Sunteți pe pagina 1din 18


Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds .Rhyming words are
generally placed at equal distances from each other.In verse,they are usually placed at the end of
corresponding lines.Identity and especially similarity of sound combinations may be relative,so
we can distinguish between full rhyme and incomplete rhyme.Full rhyme presupposes identity of
the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable.For instancemight,right,spite.This means that the last stressed syllable and whatever follows it should be
identical.This is exact,identical,full rhyme.
Incomplete rhymes present a greater variety.These can be divided into 2 groups:
a)vowel rhymes
b)consonant rhymes

Vowel rhymes-the vowels of the syllables in corresponding words are identical,but the
consonants may be different-as in flesh/
Consonant rhymes show similarity in consonants and disparity in vowels.For instanceworth/forthtail/tool.dump/damp.
Rhyme sometimes goes as far as to make combinations of words rhyme with one
word/with another combination of words.
Bottom/ forgot`em .Such rhymes are called compound or broken rhymes.What is typical
of this type of rhyme is the fact that the combination of words is made to sound like one
word.This is a device which sometimes gives a colloquial aspect to the text.At times,the result is
humor.Byron is a master of such compound rhymes.Compound rhymes may be set against what
is called eye rhyme,where it is the letters and not the sounds that are identical,as in
love/prove..eye/symmetry (Blake):Tyger,tyger,burning bright/In the forests of the
night/What immortal hand or eye/Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
As compound rhyme is perceived in reading aloud,eye rhyme is perceived in the written
form.Very many eye rhymes are the result of historical changes in pronunciation.(love/prove-in
Shakespeares time,love was pronounced (luv);likewise, eye,in Blake`s time,was pronounced
Very many eye rhymes have historical explanations,simply because when the text was written,the
corresponding words rhymed.Eye rhyme is a phenomenon which cannot appear but in such a
language as English,because they were so conservative that they maintained the spellings from

the Middle English period and meanwhile the pronunciation and the language evolved;this is a
reason why we spell in one way and pronounce in another way.Even splitting words into
syllables is made in English not on syllabic reasons,but on morphological reasons.You split away
the affix or if its a compound,you split it in the middle of the compound.It goes
morphologically,not syllabically,as you do it in Romanian.

According to the way the rhymes are arranges within a stanza,certain models have taken shape.In
Romanian(popular ballads)we have monorhyme.The English do not fancy this model of
rhyming. Their simplest manner of rhyming is the couplet(A-A..B-BC-C).In popular
ballads,the 2nd and the 4th word rhyme,and the 1st and the 3rd dont rhyme..

Crossed rhyme
Internal rhyme(the rhyming words are placed not at the end of the verses,but in the middle and at
the end.It appears before what we call a caesura, in verses which are longer than 12 syllables and
which we call alexandrines. You need a breathing pause in the middle of such a long verse.You
cannot recite it in one breath. once upon a midnight dreary while i pondered weak and
weary(E.A.Poe,Raven).Internal rhymestrangely enough,both breaks the line in 2,but also
consolidates it.So rhyme posseses 2 concurrent functions-one of dissevering and one of
consolidating the idea.These 2 functions are realized concomitantly.
The distinctive function of rhyme is especially felt when it occurs unexpectedly in ordinary
speech or in prose-the listeners attention is caught by the rhyme.Rhyme in discourse can also be
a mechanism of humour.(jokes)


-it exists not only in literature,but in all spheres of human activity.Therefore,it takes up very
many forms.It is a basically regular recurrence of elements such as beat or accent.Rhytm is thus
a periodicity of various types,resulting from a deliberate,intentional arrangement of speech into
regularly recurring units.It demands opposition between:long and short;stressed and
unstressed;high and low;

In prose,rhythm occurs only in short stretches.It is achieved by means of syntactic stylistic

devices:enumeration,repetition or parallel constructions/untiparallel constructions.(the beginning
of A tale of Two Cities-Dickens:It was the best of times,it was the worst of times,it was the age
of wisdom,it was the age of foolishness,it was the epoch of belief,it was the epoch of

In verse,similar structures are called metrical fit.(metre=any form of periodicity in verse,its kind
being determined by the character or number of syllables of which it consists.)The unit repeated
is called metrical foot.(in Romanian,feet of 4 syllables=peons.In English,2 syllable feet and 3
syllable feet.
__ _=trochee
_ __=iambus,i
____=pyrrhic foot
Neither syllable accented= spondee

__ _ _=amphibrach
_ __ _=dactyle
_ _ __=anapaest

Iambic pentameter is very typical in English.


-according to their manner of manifestation, they fall into 4 classes:
b)interactions of different types of meanings
c)intensification/amplification of features:simile,hyperbole,periphrasis)

d)peculiar use of set expressions(clichs,proverbs and sayings,epigrams,quotation)

a)=expressive mean
b),c),d)=lexical stylistic devices

A)bathos is an intentional mixing of the stylistic aspect of words.Unrelated elements are brought
together as if they denoted things equal in rank or belonging to the same class-mixing of literary
words with non-literary words.For instance-Wordsworth:Few months of life has he in store/As
he to you will tell/For still,the more he works,the more/Do his weak ankles swell.

B)interactions of different types of meanings

Except of lexical meaning,words also have a contextual meaning.It might deviate from the
dictionary meaning as to mean quite the opposite(L-a batut bine.L-a batut rau.)
According to the types of meaning interacting, there are 4 types of interactions:
a)primary dictionary and contextually imposed meanings(metaphor, metonymy, irony)
b)primary and derivative logical meanings(zeugma and pun)
c)logical and emotive meaning(interjections and exclamatory words ,epithet, oxymoron)
d)logical and nominative(antonomasia)
The metaphor is a relation between the dictionary and the contextual logical meanings based
on the affinity or similarity of certain properties or features of the 2 corresponding concepts.
Metaphors can be:
+absolutely unexpected(quite unpredictable),which are called genuine:;Through the open
window,the dust danced and was golden.
+trite metaphors(those which are commonly used in speech and are fized in the dictionaries as
expressive means of language.E.g:a flight of fancy, floods of tears, a ray of hope
+dead metaphors(not recognized as metaphors:window-it comes from the Old English windeseaze(the eye of the wind;.daisy- des ae=the eye of the day)
+sustained metaphors metaphors introduced and then developed throughout a part of a literary
work(a paragraph)

Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,

And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;...
( 'The Road Not Taken' - Robert Frost)

What does this sustained/extended metaphor mean?

In this famous poem by Robert Frost, life is being compared to a road. He talks about a fork in
the road which leads to two paths, and he needs to choose one path to follow. He cannot choose
both and walk on them at the same time. Similarly, in life, one might be faced with difficult
decisions to make, and one can only take one decision, not both. The poem continues for several
more verses and each verse carries forth the extended metaphor of life being compared to a road.

The Metonimy is based on a different type of relation between the dictionary and the contextual
meaning,a relation based not on affinity,but on some kind of association connecting the 2
concepts which these mening represent on a proximity.This proximity mey be revealed:
____in the relation between the instrument and the action performed with this instrument(His
pen is rather sharp.)
____in the relation between the container and the thing it contains(I drank 2 cups.)
____the concrete is put for the abstract(the crown of England)
____a part is put for the whole(a hand=worker)

In many cases,metonymy is trite:to earn ones bread,to keep ones mouth shut.
Metonimies can be genuine(Hey,long hair there!)
In the case of metaphors,one image excludes the other,whereas in the case of metonymies,both
come to mind(mustache-man).

The constant use of a word metaphorically ultimately leads to the breaking up of its primary
meaning,that is the meaning in the dictionary.And then the word undergoes a mutation of
meaning.In that,the mentaphorical meaning excludes the primary meaning and the basic meaning
of the word remains the metaphorical one.In this case,metaphor does not function as a stylistic
device any longer.For instance,the word mouse:electronic device=metaphorical meaning.By
using it intensively,we do not perceive it as being a metaphor any more and the word meaning
electronic devicehas entered the dictionary.It is a basic law of stylistics hat figures of speech of
any kind should coexist with the basic meaning of the word.Otherwise,we dont perceive the
figure of speech as being estethical.
The Irony
It is also based on the simultaneous realization of 2 logical meanings-the dictionary meaning and
the contextual meaning.But these 2 meanings stand in opposition to each other.You are a bunch
of scholars=you are anything but scholars.Among all the mechanisms of humour,irony is the
most horrible one.You simply dismental the ironized object,you reduce it to nothing.
Irony must not be confused with humour.With humour,the effect does not attak the
receiver,his human condition is not put into question.Both humour and irony are marked on
incongruity between expectation and the text.Irony is used to convey a negative meaning.It is
worse than satire because you satirize someone in the hope thet hell improve.When you ironize
sb,you have given up any hope.I ontologically cancel the object or irony.
The contextual meaning conveys the negation of the positive concepts which the
dictionary meanings embody.For instance-Byron:
I like the taxes, when theyre not too many;
I like a seacoal fire, when not too dear;
I like a beef-steak, too, as well as any;
Have no objection to a pot of beer;
I like the weather, when it is not rainy,

That is, I like two months of every year.


The 3rd type of interaction between primary and derivative logical meaning contains stylistic
devices based on polysemy-zeugma and pun.
People cannot very clearly make the difference between polysemy and homonymy.(Where is the
borderline between polysemy and homonymy?)With polysemy,words are always related
etimologically-an existing word with an existing meaning acquires a new meaning,related to the
first.For instance,the wordmouse-it is a polysemantic word-the 2nd meaning is derived from the
Polysemy is obtained either by radiation or by cantactenation.
With radiation,you have meaning one(the basic meaning of the word) out of which you get
meaning 2,meaning 3 etc
With concatenation,meaning 1 generates meaning 2 which generates meaning 3 etc.Meaning 4
carries the basic features of meaning 1,but comes directly from meaning 3.

Homonymy,on the other hand,is a linguistic accident.It is an accidental identity of 2 words which
do not have anything in common in point of origin.In everyday speech,polysemy always creates
ambiguity=the possibility of a text to have at least 2 equally valid readings and we do not have
any clue as to which of them is to be taken into account.If ambiguity does don appear,we cannot
speak of a stylistic device.In this context,zeugma is the use of a word in the same
grammatical,but different semantic relations to 2 other words in the context.These semantic
relations are on the one hand literal and on the other hand-transferred.For instance-G.B Shaw:
DORA. [plunging at once into privileged intimacy and into the middle of the room].The verbto
plungeis used figuratively and into the middle of the roomis used properly.Zeugma is a very
strong and effective device because the 2 meanings clash.How can you take a plunge into
intimacy?You do not jump,physically.You plunge figuratively.But you can take a plunge into the
middle of the room,when jumping out of bed.
Another example (Dickens): and May's mother always stood on her gentility; and Dot's
mother never stood on anything but her active little feet.(zeugma)To stand upon sthmeans to
rely on sth-she relied on her gentility.The 2nd is used properly.
The pun,on the other hand,is an analogy in the readers attributing a certain meaning to a
certain signifier.In other words,an analogy in attributing signified to signifier.The condition that
the pun exist is non-restictive co-text,which means that the co-text(the environment in which the

pun appears)should offer no clue as to which of the 2 interpretations is to be taken.Out of these 2

interpretation,normally one creates a humorous type of effect or it can be a taboo.Ex: There was
a young lady named Hitchin ... Who had a magnificent ass; Not rounded and pink, As you
probably think - It was grey, had long ears, and ate grass..(ass=donkey/bottom-back part).
So the pun is an analogy in attributing a certain significance to a signifier.Puns are based
on paradigmatic choice(the paradigm may be a paradigm of polysemantic meanings or it may
include homonyms).The appeal to paradigms is made by 2 basic types of confusion which
generate wrong analogy.
1.First,you can have confusion of signifiers .
2. Second, you can have confusion between meanings.Puns based on confusion of signifiers are
those puns which have similar or very resembling words,in a sequence which is incoherent or
misleading when heard and disambiguated when read.
Ex: A dentist who lives in Duluth, Has wedded a widow named Ruth. She is so
sentimental. Concerning things dental. She calls him her dear second twoth.( is a
misafixation. Normally,you say second.)This is a pun based on confusion of signifiers.(you have
confusion of signifiers only in the oral form)
Puns based on confusion between meaning are those puns in which the written form
offers no decoding elements,that is :puns based on polysemy or on homonyms which are also
homographs(written alike,but the pronunciation differs)
<homonyms can be of 2 subtypes: both homographs and homophones, when they sound and are
written alike,but they can be only homophones-they sound alike, but are written differently, or
they can be homographs:written alike,but the pronunciation differs)>
For instance:Cand te-acuza te betie/Tu poti crasmarului sa-I spui/Ca de-ai facut si vreo
prostie/Nu-I vina ta.E vinul lui.-confusion between signifiers
Si dna preoteasa ne-a marturisit/Stand gata sa recada in sincopa/Ca nicaieri pe lume n-antalnit/Atata necredinta ca la popa-necredinta=lack of faith in God/lack of faith for his wife

What happens in Romanian,unlike in English,is the fact that in English such puns play upon a
multitude of meanings.Ex.:
There was a young fellow named Hall
Who fell in the spring in the fall.
Twould have been a sad thing

Had he died in the spring.

But he didn't - he died in the fall.
-omonime se poate traduce pt ca nu se poate parafraza.Daca incerci s-o
parafrazezi in engleza,pierzi umorul din ea.avand in vedere ca traducerea e tot o parafraza,dar e
interlingvistica,asta e intraductibila.
(spring-anotimp,saritura,izvor,the verb.So there are 4 meanings.polysemy)(fall-the American
name of autumn,the act of falling,the verb,waterfall-again,4 meanings)You have as many
readings of the thing as combinations.)
Acest lucru e posibil din cauza tipului lingvistic al lb.engleze.E cea mai analitica limba vorbita in
aria indo-europeana.Nu are terminatii aproape deloc(are doar 4-s,ed,ing,er/est).Deci relatiile
gramaticale se exprima prin prepozitii si prin topica.

Johnnie Walker-born 1820-still going strong:here,the 4 meanings in English overlap the 4

meanings in Romanian(puternic,bautura tare,se vinde bine si 4ceva vulgar)

Interaction of logical and emotive meanings

Almost any word may acquire a greater or smaller degree of emotiveness.Depending on the
character of the utterance,in other words-on its pragmatic aspect,a greater or smaller volume of
emotiveness may be present in words which have in inherent emotive meaning.These are
interjections,exclamations,next come epithets,in which we can observe a certain equality
between logical and emotive meaning.Thirdly comes what is called oxymoron.These are also
epithets in which the logical meaning clashes with the illogical.
1.Interjections and exclamatory words
In traditional grammar,interjections are considered a part of speech.Yet,there are other views in
which an interjection is a sentence.If we admit that an interjection is an act of speech in itself,this
variant seems true.Moreover,there is always a pause between an interjection and the rest of the
sentence in which it appears.The length of this pause equals the pause between 2 sentences.The
pause in intonation before or after an interjection is equal with intersentencial pauses,which
suggests that an interjection is a complete act of speech.If I say Phew!,you can translate it as
Im sick of everything.If I say something like Auch,it means Something has hurt me.
Stylistically speaking,these pauses can be accounted for by the transfer from the emotional to the
logical and viceversa.If you take into account that interjections have no meaning if taken
separately and that their intonation depends on the meaning of what precedes and follows

them,they do not function as proper sentences. Ex.: Oh, where are you going to, all you Big
Steamers(Kipling).Oh can be interpreted in any way you please.What you know for sure is that
ohstates emotional tension present in the utterance.

Primary interjections are generally devoid of any logical meaning.

Derivative interjections may retain some traces of meaning,although this is almost always
suppressed by the emotive meaning.Heavens!/Good Gracious!/God!/Bless me etc.These are
rather exclamatory words used with interjectional function.Some adjectives,nouns or adverbs can
also take on the function of interjections.For instance:Terrible!Great!Awful!Wonderful!Spledid!
Interjections may be:-bookish(livresque):Alas!Lo!Hark!(Hark means listen to me!)

2.The epithet is based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning,which consists of an
attributive word,phrase or sentence which characterizes an object with the aim of giving an
individual perception and evaluation of that object.The epithet is subjective and evaluative,unlike
the grammatical attribute,which is objective,non-evaluative.The grammatical attribute indicates
an inherent or predominant feature of the thing in question(a red book-ontologically,that book is
of red colour;butred anger is an epithet-it evaluates the anger to its maximum point;it is
subjective because someone can see it as being black)
Another epiteths:wild wind,a heartburning smile.
Like interjections,epithets also radiate emotive value upon the utterance they appear in.From the
semantic point of view,epithets are associated to the following noun or unassociated.Associated
epithets point to a feature which is essential to the object they describe(dark forest,careful
attention;restless assiduity).Unassociated epithets characterize the object by adding a feature not
inherent to it,which may be so unexpected that it strikes the reader.(voiceless sounds)
The ties of the epithet with the notion it determines are strongly contextual.If they
become fixed,the epithet becomes a set phrase which appears in the dictionary(its not a figure of
speech anymore)-intuneric de smoala=pitch darkness.

Structurally speaking,the epithet may be seen from the point of view of their composition
and from the point of view of their distribution.
Compositionally,you can have:
Simple epithets
Compound epithets(apple-faced man;a mischief-making monkey-Byron)

Phrase epithets( do-it-yourself go-it-alone attitude)

Sentence epithets("Personally I detest her (Gioconda's) smug, mystery-making, come-hither-butgo-away-again-because-butter-wouldn't-melt-in-my-mouth expression)=vinoncoa si pleaca
iara, ca nu-mi racesc gura pentru tine.

From the distributional point of view:

-simple epithets
-a string of epithets(Such was the background of the wonderful, cruel, enchanting, bewildering
fatal, great city-O.Henry)
At times,the epithets in a string of epithets follow an ascending scale,which culminates in the last
epithet.When the string follows a gradation,it is called hendiadys.

The transferred epithet-a normal ordinary logical attribute which described a living entity(a
man,a plant,an animal)and is made to refer to inanimate entities.(sleepless pillow,breathless

Is a combination of 2 words,in most cases adj+noun or adj+adv, in which the meanings of the 2
clash,having the same opposite semantic feature.
-horribly beautiful
-sweet sorrow
-nice rascal

-pleasantly ugly
-Fat-Frumos cercel palinca muscat de un purec de fulger(Eminescu,Mitologicale)
-The play will present for his majesty on his wedding day at night(Shakespeare,A midsummer
nights dream)
-Sweet moon,I thank thee for thy sunny beams(Shakespeare,the same)
-Bless you,fair shrew

If the primary meaning of the qualifying word weakens or changes,the stylistic effect of the
oxymoron is lost.(awfully nice, terribly sorry)

Interaction of logical and nominative(nominal) meaning

Antonomasia points out the leading ,most characteristic feature of a person or event, at the same time
pinning this leading feature as a proper name to that person or event.If somebody has blue eyes,you call
her Miss blue eyes.If somebody is exceedingly clever,you call him Mr.Zero.
In essence,it is like an epithet,not so in form,though.The explanatory words somehow revive the logical
meaning of the proper names,thus making more apparent the interplay of logical and nominal meaning.It
is a very old device.Many times,peoples family names are forged either on their
features(strambu,scurtu),or based on their occupations(Smith,Tailor)or on their place of origin.

Intensification/amplification of features

Simile(in romana:comparatie;in English,the term comparisonis only used in grammar,for adjectives).

Unlike ordinary comparison,simile characterizes an object by bringing it into contact with another object
belonging to an entirely different class,on the basis of one single common property.For instance,says
Byron:Maidens,like moths,are ever caught by glare(Fetele,ca si moliile,sunt mereu atrase de
stralucire).Moth,in this case,is used to indicate one of the secondary features of maidens.A maiden is not
a butterfly,but it can be easily attracted,lured.A term is characterized and another which is
The feature intensified will be more evident or more inherent in the second term,in the
characterizing term than in the first.Then,the object characterized will be seen in a new unexpected light

because the writer imposes this feature upon it.)if you think of the concept maiden,you think of anything
buteasily deceived.)
The difference between simile and metaphor:with metaphor,there is nothing in common between the 2
terms.Here,there is a common feature between the two.
Similes may be structurally based on adjective -attributes (atr.adj.),adverb -modifiers,verb -predicates
etc.They always have some formal elements in their structure,connective words such as:like,as,such as,as
These elements are not equally powerful in connecting the 2:
#seem and as if a more remote resemblance than like or as
Sometimes,the simile forming like is placed at the end of the phrase,almost marginally and becoming a
What is a semi-affix?
Some words seem to be compounds,but they are composed by means of a component which is used so
many times in other words that it loses its dictionary meaning.It becomes a sort of an affix.(the word
man,for example,means adult,male and human.But if you say dustman or
handyman,manservant,the manthere only suggests sex;the other meanings are lost,this being an
affix..or the words containing berry:

The word berryis devoid of some of its features and becomes a kind of suffix to denote a kind of fruit.(in
Romanian,berry=baca.Agrisa e o baca=gooseberry.Merisoara=huckleberry<Americans call it cranberry>).When
using the word berry,I do not necessarily think of all the characteristics of this fruit.It loses its dictionary meaning
and becomes an affix.
Another example is mania:computer mania,music mania;you do not find the characteristics of this disease
Another example:like(grumbling like a beargrumbling bear-like)(Dresden china-like).

<Dresden China= porcelain ware,especially delicate and elegantly decorative objects and figures of high quality,
made at Meissen, near Dresden, since 1710).<Langa Dresda(Bavaria),pe vremea lui Friedrich Wilhelm al Prusiei,s-a
facut prima manufactura de portelan din Europa,ce se numea Meissen si,la cativa ani dupa asta,o alta manufacturaRosenthal.Patentul fabricarii portelanului in Europa-prin spionaj economic in China-ei au inventat
portelanul.Rosenthal s-a specializat in vesela.Cea de la Meissen s-a specializat in bibelouri-scene pastorale cu
pastorate si pastori imbracati in haine de epoca rococo,fuste cu crinoline,dar in mana carja sic ate o oaie culcata la
picioare>.Deci Dresden China se refera la o astfel de statueta de pastorita.

Similes,like other figures of speech,can be stale or genuine

Genuine:('Emily Barton was very pink, and looked a Dresden-china-shepherdess like.'-Dickens)
Stale;establish connections between various qualities of a human being and the animals supposed to be
the symbols of those qualities.This is called zoosemy(sly as a fox, slippery as an eel).All of these are
clichs which you can find in dictionaries as such.They appear in many of the indo-european and the nonindo-european languages.

Periphrasis consists of the use of a longer phrase instead of a possible shorter and more plain one.It is
also called circumlocution,which means re-naming of an object.As a stylistic device,periphrasis aims at
pointing to one of the seemingly insignificant or hardly noticeable feature or property of a given object
and intensifies this property by naming the object by it.(instead of women,you say fair sex.Instead of
my wife,you say my better half.Orthe caps and gowns=the students and the teachers)
!If a periphrastic locution is understandable outside its context,it is not a stylistic device,but nearly a
synonymous expression.
Literary periphrasis is a new genuine nomination of the object.
Ex.:I understand you are poor and wish to earn money by nursing the little boy,my son,who has been so
prematurely deprived of what can never be replaced.-a genuine periphrasis(what can never be
replaced=his mother)
my better half-a set phrase, a stale periphrasis.
Stylistic periphrasis (the genuine)can be of 2 types:
a)logical:based on an inherent property of the object(the most pardonable of human weaknesses=love)
b)figurative-based either on metonymy or metaphor:the punctual servant of all work=the sun.(it is a
to tie a knot=to marry(metonymy)

Euphemism-a species of periphrasis-a word or phrase meant to replace an unpleasant word or

expression,by a conventionally accepted one.
To die=to pass away/to expire/to be no more/to be gone/to kick the bucket/to give up the ghost/go west.
to go westcomes from the Indians in America. Manitou is the spiritual and fundamental life force
understood by Algonquian groups of Native Americans. It is omnipresent and manifests everywhere:
organisms, the environment, events, etc. Aashaa monetoo = good spirit, otshee monetoo = bad spirit.
The Great Spirit, Aasha Monetoo, gave the land, when the world was created, to the Indians (in particular,
the Shawnee).So the lands of the great Manitou-westward.
Euphemisms can also be genuine and stale.
Ex.:Dickens: they think we have come by this horse in some dishonest manner.'9Am obtinut calul asta
prin mijloace necinstite)-genuine euphemism.

Hyperbole is a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential to an object or

phenomenon.He was so tall that I was not sure he had a face(O.Henry)
-stale(like many SDs,hyperbole may lose its quality as a SD through frequent repetition and
become a unit of the language as a system:a thousand pardons,scared to death)

Hyperbole differs from near exaggeration in that it is intended to be understood as an

exaggeration. Nobody can cry as much as to trigger off a flood-floods of tears.So hyperbole is meant to be
understood as exaggeration.

Peculiar use of set expressions(the clich,proverbs and sayings, epigrams, quotations, allusions,
decomposition of set phrases)

The clich-generally defined as an expression that has become stale and trite -it has lost its
originality by long overuse.So clich is a derogatory term;various dictionaries and text books advise
complete avoidance of clichs,either in writing or in discourse.Not all set phrases are clichs:when you
use certain partitives with certain uncountable nouns,of course they are set phrases which are
overused,but they are not clichs,because their use is unavoidable.

Proverbs and sayings(facts of language)

-they may have rhythm or rhyme(The meaning and origin of the expression: Early
to bed and early to rise makes and man healthy, wealthy and wise)
They acquire connotation in the context in which they are used(there is a
realization of 2 meanings of the proverb:its meaning on its own and the meaning
irradiating upon it from the context)
A proverb-a pattern of thought,a brief statement that shows,in a condensed
form,the accumulated life experience of the community and serving as a
conventional,practical,symbols for abstract ideas.( A journey of a thousand miles
begins with a single step.)
In some of them,connectives are omitted:First come,first served/Out of sight,out of

When using a proverb in its set form,you have an expressive means,but when you use it modified,you
have a stylistic device(Ochii care nu se vad se uita in toate partile)/(Take care of the pence and the pounds
will take care of themselves.=Baware of little expanses. Louis Carol:Take care of the Sense and the
sounds will take care of themselves-the 2nd is a stylistic device).

Epigram(=butada=vorba de duh spusa de un autor cunoscut)

It is related to the proverb,but it is not popular,as the proverb(in the case of an epigram,you know who
said this).They have a bookish air which distinguishes them from proverbs and they are short and are
often confused to aphorisms and paradoxes.
Failure is the foundation of success and success is the lurking place of failure.
There are utterances which,in their very form,are epigrammatic.The last 2 lines of a sonnet-a sort of
conclusion/the heroic couplet(Pope,Dryden)
Poetry-essentially epigrammatic.
<epigrama in romana: Nu contrazice voia sortii/i nu sfida stihiile!/Aa fu scris: cei mori cu morii./Iar
cei vii cu viile!>Pastorel Teodoreanu.
Quotations are repetitions of phrases or statements from books which are used for illustrations for sth
A quotation is a matter of intertextuality-you quote an author,you allude to his text.They are marked off by inverted
comas,dashes.If a quotation is quotated by and large by very many people,it becomes an epigram.Like a proverb or
an epigram,a quotation has 2 meanings:its own one and the contextual meaning it gains when its transplanted into

another piece of writing.The difference between quotation and epigram-quotations need not be short.When you use
quotations as stylistic devices,they are used with the aim of expanding the meaning of the sentence which is quoted
and setting the 2 meanings one against the other(the original meaning is modified).When you use a quotation in
literary style,it may gain the status of stylistic device:There is parody after Poes Raven-The ravings of pute poet
Poe.Otherwise,if you use it in newspaper style or in a discourse or in scientific style,it is an expressive means.So
you use a quotation in a discourse so as to enrich it,not to create an esthetic emotion.

Allusions-indirect references by a word or phrase to a historical, literary, mythological, biblical fact made in the
course or speaking or writing.It presupposes knowledge of the fact.thing or person alluded to on the part of the
reader(+presupposition of a similar experience with the reader).If a quotation must repeat the exact wording of the
original,an allusion need not do so.Unlike quotations,with allusions you dont indicate the source.They have
different degrees of remoteness.Ex.:Dickens,Hard times: No little Gradgrind had ever associated a cow in a field
with that famous cow with the crumpled horn who tossed the dog who worried the cat who killed the rat-a
nursery rhyme-only English chidren know what it alludes to..Pie in the sky for Railmen=a promise which will
never be fulfilled.

Decomposition of set phrases=linguistic fusions used as such,in which the whole cannot be derived from the
meaning of the component parts,which means that the stylistic device consists in reviving in the proper meaning
component parts of a figurative expression.It may lead to absurdity at times(Its raining cats and dogs).
E.g.:G.K. Chesterton:It was raining cats and dogs and 2 kittens and a puppy landed on my window.

An amoeba named Sam and his brother

Were having a drink with each other.
In the midst of their quaffing,
They split themselves laughing,
And now each of them now is a mother.
(o amiba=microorganism monocelular-inceputul regnului animal-euglena,amiba si parameciul=baza
arborelui lui Darwin.Ele se inmultesc prin sciziparitate-nucleul cellular se divide in 2.)