Sunteți pe pagina 1din 30

Continental J.

Agronomy 2: 1 - 7, 2008
©Wilolud Online Journals, 2008.

EFFECT OF METALAXYL AND NEEM SEED OIL ON THE INCIDENCE OF DOWNY MILDEW OF
PEARL MILLET
1
Aliyu, B., 2Hati, S. S., 3Donli, P.O. and 4Anaso, A. B.
1
Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Chemistry, Gombe State University, Gombe
3
Department of Biological Sciences, 4Department of Crop Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri

ABSTRACT
Millet is one of the most important staple food crops in Africa and India. The grain
yield losses as a result of downy mildew disease varied from 10 to 50% annually.
This study was aimed at determining the effect of seed treatment with metalaxyl
either alone or in combination with neem seed oil foliar sprays on the incidence of
pearl millet downy mildew. Field trials were carried out in 2006 and 2007 growing
seasons. Split - plot design was employed with four categories of chemical treatments
and three varieties of pearl millet (SOSAT-C88, EX-Borno and GB8735). The
treatments were in triplicates. The results of the study showed that incidence of
downy mildew on vegetative shoots of pearl millet differed significantly (p<0.05)
among the varieties studied. Generally, SOSAT-C88 showed significant resistance to
downy mildew than the other varieties. As anticipated, the combination of metalaxyl
and neem oil spray significantly (p<0.05) reduced the incidence of downy mildew on
pearl millet and improved yield compared to the neem oil spray alone and the control
during the 2006 season. From this study, metalaxyl was found to be still an effective
fungicide against downy mildew in pearl millet. However, supplementing metalaxyl
with neem oil spray generally increased grain yield.

KEYWORDS: downy mildew, pearl millet, metalaxyl, neem oil

INTRODUCTION
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.) is one of the most important staple food crops in Africa and
India (Williams, 1984), and is grown as a subsistent crop in the Sudano-Sahalian Savanna of northern
Nigeria. The grain is nutritious and contains 5-7% oil. It has higher protein level and more mineral
constituent than maize and rice (NRC, 1996). The arable land put to pearl millet in West Africa has been
estimated to be 23.99 million hectares; and in Nigeria it is about 5 million hectares, which places Africa as
the third largest producer of the world’s pearl millet (FAO, 1985). It yields relatively well in regions too
hot and too dry to support good yield of maize and sorghum (NRC, 1996). Millet in Nigeria is
predominantly produced in Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Kano, Katsina, Sokoto and Yobe States.

Apart from the harsh environmental conditions which limit the crop’s production potentials, pearl millet is
attacked by various diseases and pests in the field. The most important of the fungal diseases of pearl millet
is downy mildew, caused by the fungus (Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet), which has been
estimated to cause losses of 10 – 15% in Nigeria. Other diseases of pearl millet in Nigeria are smut
(Moesziomyces pennicullariae (Bref)) Vankysyn. (Tolysposporium pennissscullariae (Bref)) and ergot
(Claviceps fusiformis (Loveless) (Thakur and King, 1988) while important invertebrate pests include stem
borer (Coniesta ignefusalis), head miner (Raghuva sp), the head beetle (Pacnoda sp) and grasshoppers
while Quelea quelea is the major vertebrate pest and parasitic flowering plant, Striga (Rai and Kumar,
1994).

Yield losses of up to 50% due to downy mildew have been reported from West Africa (Singh et al., 1987).
An annual loss due to downy mildew in Nigeria was put at 10% (King and Webster, 1970). Waller and Ball
(1982) reported consistent disease incidence of 10-15%.

1
Aliyu, B et al: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 1 - 7, 2008

Wheeler (1979) reported that downy mildew is controlled chiefly by cultural methods, by spraying
fungicides and by planting less susceptible varieties. It is, however, by the application of fungicides that
the most practical control of this disease had been achieved. Anaso et al. (1989) reported that maize downy
mildew is successfully controlled by seed treatment with metalaxyl and host resistance. Nene and Singh
(1976) noted that two methods of chemical control of pearl millet downy mildew had been attempted, one
was treatment of seed with fungicide to control seed borne inocula and the second method was the use of
foliar sprays to control secondary spread.

Metalaxyl is a known fungicide for seed treatment to control downy mildew, its action is systemic and
contains benzenoid (phenylamide), used in mixtures as a foliar spray for tropical and subtropical crops, as a
soil treatment for control of soil-borne pathogens, and as a seed treatment to control downy mildews
(Kimmel, et al, 1986). Similarly, neem oil, a vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of neem
(Azadirachta indica), have scientifically been validated for many of its traditional uses to treat bacterial,
fungal, and viral infections, including its use as pesticides (Schmutterer, 2002). The neem tree is found in
abundance in northern Nigeria and the seed’s oil is thought to be very likely to effectively control downy
mildew of pearl millet. The neem seed oil is known to contain nearly 100 protolimonoids, limonoids or
tetranortriterpenoids, pentanortriterpenoids, hexanortriterpenoids and some nonterpenoid constituents.
Different batches contain from 1700 ppm azadirachtin to 2500 ppm azadirachtin as the active ingredients.
The oil contains small amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients. It also contains the
following fatty acids - Palmitic acid 19.4%, Stearic acid 21.2%, Oleic acid 42.1%, Linoleic acid 14.9% and
Arachidic acid 1.4% (Conrick and Schmutterer, 2004).

In northern Nigeria, pearl millet is regarded as second only to sorghum in importance. The grain is used in
a variety of traditional foods such as “fura”, “biski”, “masa”, “yartsala”, “tuwo”, “kunu”, “burukutu” and
“pito”. Its production supercedes that of sorghum because of its outstanding ability to withstand drought, its
early maturing advantages over other crops and it is the first grain crop grown by farmers in Northern
Nigeria in anticipation of early grain for consumption when other reserved grain become exhausted
(Nwasike et al., 1983). In view of the decreasing level of production emanating from the constraints
already highlighted, it was therefore considered essential to carry out a study that would assess the
potentials of seed treatment with metalaxyl and neem seed oil either alone or in combination with neem
seed oil as foliar sprays on the incidence of pearl millet downy mildew for the control of this disease.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Metalaxyl and Neem Seed Oil
Metalaxyl fungicide in Apron XL-LS brand manufactured by Syngenta Crop Protection Canada, Inc. was
obtained and used in this study. This brand formulation is about 33.3% metalaxyl-M (mefenoxam)
formulated as a liquid for use as a seed treatment in a container size: 1L, 5L and 55L

Neem oil was obtained from extraction according to method described by Kaura et al (1998). Petroleum
ether (bp 60-80°C) was used as extraction solvent, which was recovered from filtrate by ordinary
distillation at 70°C, further in rotary vacuum evaporator placed on a water bath for 20 hours at 60-70°C.
After extraction the neem oil was diluted with different amount of liquid paraffin to obtain different
concentrations of extracts.

Pearl Millet Seeds


Millet varieties, SOSAT-C88, Ex-Borno and GB 8735 used in this study were obtained from the
germplasm bank of Lake Chad Research Institute, Maiduguri.

Experimental Site
The experiment was conducted during 2006 and 2007 cropping seasons in Maiduguri (Latitude 11051' N;
130 15'E) at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture,
University of Maiduguri.

2
Aliyu, B et al: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 1 - 7, 2008

The experimental site is a sandy loam and has been classified as typic ustipsamment. The mean annual
rainfall range between 40 and 250mm with an annual average temperature ranges from 20-43oC. The area
has been cropped with millet for the several years ensuring build up of disease inoculum. Natural
epiphytotic in field was therefore relied upon as the source of inoculum in each season. The split - plot
design was employed in this study.

Chemical Treatments
Chemical treatments of the pear millets were made in four categories:
1. Metalaxyl (0.4g) per 50g millet treatment prior to planting,
2. Metalaxyl (0.4g) per 50g millet treatment prior to planting + neem oil ( 0.3kg foliar spray)
3. Neem oil (0.3kg) foliar spray based on fungal LD50 (Schmutterer, 2002) and
4. Control (neither metalaxyl nor neem seed oil)

The neem oil was dispensed using electrodyn sprayer on non rainy days. Triplicate plots treatments
comprised three varieties namely, SOSAT-C88, Ex-Borno and GB 8735.

Cultural Practices and Management


The site was harrowed, disked and leveled before marking out the plots. The main plots were 12 X 4.0 m
(48 m2) each and separated by 1m from each other were assigned to the chemical treatments (Fungicides).
The sub-plot of 4 X 4 m (16 m2) and spaced at 0.5m comprised the three millet varieties.

The seeds were sown when the rains established at rate of ten seeds per hole and spaced at 75 X 30 cm
between rows and within rows, respectively. At three weeks after sowing during the first weeding plants
were thinned to two plants per stand.

Fertilizers were applied at the recommended rates of 60kg/N/ha, 30kg P2O5/ha and 30kg K2O/ha (Anaso,
1989). At planting, basal dose of NPK (15:15:15) at the rate of 48g N, 48g, P2O5 and 48g K2O were
applied respectively to each plot. The remaining dose of 48gN was applied at six weeks after sowing by
the side placement method. Weeds were controlled manually using hoes on the third and the sixth weeks
after sowing. Harvest was done manually at maturity using cutlass. The plants were cut at their bases and
placed in their respective plots for further drying after which the panicles were cut and threshed.

Parameters Measured
Millet stands in each plot were counted and recorded at 56 days after sowing. Grain yields for all treatments
were obtained after harvesting, sun-drying, threshing and winnowing. They were then weighed on a
Mettler balance (0-10kg) and yields per plot determined. The yields were later converted to kg/ha. The
number and weight of panicles per plot were determined.

Downy Mildew Incidence on Vegetative Shoot


Infected main stems and basal tillers plants were counted at 56 days after sowing (DAS) and downy mildew
incidence was computed as the number of diseased main stand or basal tillers expressed as percentage of
the total number of main stands or basal tillers assessed according to James (1983) as follows:
Downy mildew incidence (%) = Number of diseased plants/plot ÷ Total number of plants/plot × 100

Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), using Microsoft Excel (2003). Variations
of results were considered significant at p<0.05.

RESULTS
The three varieties of pearl millet showed varied responses to downy mildew attack in the area of study.
The incidence of downy mildew on vegetative shoots of pearl millet differed significantly (p<0.05) among
the varieties studied (Table 1). The variety GB8735 showed high incidence compared to SOSAT-C88 and
EX-Borno. The difference between SOSAT-C88 and EX-Born was not significant for the main stems and
significantly different for basal tillers in both years (Table 1).

3
Aliyu, B et al: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 1 - 7, 2008

Among the fungicides applied the combination of metalaxyl and neem oil spray and metalaxyl alone
significantly (P<0.05) reduced the incidence of downy mildew on pearl millet main stems compared to the
neem oil spray alone and the control during the 2006 season (Table 1). A similar trend was observed on the
basal tillers except that the difference between the application of neem oil spray and the control was not
significant (Table 1).

The production of panicle and grain yield of pearl millet differed significantly (P<0.05) among the three
varieties (Table 2). The varieties SOSAT-C88 and EX-Borno performed better in production of panicle and
grain yield than GB8735 in the year 2006. in the following year the difference among the varieties was
significant.

Table 1: Effects of variety and fungicide on the incidence of downy mildew on the vegetative shoots of
pearl millet in Maiduguri during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons

% incidence of downy mildew on vegetative shoot


Main stems Basal tillers
2006 2007 2006 2007
Treatment
Variety
SOSAT-C88 34.26±5.4 33.15±4.5 35.30±8.1 36.63±6.8
Ex-Borno 38.33±7.2 36.56±12.2 42.20±7.8 49.51±11.7
GB8735 45.57±7.8 55.30±10.3 52.88±9.4 59.80±12.2

Fungicide
Neem oil spray (NOS) 46.60±6.7 43.88±5.4 51.82±8.3 56.26±10.4
Apron XL-LS 31.04±5.5 35.58±5.6 34.29±3.9 41.18±11.2
NOS + Apron XL-LS 28.04±7.2 36.67±5.9 32.15±2.4 36.56±7.4
Control 51.87±12.5 50.55±11.3 55.57±11.3 60.59±8.2

Table 2: Effects of variety and fungicide on number of panicles, panicle weight and grain
yield of pearl millet in Maiduguri during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons

Number of panicles Panicle weight (kg/ha) Grain yield (kg/ha)


Treatment 2006 2007 2006 2007 2006 2007
Variety
SOSAT-C88 91.00±21.2 97.33±10.6 2759±121.3 3117±211.8 1591±98.2 1852±154.9
Ex-Borno 80.33±16.3 84.42±11.5 2350±115.5 2628±117.5 1290±87.3 1231±119.3
GB8735 68.50±11.6 58.75±12.7 2033±211.4 1307±87.5 1021±66.8 938±32.4

Fungicide
Neem oil spray 68.67±12.3 74.90±12.4 1933±187.7 2325±213.2 1011±102.4 1179±106.7
(NOS)
Apron XL-LS 96.78±10.5 86.67±11.4 3075±219.1 2600±165.3 1708±121.5 1472±107.3
NOS + Apron XL- 99.56±9.8 93.11±16.8 3189±176.0 2700±142.4 1679±89.5 1737±98.9
LS
Control 54.78±7.6 66.00±9.6 1322±113.4 1778±109.0 805±43.7 973±21.5

4
Aliyu, B et al: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 1 - 7, 2008

Table 3: Interaction of variety and fungicide on grain yield of pearl millet in Maiduguri during the 2007
growing season

Number of panicles
Variety Neem oil spray Apron XL-LS NOS + Apron XL- Control
(NOS) LS
SOSAT-C88 1683±121.4 2006±154.7 2567±176.3 1150±88.2
Ex-Borno 1130±56.3 1295±113.4 1427±132.2 1070±66.2
GB8735 723±12.5 1113±102.1 1217±79.9 700±10.3

The production of panicle and grain yield was significantly influenced by the application of fungicide
(Table 2). Plants treated with metalaxyl and metalaxyl + neem oil spray showed increased panicle size and
grain yield than those received neem oil spray and the check.

The interaction effects of variety and fungicide on grain yield was significant (Table 3). The variety
(SOSAT-C88) that produced the highest yield did so when treated with the combination of metalaxyl and
neem oil spray. A general increase in yield of the other varieties was also observed. The most susceptible
variety to downy mildew was GB8735.

DISCUSSION
The fact that three varieties of pearl millet showed varied responses to downy mildew attack in the area of
study confirmed the influence of genotype difference, which is a factor in choosing germplasms for
cultivation. The variety SOSAT-C88 showed comparatively higher resistance to downy mildew than EX-
Borno and GB8735. Varietals differences in pearl millet have also been reported (Rathi and Panwar, 1997;
Singh et al., 1993).This study revealed that infection was higher at the basal tillers than on the main stems.
This could be due to the proximity of tillers to soil where if contaminated may be a readily source of
infection.

Metalaxyl is still an effective fungicide against downy mildew in pearl millet from this study and the report
of Williams and Singh (1981). However, supplementing metalaxyl with neem oil spray would generally
increase grain yield.

In pearl millet growing areas where there is infestation of downy mildew the variety SOSAT-C88 should
be used with the application of metalaxyl + neem oil spray for a better return on cost of production. There
is still the need to develop highly resistant varieties against downy mildew so that the extra cost of
fungicide would be reduced if not eliminated.

REFERENCES
Anaso, A.B. (1989): Variety selection and planting strategies of maize for control of sorghum downy
mildew in Nigeria Guinea Savanna Applied Agricultural Research 3: 196-200.

Anaso, A. B, Emechebe A. M., Tyagi, P. D. and Manzo, S. K. (1989): Assessment in yield due to sorghum
downy mildew of maize in Nigeria Guinea Savanna Tropical Pest Management 301-303.

Conrick, J. and H. Schmutterer (2004): The Neem Tree : The Ultimate Herb. The Neem Foundation web
site – www.neemfoundation.org (access date: 23/11/2007)

Food Agricultural Organization (FOA) (1985): Production Year Book. Rome, Italy 2-15.

James, W. C. (1983): Crop loss assessment pages 130-143 in plant pathologist pocket book 2nd edition ( A.
Johnston and C. Booth Eds) Commonwealth Mycological Institute Kew.

5
Aliyu, B et al: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 1 - 7, 2008

Kaura, S. K., S. K. Gupta and J. B. Chowdhury (1998 ): Morphological and oil content variation in seeds
of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) from northern and western provenances of India. Plant Foods for
Human Nutrition. 52 (4): 293-298

Kimmel, E. C., J. E. Casida and L. O. Ruzo (1986): Formamidine Insecticides and Chloroacetanilide
Herbicides: Disubstituted Anilines and Nitrobenzenes as Mammalian Metabolites and Bacterial Mutagents,
J. Agri Food Chem 34:157-161.

King, S. B. and Webster, O. J. (1970): Downy mildew of sorghum in Nigeria India Phytopathology
4: 212-319.

Microsoft Excel (2003): Microsoft® Office Excel 2003 (11.5612.5606)


http://support.microsoft.com/international.aspx. USA.

National Research Council (NRC) (1996): Lost crops of Africa vol. 1 Grains National Academy Press
Washington D.C. 36: 1-12.

Nene, Y. L. and Singh, S. D. (1976): Downy mildew and ergot of pearl millet, pest Africa and News
Summaries Darker 22 (3): 366-385.

Nwasike, C. C., E. F. I. Baker and P. N. Egharevba (1983): The Potential for Improving Millet (Pennisetum
typhoides) in farming systems of the Semi Arid Areas of Nigeria. Agriculture and Environment 7: 15-21.

Rai, K. N. and Kumar, K. A. (1994): Pearl millet improvement at ICRISAT an Update International
sorghum and millets Newsletter 35: 1-29.

Rathi, A. S. and Panwar, M. S. (1997): Downy Mildew reactions of pearl millet varieties and
parents.International Sorghum and Millets News Letter No. 38, 128-130.

Schmutterer, H. (2002): The Neem Tree: Source of Unique Natural Products for Integrated Pest
Management, Medicine, Industry And Other Purposes (Hardcover),2nd Edition, Weinheim,Germany: VCH
Verlagsgesellschaft .ISBN 3-527-30054-6 P. 23-42

Singh, S. D., Balls, S. L. and Thakur, D. P. (1987): Problems and strategies in the control of downy
mildew ( a review article). Proceedings of the International Pearl millet Workshop International Crops
Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru AP (India) 161-172.

Singh, S. D., King, S. B. and Werder, J. (1993): Downy mildew disease of pearl millet. International
Bulletin International crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (India) 37: 25-35.

Thakur, R.P. and King, S. B. (1988). Downy mildew disease of pearl millet, Information Bulletin No.2
International Crops Research Institute of Semi-Arid Tropics India 5-17.

Waller, J. M. and Ball, S. L. (1983): Interaction Between pearl millet varieties and Sclerospora
graminicola. Plenum Press London. 5-20.

Wheeler, B. E. J. (1979): An introduction to Plant Disease Imperial College London, 12 : 350-373.

Williams, R. J. (1984): Downy mildew of tropical cereals. Advance in Plant Pathology 2: 1-03.

Williams, R. J. and Singh S. D. (1981): Control of pearl millet downy mildew by seed treatment with
metalaxyl. Annals of Applied Biology 97: 263-268.

6
Aliyu, B et al: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 1 - 7, 2008

Received for Publication: 07/05/2008


Accepted for Publication: 24/05/2008

Corresponding Author:
Aliyu, B.
Department of Biological Sciences, Gombe State University, P.M.B. 127, Gombe, Nigeria
aliyubabale@yahoo.com

7
Continental J. Agronomy 2: 8 - 18, 2008
©Wilolud Online Journals, 2008.

INCORPORATION OF SOLE AND AMENDED AGRO-INDUSTRIAL BIOMASS FOR SOIL BULK


DENSITY AND POPOSITY IMPROVEMENT, ROOT GROWTH AND POD YIELD OF OKRA
(Abelmoschus esculentum Moench L)

E.I. Moyin – Jesu


Agronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT
An investigation was carried out in Akure, Nigeria on the effect of sole and fortified
agro-industrial biomass for improving soil bulk density and porosity improvement,
root growth and pod yield of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L)

The 20 organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizers (NPK 15-
15-15 fertilizer ) and a control (no fertilizer; no manure), replicated four times and
arranged in a randomized complete block design.

The results showed that the application of 6/ha of agro-industrial biomass in sole
forms or fortified with goat, pig and poultry manure increased significantly (P<0.05)
the soil porosity, root growth and pod yield of okra compared to the control treatment.
The soil bulk density was also reduced significantly compared to the control
treatment.

The amended woodash, spentgrain, cocoa husk, ricebran and sawdust with pig, goat
and poultry manure reduced the soil bulk density values more than their ordinary
forms. The NPK fertilizer and the control plots had relatively high bulk density and
low porosity values.

Spentgrain applied sole or amended with manure most reduced the soil bulk density
followed by woodash, cocoa husk, ricebran and sawdust respectively. This explained
why the spentgrain (sole and amended forms) treatments had the best soil porosity,
root growth and pod yield of okra compared to others.

The linear correlation “r” values between root length and pod yield of2 okra were
0.40, 0.45, 0.57 and 0.68 at 1% level for crop 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively showing that
it is an important factor in the determination of okra pod weight.

Spentgrain applied sole or amended with animal manure was very useful in
improving soil physical properties of a lowly fertile humid soils for sustainable
agriculture.

KEYWORDS: Sole and amended agro industrial biomass, bulk density, porosity,
root growth,pod yield and okra

INTRODUCTION
The physical resistance of the soil to the growth of crop seedlings and yield at different stages is an
important factor in crop production particularly getting the right population density and development to
maturity.

8
E.I. Moyin – Jesu : Continental J. Agronomy 2: 8 - 18, 2008

Aina et al (1985) reported that soil parameters known to affect the mechanical impedance included soil
texture, bulk density and moisture content. The effect of soil compaction which commonly results from
cultural practices such as continuous land clearing and tillage practices expose soils to deterioration of its
organic matter and loss of essential nutrients for crop growth. Impedance to crop seedlings growth
increases with soil bulk density.

Aina (1979) reported that as a result of diminished soil organic matter during a ten year continuous
cultivation of an Iwo soil S. W. Nigeria, there was a considerable reduction in soil aggregation, porosity,
hydraulic conductivity and increased bulk density. The ultimate consequence was decline in soil fertility.

Obi and Ofoduru (1997) reported that the use of mineral fertilizers such as NPK, Urea and Ammonium
sulphate led to degradation of physical qualities of soils caused by low organic matter levels. This was
supported by Zake (1973) who stated that a single heavy dose of soluble fertilizers might not work in the
low activity clay soils, and they required an organic matter to impart appropriate chemical, physical and
biological properties.

Although, the effects of bulk density and soil moisture regime on soil compaction and crop growth have
been reported for some Nigerian soils (Ultisol and Oxisols) especially from the approach of tillage practice.
(Ojeniyi, 1985 and, Lal, and Maurya, 1979). However, there is scarcity of research information on the use
of agro-industrial biomass such as cocoa hush, woodash, sawdust, ricebran and spentgrain (brewery
waste) applied in sole or amended with goat, pig and poultry manures for reducing soil bulk density,
increasing porosity, root development and yield of okra.

Therefore, the objectives are to determine the influence of agro-industrial wastes (Sole and amended forms)
for soil bulk density and porosity improvement, root development and pod yield of okra (Abelmoschus
esculentum Moench L).

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The experiments were carried out at Akure (7 N1 , 5110 E) in the rain forest zone of Nigeria in 1998 and
1999 on the same site. The soil is a sandy loam, skeletal, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic oxic paleustaff
(Alfisol) or ferric Luvisol (FAO). The annual rainfall is 1300mm, a temperature of 70 F and relative
humidity of 80%.

Determination of soil physical properties before planting


The physical properties of soils on the site were determined before field experiments. The soil bulk
density (g/cm) was determined by steel core method. Ojeniyi (1985). The bulk density was calculated from
the mass of the soil and the displaced volume of the water through the rate of upthrust.

The % porosity was calculated from the values of bulk density. The mechanical analysis of the soil was
done by the hydrometer method. Bouycous (1951).

Collection, Processing and Chemical analysis of the organic materials.


The goat, pig and poultry manures were collected from the livestock section of Federal College of
Agriculture, Akure. The woodash, cocoa pod husk and ricebran were collected from the cassava
processing unit, cocoa plantations and rice mill at Federal College of Agriculture, Akure. The spentgrain
and sawdust were collected from international Breweries Plc, Ilesa, Osun State, Nigeria and nearby sawmill
industry in Akure respectively.

The organic materials were processed to allow decomposition. The dried cocoa pod husk was ground using
hammer mill, woodash was sieved to remove burnt charcoal and pebbles. The spentgrain, ricebran and
cocoa husk were each partially composted separately. The pig, goat and poultry manures were stacked
individually to allow quick mineralisation processes.

9
E.I. Moyin – Jesu : Continental J. Agronomy 2: 8 - 18, 2008

The processed forms of the organic materials were analysed. The nutrient contents in the organic materials
were determined using wet digestion method based on 25-5-5ml of HNO3-H2 S O4-HCIO4 acids. The
filtrates collected, were evaluated for the C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Na contents and micronutrients (AOAC,
1970).

Field Experiment
The land was cleared, ploughed and harrowed. The soil was under arable crops for 10 years. The four field
experiments were conducted on the early and late crops in 1998 and 1999 at the same site and each
experiment spanned for four months.

Twenty organic fertilizer treatments, sole or amended were applied to each crop of okra, a reference
treatment NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer (400kg/ha) and the control treatment (no manure, no fertilizer).

The five agro-industrial biomass were woodash, ground cocoa husk, ricebran, spentgrain (sorghum based
brewery waste) and sawdust. The materials were applied sole at 6tha and each plant residues was
combined with goat, pig and poultry manure at the rate of 3tha each.

The 22 treatments were replicated four times on each of the four consecutive okra crops and arranged in a
randomized complete block design while the size of each of the plots was 4mx4m (16m2)

The sole and amended residues were incorporated into the soil ten days before planting okra seeds using
garden fork to allow easy decomposition. Four seeds of early maturing okra variety (NHAe-47-4) were
planted per hole of 2cm deep at a spacing of 60x30cm. Germination took place five days planting and later
thinned to one plant per stand.

The plots were manually weeded thrice starting from the second, fifth and seventh weeks after planting.
The insect pests were controlled by spraying vetox 85 at the rate of 28g a.i in 9Lt of water starting from
second week after planting (WAP).

Harvest of the mature pods started at 40 days after planting and it continued at every four days interval until
senenscence The total weight of harvested pods were determined (kg/ha) and at the end of each
experiment, all the okra plants were uprooted and seminal root lengths were determined.

Soil Physical properties after the experiment


At end of each experiment on okra, soil bulk density and % porosity wee determined for each treatment
plot as described earlier.

Statistical analysis of the date


The data recorded for the bulk density, % porosity, root length and yields of four crops of okra were
analysed using ANOVA F-test and their means were separated using the Duncan Multiple Range Test
(DMRT) at 5% level. Simple linear correlations relationship between the soil bulk density, root length and
yield of okra were also presented.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Determination of physical properties before planting
The data on the soil physical properties such as soil bulk density, % porosity, % sand, silt and clay were
presented in Table 1. The soils used for the cultivation of okra have sandy loam texture with high
proportion of sand and this would adversely affect the growth of crops because of probable low water and
nutrient retention capacities. Hence, relatively poor growth of okra on soils not treated with organic
industrial biomass.

The high soil bulk density values affected the soil porosity, root growth and yield of okra in the control
treatment as well as contributing to low organic matter status of the soils. This finding agreed with that of

10
E.I. Moyin – Jesu : Continental J. Agronomy 2: 8 - 18, 2008

Ojeniyi, 1985 who reported that there was a strong relationship between soil bulk density and organic
matter status in a soil.

Analysis of the chemical composition for agro-industrial biomass


Table 2 presents the chemical composition of the agro-industrial biomass used for the cultivation of okra.
The agro-industrial biomass such as woodash, ricebran, cocoa husk, spentgrain and sawdust have lower
values of plant nutrients such as N and P compared to the poultry, pig and goat manure, hence, they have
high C/N ratio and are expected to decompose more slowly. Thus, a combination of the animal manure and
plant residues are expected to improve their effectiveness in reducing soil bulk density values, increased
soil porosity, root growth and yield of okra.

Ricebran and sawdust have relatively high C:N compared with cocoa husk, woodash and spentgrain,
therefore, they are expected to be less efficient in returning plant nutrients and organic matter for the
reduction in soil bulk density, improved root growth and yield of okra.

Effect of agro-industrial biomass on the soil bulk density, porosity, root growth and yield of okra.
The data on the soil bulk density values (Table 3), soil porosity (Table 4), root growth (Table 5) and pod
weight of okra (Table 6) under the different agro-industrial biomass were presented. The sole and amended
agro-industrial biomass increased significantly (P<0.05) the porosity, root growth and pod weight of okra
compared to the control treatments for the four corps of okra.

Soil bulk density was reduced with each addition of manure from the first to fourth crop of okra.
Amendment of woodash, spentgrain, cocoa husk, ricebran and sawdust with animal manure reduced the
soil bulk density values more than their ordinary forms. The NPK fertilizer and the control plots had
relatively high bulk density values. Spentgrain applied sole or amended with manure most reduced the soil
bulk density compared with woodash, cocoa husk, ricebran and sawdust.

Although, the spentgrain had the least C,N,P,Ca,Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn status compared to cocoa husk
and woodash, it most reduced the bulk density out of the five agro-industrial biomass through its relatively
low density and probable relatively high porosity. The combination of its better fertility status and best
porosity would have enhanced root growth and yield of okra.

The reduction in soil bulk density by application of spentgrain should have positively influenced other soil
physical properties such as aeration and water infiltration, thereby enhancing root growth, hence, it was
discovered that the spentgrain most improved the growth of okra compared to others.

This finding is significant considering the fact that soil bulk density is an important soil parameter in crop
production. Aina (1979) reported that as a result of diminished soil organic matter during a ten years
continuous cultivation of an Iwo soil in S.W. Nigeria, there was a considerable increase in soil bulk density
and serious reduction in soil aggregation, porosity and hydraulic conductivity. The ultimate consequence
was decline in soil fertility, hence, low root growth, high bulk density and low yield of okra under control
treatment.

Obi and Ofoduru (1997) also reported that the continuous use of NPK fertilizer in soil would lead to
degradation of physical properties of soils especially bulk density caused by low organic matter levels and
this could be responsible for the increased values of soil bulk density in NPK fertilized soils compared to
the sole and amended agro-industrial biomass.

The best yield of okra associated with the use of spentgrain is also attributable to its mostly reduced soil
bulk density out of all the agro-industrial biomass. This is corroborated by the fact that okra grown on
spentgrain manured soil had the longest roots and the enhancement of soil structural condition might have
improved root growth, nutrient and water uptake. The improvement of soil physical condition by applied
spentgrain is consistent with the assertion of Woomer and Muchena (1993) that continuous productivity of

11
E.I. Moyin – Jesu : Continental J. Agronomy 2: 8 - 18, 2008

tropical soils is associated with maintenance and improvement of soil physical characteristics which can be
further improved by the use of organic fertilizers.

RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION


Agro-industrial biomass such as woodash, cocoa husk and spentgrain when used ordinarily or fortified with
pig, goat and poultry manure are very effective sources of improving the soil porosity, root development
and pod weight of okra and reduced bulk density. Sawdust and ricebran were less effective.

It is, therefore, recommended that sole and fortified agro-industrial biomass such as woodash, spentgrain
and cocoa husk applied at 6t/ha are very useful organic fertilizers for improving soil porosity, root
development ad pod weight of okra and reduced soil bulk density. The use of sole and amended spentgrain
was particularly the best in improving soil porosity, root growth and pod yield of okra and reduced soil
bulk density.

This recommendation is very important because continuous use of inorganic fertilizers for soil fertility
improvement is accompanied by destruction of soil physical properties, besides, such fertilizers are very
expensive and scarce beyond the scope of poor resources farmers who are still the major producers of food
in tropical countries of Africa, Asia and so forth.

REFERENCES

Aina, P. O. (1979): Soil changes resulting from long term management practices in Western Nigeria, Soil
Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 43: 173-177.

Aina, P. O., Fapohunda H. O. and Idowu J. (1985): Compaction and moisture effects on soil strength and
crop emergence. Ife Journal of Agric. Vol. 7Nos 1 & 2 : 16-25.

A.O.A.C., (1970): Official method of analysis 12th edition. Association of official Analytical Chemist
Washington, D. C. U. S. A.

Bouycous, H. (1951): Mechanical analysis of soils using hydrometer method. Anal. chem. Acta 22: 32 -
34.

Lal, R and Marya, P.R. (1979): Effects of bulk density and moisture on radicle elongation of some tropical
crops, pp 337-347. In R. Lal and D. J. Greenland (eds). Soil physical properties and crop production in the
tropics John Wiley and Sons 551pp.

Obi, M. E. and Ofoduru, C. O. (1997): The effects of soil amendments on soil physical properties of a
severely degraded sandy loam soil in south-eastern Nigeria. 23rd Annual Conf. Soil Sci. Soc. Of Nigeria
held in Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto March 2-7, 1997 pp 6-9.

Ojeniyi, S. O. (1985): Effect of replacement grass and forest with tree crops on Nigeria soil textural and
chemical properties. A paper presented at International Conference on soil fertility, soil tilth and post
clearing land degradation in the humid tropics held at University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria July 21-26,
1985.

Woomer P. L. and Muchens, F. N. (1993): Overcoming soil constraints in crop production in tropical
Africa. Sustaining soil productivity in intensive Africa Agriculture. Wageningen. CTA, 1993, seminar
proceedings Accra (Ghana). November 10-17, 1993 pp45.

12
E.I. Moyin – Jesu : Continental J. Agronomy 2: 8 - 18, 2008

Zake, J. Y. L. (1993): Overcoming soil constraints of crop production. In sustaining soil productivity in
intensive African agriculture, Wageningen CTA, 1993, seminar proceedings, Accra, Ghana, Nov. 15 -19,
1993 pp 57-61.

Received for Publication: 15/06/2008


Accepted for Publication: 05/07/2008

13
E.I. Moyin – Jesu : Continental J. Agronomy 2: 8 - 18, 2008

Table 1: Soil Physical Properties Before Planting of Okra


S/N SOIL PROPERTIES OKRA CROP

1. Bulk density (g/cm3) 1.60


2. Total Porosity (%) 41.81
3. Texture
4. Sand (%) 80.60
5. Silt (%) 15.60
6. Clay 3.80
Textural Class Sandy Loam
Local Soil Classification Akure Soil Series
USDA Soil Classification Alfisol

Table 2 : Chemical Composition of the organic materials used for the experiment
Treatments C N C:N P Ca K Mg Fe Mn Cu Zn

Cocoa husk 16.00 1.44 11.11 100 9.34 20.60 7.10 50.40 8.40 0.55 1.77
Woodash 18.00 1.53 11.80 86.00 9.40 23.00 8.50 65.50 11.90 0.66 1.88
Spentgrain 100.00 0.78 12.80 56.00 0.13 7.90 3.10 3.40 0.99 0.10 0.70
Ricebran + 14.00 0.60 23.30 76.00 0.12 7.90 1.80 6.30 1.80 0.18 0.50
Sawdust + 8.00 0.42 19.00 110.00 0.10 5.10 1.30 4.00 1.70 0.16 0.40
Poultry manure 30.00 4.33 6.93 385.00 3.20 9.72 4.10 37.85 1.66 0.15 1.26
Goat manure 20.00 2.52 7.93 167.50 2.90 9.97 4.50 34.50 1.60 0.16 1.30
Pig manure 25.00 3.72 6.72 312.00 3.10 14.45 4.80 34.00 1.62 0.17 1.34
+ Undergo decomposition for six weeks before analysis.

14
E.I. Moyin – Jesu : Continental J. Agronomy 2: 8 - 18, 2008

TABLE 3: The effect of plant residues plus manure on soil bulk density (g/cm3) under the four crop of
Okra
S/N TREATMENTS 1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH 5TH

1. Control (No fertilizer) 1.68n 1.68d 1.66r 1.67p 1.671

2. NPK 15-15-15 1.61m 1.62n 1.59q 1.60o 1.61k

3. Wood Ash (Sole) 1.54ij 1.48gh 1.43hi 1.35q 1.45de

4. Wood Ash + Goat Dung 1.52gh 1.45de 1.38d 1.33ef 1.42cd

5. Wood Ash + pig Dung 1.50ef 1.46ef 1.36c 1.31d 1.41c

6. Wood Ash + poultry Manure 1.49de 1.44cd 1.39de 1.32de 1.41c

7. Cocoa Husk (Sole) 1.53hi 1.50l 1.46k 1.41l 1.48fg

8. Cocoa Husk + Goat Dung 1.51fg 1.48gh 1.44ij 1.40hi 1.46ef

9. Cocoa Husk + pig Dung 1.49de 1.47fg 1.42gh 1.39h 1.44d


10. Cocoa Husk + Poultry Manure 1.48cd 1.46ef 1.41fg 1.40hi 1.44d

11. Rice Bran (Sole) 1.56kl 1.53kl 1.51op 1.48n 1.52j

12. Rice Bran + Goat Dung 1.54ij 1.51ij 1.49mn 1.45lm 1.50hi

13. Rice Bran + pig Dung 1.53hi 1.51ij 1.48lm 1.42j 1.49gh

14 Rice Bran + poultry Manure 1.51fg 1.50l 1.47kl 1.45lm 1.47f

15. Spent Grain (Sole) 1.48cd 1.44cd 1.40ef 1.31d 1.41c

16. Spent Grain + Goat Dung 1.46b 1.42b 1.36c 1.29bc 1.38h

17. Spent Grain + pig Dung 1.47bc 1.43bc 1.32a 1.28b 1.38b

18. Spent Grain + poultry 1.43a 1.39a 1.34b 1.26a 1.36a


Manure
19. Saw Dust (Sole) 1.55jk 1.54lm 1.50no 1.48n 1.52j

20. Saw Dust + Goat Dung 1.53hi 1.52jk 1.49mn 1.43jk 1.49gh

21. Saw Dust + pig Dung 1.53gh 1.51ij 1.47kl 1.44kl 1.49gh

22. Saw Dust + Poultry 1.54ij 1.50l 1.48lm 1.45lm 1.49gh


Manure
Treatment means within each group or column followed by the same letters are not significantly different
from each other using DMRT at 5% level.

15
E.I. Moyin – Jesu : Continental J. Agronomy 2: 8 - 18, 2008

Table 4: The effect of agro-industrial biomass on % soil porosity under the four crops of Okra.

S/N Treatments 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Mean


1. Control (No fertilizer 39.00a 39.00a 39.64a 39.27a 39.23a
2. NPK 15-15-15 41.46b 41.09b 42.18b 41.82b 41.64b
3 Wood Ash (sole) 33.00c 46.18d 48.00gh 50.91i 47.27f
4. Wood Ash + Goat Dung 44.73cd 47.27f 49.82jk 51.64j 48.37h
5. Wood Ash + Pig Dung 45.46de 46.91ef 50.55l 52.36k 48.82i
6. Wood Ash + Poultry Manure 45.82e 47.64fg 49.46ij 52.00jk 48.73hi
7. Cocoa Husk (Sole) 44.36cd 45.46de 46.91f 48.73f 46.37e
8. Cocoa Husk + Goat Dung 45.09d 46.18d 47.64g 49.09fg 47.00f
9. Cocoa Husk + pig Dung 45.82e 46.55e 48.36h 49.46gh 47.55fg
10. Cocoa Husk + Poultry Dung 46.18d 46.91ef 48.73hi 49.09fg 47.73g
11. Rice Bran (Sole) 43.27c 44.36c 45.09c 46.18c 44.73c
12. Rice Bran + Goat Dung 44.00c 45.09d 45.82d 47.27d 45.55d
13. Rice Bran + Pig Dung 44.36cd 45.09d 46.18e 48.36ef 46.00e
14. Rice Bran + Poultry manure 45.09d 45.46de 46.55ef 47.27d 46.09e
15. Spent Grain (Sole) 46.18ef 47.64fy 49.09i 52.36k 48.82i
16. Spent Grain + Goat Dung 46.91fg 48.36gh 50.55l 53.09l 49.73j
17. Spent Grain + Pig Dung 46.55f 48.00g 52.00n 53.46lm 50.00j
18. Spent Grain + Poultry manure 48.00h 49.46i 51.27m 54.18n 50.73k
19. Saw Dust (Sole) 43.64c 44.00c 45.46cd 46.18c 44.82c
20. Saw Dust + Goat Dung 44.36cd 44.73cd 45.82d 49.00e 45.73d
21. Saw Dust + Pig Dung 44.73cd 45.09d 46.55ef 47.64de 46.00e
22. Saw Dust + Poultry manure 44.00c 45.46de 46.18e 47.27d 45.73d

Treatment means within each group or column followed by the same letters are not significantly
different from each other using DMRT at 5% level.

16
E.I. Moyin – Jesu : Continental J. Agronomy 2: 8 - 18, 2008

Table 5: The effects of plant residues plus manure on the root length (cm) under four crops of
Okra.

S/N. Treatment 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Mean

1. Control (No fertilizer) 8.52a 8.46a 8.47a 8.65a 8.53a

2. NPK 15-15-15 28.652m 29.608j 31.136h 56.788ij 30.30n

3. Wood Ash (Sole) 15.54ef 23.07f 29.877g 29.914e 24.60fg

4. Wood Ash + Goat Dung 19.512h 29.134j 37.691m 38.042j 31.09op

5. Wood Ash + pig Dung 17.666g 26.464h 34.309l 34.446hi 28.24hl

6. Wood Ash + Poultry 21.472jk 32.244l 41.759o 41.956l 34.36r


manure
7. Cocoa Husk (Sole) 12.536c 18.804c 24.445c 24.476cd 20.06d

8. Cocoa Husk + Goat Dung 15.044e 22.652e 29.551g 29.492c 24.18f

9. Cocoa Husk + pig Dung 16.376f 23.936f 31.384h 31.242f 25.73h

10. Cocoa Husk + Poultry 22.694 31.196 41.582o 41.532l 34.25r


manure
11. Rice Bran (Sole) 11.99bc 18.206c 23.474b 23.712c 19.35c

12. Rice Bran + Goat Dung 13.74d 20.546d 26.436d 26.148d 21.72e

13. Rice Bran + Pig Dung 16.28f 25.085hi 32.288i 32.648g 26.78j

14. Rice Bran + Poultry 21.86k 24.17g 28.376f 29.462e 25.97h


manure
15. Spent Grain (Sole) 17.452g 26.162i 34.029j 34.03hi 27.92k

16. Spent Grain + Goat Dung 20.248j 30.42k 38.87n 39.562k 32.28q

17. Spent Grain + Pig Dung 19.56h 29.354j 36.092m 38.558j 30.89no

18. Spent Grain + poultry 22.06l 33.14m 43.044p 38.75jk 34.25r


manure
19. Saw Dust (Sole) 10.98b 16.11b 27.73e 21.216b 15.26b

20. Saw Dust + Goat Dung 16.50f 24.426g 31.474h 31.79f 26.05hi

21. Saw Dust + Pig Dung 17.22g 27.18l 34.298k 33.694h 28.10kl

22. Saw Dust + Poultry manure 18.28h 27.33i 35.492lm 35.548l 29.16m

Treatment means within each group of column followed by the same letters are not significantly different
from each other using DMRT at 5% level

17
E.I. Moyin – Jesu : Continental J. Agronomy 2: 8 - 18, 2008

Table 6: The effect of plant residues plus manure on fresh pod weight of Okra (gross plot) under four crops
of Okra in kg/hectare.

S/N. Treatment 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Mean


1. Control (no fertilizer) 46.81a 46.80a 46.70a 46.85a 46.78a
2. NPK 15-15-15 536.40k 801.63k 1335.42h 1469.75h 704.80f
3. Wood Ash (Sole) 254.50d 383.75cd 1117.76d 1102.01d 464.51c
4. Wood Ash + Goat Dung 548.75kl 823.97l 22.13.00l 2201.10l 1446.71m
5. Wood Ash + Pig Dung 571.40n 853.31m 24.03.39n 2390.74n 957.03l
6. Wood Ash + Poultry manure 630.98p 1095.72q 2692.93op 2672.33o 1772.99p
7. Cocoa Husk (Sole) 275.95f 414.76e 1183.43f 1169.55e 760.92g
8. Cocoa Husk + Goat Dung 606.19o 777.47j 2257.48m 2240.11m 1470.31mn
9. Cocoa Husk + Pig Dung 594.23n 892.58mn 2614.53o 2590.74j 1673.02o
10. Cocoa Husk + poultry manure 641.00q 962.50n 3003.66p 2979.98p 1896.79q
11. Rice Bran (Sole) 214.36c 324.09c 920.88b 900.88b 590.05d
12. Rice Bran + Goat Dung 475.16j 714.04ij 2035.03jk 2013.53j 1309.44j
13. Rice Bran + Pig Dung 533.74k 838.88lm 2076.77k 2054.11k 1375.88l
14. Rice Bran + poultry manure 558.75l 704.06l 2026.54j 1999.89l 1322.31jk
15. Spent Grain (Sole) 386.58l 579.37h 2268.62m 2260.15mn 1373.68l
16. Spent Grain + Goat Dung 654.33r 981.30o 3113.30q 3092.28q 1760.30r
17. Spent Grain + Pig Dung 686.53s 1026.11op 3724.21r 3632.68r 2267.38s
18. Spent Grain + Poultry manure 716.41t 1074.64p 4076.52s 4032.23s 2474.75t
19. Saw Dust (Sole) 180.62b 271.65b 996.45c 978.78c 606.88de
20. Saw Dust + Goat Dung 260.72e 388.55d 1170.33e 1495.18h 828.70h
21. Saw Dust + Pig Dung 297.23g 447.22f 1319.13g 1299.55f 210.19b
22. Saw Dust + Poultry manure 341.335h 541.33g 1493.541 1437.60g 953.45l
Mean (X) 471.44 704.77 2135.38 2127.69

Treatment means within each group or column followed by the same letters are not significantly different
from each other using DMRT at 5% level.

18
Continental J. Agronomy 2: 19 - 24, 2008
©Wilolud Online Journals, 2008.

FERTILITY INDICES AND MANAGEMENT OF HYDROMORPHIC SOILS SUPPORTING RAPHIA


PALM (RAPHIA HOOKERI) MANN AND WEND LAND) PLANTATION AT ONUEBUM, BAYELSA
STATE, NIGERIA.

Imogie, A.E., Udosen, C.V and Ugbah, M.M.


Agronomy Division, NIFOR, PMB 1030, Benin City, Edo State

ABSTRACT
Fertility status of soils supporting Raphia hookeri at Onuebum in Bayelsa State,
Nigeria, was investigated. The soils have silt ⁄ (clay + silt) ratios very low, being less
than unity in all the samples which is an indication that most of the silt has been
weathered into clay. The soils pH were moderately to strongly acidic with their
values ranging from 4.50 - 4.52. The hydromorphic soils supporting the growth of
Raphia hookeri palms contained low concentration of total N, available P and
relatively low exchangeable cations, Ca, Mg, K and Na. The base saturation percent
is medium to high (66.0 – 81.0%) and low in effective cation exchange capacity
(4.754 – 6.416 cmol ⁄ kg –1). The plantation therefore require application of organic or
inorganic fertilizer preferably N and K to boost the soil nutrient. In addition, good
tillage and liming should be done to reduce the flooding and acidity of the soils.

KEY WORDS: Raphia hookeri, Chemical properties, management, fertility status,


supporting.

INTRODUCTION
Raphia palm is monocotyledonous tree crop that thrives on predominantly swampy areas which are mostly
hydromorphic soils. It is a utility plant that supplies numerous products of social and economic
importance especially in Southern Nigeria. The palms valued for their fibre (piassava), furniture materials,
and cosmetic by products, and palm sap called palm wine, which is rich in vitamins, carbohydrates and
yeast (Obahiagbon, 2007). Major constraints to crop production in tropical Africa generally include biotic
and abiotic factors. Among the biotic factors is the soil. Soil is the major contributor to crop yield, this is
because conducive soil factors supply enough plant nutrients which are essential for the growth,
development and yield of crops. Thus soil testing is essential to the determination of the potentials and
constraint of soils to crop.

In order to fully exploit raphia palm, there is need to know the soil properties of the hydromorphic soil on
which the palm grows and how it can be properly managed for optimal growths, development and yield.
Hydromorphic soils are characterized by an excess of soil water, at least for a short period of time. They
are generally coarse textured with high acidity except in few patches with calcareous relies. Organic matter
and nitrogen contents vary from low to moderately high depending on the intensity of water level and
duration of water logging which influence the rate of organic matter degradation. The soils are generally
low in exchangeable bases particularly potassium and magnesium.

Raphia palms farmers will encounter difficulties in managing low fertility soils, especially where there are
no baseline data on inherent physical and chemical properties of the soils and the limits of nutrient
requirements of raphia palm. Increased production will not only require additional inputs of N, P, K and
Mg but also micronutrients to sustain high yields. At present there is little information on the fertilizer
requirements for raphia palm in Nigeria. The available information is based on extrapolations from nursery
fertility trials. Attempts at developing effective management of the soils supporting raphia palm, requires
the use soil test data because it is essential to the determination of the potentials and constraints of soil to
crop yield.

19
Imogie, A.E et al: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 19 - 24, 2008

Since little seems to have been directed to identifying fundamental constraints of soils grown to Raphia
hookeri in Onuebum in Bayelsa State. This present study aims at evaluating the soil properties of the area,
identify constraints militating against the growth, development and yield of Raphia hookeri and to suggest
appropriate correction measures to increase growth, development and yield of the palm.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Description of study area:
The study was conducted at NIFOR Raphia palm substation at Onuebum in Bayelsa State. A total of 89
surfaces (0-15cm) and sub surface (15-30cm) soil samples were collected from 40 profiles in three selected
locations in the Raphia hookeri Plantation. The locations covered the humid and sub-humid with mean
annual rainfall of 3000 to 4000mm. This was randomly selected to represent the total hectares of the area.
The selected location had no previous history of fertilization. The vegetation is dense tropical rain forest
consisting mainly of freshwater swamps and raphia palms. Samples collected were bulked together in
black polythene bags and were transported to the Agronomy analytical laboratory at the Main Station
(NIFOR). The bulked soil samples were air dried and crushed to pass through a 2mm sieve prior to
analysis.

Determination of soil physical and chemical properties:


Soil pH was determined in 1:1 soil, water suspension ratio and read in glass electrode pH meter.
Mechanical analysis was done by the hydrometer method (Bouyoucous, 1951). Organic carbon was
determined by the dichromate wet oxidation method (Walkley and Black, 1934) as modified by Jackson
(1969). Total nitrogen was assessed by the micro-kjeldahl digestion method (Bremner, 1965). Available
phosphorus was by Bray P-I- method (Bray and Kurtz, 1945). Exchangeable K, Ca, Na, and Mg were
extracted with neutral 1 M ammonium acetate, K and Na in the extracts were determined with a Flame
Photometer, while Ca and Mg were determined with an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fe, Mn, Zn
and Cu were extracted in 0.1 N HCL and then determined in an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.
Exchangeable acidity was determined using the method of Mclean (1965). The ECEC was by summation
of exchangeable cations plus exchangeable acidity. The percent base saturation was calculated as the sum
of exchangeable cations divide by the ECEC and multiplied by 100

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The result of physical properties of the hydromorphic soils supporting Raphia hookeri is presented in Table
1. The soil texture is dominated by the sand fraction which accounted for an average of 76.5% This reflects
the dominance of quartz in the soils parent materials. The soils were generally coarse texture having high
sand but low silt and clay contents. The silt /clay + silt) ratios were low, being less than unity in all the
samples indicating most of the silt as having been weathered into clay. According to Stewart et al., (1970),
low silt and low silt/(clay + silt) ratios is an indicators of advanced weathering which arises from prolonged
action or strong intensity of the weathering agents such as rainfall etc.

Table 1: Particle size distribution and textural classes of hydromorphic soils supporting Raphia hookeri
at Onuebum NIFOR Sub-station.

Location Soil depth Sand % Silt % Clay % Texture


(cm)
Location 1 0 – 15 88.9-91.2 5.9-7.2 4.9-5.2 Sand Loam
15 – 30 75.1-88.6 10.7-20.2 4.2-8.7 Loam Sand
Location 2 0 -15 85.1-89.1 7.7-10.7 1.7-8.2 Sand
15-30 83.6-90.6 0.7-10.7 2.2-6.7 Sandy Loam
Location 3 0-15 36.1-87.6 4.9-5.6 4.9-5.2 Sand loam
15-80 80.5- 90.5 6.5-8.0 4.2 – 8.7 Sand

Table 2: showed the chemical properties of soils supporting Raphia hookeri. The result of the chemical
analysis showed that the soils were moderately to strongly acidic, having a pH value ranging from 4.30 to

20
Imogie, A.E et al: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 19 - 24, 2008

4.71 with a mean of 4.50 for surface and 4.26 – 4.77 with a mean of 4.52 for sub-surfaces soil. This is
rated as strongly acid (Holland et al., 1989). According to Jacquemard et al., (1998), oil palm can cope
with acid soils with a pH as low as 4 or 45.

Raphia palm like oil palm can tolerate acid soils. The organic carbon contents of the soils were low
ranging from 0.22 – 1.256gkg-1 with a mean value of 0.650gkg-1 for surface soils and 0.032 – 0.960 gkg-1
with a mean value of 0.502gkg-1 for sub-surface soils. The soil total N was generally low in the three
locations. These ranging from 0.067 – 0.245 with a mean value of 0.096 gkg-1 for surface soils and 0.025 –
0.522 gkg-1 with a mean value of 0.076 gkg-1 for sub surfaces soils. The low total N values could be
attributed to ineffective microbial degradation of organic matter in the waterlogged soils and also due to
long period of flooding which usually last for 6 – 8 months in a year with few months of dryness.

There is a high variation in the degree of decomposition of the soils organic matter. And this is a reflection
of the organic carbon content in the soils (Onyekwere et al., 2003). Raphia palm are heavy feeder of N
thus low content of N will likely have adverse effect on growth, development and yield. Thus external
application of N in form of organic or inorganic fertilizer is required to enhance the growth, development
and yield of the palms.

The available P was generally low except in location two where the values were moderately high. The
mean values at this location ranged from 17.80 mgkg-1 for surface soils to 13.85 mgkg-1 for sub surface
soils. Locations 1 and 2 have available P values less than 10 gkg-1 suitable for optimal productivity (FAO,
1976). Raphia hookeri is not a heavy feeder of phosphorus; hence the P content in these soils is not likely
to limit the growth, development and yield of the palm. The exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium
and sodium were very low.

The calcium contents were very low and less than 4.0 cmol kg-1. According to Bohn et al., (1979), high
calcium content is very good for crop production, because it is an indication of low concentration of other
potentially troublesome exchangeable cations like sodium and aluminum in acid soils. Exchangeable K
and Mg were low. The lower contents of these basic cations may be caused by a high degree of leaching
which is certainly aggravated by the high rainfall, sandy texture and the low pH of the soils.

Exchangeable sodium content was moderate. The value ranged from 0.611 – 1.522 cmol kg-1 with a mean
value of 0.622 cmol kg-1 for surface soils to 0.585 – 1.522 cmol kg-1 with a mean value of 0.768 cmol kg-1
for sub-surface soil. The exchangeable acidity ranged from 1.05 – 2.04 cmol with a mean value of 1.55
cmol kg-1 for surface soils and 1.05 – 1.56 cmol kg-1 with a mean value 125 cmol kg-1 for sub-surface soils.
The highest value was recorded at location 1 with the least value recorded at location 3. The effective
cation exchange capacity (ECEC) was generally low, the values ranges from 3.331 – 8.012 cmol kg-1 with
mean value of 4.757 cmol kg-1 for surface soils and 3.284 – 10.515 cmol kg-1 with a mean value of 6.416
cmol kg-1 for sub-surface soils.

According to FAO (1976), soils having ECEC value above 20 cmol kg-1 are regarded as being suitable for
crop production, if other factors are favourable. The percentage base saturation values were moderate to
high with all the values above 35% which is regarded as the critical level for the growth, development and
yield of palm (Ibanga and Udo, 1996).

However, because water logging brings about increase in pH with attendant decrease in exchange acidity;
the soils generally have high percentage base proportion of the reserves in exchangeable or extractable
available forms. This could be the reason for high percent base saturation as observed. Thus these soils
could support any plant that tolerates permanent or periodic wetness like Raphia hookeri palms. Generally
it was observed that the soil at Onuebum where Raphia hookeri is cultivated had low CEC and this is an
indication of a low buffering capacity. Also the soil were inherently low in total N, available P, thus for

21
Imogie, A.E et al: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 19 - 24, 2008

optimal productivity of the palms, external inputs such as application of NPK and Mg fertilizers in form of
organic or inorganic fertilizer is required to sustain growth and productivity.

RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION:


Soil management can be defined as preparation and treatment of soils for the production of all types of
agricultural economic plants (Aduayi and Ekong, 1981). A good system must ensure that the nutrient
status of the soil is maintained, that all factors directly harmful to plant growth such as high acidity or
alkalinity, poor drainage are absent. Management of Onuebum hydromorphic soils supporting Raphia
hookeri for sustainable Raphia hookeri production can be achieved through the following ways.

(1) Use of soil conditioner


The area should be periodically lime with calcite or calcium carbonate; this will improve the soil structures.
Soil conditioners such as lime or calcite (CaCo3) have been successfully used to improve the structure of
acidic soils. Liming of soil increase the soil pH to near neutral and make P, exchangeable calcium and
magnesium more available in the soil.

(2) Drainage
Onuebum soils usually is flooded 6-8 months in a year, thus for effective utilization of this land for
meaningful productivity, excess water should be removed through good drainage system or channels. The
objective of soil drainage is to control excess water so as to make the soil more stable for optimum plant
growth. The excess water on the surface of the soil can be drained either by open drains or sub-surface
methods such as the use of tile; mole drains perforated pipes as well as swap and pump approaches. Apart
from leaching excess salts from the soil, drainage ventilates the soil, moderates soil temperature and makes
soil moisture available to the rooting cane. Other benefit is that drainage elongate crop growing season and
makes early planning and planting easy.

(2) Agronomic practices


The Agronomic practices of pudding (planning and harrowing), use of minimum tillage tools and
implement to ensure good soil tilt, levelling of the land and construction of leaves to impound water and
making of high mounds, ridges or beds enable us to put hydromorphic soils into productive use. The
objective here is to lower the water table whereas the top soil is maintained at field capacity moisture level.
Others agronomic practices include application of organic or inorganic fertilizers especially N and K
fertilizer to boast soil fertility.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are grateful to the Executive Director of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR)
for his support in kind and cash for the success of this work. Important to thank too is the plantation
manager at NIFOR Raphia palm substation, Onuebum, Mr. Adejaro, and the entire staff of the station for
their high sense of duties, commitment and dedication for the successful collection of soil samples.

REFERENCES
Aduayi, E.A. and Ekong E.E. (1981), General Agriculture and soils. Cassel Limited, an Affiliation of
Macmillan Pub. Co. Inc, 8th edition, New York: 55.

Bohn, H.L., Brian, L.M. and George, A.O. (1979). Soil Chemistry. John Wiley and Sons. New York,
329pp.

Bouyoucos, G.H. (1951). A re-calibration of the hydrometer for mechanical analysis of soils 8th edition,
Macmillan New York. 32pp.

Bray R.H. and Kurtz, L.T. (1965). Determination of total and available forms of phosphorus in Soils.
Journal of Soils Science, 53:39-45.

22
Imogie, A.E et al: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 19 - 24, 2008

Bremmer, J.M. (1965). Total Nitrogen in C.A. Black (ed). Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2,
Agronomy Series 9 American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin USA, 1149-1170.

Holland, M.D., Allen, R.K.G and Murphy, S.T. (1989) Land evaluation and agricultural
recommendations, Cross River State National Park, Oban Division, Bulletin No 18.

Ibanga, I.J. and Udo, E.J. (1996). Soil Survey and fertility baseline data collection of Akwa Ikot Effanga
Farm, Agricultur al Development Project, Bulletin No. 2

Jackson, M.L. (1968). Soil Chemical analysis, I.I. T.A. 43: 35-38.
Jacqueward J.J. C., Baudouin, L., Berthaud, A., Graille, J., Huguest, R., Marriou, D.I., Noel,
J.M., Quencez, P and Tailliez, B. (1998). Oil palm (The Tropical Agriculturist). Macmillan,. Basingstoke
London. 647Pp.

Mclean, E.O. (1965). Aluminium. In. C.a. Black (ed), Methods of Soil Analysis. Agronomy
Number 9 part 11. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, 978 – 999.

Obahiagbon, F.I. (2007). Raphia palm sap production uses. A paper presented at NIFOR
Seminar held 19th February, 2007, Pp 3.

Onyekwere, I.N., Ano, A.O., Ezenwa, M.I.S., Osunde, A.O. and Bala, A. (2003). Assessment of
exchangeable acidity status and management of wetland soils of Cross River, Nigeria. In Ojeniyi et al.,
(eds). Agricultural productivity and Rural poverty. Environmental implication pp. 202 – 207.

Stewart, V.I., Adams, W.A. and Abdulla, H. H. (1970). Quantititative pedological studies on soils derived
from Silurian mudstone I. parent material and the significance of weathering process. Journal of soil
science 21: 242-247.

Walkley, A and Black, I.A. (1934). An examination of the degtjareff method for determing soil organic
matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration
methods. Soil Science 37: 29-28.

Received for Publication: 15/06/2008


Accepted for Publication: 05/07/2008

Corresponding Author:
Imogie, A.E.
Agronomy Division, NIFOR, PMB 1030, Benin City, Edo State
Email: imogie@yahoo.com

23
Imogie, A.E et al: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 19 - 24, 2008

Table 2: Chemical properties of soil supporting R. hookeri


___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SOIL DEPTH (CM)
Soil properties Location 1 2 3 3
4.45 4.60 4.53 4.40 4.41 4.42
pH (H20 4.41 – 4.71 4.42 – 4.77 4.46 – 4.62 4.26 – 4.67 4.30 – 4.51 4.27 – 4.47
0.650 0.292 0.493 0.502 0.149 0.168
Org C (gkg-1) 0.064 – 1.256 0.032 – 0.516 0.160 – 0.833 0.064 – 0.960 0.022 – 0.288 0.061 – 0.288
0.096 0.310 0.104 0.076 0.153 0.120
Total N (gkg-1) 0.073 – 0.125 0.087 – 0.522 0.067 – 0.142 0.05 – 0.136 0.071- 0.245 0.071 – 0.184
10.53 10.91 17.80 19.62 13.85 12.46
Avail P. (mg kh-1) 6.405 – 14.663 7.973 – 13.838 16.874 – 19.018 15.465 – 23.711 4.827 – 20.783 6.932 -18.128
Exchangeable cation
1.78 3.04 1.93 2.60 1.45 1.78
Ca. (cmol kg-1) 1.04 – 2.16 0.88 – 5 .60 1.52 – 2.40 1.44 – 4.16 1.20 – 2.00 1.20 – 2.64
0.81 1.07 1.01 1.24 1.16 0.85
Mg (cmol kg-1) 0.40 – 1.42 0.04 – 2.30 0.48 – 1.92 1.36 – 1.48 0.24 – 2.48 6.16 – 1.44
0.240 0.170 0.242 0.251 0.268 0.247
K (cmol kg-1) 0.127 – 0.353 0.103 – 0.273 0.174 – 0.310 0.113 – 0.44 0.113 – 0.413 0.247 – 599
0.787 0.696 6.622 1.055 0.739 0.769
Na (mol kg-1) 0.784 – 0.860 0.611 – 0.782 0.671 – 1.522 0.585 – 1.522 0.645 – 0.834 0.662 – 0.877
1.86 1.40 1.75 1.20 1.14 1.14
EA (cmol kg-1) 1.05 – 2.04 1.05 – 1.56 1.65 – 2.86 1.05 - 1.30 1.24 – 1.76 1.04 – 1.30

5.477 6.416 5.554 6.346 4.757 4.787


EEC (cmol kg-1) 3.331 – 6.833 3.284 – 10.515 4.495 – 8.012 4.548 – 8.876 3.438 – 7.497 3.309-4786
66.0 77.6 68.5 81.1 76.0 76.2
B (%) 68.8 – 70.1 68.0 – 85.2 63.3 – 76.7 76.9 – 85.4 63.9 – 76.5 68.6 – 80.5

24
Continental J. Agronomy 2: 25 - 30, 2008
©Wilolud Online Journals, 2008.

INTEGRATION OF COCOA POD ASH, POULTRY MANURE AND NPK 20:10:10 FOR SOIL FERTILITY
MANAGEMENT – INCUBATION STUDY

Ayeni L.S.
University of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Land Management, Abeokuta, Nigeria. E- Mail.
leye_sam@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
A laboratory incubation study to determine the rate of nutrient supply by poultry manure (0, 5
and 10 t ha-1), cocoa pod ash (0, 5 and 10 t ha-1), NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer (0 and 150 kg ha-1)
and their combinations on soil properties was conducted at Igunshin in the rainforest zone of
Southwest Nigeria. The 10 treatments were arranged in completely randomized design with
nine replications. The soil was slightly acidic, low in OM, N, P and K. The incubation study
showed that the soils treated with poultry manure (P) rates, cocoa pod ash(C) rates and their
combinations significantly (p<0.05) increased soil pH over the control and NPK 20:10:10
fertilizer (F). When poultry manure was combined with NPK 20: 10:10 fertilizer, the pH of the
soil decreased as the incubation period progressed while the pH increased with combined
cocoa pod ash and the mineral fertilizer at 90 days of incubation. The rate of decrease in soil
pH was more pronounced in the soils treated with NPK fertilizer alone. Total OC, total N,
exchangeable K and Mg significantly (p<0.05) increased as the period of incubation increased
in all the treatments compared with control. Cocoa pod ash rates and cocoa pod ash combined
with NPK fertilizer increased exchangeable Ca as the period of incubation increased while
poultry manure rates and its combinations with NPK fertilizer decreased at 90 days of
incubation. Combined poultry manure and NPK fertilizer had the highest N and P while
combined cocoa pod ash recorded the highest Ca, K and Mg. Combination of poultry manure
with reduced level of mineral fertilizer or cocoa pod ash had positive effect on the acid soil and
increased the rate of nutrient mineralization than the sole application of poultry manure or
cocoa pod ash.

KEY WORDS: Cocoa pod ash, poultry manure, integration, mineral fertilizer

INTRODUCTION
Recently research effort has shifted from single application of organic manures and mineral fertilizers to integrated
plant nutrition management around the efficient use of low level of mineral fertilizer with organic manures in order
to reduce the problems associated with sole use of mineral fertilizers and organic manures. In Nigeria, scarcity of
mineral fertilizers, inefficient distribution channel and unjustly application without soil tests are major obstacles to
the sole use of mineral fertilizers for optimum crop production. The acidic nature of these mineral fertilizers also
poses threat to the tropical soils which are known to be acidic, fragile, kaolinitic and low in nutrient status. Organic
manures on the other hand are bulky, low in nutrient quality, pose environmental health hazard and slow in
mineralization hinder its sole use in soil fertility improvement.

Cocoa is widely grown in southwestern Nigeria and its husk is known to be rich in plant major and minor nutrients
(Odedina, et al., 2003 Ayeni et al., 2008). It is advocated that cocoa husk be burnt to serve as farm sanitation. Also,
its direct use as source of plant nutrients may lead to the spread of Phytophtora palmivora causing black pod disease
of cocoa, thereby causing another problem for poor resource farmers. Transporting and milling large quantity of
cocoa pod will also add to the farmers’ cost of production. Burning of cocoa pod can serve as source of potash
fertilizer (Adu-Dapaah et al., 1994).

Poultry manure on the other hand, is widely used to serve as source of plant nutrients to supply N, P and
micronutrients (Akanni and Ojeniyi, 2007), but; large quantity is needed to supply adequate of these nutrients to
meet crop requirements. With boost in poultry companies in Nigeria, poultry litter is found in urban cities, that;
constitutes nuisance and poses health hazards. Most farmers feel reluctant to use it to fertilize their farms because of
the short falls.

25
Ayeni L.S: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 25 - 30, 2008

Adeniyan and Ojeniyi (2006) have tested poultry manure combined with NPK fertilizer in experiments conducted
on soil chemical properties, maize yield and nutrient uptake by maize in southwest Nigeria. Cocoa pod ash
combined with NPK fertilizer (Ayeni et al., 2008) has also been used in soil fertility management in southwest
Nigeria. Cocoa pod is more available in Igunshin southwest Nigeria than poultry manure. Hence, its combined use
with NPK fertilizer will be more beneficial to the poor resource farmers who see cocoa pods as waste products that
need to be discarded than poultry manure combined with NPK fertilizer that is not as readily available as cocoa pod.
This experiment aimed at comparing rate of nutrients release by combined application of poultry manure and
NPK2010:10 fertilizer with combined cocoa pod ash and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer in Igunshin southwest Nigeria .

Table 1: Properties of poultry manure and cocoa pod ash used in the experiments (%).
_____________________________________________________________________
Nutrient OC N C/N P K Ca Mg S
______________________________________________________________________
Poultry Manure 11.8 1.72 6.9 9.56 3.87 2.66 1.09 2.72
Cocoa pod ash 12.4 0.99 12.5 2.50 15.13 3.40 1.76 1.11
_______________________________________________________________________

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Soil used for the laboratory experiment was collected from Igunshin in the forest zone (070 050N 040 551) southwest
Nigeria in early March 2007 and transferred to the Federal University of Technology Akure for nutrient analysis.
Igunshin soil is derived from the basement complex rock (USDA Survey Staff, 1975) and is classified as Alfisol.

Soil analysis
Soil samples were taken from the site at 0-20cm depth for the experiment. The collected soil samples was air-dried
and sieved through 2mm sieved mesh. Part of the soil sample was used for routine soil analysis and laboratory
incubation study. Organic matter was determined by the dichromate oxidation method. Available phosphorus was
extracted with Bray-1-P and determined colorimetrically (Bray and Kurtz, 1945). Exchangeable bases (Ca, K and
Mg) were extracted with 1N ammonium acetate at pH 7.0. Potassium was read using flame photometer while Ca and
Mg were determined on the atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

Analysis of poultry manure and cocoa pod ash


The nutrient composition of powdered poultry manure and cocoa pod ash were determined after ashing in a muffle
furnace. With the exception of N, the determination of the organic materials was done using wet digestion method
based on 25 – 5 – 5 ml of HNO3 – H2SO4 – HCl4 acids. Phosphorus was measured on spectronic 20 at 442(µm); K
with photometer while Ca and Mg were determined with the use of AAS. Total N was determined with
mickrokjedahl method.

Treatment Design and Application


Three levels of cocoa pod ash and poultry manure applied at 0, 0.25 and 0.5g/100soil to represent 0, 5 and 10 t ha-1
and two levels of NPK 20: 10:10 fertilizer applied at 0 and 0.075g/100g soil to represent 0 and 150 kg ha-1 were
formulated to give ten treatments. The formulations and their abbreviations were: Absolute control (no treatment
applied), 10 t ha-1 poultry manure (P10), 5 t ha-1 poultry manure (P5), 10 t ha-1 cocoa pod ash only (C10), 5 t ha-1
cocoa pod ash only (C5), 150 kg ha-1 NPK 20:10:10 (F150), 10 t ha-1 poultry manure combined with 150 kg ha-1
NPK 20:10:10 (P10F150), 5 t ha-1 poultry manure combined with 150 kg ha-1 NPK 20:10:10 (P5F150), 10 t ha-1
cocoa pod ash combined with 150 kg ha-1 NPK20: 10: 10 (C10F150) and 5 t ha-1 of cocoa pod ash combined with
150 kg ha-1 NPK20: 10:10 (C5F150). Each treatment was put in a plastic cup, covered with a loosed asbestos sheet
with equal amount of distilled water added weekly. The treatments were arranged in completely randomized design
on a laboratory desk in a cool room. Each treatment was replicated nine times to give a total sum of ninety soil
samples. Three samples of each treatment was chemically analyzed at 30 days interval and discarded.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The soil used for the experiment contained 1.29% OC, 0.10% total N, 5.97 mg kg -1 available P, the exchangeable
cations were 0.15, 2.32 and 0.30 cmol kg -1 for available K, Ca and Mg respectively with pH of 6.09 (1:1 H2O). The

26
Ayeni L.S: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 25 - 30, 2008

soil was sandy clay. The initial soil characteristics showed that the soil was deficient N and P (Sobulo and Osiname,
1981). The chemical properties of the poultry manure and cocoa pod ash used in the experiment was shown in
Table 1. Generally, poultry manure was richer in plant nutrients than cocoa pod ash except K and Ca.

Table 2: Effect of cocoa pod ash, poultry manure, NPK20:10:10 and their combination on soil pH and organic
carbon
Treatment 60 days 60 days
pH OC
Control 6.06 6.08 6.03 1.32 1.37 1.39
F150 6.00 5.98 5.96 1.36 1.36 1.38
C5 6.38 6.52 6.99 1.33 1.39 1.43
C10 7.45 7.58 7.67 1.16 1.49 1.53
P5 6.20 6.29 6.17 1.38 1.59 1.60
P10 6.39 6.68 6.66 1.36 1.60 1.77
C5F150 6.22 6.29 6.48 1.38 1.52 1.69
C10F150 7.34 7.38 7.49 1.39 1.59 1.69
P5F150 6.17 6.2 6.09 1.48 1.65 1.97
P10F150 6.19 6.43 6.22 1.55 1.79 2.1
LSD 0.18 0.2 0.23 0.07 0.09 0.09
(0.05)

F = NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer, C = cocoa pod ash, P = poultry manure

Application of poultry manure rate, cocoa pod ash rate and their various combinations had an immediate effect on
pH of the soil used (Table 2). The pH of the soil samples treated with poultry manure, cocoa pod ash and their
combinations were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control. Cocoa pod ash and poultry manure applied singly;
and cocoa pod ash combined with NPK fertilizer (C5F150 and C10F150) increased soil pH as incubation period
increased. NPK fertilizer applied singly decreased soil pH at 90 days of incubation. The decrease in pH of the soil
samples treated with NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer compare with cocoa pod ash shows its acidifying effect. This might be
as a result of its high ammonium content or acidulation of phosphate source used in formulation of the mineral
fertilizer. Chude (1999) indicated that the phosphate source in the agro nutrient NPK fertilizer was about 25%
acidulated.

The increases in pH of the soil samples treated with C5, C10, C5F150 and C10F150 show the liming effect of cocoa
pod ash. Ayeni et al., (2008a) observed similar increase in pH of soil treated with cocoa pod ash in the incubation
experiment performed to show the effect of combined cocoa pod ash and poultry manure on soil chemical properties
in Ondo southwest Nigeria. The decrease in pH of soil samples treated with poultry manure rates and its
combination with NPK fertilizer compare with cocoa pod ash rates might be as a result of organic acids produced by
poultry manure which also aided in acidifying the soil. Cocoa pod applied at 10 t ha-1 had the highest liming effect
as it recorded the highest pH (7.57) and Ca (6.70 c mol kg-1).

Table 2 also shows the effect of cocoa pod ash, poultry manure, NPK20:10:10 fertilizer and their combinations on
soil organic carbon within 90days of incubation. Decreases in OC in treatments C10 and P5F150 than the control at
30 days of incubation was observed (Table 2). Ano and Agwu, (2005), Machner and Nobel, (2002) observed similar
decrease in soil organic carbon when an acid soil was incubated with organic materials and attributed the
observation to increase microbial respiration stimulated by the added manure which might have caused temporary

27
Ayeni L.S: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 25 - 30, 2008

immobilization. The OC in all the treatments increased through out the period of the experiment. The significance
(p<0.05) increase in the OC in the poultry manure and cocoa pod ash combined with NPK fertilizer rates compared
with NPK fertilizer applied singly, indicates the ease with which mineralization takes place when the organic
materials were combined with mineral fertilizer.

Cocoa pod ash rates, poultry manure rates, cocoa pod ash combined with NPK fertilizer and poultry manure
combined with NPK fertilizer significantly increased soil total N, available P, K (except C5F150), Ca (except
P10F150) as the period of incubation increased (Table 3). This shows continuous mineralization of the nutrient
elements. F150 decreased total N, P and K (at 90 days) as the period of incubation increased. This shows that
mineralization in NPK fertilizer had ceased before 90 days. NPK fertilizer applied singly had pH of 5.98, OC 1.36%,
N 0.13%, P 6.97 mg kg-1, S 6.97 mg kg-1, exchangeable K, Ca and Mg 0.72, 0.85 and 0.45 c mol kg-1 respectively.
Cocoa pod ash rates had mean soil pH ranged 6.63 to 6.57, N 0.12 – 0.12%, P 6.76 – 7.59 mg kg-1, S 11.06 – 12.55,
K, Ca and Mg 2.01 – 2.52, 1.63 – 3.00, and 0.38 – 0.88 cmol kg-1 respectively. Poultry manure rates had soil pH
ranged between 6.22 – 6.58, OC 1.52 – 1.58, N 0.12 – 0.14%, P 7.40 – 13.96 mg kg-1 , S 13.11 – 35.98 mg kg-1, K,
Ca and Mg were respectively 1.74 – 1.89, 1.63 – 1.87 and 0.38 - 0.62. Cocoa pod ash (5 and 10 t ha-1) combined
with NPK fertilizer had the pH of 6.63 – 7.57, OC 1.38 – 1.39%, N 0.13 – 0.15%, P 7.59 – 10.19 mg kg-1, S 17.00
24.84 mg kg-1, K, Ca and Mg 2.33 - 2.55, 4.60 – 4.75 and 1.27 – 1.47 cmol kg-1. Poultry manure rates(5 and 10 t ha-
1
) combined with NPK fertilizer had soil pH of 6.15 – 6.28, N 0.13 – 0.16%, P 11.48 - 18.47 mg kg-1, S 30.80 –
42.89 mg kg-1, K, Ca and Mg 1.80 – 1.88, 1.66-2.41 and 0.47 – 1.35 cmol kg-1 respectively. Compared with the
nutrient critical level established for arable crops in southwest Nigeria, OM (3%), N 0.15%, P 8 – 10 mg kg-1, 0.20,
0.24 and 0.16 cmol kg-1for K, Ca ands Mg respectively, all the treatments supplied adequate nutrients except F150,
C5 and P5. The control experiment had mean soil pH of 6.06, OC 1.36%, total N 0.11%, P 5 mg kg-1, S 5mg kg-1, K,
Ca and Mg 0.50, 0.80 and 0.50 cmol kg-1 respectively.

Treatment P10F150 had the highest N, P and S while C10F150 had highest K. Treatment C10 had the highest Ca
value while C5F150 had highest Mg. This shows that integration of cocoa pod ash and poultry manure with NPK
fertilizer enhanced nutrient release than sole application of any of the fertilizer materials. Phosphorus was found to
be low in the soil treated with cocoa pod ash The Phosphorus might have formed complex with soil Ca because P is
known to form insoluble complex with Ca at pH above 7 (Busari et al., 2004). This means, additional phosphatic
fertilizer may be needed in order to correct P deficiency in the treatments that were low in available P i.e. C5, F150
and C5F150. The available K increased through out the period of incubation and was significantly higher than the
absolute control. NPK 20:10:10 combined with poultry manure or cocoa pod ash increased the exchangeable Ca and
Mg. The treatments with cocoa pod ash had higher increases in K, Ca and Mg. This confirms that cocoa pod ash is a
source of K and Ca as indicated in the work of Adu-Dapaah et al., (1994) and Ayeni et al., (2008b). The higher
cations released from combined cocoa pod ash than poultry manure indicates that the nutrients were released from
cocoa pod ash included in the combination.

CONCLUSION
Combination of poultry manure with reduced level of mineral fertilizer or cocoa pod ash had positive effect on the
acid soil and increased the rate of nutrient mineralization than the sole application of poultry manure or cocoa pod
ash. It also made nutrient available in the soil within short time, thereby could enhance increase in production of
crop with short life span. Poultry manure combined with NK20:10:10 fertilizer released more N, P and S than cocoa
pod ash combined with NPK20:10:10 while combined cocoa pod ash and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer released more K

28
Ayeni L.S: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 25 - 30, 2008

Table 3: Rate of release of nutrients from cocoa pod ash, NPK fertilizer and their combinations within 90 days
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Treatment N P K Ca Mg S
% mg kg -1 -------------------cmol kg -1 -------------------------- mg kg-1
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
DAYS 30 60 90 30 60 90 30 60 90 30 60 90 30 60 90 30 60 90
Control 0.10 0.11 0.11 4.40 5.02 5.10 0.50 0.53 0.59 0.76 0.77 0.79 0.36 0.40 0.60 4.28 5.00 6.00
F150 0.13 0.14 0.12 9.00 5.92 6.00 0.75 0.80 0.60 0.77 0.79 1.00 0.48 0.40 0.46 19.10 18.00 11.00
P10 0.10 0.15 0.16 13.42 13.65 14.80 0.62 2.45 2.60 0.70 2.40 2.51 0.22 0.40 0.53 17.00 21.90 69.05
C10 0.10 0.13 0.14 6.82 7.94 8.00 2.20 2.27 3.10 3.62 2.10 3.70 0.23 0.20 0.22 7.78 8.67 12.55
P5 0.11 0.12 0.14 6.45 7.73 8.02 0.54 2.30 2.38 1.45 1.70 1.73 0.24 1.20 0.43 6.56 10.10 22.66
C5 0.11 0.11 0.13 6.02 7.11 7.15 1.00 2.10 2.92 3.10 2.30 2.36 0.23 1.20 1.21 4.99 7.50 11.06
P10F150 0.13 0.18 0.18 18.00 18.52 18.90 1.52 1.92 2.20 1.90 2.90 2.44 0.26 1.90 1.90 24.44 32.24 72.00
C10F150 0.14 0.15 0.15 10.05 10.10 10.42 1.90 2.20 3.55 2.00 6.20 6.22 1.09 1.40 1.32 20.00 25.00 29.46
P5F150 0.13 0.14 0.13 11.23 11.40 11.80 0.93 1.98 2.48 1.50 1.70 1.79 1.00 0.20 0.21 20.61 12.80 59.00
C5F150 0.13 0.13 0.14 7.20 7.44 7.72 1.30 3.10 2.59 2.49 5.22 6.09 1.00 1.70 1.72 10.00 20.00 21.00
LSD 0.03 0.04 0.04 4.32 4.72 4.97 1.27 0.37 1.11 1.56 0.39 1.12 1.44 2.56 0.25 10.37 2.77 27

29
Ayeni L.S: Continental J. Agronomy 2: 25 - 30, 2008

REFERENCES
Adeniyan, O. N. and Ojeniyi, S.O. 2006. Comparative effectiveness of different levels of poultry manure with NPK
fertilizer on soil fertility, nutrient uptake and uptake of maize. Moor Journal of Agricultural Research. 4, 194 – 197.

Adu-Dapaah H.K, Combina J and Asare E.O. 1994. Effect of cocoa pod on maize growth. Journal of Agric. Sc.
Cambridge 132:31-33

Ano A.O and Agwu J.A 2005. Effect of animal manure on selected soil chemical properties, Nigerian. Journal of
Soil Science, 13: 14-19

Akanni, D.I. and Ojeniyi, S.O. 2007. Effect of different levels of poultry manure on soil physical properties, nutrient
status, growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) Research Journal of Agronomy. 1, 1 - 4.

Ayeni L.S, Adetunji, M.T. and Ojeniyi, S.O 2008a. Comparative nutrient release from cocoa pod ash, poultry
manure, NPK 20:10:10 and their combinations - Incubation study. Nigerian Soil Science, 18: 23 - 26

Ayeni, L.S., Adetunji, M.T., Ojeniyi, S.O., Ewulo B.S. and Adeyemo, A.J. 2008b.Comparative and cumulative
effect of cocoa husk ash and poultry manure on soil, nutrient contents and maize yield. American – Eurasian Journal
of Sustainable Agriculture. 2 (1):92 – 97.

Busari, M.A, Salako, F.K, Sobulo R.A Adetunji M.T and Bello N.J 2004 Variation in In: Soil pH and maize yield
as affected by the application of poultry manure and lime. Proceeding of the 29th Annual Conference of. Soil
Science of Nigeria. December 6 – 10 2004.University of Agriculture, Abeokuta.Nigeria.

Bray R.H and Kurtz, L.T. 1945. Determination of total organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil
59:45-59

Chude V.O 1999 . Perspective of fertilizer use in the 21st century. Proceeding of 25th Annual Conference, Soil
Science Society of Nigeria, Benin Nigeria pp 255 – 259

Marschner H and Nobel, A.D. 2002. Chemical and biological processes leading to the neutralization of acidity in
the soil incubated with litter materials. Soil Biology and Biochemistry.32: 805 – 813.

Odedina S.A, Odedina J.N., Ayeni S., Arowojolu S.A., Adeyeye S.D. and Ojeniyi S.O. 2003 Effect of types of
ash on soil fertility nutrient availability and yield of tomato and pepper. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science13: 66-67

Sobulo, R.A. and Osiname O.A. 1981. Soil and Fertilizer use in Western Nigeria, Resource Bulletin No11 IAR&T,
Unife ,Ile –Ife 1987, pp20-26

USDA Survey Staff.1975. Soil taxonomy, A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil
survey, USDA Agricultural Book 436. Washington DC.

30