand se foloseste Past Tense 1.5 I worked

1.4. I have been working - Present Perfect Continuous - Prezent Perfect


Continuu
O actiune care s-a desfasurat pana acum, si va continua probabil si in viitor.
1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Present
Perfect Continuous din limba engleza

Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa in trecut, continuata in prezent, si care poate continua si
in viitor

I have been working on the railroad


All live long day
I've been working on the railroad
Just to while my time away.

Am muncit la calea ferata


Cat e ziua de lunga
Am muncit la calea ferata
Ca sa mai treaca timpul.

E un binecunoscut cantec englezesc. Am muncit la calea ferata toata ziua si o voi face probabil si in viitor.
2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Present
Perfect Continuous din engleza

Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.3. I have worked

Vezi cazurile timpului Past Tense 1.5. I worked

1.5. I worked - Past Tense - Timpul Trecut


Past Tense reprezinta actiunea care s-a desfasurat in trecut si s-a terminat.
1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Tense din
engleza

Verbul reprezinta o actiune trecuta ce nu a fost intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta actiune,


nu se continua in prezent.
I worked till my hands hurt Am muncit pana ma dureau palmele.

Adica, am muncit dar acum m-am oprit.

Deasemeni acest timp se foloseste foarte mult in povestiri (de exemplu vezi poeziile de la
Literatura)

2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Tense
din engleza

Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.3. I have worked

Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect Continuous 1.5. I have been working

Atentie! Exista situatii in care Past Tense din limba engleza nu se traduce prin Perfectul Compus (am
muncit) din limba romana. Ca exemplu vedeti primul caz de mai sus sau binecunoscutul cantec pentru
copii de mai jos.
All around the cobbler's bench
The monkey chased the weasel
The monkey thought it was all in fun
Pop! goes the weasel

In jurul mesei cizmarului


Maimuta fugarea nevastuica
Maimuta credea ca se joaca
Bum! face nevastuica

Dupa cum vedeti verbul to chase cu Past Tense chased (e verb regulat la fel ca to work) se traduce prin
fugarea (Imperfect) sau fugari (considerat timpul folosit in povestiri in romaneste) iar thought(Past Tense
de la to think) se traduce tot prin Imperfect.
Atentie: Daca aveti indoieli ce timp trecut al verbului sa folositi in propozitii alegeti acest timp - Past
Tense. Va fi mai putin deranjanta greseala.

1.6. I was working - Past Continuous - Trecut Continuu


Past Continuous se refera la un eveniment in derulare la un moment in trecut care se petrece simultan cu
un alt eveniment.
1. Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Continuous din
limba engleza

Verbul exprima o actiune in trecut care a fost intrerupta de alta actiune (ca si "munceam" pe
romaneste)
I was working when the meteorite fell/the phone
rang/you showed up.

Munceam cand meteoritul a cazut/a sunat


telefonul/ai aparut tu.

I was walking in the park one day


In the merry, merry month of May
I was taken by surprise
By a pair of pearly eyes
In the merry, merry month of May

Ma plimbam in parc intr-o zi


In vesela, vesela luna Mai
Am fost luat prin surprindere
De niste ochi perlati
In vesela, vesela luna Mai.

Atentie: In cantecul de mai sus was walking este Past Continuous dar was taken nu este Past Continuous. I
was taken inseamna am fost luat (este la Diateza Pasiva). Daca vrei sa exprimi verbul la Past Continuous
zici I was taking.
2. Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Continuous
din engleza

Verbul folosit nu are forma continua - atunci se foloseste deobicei Past Tense.
He wanted to come with us. El vroia sa vina cu noi. (was wanting e gresit)

Actiunea e de durata, e o rutina pe care nu o mai practicam - atunci se foloseste used to obisnuiam sa/obisnuiai sa etc.
As a boy, I used to wander through the woods Fiind baiet, paduri cutreieram

Verbul arata o actiune inceputa inaintea unui moment dat sau inaintea altei actiuni din trecut
- atunci se foloseste Past Perfect

I had worked as a goldminer for a long time when Lucram de mult timp ca miner de aur cand in
I finally struck it rich.
sfarsit am dat de bogatii.

1.7. I had worked - Past Perfect - Trecut Perfect


Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment trecut sau anterioara unei actiuni trecute.
1. Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) din limba romana este echivalent cu
Past Perfect din engleza

Verbul este o actiune ce s-a terminat in trecut fata de momentul/actiunea tot trecuta la care se
raporteaza

Emily a spus (trecut) ca lucrase in gradina (si mai vechi) in dimineata aceea
Emily said she had worked in her garden that morning.

1.8. I had been working - Past Perfect Continuous - Trecut Perfect


Continuu
Verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat trecut cand a fost oprit de o alta actiune a carui
urmari continua si azi.
1. Situatii in care imperfectul (munceam, lucram) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past Perfect
Continuous din engleza

Verbul exprima o actiune trecuta, ce se afla inca in desfasurare, in momentul cand s-a produs
o alta actiune tot din trecut.

They had been working on the new house before the fire (Ei)lucrau la casa cea noua inainte sa fie
destroyed it
distrusa de foc
He had been working slowly before hearing of the new
deadline.

(El)muncea incet inainte sa afle de noul termen


limita.

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past
Perfect Continuous din engleza
They had been working on the new house for many
months before the fire destroyed it

(Ei) lucrasera luni de zile la casa cea noua


inainte sa fie distrusa de foc

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul si/sau imperfectul din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past
Perfect Continuous din engleza

Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.6. I was working

Vezi cazurile timpului Past Continuous 1.7. I had worked

1.9. I will work - Future Tense (I am going to work) - Timpul Viitor


Verbul reprezinta o actiune viitoare nelimitata in timp.
1. Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana este echivalent cu Future Tense din
engleza

Daca verbul reprezinta o actiune in viitor si nu va fi intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta


actiune folositi Future Tense.
I will work OK?

Am sa muncesc, BINE?

Someday when I am big and strong


I will walk that road and sing a song
I will sing of roads so green and wide
That turn and bend from side to side
I will sing of roads that turn and bend
That go from town to rainbow's end

Intr-o zi cand voi fi mare si puternic


Voi merge pe acel drum si voi canta un cantec
Voi canta despre drumuri verzi si late
Care se indoaie si serpuiesc dintr-o parte in alta
Voi canta despre drumuri serpuitoare
Care merg din oras pana la capatul curcubeului

Atentie: vezi (1.1 I work) pentru primul vers din poezia de mai sus
2.Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Future Tense
din engleza
Cand verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor - atunci se foloseste Future
Continuous 1.10. I will be working
I will be working in Paris next year Voi lucra la Paris la anul
Un alt mod de a exprima viitorul e folosind to be going to - intentionez sa, am de gand sa
I am going to wait for him at the station Il voi astepta la gara.

1.10. I will be working - Future Conntinuous - Viitor Continuu


Verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor
She will be coming round the mountain when she comes Cand vine, (ea) va veni in jurul muntelui

1.11. I will have worked - Future Perfect - Viitor Perfect


Echivalentul lui voi fi lucrat
I will have worked for 20 years next month. Luna viitoare eu o sa fi lucrat de 20 de ani.

1.12. I will have been working - Future Perfect Continuous - Viitor Perfect
Continuu
Acest timp nu prea se foloseste, pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lunga de timp decat 1.11 Future
Continuous
Se traduce tot prin voi fi lucrat, si ca toate formele de timpuri continue implica o actiune in derulare
By 2020 he will have been working for 40 years In 2020 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani

Verbul in Engleza la Diateza Pasiva


Actiunea e suportata de subiect. Diateza pasiva exista si in limba romana
De exemplu verbul to wash - a spala (verb regulat: wash - washed - washed)
Eu spal rufele saptamanal (Diateza Activa) devine Rufele sunt spalate saptamanal (de mine)
2.1 I wash the laundry weekly - The laundry is washed weekly (by me).
2.2 I am washing laundry now - The laundry is being washed now (by me).
2.3 I have washed the laundry - The laundry has been washed (by me).
2.4 I have been washing the laundry - The laundry has been washed (by me).
2.5 I washed the laundry yesterday - The laundry was washed yesterday (by me).
2.6 I was washing the laundry - The laundry was being washed (by me).
2.7 I had washed the laundry- The laundry had been washed (by me).
2.8 I had been washing the laundry - The laundry had been washed (by me).
2.9 I will wash the laundry- The laundry will be washed (by me).
2.10 I will be washing the laundry - The laundry will be washed (by me).

2.11 I will have washed the laundry - The laundry will have been washed (by me).
2.12 I will have been washing the laundry - The laundry will have been washed (by me).

Past Tense Simple


I watched a great movie last night. (Am vzut un film grozav noaptea trecut.)
o aciune ncheiat n trecut
Prin Past Tense Simple facem referire la aciuni punctuale care au nceput i s-au terminat n trecut.
Pentru acest timp verbal, avem nevoie de forma a doua a verbului. n cazul verbelor regulate, lucrurile
sunt foarte simple: adugm -ed la finalul primei forme. Verbele neregulate nu se comport la fel, dar
gseti aici toate resursele de care ai nevoie pentru a le nva i exersa.
Clara watched TV yesterday
1. Past Simple is the tense that refers to actions completed in the past.
2. Past Simple requires the second form of the verb.

3. Verbs may be regular or irregular. This is reflected in their second form.


When do I use Past Simple?
Past Simple is used for actions that started and finished in the past.

one action in the past: I watched TV yesterday.

a series of actions in the past: I woke up, then I had breakfast and read the newspaper.

historical facts: The Second World War started in 1939.

generalizations in the past: People watched less TV 10 years ago.

How do I recognize Past Simple?


Past Simple is often marked by explicit or implicit adverbs or time expressions.

yesterday, yesterday morning, the day before yesterday

last evening, last week, last month, last September, last summer, last year

one week ago, two months ago, three years ago

specific dates or months (if they are in the past): on the 1st of March, in May

implicit reference (it is obvious that we are referring to the past): As a teenager, he played video
games a lot.

Regular and irregular verbs


English verbs may be regular or irregular. This is linked to their second form. For Past Simple, we need
the second form of the verb, which is formed like this:

Regular verbs have regular second forms. They take an -ed at the end of the first form. e.g.: (to)
watch - watched

Irregular verbs have irregular second forms. These can only be learned by heart or by practice.
e.g.: (to) drink - drank
See the first list of irregular verbs - these are used more frequently. When you are ready, see the
second list of irregular verbs.

Affirmative / Interrogative / Negative


Regular verb: to watch
Affirmative

Singular

Plural

1st person

I watched TV yesterday.

We watched TV yesterday.

2nd person

You watched TV yesterday.

You watched TV yesterday.

He watched TV yesterday.
She watched TV yesterday.
It watched the birds yesterday.

They watched TV yesterday.

rd

3 person

Interrogative Singular

Plural

1st person

Did I watch TV yesterday?

Did we watch TV yesterday?

2nd person

Did you watch TV yesterday?

Did you watch TV yesterday?

3 person

Did he watch TV yesterday?


Did she watch TV yesterday?
Did it watch the birds yesterday?

Did they watch TV yesterday?

Negative

Singular

Plural

1st person

I did not watch TV yesterday.

We did not watch TV yesterday.

2nd person

You did not watch TV yesterday.

You did not watch TV yesterday.

He did not watch TV yesterday.


She did not watch TV yesterday.
It did not watch the birds yesterday.

They did not watch TV yesterday.

rd

rd

3 person

Irregular verb: to drink


Affirmative

Singular

Plural

1st person

I drank whiskey yesterday.

We drank whiskey yesterday.

2nd person

You drank whiskey yesterday.

You drank whiskey yesterday.

He drank whiskey yesterday.


She drank whiskey yesterday.
It drank milk yesterday.

They drank whiskey yesterday.

rd

3 person

Interrogative Singular

Plural

1st person

Did I drink whiskey yesterday?

Did we drink whiskey yesterday?

2nd person

Did you drink whiskey yesterday?

Did you drink whiskey yesterday?

3rd person

Did he drink whiskey yesterday?


Did she drink whiskey yesterday?

Did they drink whiskey yesterday?

Did it drink milk yesterday?


Negative

Singular

Plural

1st person

I did not drink whiskey yesterday.

We did not drink whiskey yesterday.

2nd person

You did not drink whiskey yesterday.

You did not drink whiskey yesterday.

He did not drink whiskey yesterday.


She did not drink whiskey yesterday.
It did not drink milk yesterday.

They did not drink whiskey yesterday.

rd

3 person

How do I form Past Simple?


Affirmative
Subject + Verb II + (...)
e.g.: I (subject) watched (verb) TV yesterday.
1st person, sg. I watched TV yesterday.
1st person, sg. I drank whiskey yesterday.
3rd person, sg. She watched TV yesterday. 3rd person, sg. She drank whiskey yesterday.
Remember that:

At Past Simple, the verb remains unchanged for all persons, singular and plural (including the 3rd
person sg.).

Interrogative
Did + Subject + Verb I + (...) + ?
e.g.: Did I (subject) watch (verb) TV yesterday?
1st person, sg. Did I watch TV yesterday?
1st person, sg. Did I drink whiskey yesterday?
3rd person, sg. Did she watch TV yesterday? 3rd person, sg. Did she drink whiskey yesterday?
Remember that:

In interrogative sentences, the auxiliary did contains the past form of the verb structure. The main
verb (to watch or to drink) is used in its FIRST form.

The auxiliary did is the same for all persons, singular and plural.

The short answer for a Past Simple question is:


o

Affirmative: Yes, I did (for all persons Yes, I did; Yes, you did; Yes, he did etc.)

Negative: No, I didn't = No, I did not (for all persons No, I didn't; No, you didn't; No, he
didn't etc.)

Negative
Subject + Did Not + Verb I + (...)
e.g.: I (subject) did not watch (verb) TV yesterday.
1st person, sg. I did not watch TV yesterday.
1st person, sg. I did not drink whiskey yesterday.
3rd person, sg. She did not watch TV yesterday. 3rd person, sg. She did not drink whiskey yesterday.
Remember that:

In negative sentences, the auxiliary did contains the past form of the verb structure. The main verb
(to watch or to drink) is used in its FIRST form.

The short form of did not is didn't. e.g.: I didn't watch TV.

Surprise!

The second form of the verb is also called the past simple form.

Past Simple is only used for finished actions. If an action started in the past, but is not finished at
present, we do not use Past Simple.

Past Perfect Tense Simple


I had watched that movie before Jane told me about it. (Vzusem acel film nainte ca Jane s mi spun
despre el.)
o aciune care s-a ncheiat nainte de un anumit moment din trecut
Timpul verbal Past Perfect Simple indic aciuni care s-au ntamplat naintea altor aciuni sau momente
din trecut. Past Perfect Simple este, probabil, cel mai uor de neles i de nvat dintre toate timpurile
verbale din limba englez. Atunci cnd ne referim la ceva care se ntmplase nainte de altceva din trecut,
tim c avem de a face cu Past Perfect Simple. Mai jos sunt toate informaiile de care ai nevoie.
Ruby had left when Brian arrived
How do I form Past Perfect?
had + the 3rd form of the main verb
e.g.: Ruby had left when Brian arrived.
Note: The auxiliary verb had never changes.

When do I use Past Perfect?


We use Past Perfect:

to refer to an action that happened before another action in the past:


Ruby had left when Brian arrived.
1. Ruby had left (before Brian arrived).
2. Brian arrived (at a moment in the past, after Ruby had left).

to form the Third Conditional, which we will learn at level Advanced.

Conjunctions
There are three conjunctions that often help us recognize Past Perfect: when, before and after.
Ruby had left when Brian arrived.
or
Brian arrived when Ruby had left.
Ruby had left before Brian arrived.
Brian arrived after Ruby had left.
Affirmative / Interrogative / Negative

Affirmative
1st person
Singular

Interrogative

I had studied French before I Had I studied French before I


moved to France.
moved to France?

Negative
I had not studied French before
I moved to France.

You had not read that book


2nd person You had read that book before Had you read that book before
before she gave it to you as a
Singular
she gave it to you as a present. she gave it to you as a present?
present.

3rd person
Singular

Mary called the plumber after


George had fixed the sink.
Jeremy arrived home after
Clara had finished cooking
dinner.
It had stopped raining when
we left.

Had George fixed the sink


George had not fixed the sink
before Mary called the
before Mary called the
plumber?
plumber.
Had Clara finished cooking
Clara had not finished cooking
dinner before Jeremy arrived? dinner when Jeremy arrived.
Had it stopped raining when we It had not stopped raining
left?
when we left.

1st person
Plural

We had never been to that


restaurant before last night.

Had we ever been to that


restaurant before last night?

We had not ever been to that


restaurant before last night.

2nd person You had had that TV for ten


Plural
years before it broke down.
3rd person
Plural

They had found a different


hotel when the receptionist
finally called them.

Had you had that TV for ten


years before it broke down?

You had not had that TV for


ten years before it broke down.

Had they found a different


hotel when the receptionist
finally called them?

They had not found a different


hotel when the receptionist
finally called them.

* In Romanian, Past Perfect is translated using mai mult ca perfectul.

Past Tense Continuous


I was watching TV when you called. (M uitam la TV cnd ai sunat.)
o aciune ntrerupt din trecut
Past Continuous indic aciuni care erau n desfurare ntr-un moment din trecut. Past Continuous se
mai numete i Past Progressive. Dup cum probabil ai neles deja, atunci cnd un timp este progressive,
el desemneaz aciuni n desfurare. Aciunile aflate n desfurare sunt ntrerupte fie de alte aciuni, fie
de momente specifice. Pe aceast pagin, afli toate detaliile despre Past Tense Continuous.
What was he doing when you took that photo?
Past Continuous
We form Past Continuous like this: Was/Were + [Verb + ING]

The verb to be is in the past: was or were, depending on the person/number.

We add the termination -ing to the main verb.

Note that: Past Continuous is also called Past Progressive because it refers to actions that were, at a
certain moment in the past, in progress.

When do I use Past Continuous?


We use Past Continuous when we refer to interrupted actions in the past.
e.g.: He was talking to Jeremy when I took that photo.
He was talking to Jeremy the interrupted action (Past Continuous)
when I took that photo. the action that causes the interruption (Past Simple)
Use cases:

a past action interrupted by another past action:


He was talking to Jeremy when I took that photo.

a past action interrupted by a specific time:


They were watching a movie yesterday at 10 p.m.

parallel actions in the past:


The girls were preparing the meat while the boys were chopping sticks for the fire.

to describe the atmosphere in the past:


When I arrived at Ruby's place, Ruby was playing with the cats, Clara was making a cake and
Brian and Jeremy were discussing politics.

Affirmative / Interrogative / Negative


Read the table below to see how we form Past Continuous in the affirmative, interrogative and negative.
Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

1st person
Singular

I was eating pizza.

Was I eating pizza?

I was not eating pizza.

2nd person
Singular

You were listening to music. Were you listening to music?

You were not listening to


music.

He was talking to Clara


She was talking to Jeremy.
The dog was sleeping.

He was not talking to Clara.


She was not talking to
Jeremy.
The dog was not sleeping.

rd

3 person
Singular

Was he talking to Clara?


Was she talking to Jeremy?
Was the dog sleeping?

1st person Plural We were washing the dishes. Were we washing the dishes? We were not washing the

dishes.
2nd person
Plural

You were cleaning the room. Were you cleaning the room?

You were not cleaning the


room.

3rd person
Plural

They were surfing the


Internet.

They were not surfing the


Internet.

Were they surfing the


Internet?

When & While


The conjunctions when and while are used very often in sentences that contain verbs in the Past
Continuous.
When is followed by Past Simple.
He was talking to Jeremy when I took that photo.
While is followed by Past Continuous.
The girls were preparing the meat while the boys were chopping sticks for the fire.
Surprise!
We can use contractions only in negative Past Continuous sentences:

I/He/She/It wasn't sleeping yesterday evening at 10 o'clock.

You/We/You/They weren't sleeping yesterday evening at 10 o'clock.

* In Romanian, Past Continuous is translated using imperfectul.


Present Perfect Continuous i Past Perfect Continuous se folosesc n aceleai situaii ca Present Perfect
Simple i Past Perfect Simple. Formele continue, ns, pun accentul pe altceva dect cele simple.
Present Perfect Simple si Past Perfect Simple
n primul rnd, amintete-i cum se formeaz i cnd se folosesc Present Perfect Simple i Past Perfect
Simple.
Pe scurt, Present Perfect Simple are forma have washed. Este compus din verbul auxiliar to have alturi
de cea de a treia form a verbului principal. Present Perfect Simple se folosete, de obicei, pentru aciuni
care au nceput n trecut i se continu n prezent sau care tocmai s-au ncheiat i au un rezultat important
n prezent.
e.g. I have washed the car. Am splat maina, deci ea e curat acum.
Past Perfect Simple are forma had washed. Este compus din verbul auxiliar to have la trecut adic
had alturi de cea de a treia form a verbului principal. Past Perfect Simple desemneaz o aciune care
s-a ntmplat naintea unei alte aciuni din trecut.

e.g. I had washed the car before it started to rain. Mai nti am splat maina i abia apoi a nceput s
plou.
Present Perfect Continuous si Past Perfect Continuous
Diferena dintre Present Perfect Simple i Present Perfect Continuous, respectiv dintre Past Perfect
Simple i Past Perfect Continuous const n faptul c:
- formele simple pun accentul pe aciune sau pe rezultatul su;
- formele continue evideniaz durata sau continuitatea aciunii.
S revedem exemplele de la nceputul leciei.
e.g. I have washed the car. M intereseaz faptul c am splat maina i c acum ea e curat.
e.g. I have been washing the car for two hours. M intereseaz faptul c mi-am petrecut ultimele dou
ore splnd maina.
e.g. I had washed the car before it started to rain. M intereseaz faptul c splasem maina nainte c
ploaia s nceap.
e.g. I had been washing the car for two hours before it started to rain. M intereseaz faptul c mi-am
petrecut dou ore splnd maina nainte ca ploaia s nceap.

Iarna trecuta am fost intr-o excursie de doua zile la Busteni cu colegii de la clubul de teatru.

Last winter I was in a trip two days at the logs with colleagues at the club of theater
Iat schemele celor dou timpuri verbale continue:
Present Perfect Continuous: have been/has been + [verb + ING]
e.g. I have been waiting, you have been dancing, he has been playing video games
Past Perfect Continuous: had been + [verb + ING]
e.g. I had been waiting, you had been dancing, he has been playing video games