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BIOFERTILIZER

Biofertilizer'

is

substance

which

contains

living microorganisms which, when applied to seed, plant


surfaces, or soil, colonizes therhizosphere or the interior
of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the
supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host
plant.

Biofertilizers add nutrients through the natural

processes of Nitrogen fixation , solubilizing phosphorus,


and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of
growth

promoting

expected

to

substances.
reduce

fertilizers and pesticides.

the
The

Biofertilizers
use

can

be

of chemical

microorganisms

in

biofertilizers restore the soil's natural nutrient cycle and


build soil organic matter. Through the use of biofertilizers,
healthy plants can be grown while enhancing the
sustainability and the health of soil. Since they play
several

roles,

beneficial

preferred

bacteria

scientific

term

is plant-growth

for

such

promoting

rhizobacteria (PGPR).

Therefore,

they

are

extremely

advantageous in enriching the soil fertility and fulfilling


the plant nutrient requirements by supplying the organic
nutrients through microorganism and their byproduct.
Hence, biofertilizers do not contain any chemicals which
are harmful to the living soil. Biofertilizers are Eco-friendly
organic agro-input and more cost effective than chemical
fertilizers.

Biofertilizers

like Rhizobium, Azotobacter,

Azospirillum and blue green algae(BGA) are in use since


long time ago. Rhizobiuminoculant is used for leguminous
crops. Azotobacter can

be

like wheat, maize, mustard,cotton,


vegetable

used
potato

and

crops
other

crops. Azospirillum inoculants

recommended

are
mainly

for sorghum, millets, maize, sugarcane and


green

with

wheat. Blue

algae belonging

to

genera Nostoc, Anabaena, Tolypothrix and Aulosira fix


atmospheric nitrogen and are used as inoculants for

paddy crop grown both under upland and low land


conditions. Anabaena in

association

with

water

fern Azolla contributes nitrogen up to 60 kg/ha/season


and also enriches soils with organic matter Other types of
bacteria,

so-called phosphate

bacteria like Pantoea

solubilizing

agglomerans strain

P5,

and Pseudomonas putida strain P13 are able to solubilize


the insoluble

phosphate from

organic

and inorganic

phosphate source . In fact, due to immobilization of


phosphate

by

mineral

ions

such

as Fe, Al and Ca or organic acids, the rate of available


phosphate (Pi) in soil is well below plant needs. In
addition, chemical Pi fertilizer are also immobilized in the
soil immediately so that less than 20 percent of added
fertilizer is absorbed by plants. Therefore, reduction in Pi
resources, on one hand, and environmental pollutions
resulted

from

both

production

and

applications

of

chemical Pi fertilizer, on the other hand, have already

demanded the use of new generation of phosphate


fertilizers

globally

known

as phosphate

solubilizing

bacteria or phosphate biofertilizers.

Benefits of using Biofertilizers


As it is living thing, it can symbiotically associate with
plant root. Involved microorganisms could readily and
safely convert complex organic material in simple
compound, so that plant easily taken up. Microorganism
function is in long duration causing improvement of the
soil fertility. It maintains the natural habitat of the soil. It
increases crop yield by 20-30%. Replace chemical

nitrogen and phosphorus by 25% in addition to


stimulating of the plant growth. Finally it can provide
protection against drought and some soil borne diseases.

Advantages of Biofertilizers
Cost effective relative to chemical fertilizer and reduces
the costs towards fertilizers use, especially regarding
nitrogen and phosphorus. It is environmentally friendly
fertilizer that not only prevents damaging the natural
source but helps to some extend clean the nature from
precipitated chemical fertilizer.

Types of Biofertilizers
To answer to the food demand, all farmers try to
maximize the crops they can cultivate on their land. For
decades, farmers have used fertilizers to increase their

crop

yields.

With

the

green

revolution,

more

environmentally friendly but still effective biofertilizers


have been introduces and they are widely used all over
the world, especially in areas where the usage of
synthetic fertilizers has ruined the natural nutrient levels
of the soil Biofertilizers are a way to increase crop
production by naturally optimizing the nitrogen and
phosphorus levels of the soil and by enriching the
compost waste used as a natural fertilizer.
What Are Biofertilizers
1.

Biofertilizers are live formulates of microorganisms


that are ready to be used and improve the quality and
the health of the soil and the plant species by increasing
the nutrient availability for the soil, seeds and roots.
Biofertilizers naturally activate the microorganisms found
in the soil restoring the soil's natural fertility and
protecting it against drought and soil diseases and
therefore stimulate plant growth.

Benefits
2.

Synthetic fertilizers are made from nonrenewable


fossil fuel resources, create nutrient imbalance in the soil
and are often used in excessive amounts. Soils and plants
are becoming dependent on the synthetic fertilizers,
which increases their negative effects. Biofertilizers are a
natural way to get the benefits of synthetic fertilizers
without risking the quality of soil health and crop
products. Using biofertilizers can increase the crop yield
by 20 or 30 percent. In addition, biofertilizers are cost
effective when compared to synthetic fertilizers.
Nitrogen Biofertilizers

3.

Nitrogen biofertilizers help to correct the nitrogen


levels of the soil. Nitrogen is a limiting factor for plant
growth because plants need a certain amount of nitrogen
in the soil to thrive. Different biofertilizers have the
optimum effect for different soils, so the cultivated crop
determines what type of nitrogen biofertilizer should be

used. Use Rhizobium for legume crops, Azotobacter or


Azospirillum

for

non-legume

crops,

Acetobacter

for

sugarcane and blue-green algae and Azolla for low land


paddies used to grow rice.
Phosphorus Biofertilizers
4.

Just like nitrogen, phosphorus is also a limiting factor


for plant growth. Phosphorus biofertilizers help the soil to
reach its optimum level of phosphorus and correct the
phosphorus

levels

of

the

soil.

Unlike

nitrogen

biofertilizers, the usage of phosphorus biofertilizers is not


dependent on the crops cultivated on the soil. You can
use

Phosphatika

for

all

crops

with

Rhizobium,

Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Acetobacter.


Compost Biofertilizers
5.

You can also use biofertilizers to enrich your compost


and the bacterial processes breaking down the compost
waste.

Suitable

biofertilizers

for

compost

use

are

Cellulolytic

fungal culture and

Phosphotika

and

Azotobacter cultures.

Book Summary of Biofertilizer


Technology
Man made fertilizers have come to stay in the
present century for increasing the output of agricultural
production and to meet ever increasing demand of
human population, which has been further accenturated
by the limited availability of additional fertile farmland.
Industrial nitrogen is heavily dependent on energy
derived from fossil fuel which is getting depleted at a
very fast rate. On the contrary, biological nitrogen
fixation requiring nearly half the quantum of energy and
is dependent on energy from renewable resources such

as products of

photosynthesis and

organic matter in the soil. The

natural organic nitrogen

provided by the biofertilizers to the


agro

ecosystem do not pose any


health risk to humans which
is being seriously apprehanded
by the use of chemical and
synthetic inorganic nitrogen.

Biofertilizer:
The institute has developed
peat based
rhizobial inoculants for six pulse crops and one for
dhaincha cultivation, which are cheap and easy to handle.

All these inoculants are environment friendly and can be


used as substitutes of nitrogen fertilizer. The country's
legume production can be increased substantially by
application of the inoculants, which will be helpful in
removing the malnutrition problem of the country.
Moreover, it improves the soil health. A brief description
of these inoculants is given below:
1
.

BINA-LT-18:
This Rhizobium inoculant has been
developed for lentil cultivation. Application of
this inoculant can increase 15-40% seed yield
of lentil compared to the control.

2
.

BINA-CP-2:
This Mesorhizobium inoculant is
recommended for chickpea cultivation. It can
substantially increase 25-30% seed yield of
this crop.

3
.

BINA-MB-1:
This Bradyrhizobium inoculant has been

developed for mungbean cultivation.


Application of this inoculant can increase 1830% seed yield of this crop.

A biofertilizer demonstration field of soybean


treated with and without inoculum
4
.

BINA-COP-7:
This inoculant was developed for cowpea
cultivation, which has the potential to
increase seed yield 25-45% of cowpea.

5
.

BINA-GN-2:
This inoculant has been developed and
recommended for groundnut cultivation. It
can increase 20-40% seed yield of groundnut.

6
.

BINA-SB-4:
This is one of the most promising
Bradyrhizobium inoculants for soybean
cultivation. Farmers can obtain 75-150% more
seed yield by applying this inoculant.

7
.

BINA-DC-9:
The inoculant is recommended for dhaincha
cultivation, which can increase seed yield 2550%] of this crop.