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1.

INTRODUCTION
With the advances in sensing, transmission, and visualization technology, 3D information has
become increasingly incorporated into real-world applications, from architecture, entertainment,
and manufacturing to security. One of the fundamental requirements of these applications is the
estimation of scene depth information, preferably in real time. Fields such as computer vision,
computer graphics, and robotics have studied the extraction of 3D information for more than
three decades, but it remains a challenging problem. Multimedia researchers must take the
imperfectness of depth information and other multisensory information into consideration when
designing their systems, making it a unique research opportunity. This special issue offers an
overview of recent advances in 3D acquisition systems and the many multimedia applications
that can benefit from 3D integration and understanding.
Stereoscopy is the production of the illusion of depth in a photograph, movie, or other
two-dimensional image by presenting a slightly different image to each eye, and thereby adding
the first of these cues (stereopsis) as well. Both of the 2D offset images are then combined in the
brain to give the perception of 3D depth. It is important to note that since all points in the image
focus at the same plane regardless of their depth in the original scene, the second cue, focus, is
still not duplicated and therefore the illusion of depth is incomplete. There are also primarily two
effects of stereoscopy that are unnatural for the human vision: first, the mismatch between
convergence and accommodation, caused by the difference between an object's perceived
position in front of or behind the display or screen and the real origin of that light and second,
possible crosstalk between the eyes, caused by imperfect image separation by some methods.
Different types of 3D image techniques are Holography, Flash Lidar, Wiggle stereoscopy,
volumetric displays, Anaglyph technique, Chroma depth and Auto stereoscopy. The details of
each technique is discussed below.

2. STEREOSCOPY

Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopic or 3D imaging) is a technique for creating or enhancing


the illusion of depth in an image by means of stereopsis for binocular vision.
Any stereoscopic image is called stereogram. Originally, stereogram referred to a pair of
stereo images which could be viewed using a stereoscope.
Most stereoscopic methods present two offset images separately to the left and right eye
of the viewer. These two-dimensional images are then combined in the brain to give the
perception of 3D depth. This technique is distinguished from 3D displays that display an image
in three full dimensions, allowing the observer to increase information about the 3-dimensional
objects being displayed by head and eye movements.

2.1 Types of stereoscopy


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Holography
3D liar/ Flash liar
Wiggle stereoscopy
Volumetric displays
Anaglyph Technique
Chroma depth
Auto stereoscopy

3. HOLOGRAPHY
3.1 Invention

The first hologram was made in 1947 by Dennis Gabor, a Hungarian-born scientist who
was working at the Imperial College of London. Gabor was attempting to refine the design of an
electron microscope. He devised a new technique, which he decided to test with a filtered light
beam before trying it with an electron beam. Gabor made a transmission hologram by carefully
filtering his light source, but the process did not become practical until technology provided a
way to produce coherent light-light that consists of a single frequency and a single wavelength.
Hologram production took off with the invention of the laser in 1960, as a laser generates light
that is of a single color (frequency) and produces waves that travel in phase with one another. In
1962, using a laser to replicate Gabor's holography experiment, Emmett Leitch and Juris
Upatnieks of the University of Michigan produced a transmission hologram of a toy train and a
bird. The image was clear and three-dimensional, but it could only be viewed by illuminating it
with a laser

Principal: Holography is based on the principle of interference. A hologram captures the


interference pattern between two or more beams of coherent light (i.e. laser light). One beam is
shone directly on the recording medium and acts as a reference to the light scattered from the
illuminated scene.

3.2 Transmission hologram


Working of hologram is divided into 2 phases:
1. Recording
2. Reconstruction
3.2.1 Recording of hologram: Basic tools required to make a hologram includes a red lasers,
lenses, beam splitter, mirrors and holographic film. Holograms are recorded in darker
environment; this is to avoid the noise interference caused by other light sources. The recording
of hologram is based on the phenomenon of interference. It requires a laser source, a plane
mirror or beam splitter, an object and a photographic plate. A laser beam from the laser source is
incident on a plane mirror or beam splitter as the name suggests, the function of the beam splitter
is to split the laser beam. One part of splitted beam, after reflection from the beam splitter, strikes
on the photographic plate. This beam is called reference beam

While other part of splitted beam (transmitted from beam splitter) strikes on the
photographic plate after suffering reflection from the various points of object. This beam is
called object beam .The object beam reflected from the object interferes with the reference beam
when both the beams reach the photographic plate. The superposition of these two beams
produces an interference pattern (in the form of dark and bright fringes) and this pattern is
recorded on the photographic plate. The photographic plate with recorded interference pattern is
called hologram. Photographic plate is also known as Gabor zone plate in honour of Denis Gabor
who developed the phenomenon of holography. Each and every part of the hologram receives
light from various points of the object. Thus, even if hologram is broken into parts, each part is
capable of reconstructing the whole object.

Fig 3.2.1

Fig 3.2.2

3.3 Reflection hologram:


The reflection hologram, in which a truly three-dimensional image is seen near its
surface, is the most common type shown in galleries. The hologram is illuminated by a spot of
white incandescent light, held at a specific angle and distance and located on the viewers side of
the hologram. Thus, the image consists of light reflected by the hologram. Recently, these
holograms have been made and displayed in color.
Their images optically indistinguishable from the original objects. If a mirror is the object, the
holographic image of the mirror reflects white light.

Fig 3.3.1 Reflection hologram

3.3.1 Recording hologram: The laser provides a highly coherent source of light. The
beam of light hits the beam splitter, which is a semi-reflecting plate that splits the beam into two:
an object beam and a reference beam. The object beam is widened by a beam spreader
(expanding lens) and the light is reflected off the object and is projected onto the photographic
plate. The reference beam is also widened by a beam spreader and the light reflects off a mirror
and shines on the photographic plate.
The reference and object beams meet at the photographic plate and create the interference
pattern that records the amplitude and phase of the resultant wave
3.3.2 Reconstruction: A reconstruction beam of light is used to reconstruct the object wave
front. The reconstruction beam is positioned at the same angle as the illuminating beam that was
used during the recording phase. The virtual image appears behind the hologram at the same
position as the object.

Fig 3.3.2 Reconstruction hologram

Advantages of Holography
a) It increased feasibility (Depth) of the object.
b) It enables the achievement of multiple images on single plate and 3D images.
c) It is cost effective and high storage capacity.

Disadvantages of Holography
a) It provides static image and do not produce image of complex movement.
b) It require complicated precise machinery to produce and view image.

3.4 Applications of holography


Data Storage
Holographic data storage is a technique that can store information at high density inside
crystals or photopolymers. The ability to store large amounts of information in some kind of
medium is of great importance, as many electronic products incorporate storage devices. The

advantage of this type of data storage is that the volume of the recording media is used instead of
just the surface.

Security
Security holograms are very difficult to forge, because they are replicated from a master
hologram that requires expensive, specialized and technologically advanced equipment. They are
used widely in many currencies, such as the Brazilian 20, 50, and 100-reais notes ; British 5, 10,
and 20-pound notes; South Korean 5000, 10,000, and 50,000-won notes; Japanese 5000 and
10,000 yen notes, India 50,100,500, and 1000 rupee notes; and all the currently-circulating
banknotes of the Canadian dollar, Danish krone, and Euro. They can also be found in credit and
bank cards as well as passports, ID cards, books, DVDs, and sports equipment.

4. 3D Lidar / Flash Lidar


3D Flash Lidar cameras operate and appear very much like 2D digital cameras.3D focal
plane arrays have rows and columns of pixels, also similar to 2D digital cameras but having
additional capability of having the 3D depth and intensity. Each pixels record the time the
cameras laser flash pulse takes to travel into the scene and bounce back to cameras focal plane
(sensor) .A short duration, large area light source (pulsed laser) illuminates the object in front of
the focal plane as laser photons are black scattered towards the camera receiver by the objects
in front of the camera lens. This photonic energy is captured by the array of small pixels, each
pixels samples the incoming photon stream and images depth 3D and location 2D, as well as
reflective intensity .Each pixels has independent triggers and counter to record the time-of-flight
of laser pulse to the object .The physical range of the object in front of the camera is calculated
and a 3D point cloud frame is generated.

The 3D scanner is used to create a point cloud of geometric samples on the surface of the
subject. These points can then be used to extrapolate the shape of the subject (a process
called reconstruction). If color information is collected at each point, then the colors on the
surface of the subject can also be determined.
TABEL 4.1 List of program for point clouds
Manufacturer

Agisoft

Photogrammetry

yes

Scan

data Import

import

formats

no

photo

Processing

Export formats

meshing

Point

data,

Autodesk

yes

no

photo

meshing

DSM/DTM
Autodesk cloud

Pix4D

yes

no

photo

meshing

Point data, DTM,

jpg, meshing

CAD
Point data, DSM,

Drone Mapper

yes

no

Photo,

tif, multispec

KMZ formats

Fig 4.1 Rapid 3D mapping of an area


It is also called stereo photogrammetry, involves estimating the three-dimensional coordinates of
points on an object employing measurements made in two or more photographic images taken
from different positions (see stereoscopy). Common points are identified on each image. A line
of sight (or ray) can be constructed from the camera location to the point on the object. It is the

intersection of these rays (triangulation) that determines the three-dimensional location of the
point. More sophisticated algorithms can exploit other information about the scene that is
known a priori, for example symmetries, in some cases allowing reconstructions of 3-D
coordinates from only one camera position. Stereo photogrammetry is emerging as a robust noncontacting measurement technique to determine dynamic characteristics and mode shapes of
non- rotating and rotating structures.

Advantages of stereo photogrammetry


1) It provides multiple point measurement at one time with on-line systems.
2) It provides multiple point measurement over a short period of time with single camera
systems.
3) Range can be scaled up or down depending on the application.
4) The object is not touched during measurement.

Limitations of stereo photogrammetry


1) Clear view is required from each camera
2) When more than one is used these will usually occupy a large volume compared with the
object being measured, set up.
3) Before measurement can take place the system must be initialised and if necessary cameras
calibrated prior to use.

4.2 Applications
Benefits for Helicopter Operations Fortunately, the same type of analysis applies to
helicopter navigation. However, with the increased use of commercial helicopters for news and
traffic monitoring, medical evacuation and police rescue, theres an added challenge to clear
obstacles in urban areas, as well as remote areas that arent near an airport. Indeed, several recent
helicopter crashes have shown the need for such obstacle studies. Results are achieved by
collecting stereo imagery in the vicinity of the areas where the helicopter is flying following the
steps for runway analysis, and applying these same principles and additional specifications for
helicopter landing zones to define surfaces and plot obstacles. This allows safer helicopter

operations to hospitals, police stations, news organizations and other nontraditional landing
zones. Once the analysis is complete, 3-D visualization is used to train pilots on the correct
procedure to avoid potentially hazardous obstacles.
For military operations that occur in mountainous areas such as Afghanistan and northern
Iraq, there are numerous helicopter missions in search of elusive enemies. The same technology
used to develop safe arrival and departure routes into friendly areas also can be used to develop
arrival and departure paths into hostile territory. Aerial imagery is scarce in this context, but
satellite imagery can be combined with applications such as ClearFlite to develop more precise
terrain and obstacle models at landing zones and other adhoc forward operating areas. Such
applications provide military aviators with a significantly higher margin of safety from terrain
and man-made obstacles in their paths, particularly when hostile forces preclude the ability to
conduct ground surveys of any kind. Moreover, 3-D visualization of the surface and potentially
hazardous obstacles can be used to provide pilots with permission training.