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One result of the cardiovascular exam would be that the athlete would have a much lower
resting heart rate. Whereas the overweight individual with a sedentary life style would
most likely have a much higher resting heart rate. For example, the athlete may have a
heart rate in the (50s or 60s) and the sedentary individual may have a heart rate in the
(80s or 90s). This has to do with the strength of the heart. An athlete in top condition is
going to exercise frequently which is going to strengthen the muscles in their body
including the heart. The person who lives a sedentary lifestyle is not going to strengthen
their heart. So, the athlete will have a much stronger heart and for that reason it will not
have to work as hard.
2. In order to make a blood vessel substitute which would work within the human body,
many things must be taken into account. First, blood vessels must be smooth in order for
the blood to flow through the vessels easily. Secondly, the blood vessels must be elastic
in order to properly work within the body. Lastly, the new vessels must also be strong
enough to prevent themselves from collapsing. If I were to choose a natural blood vessel
substitute I would choose pig vessels. I would choose pigs because I remember reading a
study where scientists found that a pigs cornea was adequate to be used for transplants
into peoples eyes. They found that the people did not experience any more rejection
than they would have from human transplants. Though, if I had to choose a synthetic
material I would choose a thin plastic-like polymer. A material of this nature would allow
for more durability and mobility/stretchiness than a natural material.
3. An artificial heart would have to have the same anatomical structures that any other heart
would have. This would include four chambers: the left atrium, right atrium, left
ventricle, and right ventricle. This would also include the aorta (something to pump
blood to the rest of the body), the pulmonary artery (something to send blood to be
oxygenized by the lungs), and the pulmonary veins (to bring oxygenated blood back into
the heart. The proper valves would also be important in order for the artificial heart to
properly work. The heart would also require the ability to regulate blood pressure and the
ability to communicate with other parts of the body. Another extremely important part of
the heart is the pace maker, which an artificial heart would require in order to beat
regularly within the body.
4. The nicotine in the cigarette smoke would constrict the hearts blood vessels. This
constriction would increase the blood pressure within the body. The carbon monoxide
present in cigarette smoke binds much stronger to hemoglobin than oxygen does. Since
the carbon monoxide binds so strongly the pressure in the pulmonary artery would
increase since it connects the lungs and the heart. This increase in pressure between the
lungs and heart could potentially lead to heart failure. However, after smoking the
pressure should slowly return to normal. So, unless someone is continuously smoking

heart failure most likely will not ensue. However, circulation problems may arise from
smoking cigarettes because of this.
5. After eating a heavy meal it is best to rest before exercising. After you eat the blood
blow to the stomach will be increased in order to provide oxygen for the process of
breaking down food. So, if someone decides to exercise after eating than the body will
have to work much harder to both digest food and to exercise since there will be a deficit
of oxygen. While exercising it is important to have enough oxygen to properly exercise
and when digesting food it is best to have a good oxygen supply as well.
6. The blood flow within the body is most likely to carry the blood clot to the lungs. This
would cause a pulmonary embolism which can be extremely dangerous. If the clot is
large enough in size to block all air flow to the lungs than the patient will die of air
deprivation. If this were to occur some symptoms the patient may exhibit are coughing
up blood, difficulty breathing, and chest pain. These symptoms are a result of the
blockage and the lung struggling for air.
7. The liver is an extremely important organ within the body. The liver manufactures blood
proteins which aid in clotting, transports oxygen, stores excess nutrients, releases
nutrients into the blood stream, manufactures bile, stores sugar in the form of glycogen,
and it breaks down toxic substances to prevent them from entering the bloodstream. One
thing which can cause cirrhosis of the liver is prolonged alcohol use. This makes sense
since toxic substances like alcohol must pass through the liver. As a person continues to
drink alcohol in excess the healthy tissue of their liver slowly becomes scar tissue.
Eventually over time the scar tissue in so abundant that the liver is incapable of
functioning properly. One of the largest complications that occur from this is called
variceal bleeding. This bleeding is caused by an increase in pressure within the portal
vein (travels through digestive system). This pressure is increased in the portal vein as a
result of the blockage (of scar tissue) in the liver. This increased pressure also causes for
other veins within the body to enlarge. The veins within the esophagus and stomach are
affected the most. These enlarged veins can be very dangerous since they are more likely
to hemorrhage. The blood stream is also greatly affected by cirrhosis of the liver because
the toxins from the intestines are no longer able to be detoxified by the liver.
8. In order for the cardiologist to reach the left coronary artery from the right femoral artery
they must pass through several other arteries. First the cardiologist will pass from the
femoral artery to the external iliac artery. Next from the external iliac artery they will
enter the common iliac artery. After the common iliac artery the catheter must enter the
abdominal aorta and then the thoracic aorta. Once the tube is in the thoracic aorta it must
travel through the arch of the aorta to the coronary artery of the heart.