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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN

BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS)


SUSTAINABLE HOUSING DEVELOPMENT

COMPARISON OF FIVE DIFFERENT RATING TOOLS

STUDENT NAME:
STUDENT ID NO:
LECTURER:
DATE OF SUBMISSION:

CHEW JUN MING


0310173
LEONG BOON TIK
16TH JUNE 2016

Table of Contents
1.1

INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................5

1.2

BREEAM.....................................................................................................................6

1.2.1

THE BREEAM Rating System................................................................................6

1.2.1.1

BREEAM New Construction: Infrastructure (pilot)................................................7

1.2.1.2

BREEAM International New Construction.............................................................8

1.2.1.3

BREEAM In-Use International...............................................................................8

1.2.1.4

BREEAM International Non-Domestic Refurbishment..........................................9

1.2.1.5

BREEAM Communities........................................................................................10

1.2.2

BREEAM Rating Criteria......................................................................................11

1.2.3

Characteristics of a BREEAM-certified building.................................................13

1.2.4

Steps to Achieve BREEAM Ratings.......................................................................15

1.3

LEADERSHIP IN ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN.....................16

1.3.1

THE LEED Rating System.....................................................................................16

1.3.1.1

LEED FOR BUILDING DESIGN + CONSTRUCTION......................................17

1.3.1.2

LEED for Building Operations + Maintenance.....................................................18

1.3.1.3

LEED for Interior Design + Construction.............................................................19

1.3.1.4

LEED for Homes..................................................................................................20

1.3.1.5

LEED for Neighborhood Development.................................................................21

1.3.2

Characteristics of a LEED-certified building.......................................................21

1.3.3

LEED Rating Criteria.............................................................................................23

1.4

GREEN STAR...........................................................................................................25

1.4.1

The Green Star Rating System...............................................................................25

1.4.1.1

Green Star Communities....................................................................................26

1.4.1.2

Green Star Design & As Built............................................................................27

1.4.1.3

Green Star Interiors............................................................................................28

1.4.1.4

Green Star Performance.....................................................................................29

1.4.2

Characteristics of a Green Star-certified Commercial building..........................30

1.4.3

Characteristics of a Green Star-certified Residential building............................32

1.4.4

Characteristics of a Green Star-certified Educational building..........................33

1.4.5

Green Star Eligibility Criteria...............................................................................34

1.4.6

Green Star Assessment Process..............................................................................36

1.5

CASBEE....................................................................................................................37

1.5.1

CASBEE for Housing Scale....................................................................................37

1.5.2

CASBEE for Building Scale...................................................................................38

1.5.3

CASBEE for Urban Scale.......................................................................................40

1.5.4

CASBEE for City Scale...........................................................................................41

1.5.5

CASBEE Rating Criteria.......................................................................................42

1.5.6

CASBEE Certification Process..............................................................................43

1.6

GREEN BUILDING INDEX...................................................................................45

1.6.1

GBI Rating Tools.....................................................................................................45

1.6.3

Characteristics of a GBI-certified building...........................................................46

1.6.3

GBI Rating Criteria................................................................................................46

1.6.4

GBI Assessment Process.........................................................................................48

1.7

Comparison of green tools........................................................................................49

1.8

Green Rating Tools Recommended for Malaysia...................................................51

1.9

References..................................................................................................................51

List of Figures
Figure 1: BREEAM Rating Scale.................................................................................................13
Figure 1.2: LEED Rating Scale....................................................................................................23
Figure 1.3: Green Star Rating Scales............................................................................................35
Figure 1.4: Round 1 and Round 2 Submissions and Assessment..................................................36
Figure 1.5: Classification And Rearrangement of Assessment Items into Q (Built Environment
quality) And L (Built Environment Load).....................................................................................42
Figure 1.6: Bee Value in CASBEE...............................................................................................43
Figure 1.7: Bee Rating Scale........................................................................................................43

List of Table

Table 1: Registration Fees for LEED for Building Design + Construction...................................18


Table 1.2: Registration Fees for LEED for Building Operations + Maintenance..........................19
Table 1.3: Registration Fees for LEED for Interior Design + Construction..................................20
Table 1.4: Registration Fees for LEED for Homes.......................................................................20
Table 1.5: Registration Fees for LEED for Neighborhood Development......................................21
Table 1.6: List of Credit for Green Star Communities...............................................................26
Table 1.7: List of Credit for Green Star Design & As Built.......................................................27
Table 1.8: List of Credit for Green Star Interiors.......................................................................28
Table 1.9: List of Credit for Green Star Performance................................................................29
Table 10: GBI Classification.........................................................................................................47

1.1

INTRODUCTION
Building rating systems are becoming more popular tools to confirm green

credentials as office and retail tenants demand sustainable space to fit into their global
environmental policies.
Green building assessment tools are tools that help to ensure sustainable
buildings, communities and projects are developed in an integrated manner, and that the
appropriate experts are involved in the process. The purpose of many of the assessment
tools is to help drive building design and construction beyond regulatory minimums.
Different rating systems apply differently in different climates and geographical
conditions. For example, soil conservation and erosion are especially concerns in Taiwan.
Other systems take into account factors that are not relevant in all environments. For

example North American LEED is designed for climates with cool winters and rates
buildings with energy efficient heating systems this is not relevant in most Asian
markets.
The purpose of this document is to offer information to compare and contrast sustainable
building rating systems as below:

1.2

BREEAM
LEED
GREEN STAR
CASBEE
GBI

BREEAM
BREEAM is the world's leading sustainability assessment method for masterplanning

projects, infrastructure and buildings. It addresses a number of lifecycle stages such as New
Construction, Refurbishment and In-Use. Globally there are more than 544,800 BREEAM
certified developments, and almost 2,244,700 buildings registered for assessment since it was
first launched in 1990.
BREEAM inspires developers and creators to excel, innovate and make effective use of
resources. The focus on sustainable value and efficiency makes BREEAM certified developments
attractive property investments and generates sustainable environments that enhance the wellbeing of the people who live and work in them.
The core technical standards and processes of BREEAM promote best practice for all
aspects of sustainable property development and its comprehensive, scientific approach has long
been recognized. BREEAM is owned by BRE Global Ltd (part of the BRE Group), the

international provider of robust, independent, third party certification of fire, security and
environmental products and services.

1.2.1 THE BREEAM Rating System


BREEAM works for all buildingsfrom homes to corporate headquartersat all phases
of development from new construction to existing buildings, as well as all building sectors, from
homes to hospitals to corporate headquarters There is a variety of technical standard for
BREEAM for specific building as following:

BREEAM New Construction: Infrastructure (pilot)


BREEAM International New Construction
BREEAM In-Use International
BREEAM International Non-Domestic Refurbishment
BREEAM Communities

1.2.1.1

BREEAM New Construction: Infrastructure (pilot)

BREEAM New Construction Infrastructure (Pilot) is a performance based


assessment method and certification scheme for new infrastructure assets. It aims to
mitigate the life cycle impacts of new infrastructure assets on the environment and
enhance positive social and economic impacts. The methodology can be integrated into
the design and construction process by clients and their project teams to influence key
decisions in the project. It also enables the client to measure, evaluate and reflect the
performance of their new infrastructure asset against best practice
BREEAM New Construction Infrastructure (Pilot) can be applied around the
world through a simple bespoke process. The bespoke process adapts the technical
standard for individual projects, recognizing the local context and issues associated with
the asset type whilst maintaining the credibility of BREEAM.
The benefits of a pilot are significant. BREEAM is well known for setting the
standard for best practice in sustainable design, construction and operation and has
become one of the most comprehensive and widely recognized marks of environmental

performance. These attributes are continued in the BREEAM application to


infrastructure. The pilot process will:

Stimulate strategic thinking and integrated working in the project,


Enable the project team to explore the sustainability issues associated with the project

and improve the design, construction and future operation of the asset,
Drive innovation and improved outcomes for the asset,
Achieve third party certification against the pilot bespoke criteria,
Give recognition to the project as leading the industry in performance and innovation.

1.2.1.2

BREEAM International New Construction

BREEAM New Construction assesses the design, construction, intended use and
future-proofing of developments, including the local, natural or manmade environment
surrounding the building. It uses a common framework that is adaptable, depending upon
the buildings type and location.
It is suited to all newly constructed public, private, residential and commercial
buildings, including building extensions.
BREEAM New Construction benefits property investors, owners and occupiers
by:

Considering costs from a lifecycle perspective,


Reducing operational costs,
Enhancing the buildings economic and social value whilst mitigating its environmental

impact,
Creating better living and working environments for people, enhancing occupant

satisfaction,
Enhancing market demand, helping developers and owners to attract tenants, and
occupiers to attract staff.

1.2.1.3

BREEAM In-Use International

BREEAM In-Use International is an assessment method which assists property


investors, owners, managers and occupiers to drive sustainable improvements through
operational efficiency, including how to continually manage the operation of their
building effectively.
It is suited to all existing commercial type buildings. Currently, the In-Use
standard does not apply to residential dwellings.
It benefits investors, owners, landlords, facilities managers and occupiers by:

Reducing operational costs and increasing efficiency,


Enhancing asset value and increasing market demand,
Helping to attract tenants and occupiers,
Improving the wellbeing, productivity and satisfaction of people working in the building,
Helping bridge the 'performance gap' between modelled outputs and operational outputs.

1.2.1.4

BREEAM International Non-Domestic Refurbishment

This standard allows real estate investors, developers and building owners to
assess and mitigate unnecessary environmental damage caused whilst completing a
refurbishment or fit out project. Following the assessment process a certificate is
awarded, which recognizes the environmental performance of the building once
improvements have been made to the external envelope, structure, core services, local
services or interior design of a building.
The standard covers a broad range of buildings, ranging from commercial

buildings such as retail and offices, to residential institutions such as student


accommodation and care homes. It also covers public sector buildings, such as education
and healthcare. Specific criteria are also available for heritage buildings that take into
account constraints made by conservation officers.
It benefits investors, owners, landlords and occupiers by:

Retaining, improving and future proofing existing building assets instead of demolishing
and rebuilding,

Increases asset value by attracting clientele looking for improved standards of living or
working conditions that enhances occupiers health, wellbeing, productivity &

satisfaction,
Improves overall building performance, which in turn reduces overall operational costs,
Offers a route to demonstrate corporate social responsibility and sustainable business

leadership,
Provides certification and assurance from third party licensed assessors, that the
building's environmental performance has been met.

1.2.1.5

BREEAM Communities

BREEAM Communities is a simple and flexible route to improving, measuring


and certifying the sustainability of large-scale development plans. It provides a
framework to support planners, local authorities, developers and investors through the
masterplanning process, before embarking on procurement, detailed building level design
and construction.
It is suited to medium to large scale developments, including new communities
and regeneration projects.
It benefits local authorities, developers, masterplanners and the local people who live and

work in its communities by:

Helping to create sustainable communities that are good for the environment, its people

and are also economically successful,


Embedding sustainable principles and goals within the masterplan from the outset
helping to create places where people want to live and work, enhancing employee

satisfaction,
Providing a framework to improve efficiencies during the masterplanning process,

helping to save time and money throughout the project,


Facilitating the planning process with tools and targets to assist with the sustainable

decision making,
Giving independent third party certification of the sustainability of a developments
masterplan.

1.2.2 BREEAM Rating Criteria


During the assessment process, each category is sub-divided into a range of issues, which
promotes the use of new benchmarks, aims and targets. When a target is reached credits are
awarded. Once the development has been fully assessed, depending upon the total number of
credits awarded, a final performance rating is achieved.

The following are the criteria that considered when credit is given:
a) Energy
This category encourages the specification and design of energy efficient building solutions,
systems and equipment that support the sustainable use of energy in the building and sustainable
management in the buildings operation. Issues in this section assess measures to improve the
inherent energy efficiency of the building, encourage the reduction of carbon emissions and
support efficient management throughout the operational phase of the buildings life.
b) Health and Wellbeing
H & W category encourages the increased comfort, health and safety of building occupants,
visitors and others within the vicinity. Issues with this category aim to enhance the quality of life
in buildings by recognizing those that encourage a healthy a safe internal and external
environment for occupants.
c) Innovation
The innovation category provides opportunities for exemplary performance and innovation to be
recognized that are not included within, or go beyond the requirements of the credit criteria. This
includes exemplary performance credits, for where the building meets the exemplary performance
levels of a particular issue. It also includes innovative products and processes for which an
innovation credit can be claimed.
d) Land Use
This category encourages sustainable land use, habitat protection and creation, and improvement
of long term biodiversity for the buildings site and surrounding land. Issues in this category
relate to the reuse of brownfield sites or those of low ecological value, mitigation and
enhancement of ecology and long term biodiversity management.
e) Materials
This category encourages steps taken to reduce the impact of construction materials through
design, construction, maintenance and repair. Issues in this section focus on the procurement of

materials that are sourced in a responsible way and have a low embodied impact over their life
including extraction, processing and manufacture and recycling.
f) Management
Management category encourages the adoption of sustainable management practices in
connection with design, construction, commissioning, handover and aftercare activities to ensure
that robust sustainability objectives are set and followed through into the operation of the
building. Issues in this category focus on embedding sustainability actions through the key stages
of design, procurement and initial occupation from the initial project brief stage to the appropriate
provision of aftercare.
g) Pollution
This category addresses the prevention and control of pollution and surface water run-off
associated with the buildings location and use. Issues within this category aim to reduce the
building impact on surrounding communities and environment arising from light-pollution, noise,
flooding and emissions to air, land and water.
h) Transport
This category encourages better access to sustainable means of transport for building users. Issues
in this category focus on the accessibility of public transport and other alternative transport
solutions (cyclist facilities, provision of amenities local to a building) that support reductions in
car journeys and, therefore, congestion and CO2 emissions over the life of the building.
i) Waste
This category encourages the sustainable management (and reuse where feasible) of construction,
operational waste and waste through future maintenance and repairs associated with the building
structure. By encouraging good design and construction practices, issues in this category aim to
reduce the waste arising from the construction and operation of the building, encouraging its
diversion from landfill.
j) Water
This category encourages sustainable water use in the operation of the building and its site. Issues
in this section focus on identifying means of reducing potable water consumption (internal and
external) over the life time of the building and minimizing losses through leakage.

Figure 1: BREEAM Rating Scale

1.2.3 Characteristics of a BREEAM-certified building


a) Cost versus Value
BREEAM was created as a cost-effective means of bringing sustainable value to development. It
helps investors, developers, design and construction teams and occupiers to use natural resources
more efficiently. There may be a capital cost to building to the enhanced standards promoted by
BREEAM, but this cost needs to be seen in the context of the overall value of sustainable
development. Growing evidence is demonstrating that sustainable developments, like those
delivered through BREEAM, offer value in many ways, including:
b) Reduced operational costs
Research carried out by construction consultants Sweett Group and BRE found that office
developers typically invest up to 2% more when targeting higher BREEAM ratings, and recover
that additional investment in two to five years through savings in their energy and water bills. The
same research found that achieving lower BREEAM ratings can incur little or no additional cost.
This research has been published in the report, Delivering sustainable buildings: Savings and
payback. A property industry survey carried out by research and consultancy organization BSRIA
with Schneider Electric, and supported by BRE, gathered clients views on value.

c) Helping to limit investor and developer risk


Climate change and evolving regulation are posing increasing challenges for existing buildings
and their owners and investors. Buildings that are not equipped for the future may face the risk of
devaluation and could eventually become stranded assets. For example, commercial property
network the Better Buildings Partnership has highlighted the risks for investors in England and
Wales of the forthcoming Minimum Energy Efficiency Standards, which will in the future require
rented homes and commercial property to reach a minimum energy performance standard.
d) Making a building more attractive to let, sell or retain
There is growing evidence to show that sustainable buildings offer increased rates of return for
investors, and increased rental rates and sales premiums for developers and owners. A study by
Maastricht University published by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) looked
at data from transactions from 2000 to 2009 for a sample of BREEAM office buildings in
London. The resulting report, Supply, Demand and the Value of Green Buildings found that these
buildings achieved a:

21% premium on transaction prices


18% premium on rents.

e) Creating a more productive and healthy workplace


Sustainable buildings can have a host of benefits for the people who work in them. Standards like
BREEAM help to create workplaces with good indoor air quality, good lighting and daylighting
levels and higher perceptions of comfort than average offices. As an example of the impact such
factors can have, research by the World Green Building Council says better indoor air quality can
help improve staff productivity levels by as much as 8-11%.

1.2.4 Steps to Achieve BREEAM Ratings


There are several steps that projects take to gain a BREEAM rating.
1. Decide which BREEAM Standard applies to your development.
2. Locate a local BREEAM Assessor who is licensed to assess the development against the
correct BREEAM standard.
3. Register development through the Licensed BREEAM Assessor.
4. Carry out a BREEAM pre-assessment with the assistance of the Licensed BREEAM
Assessor or AP.
5. As the development is being design and construct, the necessary evidence requirements
should be provided to the Licensed BREEAM Assessor.
6. Have the development assessed and rated by the Licensed BREEAM Assessor.

7. Receive the final certificate and have the development listed on the BREEAM Projects
and Green Book Live Websites.

1.3

LEADERSHIP IN ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL


DESIGN
LEED, or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, is changing the way we think

about how buildings and communities are planned, constructed, maintained and operated. Leaders
around the world have made LEED the most widely used third-party verification for green
buildings, with around 1.85 million square feet being certified daily.
LEED certification provides independent verification of a building or neighborhoods
green features, allowing for the design, construction, operations and maintenance of resourceefficient, high-performing, healthy, cost-effective buildings. LEED is the triple bottom line in
action, benefiting people, planet and profit.
LEED certification means healthier, more productive places, reduced stress on the
environment by encouraging energy and resource-efficient buildings, and savings from increased
building value, higher lease rates and decreased utility costs.

1.3.1 THE LEED Rating System


LEED works for all buildingsfrom homes to corporate headquartersat all phases of
development from new construction to existing buildings, as well as all building sectors, from
homes to hospitals to corporate headquarters There is a LEED for every building as following:

LEED for Building Design + Construction


LEED for Building Operations + Maintenance
LEED for Interior Design + Construction
LEED for Homes
LEED for Neighborhood Development

1.3.1.1

LEED FOR BUILDING DESIGN + CONSTRUCTION

LEED for Building Design and Construction (LEED BD+C) provides a framework for
building a holistic green building, giving the chance to create a healthy, resource-efficient, costeffective building; one that enhances the lives and experiences of everyone who walks through its
doors.
There is an array of common market sectors that provide a tailored experience that
recognizes the projects specialized requirements under LEED BD+C rating system and they are
as follows:

New Construction & Major Renovation: Addresses design and construction activities for
both new buildings and major renovations of existing buildings. This includes major
HVAC improvements, significant building envelope modifications and major interior

rehabilitation.
Core & Shell: For projects where the developer controls the design and construction of
the entire mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection systemcalled the core

and shellbut not the design and construction of the tenant fit-out.
Schools: For buildings made up of core and ancillary learning spaces on K-12 school
grounds. It can also be used for higher education and non-academic buildings on school

campuses.
Retail: Addresses the unique needs of retailersfrom banks, restaurants, apparel,

electronics, big box and everything in between.


Warehouses & Distribution Centers: For buildings used to store goods, manufactured

products, merchandise, raw materials or personal belongings, like self-storage.


Hospitality: Dedicated to hotels, motels, inns, or other businesses within the service
industry that provides transitional or short-term lodging with or without food.

Healthcare: For hospitals that operate twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week and

provide inpatient medical treatment, including acute and long-term care.


Homes & Multifamily Low-rise: Single-family homes and multifamily residential

buildings of one to three stories.


Multifamily Mid-rise: Multi-family residential buildings of four to eight stories above
grade.
Table 1: Registration Fees for LEED for Building Design + Construction

Building

Design

+ Organizational

Construction Fees

Level

Registration

Non-Members
$1,200

1.3.1.2

Silver,
Or

Platinum

Gold

And Member Savings


Level

Members
$900

$300

LEED for Building Operations + Maintenance

Meet the LEED solution for existing buildings everywhere. Existing buildings hold
incredible promise. Many older buildings around the world are inefficient and resource-depleting.
With some keen attention to building operations, that can be turned around drastically by using
LEED for Building Operations and Maintenance (LEED O+M). Consider that it can take up to 80
years to make up for the environmental impacts of demolishing an existing building and
constructing a new one, even if the resulting building is extremely energy efficient.
There is an array of common market sectors that provide a tailored experience that
recognizes the projects specialized requirements under LEED O+M rating system and they are as
follows:

Retail: Existing retail spaces, both showrooms and storage areas.


Schools: For existing buildings made up of core and ancillary learning spaces on K-12
school grounds. Can also be used for higher education and non-academic buildings on

school campuses
Hospitality: Existing hotels, motels, inns or other businesses within the service industry

that provide transitional or short-term lodging with or without food.


Data Centers: Existing buildings specifically designed and equipped to meet the needs of
high density computing equipment, such as server racks, used for data storage and
processing.

Warehouses & Distribution Centers: Existing buildings used to store goods,


manufactured products, merchandise, raw materials or personal belongings (such as self-

storage).
Existing Buildings: For all other existing building projects: specifically, projects that do
not primarily serve K-12 educational, retail, data centers, warehouses and distribution
centers or hospitality uses.
Table 1.2: Registration Fees for LEED for Building Operations + Maintenance

Building Operations + Organizational


Maintenance

Level

Registration

Non-Members
$1,200

1.3.1.3

Silver,
Or

Gold

Platinum

And Member Savings


Level

Members
$900

$300

LEED for Interior Design + Construction

As humans, we spend 90% of our time indoors. That time should be spent in spaces that
allow us to breathe easy, give us views of nature and daylight, and make us healthier and more
productive. LEED for Interior Design and Construction (LEED ID+C) enables project teams who
may not have control over whole building operations to develop indoor spaces that are better for
the planet and for people.
There is an array of common market sectors that provide a tailored experience that
recognizes the projects specialized requirements under LEED ID+C rating system and they are
as follows:

Retail: Guides interior spaces used to conduct the retail sale of consumer product goods.
Includes both direct customer service areas (showroom) and preparation or storage areas

that support customer service.


Hospitality: For existing buildings made up of core and ancillary learning spaces on K-12
school grounds. Can also be used for higher education and non-academic buildings on

school campuses.
Commercial Interiors: For all other interior spaces dedicated to functions other than retail
or hospitality.
Table 1.3: Registration Fees for LEED for Interior Design + Construction

Interior

Design

Construction

+ Organizational
Level

Silver,
Or

Platinum

Gold

And Member Savings


Level

Non-Members
$1,200

Registration

1.3.1.4

Members
$900

$300

LEED for Homes

A home is more than just shelter: homes are the most important buildings in our lives. We
think that every building should be a green buildingbut especially homes. Why? LEED homes
are built to be healthy, providing clean indoor air and incorporating safe building materials to
ensure a comfortable home. Besides, utility bills are decreased each month by using less energy
and water. And in many markets, certified green homes are now selling quicker and for more
money than comparable non-green homes.
LEED for Homes is available for building design and construction projects for single
family homes and multifamily projects up to eight stories.

Homes & Multifamily Low-rise: Designed for single family homes and multifamily

buildings between one and three stories.


Homes & Multifamily Midrise: Designed for midrise multifamily buildings between four
and eight stories.
Table 1.4: Registration Fees for LEED for Homes
Silver,

Homes Fees

Organizational Level Or

Non-Members ($)
Single Family Housing (Cost Per
Home)
Registration (1-9 homes)
Registration (10-24 homes)
Registration (25-49 homes)
Registration (50-99 homes)
Registration (100 or more homes)
Certification (1 homes)
Certification (per batch submittal)

1.3.1.5

225.00
200.00
175.00
150.00
125.00
300.00
225.00
75.00

per batch
per home

Gold

Platinum

And

Member

Level

Savings
($)

Members ($)

150.00
125.00
100.00
75.00
50.00
225.00
175.00
50.00

LEED for Neighborhood Development

per batch
per home

75.00
75.00
75.00
75.00
75.00
75.00
50.00
25.00

LEED for Neighborhood Development (LEED ND) was engineered to inspire and help
create better, more sustainable, well-connected neighborhoods. It looks beyond the scale of
buildings to consider entire communities.
There are two certification options available to reflect important milestones under LEED
ND rating system and they are as follows:

Plan certification: Certification is available to neighborhood-scale project if it's currently


in any phase of planning and design. Plan certification helps to fund the project among

prospective tenants, financiers, public officials,


Built Project Certification: Designed for neighborhood-scale projects that are near
completion, or were completed within the last three years.
Table 1.5: Registration Fees for LEED for Neighborhood Development

Neighborhood

Development First 20 Acres

Per Acre Over 20

Fees
Registration

$1,500/PROJECT

$1,500/PROJECT

1.3.2 Characteristics of a LEED-certified building


A) Provide a Competitive Differentiator
61% Of Corporate Leaders Believe That Sustainability Leads To Market Differentiation And
Improved Financial Performance.
B) Make For Happier Employees and Occupants
LEED-Certified Buildings Are Demonstrating Increased Recruitment And Retention Rates And
Increased Productivity Benefits For Employers. 2.5 Million Employees Are Currently
Experiencing Better Indoor Environmental Quality In LEED Buildings.
C) Attract Tenants
Todays tenants understand and are looking for the benefits that LEED-certified spaces have to
offer. The new class a office space is green; lease-up rates for green buildings typically range
from average to 20% above average.
D) Save Energy and Resources, Lower Operating Costs

From 2015-2018 LEED -Certified Buildings Are Estimated To Generate As Much As $1.2 Billion
In Energy Savings, $149.5 Million In Water Savings, $715.3 Million In Maintenance Savings,
And $54.2 Million In Waste Savings.
E) Cost Effective
A Study Of 562 Bank Branches Showed That Compared To Non- LEED -Certified Facilities,
LEED -Certified Facilities Annually Opened Up 458 More Consumer Deposit Accounts And Had
$3,032,000 More In Consumer Deposit Balance Per Facility Per Year And Increased Revenue.
F) Provide Public Relations Community Benefits
Adobe Systems, Inc., Announced In 2006 That It Had Received Three LEED Platinum Awards
For Its Headquarters Towers; Not Only Did It Reap Great Publicity, But The Firm Showed That It
Had Garnered A Net Present Value Return Of Almost 20 To One On Its Initial Investment.
G) Increase Rental Rates
A Recent Study Of The San Diego Market Showed That The Overall Vacancy Rate For Green
Buildings Was 4% Lower Than For Non-Green Properties 11.7%, Compared To 15.7% And
That LEED -Certified Buildings Continued To Command The Highest Rents.
H) Optimize Health
By bringing the good in like clean air and access to daylight and keeping the bad out
including harmful chemicals found in paints, finishing and more LEED creates healthy spaces.
Buildings that optimize wellbeing are more important than ever.

1.3.3 LEED Rating Criteria


LEED is pushing the green building industry to go further. It is developed in a
transparent, consensus-based process that includes several rounds of public comments and
approval from USGBC members. LEED helps in creating a healthy experience, conserving
precious resources and benefitting the business bottom line.
LEED projects earn points across nine basic areas that address key aspects of green buildings.

Integrative process
Location and transportation
Sustainable sites
Water efficiency
Energy and atmosphere
Materials and resources
Indoor environmental quality
Innovation
Regional priority

Projects pursuing LEED certification earn points across several areas that address
sustainability issues. Based on the number of points achieved, a project then receives one of four
LEED rating levels: Certified, Silver, Gold and Platinum.

Figure 1.2: LEED Rating Scale

Credit

distribution

and

contribution

in

New

Construction

are

as

follows:

a) Sustainable sites: 1 prerequisite + 14 credits,


b) Water efficiency: 5 credits,
c) Energy & atmosphere: 3 prerequisite + 6 credits,
d) Materials & resources: 1 prerequisite + 14 credits,
e) Indoor environment quality: 2 prerequisite + 15 credits,
f) Innovation & design process: 5 credits.
*Certified: 26-32 points; Silver: 33-38 points; Gold: 39-51 points; Platinum: 52-69
Credit

distribution

and

contribution

Existing

a) Sustainable sites: 2 prerequisite + 14 credits,


b) Water efficiency: 2 prerequisite + 5 credits,
c) Energy & atmosphere: 3 prerequisite + 14 credits

Building

are

as

follows:

1.4

GREEN STAR
Green Star is an internationally recognized sustainability rating system. From individual

buildings to entire communities, Green Star is transforming the way of designing, constructing
and operating the built environment. Launched by the Green Building Council of Australia in
2003, Green Star is Australia's only national, voluntary, rating system for buildings and
communities. "Achieving high environmental ratings reduces exposure to commercial risk and
asset obsolescence by ensuring that assets are 'future-ready'." John Dillon, Fund Manager, APPF
Commercial - joint owner of Commonwealth Bank Place.
The built environment is currently the world's single largest contributor to greenhouse gas
emissions, and also consumes around a third of their water and generates 40 per cent of their
waste. Green Star is helping to improve environmental efficiencies in their buildings, while
boosting productivity, creating jobs and improving the health and wellbeing of their
communities..

1.4.1 The Green Star Rating System


Green Star works for all buildingsfrom homes to corporate headquartersat all phases
of development from new construction to existing buildings, as well as all building sectors, from
homes to hospitals to corporate headquarters There is a GREEN STAR for different types of
building as following:

Green Star Communities


Green Star Design & As Built
Green Star Interiors
Green Star Performance

1.4.1.1

Green Star Communities

Green Star Communities assesses the design and construction of any building and major
refurbishment. It provides a rigorous and holistic rating across five impact categories:
Table 1.6: List of Credit for Green Star Communities
CREDIT
A) GOVERNANCE
Green Star Accredited Professional
Design Review
Engagement
Adaptation and Resilience
Corporate Responsibility
Sustainability Awareness
Community Participation and Governance
Environmental Management
B) LIVEABILITY
Health and Active Living
Community Development
Sustainable Buildings
Culture, Heritage and Identity
Walkable Access to Amenities
Access to Fresh Food
Safe Places
C) ECONOMIC PROSPERITY
Community Investment
Affordability
Employment and Economic Resilience
Education and Skills Development
Return on Investment
Incentive Programs
Digital Infrastructure
Peak Electricity Demand Reduction
D) ENVIRONMENT
Integrated Waster Cycle
Greenhouse Gas Strategy
Materials
Sustainable Transport and Movement
Sustainable Sites
Ecological Value
Waste Management
Heat Island Effect
Light Pollution
E) INNOVATION
Innovation

1.4.1.2

POINTS AVAILABLE
1
8
6
4
3
2
2
2
5
4
4
3
2
2
2
4
4
2
3
2
2
2
2
7
6
5
3
2
2
2
1
1
10

Green Star Design & As Built

Green Star Design & As Built assesses the sustainability performance of the design and
construction of buildings. It provides a rigorous and holistic rating across nine impact categories:
Table 1.7: List of Credit for Green Star Design & As Built
CREDIT
A) MANAGEMENT
Green Star Accredited Professional
Commissioning and Tuning
Adaptation and Resilience
Building Information
Commitment to Performance
Metering and Monitoring
Construction Environmental Management
Operational Waste
B) INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
Indoor Air Quality

POINTS AVAILABLE
1
4
2
2
2
1
1
1
4

Acoustic Comfort
Lighting Comfort
Visual Comfort
Indoor Pollutants
Thermal Comfort
C) ENERGY
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Peak Electricity Demand Reduction
D) TRANSPORT
Sustainable Transport
E) WATER
Potable Water
F) MATERIALS
Life Cycle Impacts
Responsible Building Materials
Sustainable Products
Construction and Demolition Waste
G) LAND USE AND ECOLOGY
Ecological Value
Sustainable Sites
Heat Island Effect
H) EMISSIONS
Stormwater
Light Pollution
Microbial Control
Refrigerant Impacts
I) INNOVATION
Innovation

1.4.1.3

3
3
3
2
2
20
2
10
12
7
3
3
1
3
2
1
2
1
1
1
10

Green Star Interiors

Green Star Interiors assesses the sustainable attributes of interior fitouts. It provides a rigorous
and holistic rating across the following nine impact categories:
Table 1.8: List of Credit for Green Star Interiors
CREDIT
A) MANAGEMENT
Green Star Accredited Professional
Commissioning and Tuning
Fitout Information
Commitment to Performance
Metering and Monitoring
Construction Environmental Management
Operational Waste
B) INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
Indoor Air Quality
Acoustic Comfort
Lighting Comfort
Visual Comfort
Indoor Pollutants
Thermal Comfort
Quality of Amenities
Ergonomics
C) ENERGY
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
D) TRANSPORT
Sustainable Transport
E) WATER
Potable Water
F) MATERIALS
Life Cycle Impacts
Responsible Building Materials
Sustainable Products
Construction and Demolition Waste
G) LAND USE AND ECOLOGY
Sustainable Sites
H) EMISSIONS

POINTS AVAILABLE
1
4
2
3
1
1
1
4
3
3
3
6
2
2
1
20
7
5
19
2
19
3
5

Light Pollution
Microbial Control
Refrigerant Impacts
I) INNOVATION
Innovation

1.4.1.4

1
1
1
10

Green Star Performance

Green Star Performance assesses the operational performance of buildings. It provides a


rigorous and holistic rating across the following nine impact categories
Table 1.9: List of Credit for Green Star Performance
CREDIT
A) MANAGEMENT
Green Star Accredited Professional
Building Information
Metering and Monitoring
Tuning and Commissioning
Environmental Management
Green Cleaning
Commitment to Performance
B) INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
Indoor Air Quality
Hazardous Materials
Lighting Comfort
Daylight & Views
Thermal Comfort
Acoustic Comfort
Occupant Satisfaction
C) ENERGY
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Peak Electricity Demand
D) TRANSPORT
Sustainable Transport Program
Transport Modes
E) WATER
Potable Water
Fire protection Testing Water
F) MATERIALS
Procurement and Purchasing
Waste from Operations
Waste from Refurbishments
G) LAND USE AND ECOLOGY
Ecological Value
Groundskeeping
H) EMISSIONS
Stormwater
Light Pollution
Refrigerant Impacts
Microbial Control
I) INNOVATION
Innovation

POINTS AVAILABLE
1
2
2
2
3
3
4
4
2
2
2
3
1
4
23
1
4
3
10
2
3
4
3
3
3
2
2
1
1
10

1.4.2 Characteristics of a Green Star-certified Commercial building


The business case for owning green buildings continues to stack up. Green buildings
deliver a range of business benefits including:

a) Operating efficiencies

The Value of Green Star: A decade of environmental benefits (2013) finds that Green Star
buildings use 66% less electricity and 51% water than the average Australian building.
Because Green Star buildings deliver higher levels of energy and water efficiency, they

are cheaper to operate.


The World Green Building Councils Business Case for Green Building (2013) finds that
a minimal 2% upfront cost to support green design can result in average life cycle savings
of 20% of total construction costs more than 10 times the initial investment.

b) Higher return on investment


Green buildings deliver consistently higher returns on investment compared their non-green
counterparts.

The Building Better Returns report (2011) found that Green Star-rated buildings deliver a
12% green premium in value and a 5% premium in rent, when compared to non-rated

buildings.
In its analysis of international research, the World Green Building Councils Business
Case for Green Building (2013) found that price premiums for green buildings could be
up to 30% with evidence that the higher levels of certification achieving the best
results.

c) Attract and retain tenants


Greener buildings help attract prospective tenants and retain existing tenants.

The World Green Building Councils Business Case for Green Building (2013) found that
buildings with a green rating report an occupancy rate increase of up to 23%. The higher
the rating, the higher the rental premium with an average 3% increase in rent for each

additional level of certification.


Colliers Internationals Office Tenant Survey (2012) found that 95% of tenants want to be
in a green building, up from 75% two years earlier. Green space is one of the top four
attributes tenants look for along with bike racks, childcare facilities and a gym.

d) Environmental benefits
The Value of Green Star: A decade of environmental benefits (2013) finds that, on average, Green
Star-certified buildings:

Use 66% less electricity than average Australian buildings


Produce 62% fewer greenhouse gas emissions than average Australian buildings
Use 51% less potable water than average buildings

Recycle 96% of their waste, compared with 58% for the average new construction
project.

e) Market recognition
Increasingly green buildings are perceived as industry leaders and organizations associated with
green buildings benefit from these perceptions through

The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors report, Green Value: Growing Buildings,
Growing Assets (2006) found that green building practices are more likely to attract
grants and subsidies that demonstrate environmental stewardship, increase energy

efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.


Beauty in Building: Measuring the Impact of Spaces That Make Us Feel Fully Alive and
That Inspire (2012) has found that buildings considered aesthetically superior (and had
the awards to prove it) also have a wider range of environmental attributes.

1.4.3 Characteristics of a Green Star-certified Residential building


The benefits of green buildings continue to stack up. Designing or building a green
residential building delivers a range of benefits including:
a) Healthier homes
Green homes are healthy homes. Focused on good ventilation and indoor environment quality,
low-toxic materials and abundant daylight, these factors have been proven to improve the health
and wellbeing of residents.

The Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (2011) found that people who live
in dwellings that are damp, cold or mouldy are at greater risk of respiratory conditions,

such as asthma, and more likely to suffer from mental health issues.
Good indoor environment quality is nothing to be sneezed at! Lung and respiratory
diseases associated with poor indoor environment quality are three of the top five
leading causes of death, according to the World Health Organization.

b) Smart Investments
Evidence is emerging that building green rating translates into a higher sale price when it comes
time to sell.

Energy Efficiency rating and house price in the ACT (2008) examined the relationship
between energy efficiency and house prices, finding that each half-star increase in the

energy efficiency rating translated into a 2% increase in capital value.


The Value of Green Labels (2012) found that higher returns are not restricted to the
commercial market. A pricing analysis of all 1.6 million single-family home sales in
California from 2007-2012 found that while the average sales price of a non-certified
California home was $400,000, a green certification lifted the price by more than
$34,800. This translated into a 9% green premium.

c) Reduced environmental impact


The Value of Green Star: A decade of environmental benefits (2013) finds that, on average, Green
Star-certified buildings:

Use 66% less electricity than average Australian buildings


Produce 62% fewer greenhouse gas emissions than average Australian buildings
Use 51% less potable water than average buildings
Recycle 96% of their waste, compared with 58% for the average new construction
project.

d) Market recognition
Increasingly green buildings are perceived as industry leaders and organizations associated with
green buildings benefit from these perceptions through:

The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors report, Green Value: Growing Buildings,
Growing Assets (2006) found that green building practices are more likely to attract
grants and subsidies that demonstrate environmental stewardship, increase energy

efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.


People around the world perceive green buildings as modern and ethical and
companies, councils, governments and community organizations associated with green
buildings benefit from these perceptions through community pride, satisfaction and wellbeing.

1.4.4 Characteristics of a Green Star-certified Educational building

a) A better place to teach


The Impact of School Buildings on Student Health and Performance (2012) outlined a range of
studies that found teacher quality and retention can be influenced by the school environment.

One study found that the quality of facilities had a substantively important effect on
teacher retention, even when statistically controlling for other potential factors like pay,

parent and community involvement and age of the teacher.


Research indicates that green schools lead to healthier, happier teachers who take fewer
sick days.

b) A hands-on learning environment


Green buildings are living laboratories that educate users on the greater possibilities of creativity,
collaboration, community and, of course, environmental sustainability.

Educators report that they have been able to incorporate learning on energy use, climate
change, water resources and sustainability into the students everyday lives at green

schools.
Advancing Education for Sustainability (2010) finds that as demand for skilled workers
in green jobs rises, students are demanding that their [education institutions] offer
more sustainable building courses.

c) Attractive to students
In a market where universities are competing for both domestic and foreign students, outstanding
green buildings create a competitive advantage.

1.4.5 Green Star Eligibility Criteria


Buildings assessed using the Green Star is based on the performance rating tool and it can
achieve a Green Star rating from 1 - 6 Star Green Star based on how much the criteria has been
achieved in the building.

The following are the criteria that considered when credit is given:
a) Space Use
There is no size requirements imposed for Green Star Communities project eligibility. Instead
the rating tool is designed to be used by projects where the majority of the following points would
apply:

The development will result in significant extra burdens on public transport systems or
highways requiring extra capacity or new transport infrastructure (cycle/pedestrian

routes, roads, parking, etc.);


The development includes or makes use of adjacent areas of public realm for occupants

and visitors;
The development will lead to the enhancement, diversification or addition of local

employment, social mix, or ecological value;


The development is likely to have a significant impact on existing communities.

b) Timing of Certification
In order to meet the Timing of Certification criteria:

Initial project certification must be achieved within three years of registration; and
Recertification must be achieved within five years of initial certification, or within five
years from the projects last recertification date.

c) Conditional Requirement
In order to receive a certified rating, the project must:

Achieve a minimum Category (excluding Innovation) when seeking a 4, 5 or 6 Green

Star rating respectively;


Achieve a minimum total of 45 points; and
Where the project is subject to approval under the Environmental Protection and
Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 as a controlled action, it must receive written
approval under the Act.

d) Distinct Boundary
The project must be clearly distinct. This may be a structure plan, master plan, neighborhood
plan, renewal plan or similar. This means the project must have a clear study area boundary that is
subject to a plan of development. This plan and/or planning process must be managed by a
government entity and/or private sector or community owned development entity.

Figure 1.3: Green Star Rating Scales

1.4.6 Green Star Assessment Process


There are several steps that projects take to gain a Green Star rating.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Check the Green Star Eligibility Criteria,


Review the Certification Fee structure,
Register the project online,
Use the many Guides, Resources & Templates available, and get the Technical Support,
Submit for Round 1 submission and assessment,
Submit for Round 2 submission and assessment,
Achieve a Green Star certified rating.

Figure 1.4: Round 1 and Round 2 Submissions and Assessment

1.5

CASBEE
Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE) is a

method for evaluating and rating the environmental performance of buildings and the built
environment. CASBEE was developed by a research committee established in 2001 through the
collaboration of academia, industry and national and local governments, which established the
Japan Sustainable Building Consortium (JSBC) under the auspice of the Ministry of Land,
Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT).
CASBEE has been designed to both enhance the quality of people's lives and to reduce
the life-cycle resource use and environmental loads associated with the built environment, from a
single home to a whole city. Consequently, various CASBEE schemes are now deployed all over
Japan and supported by national and local governments. This website provides overall

information about CABEE, associated with preventative green buildings with CASBEE
evaluation.

1.5.1 CASBEE for Housing Scale


a) CASBEE for New Detached Houses
This tool is used to assess the environmental performance of detached houses. The
scoring criteria are simplified in anticipation of use by residents or small- and mediumsized building contractors. CASBEE for New Detached Houses was developed in 2007.
There are various stakeholders in the housing construction industry such as clients,
architects, contractors, and builders. Therefore, "CASBEE for New Detached Houses"
especially focuses on making its structure easy for users to understand.
b) CASBEE for Existing Detached Houses
This is a tool for the assessment of existing detached houses. It was developed to enable a
resident, an architect, etc., to check the environmental performance of the house in which
the resident is living, and to perform effective renovations.
c) CASBEE for Housing Units
This assessment tool is for a unit in an apartment building. It was developed as a tool that
can be utilized when trading or renting a unit and by which the environmental
performance of each unit of the apartment can be evaluated.
d) CASBEE for Housing Renovation Checklist
In Japan, there is a problem with aging housing with deteriorating performance. This
checklist is a tool developed to encourage the renovation of such housing by conducting a
simple evaluation and displaying the expected positive effects of renovation on
performance such as earthquake resistance, energy efficiency and design universality.
e) CASBEE Housing Health Checklist
CASBEE Housing Health Checklist is a type of software used to assess the health of
residences. Answering 50 questions allows residents to identify the aspects of their home
that affect their health. The health ranking is also available for comparing the result with
6,000 other houses across Japan

1.5.2 CASBEE for Building Scale


a) CASBEE for New Construction (CASBEE-NC)
CASBEE-NC is mainly used by architects and engineers to increase the BEE value of a
building during the design process. This can be used as a design support tool as well as a
self-checklist. This tool, formerly called the DfE (Design for Environment) tool, makes
assessments based on the design specifications and the anticipated performance.
Rebuilding projects are also assessed by CASBEE-NC.

b) CASBEE for Existing Buildings (CASBEE-EB)


CASBEE-EB targets a number of existing buildings with an operational record for at
least one year after completion. The tool was also developed to be applicable to the asset
value assessment. With this tool, the performance achieved at the time of assessment is
evaluated. The result is valid for five years and should be updated using the latest version
of the assessment tool, because the condition of the building may change over time.

c) CASBEE for Renovation (CASBEE-RN)


CASBEE-RN was designed to evaluate the performance of existing buildings based on
specifications for renovation and the predicted performance. It can be used in renovating
existing buildings or making proposals for building-operation monitoring, commissioning
and upgrading designs with a view to ESCO (Energy Service Company) projects.

d) Locally Customized Edition for Municipalities


A flexible response to regional characteristics is a common feature of all the tools of the
CASBEE family. CASBEE-NC can be used by local authorities for construction
administration. Local authorities using this tool can tailor it to local conditions, such as
climate and prioritized policies.

e) CASBEE for Interior Space


The assessment of CASBEE for Interior Space covers only the area that the tenant (such
as a company) occupies in an office building, because the main purpose of this tool is to
evaluate environmental measures and/or environmentally responsible initiatives
conducted by the tenant itself. The assessment also includes indoor comfort, energy
efficiency and water conservation of the building, earthquake resistance, and intellectual
productivity.

f) CASBEE for Temporary Construction (CASBEE-TC)


CASBEE for Temporary Construction was developed as an extension to CASBEE-NC
for evaluating temporary buildings constructed specifically for short-term use, such as
expo pavilions. Buildings of this type have short-term lifecycles and therefore
consideration should concentrate largely on material use and recycling in the construction
and demolition phases.

g) CASBEE for Heat Island Relaxation (CASBEE-HI)


Assessment of the heat island effect is essential in major urban areas such as Tokyo and
Osaka. CASBEE-HI is a tool aimed for more detailed quantitative assessment of heat
island reduction measures in building design. In CASBEE-HI, the criteria deal with more
detailed conditions in the outdoor thermal environment and heat island load on the
surroundings.

h) CASBEE for Schools


CASBEE for Schools was developed to assess primary schools and junior high or high
schools. In Japan, there are an enormous number of old school facilities built in the 1960s
or earlier waiting for renovation. CASBEE for Schools is designed for use especially at
the planning and operation stages of buildings.

i) CASBEE for Market Promotion (CASBEE-MP)


Originally, the CASBEE tools were intended mainly for design support use and were not
widely used to promote green buildings in the property market. Recently, UNEP-SBCI,
United Nations Environment Programme - Sustainable Buildings and Climate Initiative,
proposed global common metrics called "the Sustainable Building Index."

1.5.3 CASBEE for Urban Scale


a) CASBEE for Urban Development (CASBEE-UD)
CASBEE-UD covers groups of buildings; it considers the human effort involved and
effects of groups of buildings that improve the environmental performance of an urban
area as a whole. For convenience, CASBEE tools used for housing and buildings are
referred to as "building-scale CASBEE" to distinguish them from CASBEE-UD.
CASBEE-UD is based on the concept of building-scale CASBEE and is one of the
expanded CASBEE tools, developed with reference to the Q3 (Outdoor Environment on
Site) and LR3 (Off-site Environment) assessment items of CASBEE-NC.
b) CASBEE Community Health Checklist
CASBEE Community Health Checklist is a type of software used to assess the
healthiness of communities. The checklist conforms to the assessment system based on
the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) of the World
Health Organization (WHO). Communities are evaluated from the viewpoints of both
"removal of function-disabling factors" and "sufficiency of encouraging factors for
activities and participation."

1.5.4 CASBEE for City Scale


a) CASBEE for Cities
CASBEE for Cities is a system for comprehensively evaluating the environmental
performance of cities, using a triple bottom-line approach of "environment," "society"
and "economy." CASBEE for Cities measures the current BEE of the city concerned and

estimates the future BEE after the implementation of policies. By comparing the two
values, CASBEE for Cities quantitatively evaluates (estimates) the effectiveness of city
policies and presents the results in an easy-to-understand format.
b) CASBEE for Cities -Pilot version for worldwide use
CASBEE for Cities (Pilot version for worldwide use) is a tool specifically developed for
city-scale assessment applicable to various types of cities in both developing and
developed countries around the world. Thus assessment items and indicators for the tool
were carefully selected by referring to previous studies and documents published by
international organizations such as the UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
indicators and ISO 37120 (Sustainable development of communities - Indicators for city
services and quality of life).

1.5.5 CASBEE Rating Criteria


CASBEE covers the following four assessment fields:

Energy efficiency
Resource efficiency
Local environment
Indoor environment.
These four fields are largely the same as the target fields for the existing assessment tools

described above in Japan and abroad, but they do not necessarily represent the same concepts, so
it is difficult to deal with them on the same basis. Therefore, the assessment categories contained
within these four fields had to be examined and reorganized. As a result, the assessment
categories were classified as shown in Figure 5 into BEE numerator Q (Built environment
quality) and BEE denominator L (Built environment load). Q is further divided into three items
for assessment: Q1 Indoor environment, Q2 Quality of service and Q3 Outdoor environment.
Similarly, L is divided into L1 Energy, L2 Resources and Materials and L3 Off-site Environment.

Figure 1.5: Classification And Rearrangement of Assessment Items into Q (Built Environment
quality) And L (Built Environment Load)

CASBEE labels buildings with an overall environmental performance assessment rating


ranging from C through B-, B+, A and S, corresponding to areas divided according to the line
gradient. The ranks correspond to the assessment expressions shown in the figure, using a number
of stars for clarity.

Figure 1.6: Bee Value in CASBEE

Figure 1.7: Bee Rating Scale

1.5.6 CASBEE Certification Process


a) Certification for Buildings
CASBEE Certification for Buildings is a system in which a third party examines and
certifies assessment results provided by CASBEE for New Construction, Existing
Buildings, and Renovation. An application for certification must be accompanied by
assessment results provided by a CASBEE Accredited Professional for Buildings. Since
the system started in 2004, over 300 buildings throughout Japan have so far been
certified. A certificate and the emblem shown below are issued to certified buildings.

Target: CASBEE for New Construction, Existing Buildings, Renovation


Certification body: Institute for Building Environment and Energy Conservation

(IBEC) and 12 private institutions approved by IBEC


Number of certified buildings: 320 (as of March 2016)

b) Certification for Housing


CASBEE Certification for Housing is a system in which a third party examines and
certifies assessment results prepared in accordance with CASBEE for New Detached
Houses. An application for certification must be accompanied by assessment results
provided by a CASBEE Accredited Professional for Housing.

Target: CASBEE for New Detached Houses


Certification body: Institute for Building Environment and Energy Conservation

(IBEC) and 5 private institutions approved by IBEC


Number of certified houses: 115 (as of March 2016)

c) Certification for CASBEE for Market Promotion


Certification for CASBEE for Market Promotion is a system in which a third party
examines and certifies assessment results prepared in accordance with CASBEE for
Market Promotion. An application for certification must be accompanied by assessment
results provided by a CASBEE Accredited Professional for Market Promotion. The

certificate is expected to be used when buying and selling real estate in the future as
evidence that clearly demonstrates the building's environmental performance.

Target: CASBEE for Market Promotion


Certification body: Institute for Building Environment and Energy Conservation

(IBEC) and 11 private institutions approved by IBEC


Number of certified buildings: 90 (as of March 2016)

1.6

GREEN BUILDING INDEX


The Green Building Index (GBI) is Malaysia's industry recognized green rating

tool for buildings to promote sustainability in the built environment and raise awareness
among Developers, Architects, Engineers, Planners, Designers, Contractors and the
Public about environmental issues and our responsibility to the future generations. The
GBI rating tool provides an opportunity for developers and building owners to design and
construct green, sustainable buildings that can provide energy savings, water savings, a
healthier indoor environment, better connectivity to public transport and the adoption of
recycling and greenery for their projects and reduce our impact on the environment.

1.6.1 GBI Rating Tools


The followings tools are the GBI rating tools available currently:

Non-Residential New Construction


Residential New Construction
Non-Residential Existing Building
Industrial New Construction
Industrial Existing Building
NRNC: Data Centre
NRNC: Retail
NREB: Data Centre
NREB: Retail

NRNC: Hotel
NRNC: Resort
NREB: Hotel
NREB: Resort
Township

1.6.3 Characteristics of a GBI-certified building


A Green building focuses on increasing the efficiency of resource use energy,
water, and materials while reducing building impact on human health and the
environment during the buildings lifecycle, through better siting, design, construction,
operation, maintenance, and removal. Green Buildings should be designed and operated
to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on its surroundings.
a) Save energy and resources, recycle materials and minimize the emission of toxic
substances throughout its life cycle.
b) Efficient use of resources, have significant operational savings and increases
workplace productivity
c) Harmonise with the local climate, traditions, culture and the surrounding environment.
d) Sends the right message about a company or organization that it is well run,
responsible, and committed to the future.
e) Sustain and improve the quality of human life whilst maintaining the capacity of the
ecosystem at local and global levels.

1.6.3 GBI Rating Criteria


Achieving points in these targeted areas will mean that the building will likely be
more environment-friendly than those that do not address the issues. Under the GBI
assessment framework, points will also be awarded for achieving and incorporating
environment-friendly features which are above current industry practice.
a) Energy Efficiency
Improve energy consumption by optimizing building orientation, minimizing soplar heat
gain through the building envelope, harvesting natural lighting, adopting te best practices

in building services including use of renewable energy, and ensuring proper testing,
commissioning and regular maintenance.
b) Indoor Environment Quality
Achieve good quality performance in indoor air quality, acoustics, visual and thermal
comfort. These will involve the use of low volatile organic compound materials,
application of quality air filtration, proper control of air temperature, movement and
humidity.
c) Materials & Resources
Promote the use of environment-friendly materials sourced from sustainable sources and
recycling. Implement proper construction waste management with storage, collection and
re-use of recyclables and construction formwork and waste.
d) Sustainable Site Planning & Management
Selecting appropriate sites with planned access to public transportation, community
services, open spaces and landscaping. Avoiding and conserving environmentally
sensitive areas through the redevelopment of existing sites and brownfields.
e) Water Efficiency
Rainwater harvesting, water recycling and water-saving fittings.
f) Innovation
Innovative design and initiatives that meet the objectives of the GBI.
Table 10: GBI Classification
POINTS
86 to 100 points
76 to 85 points
66 to 75 points
50 to 65 points

GBI RATING
Platinum
Gold
Silver
Certified

1.6.4 GBI Assessment Process


a) Application & Registration
Complete and submit the GBI Application Form with the Applicants contact details,
project information and supporting documents to Greenbuildingindex Sdn Bhd (GSB).
The Registration Fee will be set depending on the size of the project. Upon payment of

the fees, a GBI registration number will be given and the GBI Terms and Conditions will
be signed between the Applicant and GSB. A GBI Certifier will then be appointed for the
project.
b) Design Assessment (DA)
When the Applicant is ready he may then submit the project for GBI Design Assessment
(DA) either directly or through an appointed GBI Facilitator. Submission should be done
when all key criteria of the design are finalized and preferably before the commencement
of construction so as to enable the project to be monitored and assessed in its entirety.
The GBI Certifier will then undertake the Design Assessment for GSB. This may involve
a presentation by the Applicant and their Project Design Team or by the GBI Facilitator.
The GBI Certifier will upon completion, table the assessment report to the GBIAP to
register and award the certification. The provisional GBI Design Assessment certification
will then be issued with the accompanying GBI score sheet to show the scores achieved.
c) Completion & Verification Assessment (CVA)
Upon completion of the project, the Applicant should submit for the Completion and
Verification Assessment (CVA). This is to be done within 12 months after the completion
of the building or when the building becomes 50 percent occupied, whichever is the
earlier. The final GBI award will be issued by the GBIAP upon completion of this CVA
assessment. Buildings are awarded GBI - Platinum, Gold, Silver or Certified ratings
depending on the scores achieved. Buildings will have to be re-assessed every three years
in order to maintain their GBI rating to ensure that the buildings are well-maintained.

1.7

Comparison of green tools

BREEAM

LEED

GREEN STAR

CASBEE

GBI

Launch Date

1990 ( the world first


sustainability assessment
method for building)

1998

2003

2004

2009

Origin

UK

US

Australia

Japan

Malaysia

Rating

Pass/ Good/ Very Good/


Excellent/ Outstanding

Certified/ Silver/ Gold/


Platinum

One Star/ Two Star/


Three Star/ Four Star/
Five Star/ Six Star

C/ B-/ B+/ A/ S

Certified/ Silver/ Gold/


Platinum

Information
gathering

Design/ management
team or assessor

Design/ management
team or Accredited
Professional

Design team

Design/ management
team

Design/ management
team

Third party
valuation

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Certification

BRE Global Ltd

USGBC (United States

GBCA (Green Building

JSBC (Japan Sustainable

GSB (Green Building

labeling

Green Buildings
Council)

Council of Australia)

Building Consortium)

Index Sdn Bhd)

Update
process

Annual

As required

Annual

As required

As required

Governance

UK Accreditation
Service (UKAS)

USGBC

GBCA (non-profit
organization)

JSBC

GSB

The tools are available


free of charge

The tools are available


free of charge while
technical manual is
available for member but
$600 is charged upon
non-member

The assessment tool and


guidance is available
free of charge in
Japanese and English

The assessment tool and


design reference
guidance is available
free of charge

Energy Efficiency,
Resource Efficiency,
Local Environment,
Indoor Environemnt

Energy Efficiency,
Indoor Environmental
Quality, Material &
Resources, Sustainable
Site Planning &
management, Water
Efficiency, Innovation

Availability of
assessment
information

The tools and published


report are available free
of charge

Area of Rating

Management, Health and


Wellbeing, Energy,
Transport, Water, Land
Use and Ecology,
Materials, Waste,
Pollution

Sustainable sites, Water


Effifiency, Energy and
Resources, Indoor
Environmental Quality

Varies depend on the


type of Green Star
Rating System

1.8

Green Rating Tools Recommended for Malaysia

The culture, economic, weather, government policies, people, etc are different in every country.
Thus, every country has its own green rating tool that is best suited to its countrys condition.
BREEAM and GBI are found more suitable for Malaysia. This is because BREEAM is the world
first sustainability assessment method for building and it still manages to survive until now. This
means that it has the popularity and it is well-known by most of the people. When a tool manages
to survives for almost 26 years, it means that it has the necessary function and brings the benefits
that people need and want.
GBI is the green rating tools that made for Malaysia. This actually tells that it is design
specifically for Malaysia in order to suit to the culture, economic, policies and so on.
In conclusion, BREEAM and GBI are the two green rating tools that are recommended for Green
developers and contractors in Malaysia.

1.9

References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

http://leed.usgbc.org/bd-c.html
http://www.usgbc.org/resources/cmp-guide
http://leed.usgbc.org/leed.html
http://www.usgbc.org/cert-guide/fees
http://www.gbca.org.au/shop.asp
http://www.gbca.org.au/green-star/why-use-green-star/own-a-green-commercial-

building/35598.htm#Attract%20and%20retain tenants
7. http://www.gbca.org.au/green-star/why-use-green-star/design-or-build-a-greenresidential-building/35594.htm
8. http://www.gbca.org.au/green-star/why-use-green-star/learn-in-a-greenbuilding/35605.htm
9. http://www.gbca.org.au/green-star/green-star-communities/certification/#Rating
%20Scale
10. http://www.gbca.org.au/green-star/green-star-overview/the-green-star-ratingscale/
11. http://www.gbca.org.au/uploads/233/35817/00%20List%20of%20Credit
%20v1.1%20July2015.pdf
12. http://www.gbca.org.au/green-star/rating-tools/
13. http://www.gbca.org.au/uploads/64/36160/List%20of%20Credits%20for
%20Website.pdf

14. http://www.breeam.com/
15. http://www.breeam.com/certification-training
16. http://www.breeam.com/why-breeam
17. http://www.breeam.com/refurbishment-and-fit-out
18. http://www.breeam.com/masterplanning
19. http://www.breeam.com/in-use
20. http://www.breeam.com/new-construction
21. http://www.ibec.or.jp/CASBEE/english/beeE.htm
22. http://www.ibec.or.jp/CASBEE/english/graphicE.htm
23. http://new.greenbuildingindex.org/how/system
24. http://new.greenbuildingindex.org/how/classification
25. http://new.greenbuildingindex.org/how/assessment
26. http://www.ibec.or.jp/CASBEE/english/certificationE.htm