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Esteem Technical Manual

Seismic loading and analysis


References
1. Nawy, Edward G.
Reinforced concrete: a fundamental approach / Edward G. Nawy. -4th ed., 2000
Chap. 15
2. Farzad Naeim
The Seismic Design Handbook
2nd Ed.,2001
pp. 140ff
3. International Code Council
International Building Code 2006 (IBC)
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Formulation of seismic parameters


The following table outlines the steps in obtaining the coefficient Cs (Seismic Load Factor)
and k (Seisimic Distribution Exponent) required for the seismic load application. The "
Equivalent lateral force method" is used in Esteem 7 for earthquake loadings.
Steps Calculations

Description

1.

V = seismic base shear


Cs = seismic response

2.

3.

V = Cs.W

Cs = S DS/(R/I)

Condition 1:
Cs =calculated in

Dependent Parameter

coefficient or seismic load


factor
W = The effective seismic
weight fo the structure,
inclusive or 20% live
loading.
SDS = Design spectral
SS=Mapped Spectral
5%
damped
response acceleration at acceleration for short
short period.
periods, eg. 0.075g where design
g=9.81 N/kg.
SDS=2/3.S MS
Fa=Site coefficent from
SMS=Fa.SS

Table 15.2a of Ref. (1).

SD1 = Design spectral


response acceleration at
1 second period.

S1=Mapped Spectral
acceleration for 1 second
period, eg. 0.025g where
g=9.81 N/kg.

(2) above cannot


exceed the
following,
SD1=2/3.S M1
Cs = S D1/((R/I).T)

Fv=Site coefficent from


Table 15.2b of Ref. (1).

SM1=Fv.S1
4.

Condition 2:
Cs =calculated in
(2) above cannot
be taken less than
following,
Cs=0.044 SDS
In lieu of an analysis, an R = Response modification
approximate fundamental factor (see Table 1617.6
period can be used,
ref. (3))
(3/4)
Ta=CT.h
I=Occupancy importance
factor
h = Program will
automatically compute
CT=Building Period
the total height of
Coefficient
building.

5.

Assumptio
n

Condition 3:
For building and structures in seismic design
categories E or F and in buildings and
structures for which the 1-sec spectral
response, S1 is equal to or greater than
0.6g,
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5%
damped
design

Esteem Technical Manual

6.

Seismic
Distribution
Exponent, k

Based on building period,


T calculated above.
k=1 for T <=0.5 sec
k=2 for T >=2.5 sec
Interpolate linearly k
value for T between 0.5
and 2.5 sec.

Notes
:
1. Mapped Spectral accelerations, SS and S1 (Spectral Response Acceleration) are to be
obtained from published regional geographic charts. In absence of such charts, engineers
must use good judgment accordingly. See Figure 1613.5ff of the "International Building
Code (IBC) 2006" for US charts as example.
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Site Classification, Table 1613.5.2 ref. (3)

Notes
:
1. As far as Esteem 7 is concerned, site classification affects the calculation of Cs when
Site Class E & F are selected. It invites the consideration of Condition 3 as outline in the
topic above.
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Fa, Table 15.2a ref. (1)


Value of Site Coefficient Fa as a function of site class and mapped spectral response
acceleration at short periods (SS).
Site Class
A
B
C
D
E
F

SS =< 0.25
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.6
2.5

SS =< 0.50
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.7

SS =< 0.75
0.8
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.2

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SS =< 1.00
0.8
1.0
1.0
1.1
0.9

SS =< 1.25
0.8
1.0
1.0
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Esteem Technical Manual

Fv, Table 15.2b ref. (1)


Value of Site Coefficient Fv as a function of site class and mapped spectral response
acceleration at 1.0 sec periods (S1).
Site Class
A
B
C
D
E
F

S1 =< 0.1
0.8
1.0
1.7
2.4
3.5

S1 =< 0.2
0.8
1.0
1.6
2.0
3.2

S1 =< 0.3
0.8
1.0
1.5
1.8
2.8

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S1 =< 0.4
0.8
1.0
1.4
1.6
2.4

S1 =< 0.5
0.8
1.0
1.3
1.5

Esteem Technical Manual

R, Table 1617.6 ref. (3)


extract of Table 1617.6 ref. (3) for Response modification coefficient R .
Basic Seismic-Force-Resisting System

Response
System Limitations and Building Height Limitations (m)
Modification
by Seismic Deisgn Categoryc as determined in IBC
C oefficient, R Section 1616.1
A&B
C
Dd
Ee
Ff

Bearing Wall System


Special reinforced concrete shear wall
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear wall
Detailed plain concrete shear walls
Ordinary plain concrete shear walls
Building Frame System
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear wall
Detailed plain concrete shear walls
Ordinary plain concrete shear walls
Moment Resistant Frames
Special reinforced concrete moment frames
Intermediate reinforced concrete moment
frames
Ordinary reinforced concrete moment
frames
Dual System with Special Moment
Frames
Special reinforced concrete shear walls
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
Dual System with Intermediate
Moment Frames
Special reinforced concrete shear walls
Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
Shear wall-frame Interactive system with
ordinary reinforced concrete moement
frames and ordinary reinforced concrete
shear walls

5.5
4.5
2.5
1.5

NL
NL
NL
NL

NL
NL
NL
NP
NL
NL
NP

48.8
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP

48.8
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP

48.8
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP
NP

5
3
2

NL
NL
NL

8
5

NL
NL

NL
NL

NL
NP

NL
NP

NL
NP

NLh

NP

NP

NP

NP

8
7

NL
NL

NL
NL

NL
NP

NL
NP

NL
NP

6
5.5
5.5

NL
NL
NL

NL
NL
NP

48.8
NP
NP

30.5
NP
NP

30.5
NP
NP

c NL = not limited and NP = not permitted


d limited to buildings with a height of 73.2m or less.
e limited to buildings with a height of 48.8m or less.
f Ordinary moment frame is permitted to be used in lieu of Intermediate moment frame in seismic design categories
B, and C.
h Ordinary moment frames of reinforced concrete are not permitted as a part of the seismic-force-resisting system
in seismic design category B structures fonded on Site Class E or F soils

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I, Table 15.5 ref. (1)

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Examples
Example to Ref. 1 (Nawy) page 693

A building of 5 storey of 2.9m height per floor (total height = 14.5m).


Building category II
Site Class B
Seismic group II (use in spectral response method)

Response modification method, R = 3.0


Occupancy importance factor, I = 1.25
From ground motion maps, S 1=0.42, Ss=0.85 (Site B with 5% damping)

Adjusted spectral response accelerations for site class effects:


o for S1=0.42, Fv=1.0

o
o
o
o
o

for SS=0.85, Fa=1.0


SMS=Fa.S S=1.0 x 0.85=0.85
SM1=Fv.S 1=1.0 x 0.42=0.42
SDS=2/3 . SMS=2/3 x 0.85 = 0.567

SD1=2/3 . SM1=2/3 x 0.42 = 0.278


CS=SDS /(R/I)=0.567/(3/1.25)=0.236 but cannot exceed
CS=SD1 /(R/I) . T
; Ta = CT h(3/4) = 0.085 {for moment resisting frames} . 14.5(3/4) = 0.63 sec
Hence, CS=SD1 /(R/I) . T = 0.278 /((3/1.25) x 0.63) = 0.184
k = 1+ (0.63-0.5)/(2.5-0.5)=1.065

Example 2

A building of 5 storey of 3m height per floor (total height = 15m).


Building category II
Site Class B
Seismic group II (use in spectral response method)

Response modification method, R = 3.0


Occupancy importance factor, I = 1.25
From ground motion maps, S 1=0.03, Ss=0.075 (Site B with 5% damping)

Adjusted spectral response accelerations for site class effects:


o for S1=0.03, Fv=0.8

o
o
o
o
o

for SS=0.075, Fa=0.8


SMS=Fa.S S=0.8 x 0.075=0.06
SM1=Fv.S 1=0.8 x 0.03=0.024
SDS=2/3 . SMS=2/3 x 0.06 = 0.04

SD1=2/3 . SM1=2/3 x 0.024 = 0.016


CS=SDS /(R/I)=0.04/(3/1.25)=0.0167 but cannot exceed
CS=SD1 /(R/I) . T
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; Ta = CT h(3/4) = 0.085 {for moment resisting frames} . 15(3/4) = 0.648 sec


Hence, CS=SD1 /(R/I) . T = 0.016 /((3/1.25) x 0.648) = 0.01
k = 1+ (0.648-0.5)/(2.5-0.5)=1.074
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CT, Building Period Coefficient, ref. (1)

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Vertical Distribution of Forces


The lateral force Fx induced at any level can be determined from the following expressions
illustrated by Nawy.

Cvx = vertical distribution factor


V = total design lateral force or shear at the base of the building.
Wi and Wx = the portion of the total gravity load of the building, W, located or assigned to
Level i or x
hi and hx = the height from the base to level i or x
k = seismic distribution exponent
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