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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Abstract
An assessment on the physico-chemical parameters, diversity of zooplankton and ichthyospecies
were carried out in three different wetlands (beels) viz., Andurup, Patuma, Suskachora, located in

west Katigorah of Cachar district, Assam during the study period from Sep2015 to May 2016.
The physico chemical parameters includes temperature of air and water, climatic conditions of
studied zone, pH of water, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Free carbon di-oxide (FCO 2), Total
Alkalinity(TA), turbidity, conductivity, Biological oxygen demond(BOD), Chemical oxygen
demond (COD) etc. In Andurupa beel, the DO has been found to be maximum (---) in January
and minimum (---) during December; FCO2 is maximum (---) in ----and minimum (---); TA ----;
pH----; and a toatl of ----specis of fishes belonging to ---genera, ----order and ---family has been
recorded. Among them, the fishes of the order Cypriniformes has been found to be dominant
over other. The results slightly varies with physical chemical parameters as well as due to human
activities.

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Introduction
The wetlands are biological supermarkets andkidneys of the landscape, on the basis
of the functions they perform in hydrologic and chemical cycles and also because they support
all life forms through extensive food webs and biodiversity (Mitsch and Gosselink,
1986).Wetlands vary widely because of regional and local differences in soils, topography,
climate, hydrology, water chemistry, vegetation, and other factors, including human disturbance.
Indeed, wetlands are found from the tundra to the tropics and on every continent except
Antarctica. Two general categories of wetlands are recognized: coastal or tidal wetlands and
inland or non-tidal wetlands (Sinha and Mohanty, 2002).
Wetlands can be either sources or sinks in the biogeochemical cycles of many elements.
Wetland treatment of wastewater discharges has resulted in significant reduction of suspendedsolid concentrations, biochemical oxygen demand, and concentrations of nutrients such as
phosphorus and nitrogen (Tchobanoglous and Schroeder, 1985). The ability of wetlands to
remove nutrients is of interest because nutrient concentrations often remain high, even after
secondary treatment of effluents by conventional means. Wetlands provide tremendous economic
benefits to mankind through the production of fish, other plants and animals and their products
have been a constantlure to human kind. Wetland forms the basis of the environment for the
aquatic food web of high-yielding animals (Crow and Mac Donald, 1979; de La Cruz, 1979;
Murkin and Wrubleski, 1988). As they support a variety of plant and animal life, biologically
they are one of the most productive ecosystems (Niering and Goodwin, 1973; Tiner,
1998).Ecologically wetlands have great significance and perform some useful functions in the
maintenance of overall balance of nature by natural checking of floods, recharging ground water,
water purification, protections of shorelines & hinterlands, supporting varied floral & faunal
habitats, gene pools, recreational besides providing outputs of commercial value and economic
sustenance to the people.
Natural wetlands can remove nitrogen, a major wastewater component, by denitrification,
a microbially-mediated biochemical process that reduces nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen.
Studies of nitrogen budgets and cycling indicate that denitrification is a significant pathway for
nitrogen removal from some aquatic ecosystems (Chen and others, 1972). In light of this
information, constructed wetlands have been proposed as a way to provide wastewater treatment
for communities that do not have conventional treatment facilities (Jewell, 1994 eutrophic
wetland habitats, and does not significantly limit growth (Mitsch and Gosselink, 1986). It is in
these habitats, where abundant nitrogen and anaerobic environments both occur, that
denitrification is an important part of the local nitrogen cycle. Studies by Keeney and others
(1971) indicated that 63 percent of the nitratenitrogen entering Lake Mendota sediments by
ground-water seepage is removed by denitrification. Similarly, in a series of experiments in
which nitrate-nitrogen was mixed into lake sediments and wetland soils, as much as 90 percent
of the added nitrogen was removed within a few days by denitrification (Bartlett and others,
1979).
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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

India is endowed with myriads of floodplain wetland locally called beels (Assam and in
most states), mauns, chaurs and dhars (Bihar), pats (Manipur), jheels(Uttar Pradesh), charhas,
haors and anuas (West Bengal and Assam) spread over eastern Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal,
Bihar, and North Eastern region covering an area of about 205875 ha. The beels cover 18.4% of
the countrys total area (Devi et al., 2007). The North-East part of India is considered as one of
the hot spots of fresh water fish diversity in the world (Kottelat and Whitten, 1996). Soil
comprising physical, chemical and biological substances are subjected to change effected by
various factors of environment, hence analysis of soil is necessary for judging the relationship
between water and soil with respect to their properties (Tiwari and Ranga, 2006) in an aquatic
ecosystem.
Assam with its unique topography, diverse physiographic features and varied watershed
patterns is a lucrative field for ichthyological studies. The climatic condition of the state falls
under 3 categories i.e. tropical, sub-tropical and temperate.The effect of the climatic conditions
are varied with various physical chemical ie both effect by human and natural processes, the
wetlands are continuously changing their size shape,and resulting in changing of biological
parameters eg, fish diversity, plankton diversity etc.
Classification of wetlands in Assam
In the tropics, notably in India, particularly in Assam and adjoining places, like
Bangladesh, etc.,wetlands are generally shallow depressions which could normally be in the
form of a basin at the centre of hillocks on all sides; or, could be abandoned segment of a river
(oxbow wetland); or, a shallow portion of a river course which is detached from the main river
course during the dry season. Sometimes, wetlands in NE India, are formed due to tectonic
activities (Kar et al. 1996).
Wetlands occur throughout the world in all climatic zones and are estimated to cover c 6 %
of the earths surface. The simplest classification of wetlands has been provided by IUCNs
Ramsar Convention, which is briefly listed below:
a) Freshwater lakes/wetlands
b) Oxbow lakes/wetlands
c) FW ponds
d) Marshes, swamps, bogs
e) Reservoirs
In Assam, and in adjoining Tripura and Bangladesh, 3 kinds of wetlands are generally found.
They are locally called as follows (Kar, 2007):
(a) Beel:-Perennial wetlands which contain water throughout the year.
(b) Haor:- Seasonal wetlands which contain water for some period of the year only,
particularly, during the rainy season. As such, they are also called `floodplain wetlands.
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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

(c) Anua:-These are peculiar river formed perennial oxbow-type wetlands which are generally
formed due to change in river course and which may or may not retain connection with the
original river.
Classification based on water retentivity
a) Perennial beels: Deeper and permanent beels, which retain water round the year.
b)Seasonal beels: These are shallow floodplain wetlands, which periodically wet by monsoon
rains and floods but completely dry up during summer months.
Classification based on size
a) Small beels: Effective area less than 100 hectares.
b) Medium beels: Effective area 100 to 500 hectares.
c) Large beels: Effective area more than 500 hectares.
Classification based on depth
a) Shallow beels: Beels having maximum depth up to 5 meters.
b) Medium deep beels: Beels which have maximum water in the range of 5 to 10 meters.
c) Deep beels: Beels having maximum depth of over 10 meters.
Classification based on size
a) Small beels : Effective area less than 100 hectares.
b)Medium beels : Effective area 100 to 500 hectares.
c) Large beels : Effective area more than 500 hectares.
Classification based on riverine connection
a) Open beels: These beels retain continuity with the parent river either for the whole year or at
least during the rainy season. Such beels have continuous exchange of water as well as fish
fauna with the parent river.
b)Closed beels : These beels are completely cut-off from the nearby rivers and receive water
mostly from their catchment areas following monsoon rains or dwing high flood. In recent years,
riverine embankments constructed to prevent floods have converted many open beels into closed
ones by blocking the riverine connections.
ECOLOGY OF BEELS
The beel ecosystem is extraordinarily complex with wide temporal and spatial variations
of many key parameters. Among the various factors that influence the wetland ecosystem are
depth, nature of catchment area or river basin, precipitation and duration of connection to river
etc.
Beel is a highly productive ecosystem which can effectively convert the solar energy into
organic carbon in the presence of rich nutrients available from natural sources. Investigations
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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

carried out by CIFRI have brought to light exceptionally high rate of primary productivity
through macrophyte and plankton phases from floodplain wetlands which are many time higher
than those reported from other inland open water ecosystems. By manipulating the biotic
communities present in the system. the high rate of organic productivity at the primary producer
level can be channeled to higher trophic levels to achieve protein harvest in the form of fish
flesh. Thus, growing fish in beels is an effective way of using natural resources for the
betterment of man. However, the ecosystem processes in open water bodies are usually very
complex due to the interaction of an array of physical, chemical and biological processes. Since
the synergistic effect of these factors influence the dynamics of biotic communities living in
these water bodies and govern the rate of output of harvestable biological material, it is often
difficult to link their fish production potential with any particular ecological parameters. CIFRI.
Barrackpore(2000)
To study and analyse the state condition and status of a beel following field are to be studied:
A. Physico-chemical properties
The crystalization process which influences the chemical composition of beel water
depends on a variety of complex factors. However, three basic mechanisms that control water
chemistry of beels can be discerned viz. precipitation, evaporation and nature of the basin. The
ionic composition of wafer is chiefly determined by the rain and the substrata ova which the
parent river flows. Secondary influences on the ionic composition are exerted by rnacrophytes
and phytoplankton. In recent years, human factors related industrial, agricultural and urban
activities started playing an increasingly important role in determining the chemical quality of
water. The chemical and physical load brought in by rain water or surface runoff gets
concentrated by evaporation and altered by chemical and biological interaction within the system
causing seasonal variations of various parameters.
Water flow plays a vital role in nutrient dynamics and aquatic productivity through transport
of nutrients to the organisms and removal of waste similarly temperature. Which effects all life
processes, including growth rates. Like cycles and overall productivity of the entire system is a
key physical variable. The flood water and surface run-off carry huge load of silt and
allochthonous organic matter which render water turbid, preventing light penetration. After the
monsoons , when the system becomes lentic and stagnant, the silt starts settling making the water
more transparent to facilitate light penetration. This increases effective photosynthetic zone
making the system more productive. Man-made changes in the lake morphometry in the form of
water abstraction embankments and river training have created radical changes in
hydrodynamics with far reaching implications on organic productivity.CIFRI (2000)
B.Morphometry and hydrodynamics
The main morphometric features that influence the productivity of beel ecosystem are
shoreline, area, depth and slope. These, in turn, are closely linked with the hydrodynamics of
wetlands. Water renewal pattern is often modified by a number of natural and man-made
processes. CIFRI. Barrackpore(2000)

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

C.Biological characteristics
The living part of the ecosystem or the biotic communities in water is governed by the
variations of physical and chemical features of the water body and trophic interactions associated
with it. Biotic communities of the ecosystem can be categorized broadly as 1. autotrophs and 2.
hetertrophs. The autotrophs include photosynthetic pigment baring microscopic plants, plankton
and macrophytes. Heterotrophs includes consumers and decomposers The primary organic
productivity and the fish yield potential of a water body thus depends largely on the relative
abundance of various communities and their associations. Beels are generally considered as
highly eutrophicated system with high raete of primary productivity. The energy produced at the
primary stage i.e, phytoplankton and macrophytes are transformed into higher trophic levels
through food chains. It is the efficiency at which this energy is transformed into fish level that
determines the effectiveness of management In beels. The main pathways viz. the grazing chain
and the detritus chain are found. In the grazing chain Primary productivity is done by
phytoplankton which IS grazed by zooplankton. In case of detritus chain, the macrophytes
produce the primary energy. In the absence of fish feeding on macrophytes, these plants die and
settle at the bottom adding to detritus .In such cases, detritivorous fish flourish and contribute to
fishery. CIFRI(2000).

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Material and Methods


Study area: The study of Physical Chemical and
Biological characteristics of beels viz. Andurupa
beel, Petuma beel and Sushkachara beel,
Shundarkori beel are located under the district
Cachar of Assam, at Katigorah.
General characteristics of sites: These three
beels occupies about
ha of the district Cachar. Andurupa beel is neighbouring to Boraitali
located at East and Lakhipur at Weast side about 3 km away from Kalain town, at coordinate
2456N latitude and 9260 E longitude. The Andurupa beel is connected with a water channel
known as Tinnorkhal. The Tinnarkhal is linked with a sub river Modhua which is ultimately
linked with Barak river .Thus Andurupa is an open beel.
The Petuma beel are located at Hilara Rail Gait at east Katigorah, 7 km away from Kalain town.
At coordinate between 2492N latitude and 9257E longitude. This beel is a closed beel as it is
not connected to any external water chennal.
The Sushkachara beel is located at Madhua, near to Jain Bricks Factory border, which is about
13 km away from Kalain, between coordinate 2495N latitude and 9248 E longitude.The beel
is directly connected with the Madhua sub river.
The Physical Chemical and biological parameters are studied on those three beels from
September 2015 to May 2016, the total observation and study was done by visiting the field in
every month. Sample were collected from the field randomly for various laboratory experimental
analysis viz, DO, FCO2, pH, identification of various aquatic organisms.

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

POSITION AND MAP OF THE STUDIED BEELS

Geography: Climate, Rainfall and Temperature :


In the plains of Assam, the maximum temperature does not go beyond 90oF.or 32oC and in
winter the plains of Assam have a minimum temperature of about 8oC or about 47oF. In the
plains of Assam ,including the district of Cachar the temperatures in summer may be only about
32oC. Assam consists of both hill and plain districts. The climate of the hills is generally
salubrious while that of the plains is comparatively warm in summer but cool in winter.
Accordingly,the climate of Assam is characterised by alternate cool and warm periods with a
highly humidity ,Especially from May to November. Between March and May at the time when
precipitation in Northern India is at the minimum, Assam gets some amount of rainfall from the
Norwesters which keep the temperature low in the season of spring. The climate of the plains and
the sub-montain region becomes unpleasant,especially in the summer season. It happens to be so
because of the extreme humidity which comes with the monsoon. But the humidity may be so
high that one will perspire and feel very uneasy, especially humidity may be so high that one will
perspire and feel very uneasy, especially during the period between two bouts of rainfall. From
the climatic point of view the year in Assam can broadly be divided in two, the cold season and
the rainy season. However, there are two other short seasons namely spring and autumn
representing the transition between cold and rainy seasons and that between rainy and cold
seasons respectively.
The cold season in this region is from December to February and this is followed by the sandstorms and thunderstorms from March to May. The rainy season, as in rest of Assam begins in
late June and continues up to late September. October and November constitute the postmonsoon period.
From the middle of November to the middle of February the cold season prevails with the sky
becoming clear and temperature going down below 15oC. Fogs also appear during these months,
especially in the morning and evening but they disappear during the daytime. From March
temperature begins to rise, dust ,storms begin ti blow and occasional Northwesters visit with
thunderstroms. The showers of this period prevent the temperatures from rising and they settle
down the unwanted dusts which appear in the air. Besides, they also help to make the vegetation
green after the dry winter. After the short spring the south west monsoon bursts in the third week
of June and rains continue to pour with short spells of drought. The atmosphere there becomes
sultry and temperature stands at 30oC to 35o C. Towards late September , the rains peter out and
temperature also decreases and the short autumn sets in, while the sky begins to become clear
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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

mists appear in the horizon. With the farther fall of temperature, winter sets in from late
November .There is a slight variation of climate from region to region within the State.
Humidity : In most of the plain districts of Assam the air is highly humid throughout the year.
During February and March in the Katigorah and neighbouring zones, the air is comparatively
less humid ,the afternoon humidities being less than 60 per cent.
Rainfall- Andurupa,katigorah ,under district Cachar ,Assam receives typical monsoon rains. The
south-west monsoon rains starts from the third week of June and they continue up to the middle
of September. The zone receives during this period about 180 cm of rainfall on the average. This
constitutes about 80% of the average rainfall while the remaining 20% come in the form of
occasional rains in January. A table showing the climatic condition of the study site (Katigorah)
of year 2015-2016 is shown below:
Month

Temperature
range in C

Relative
Humidity

Rainfall
(mm)

Sep

33-25

85

47.2

Oct

30-22

86.1

31

Nov

28.5-19.6

86.7

Dec

25.5-17

87.1

Jan

24-9.5

88.7

9.2

Feb

27.5-17.5

85.6

49

Mar

28.8-18

82.1

190

Apr

31-21

79

210.2

May

33.5 -24

83.3

925.9

20152016

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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

1000
900
800
700
600
Temperature

500

Humidity
Rainfall

400
300
200
100
0
Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Graphical representation of climatic conditions of study zone


Materials used:
For performing a proper analysis on the beels all the standard protocols are followed .The
instruments and the experimental tools which were used during the process are as follows:
Field tools:
1. White paper sheet, pen, pencil, cardboard, sprit level
2. Compass, GPS device
3. pH paper, pH meter
4. Thermometer
5. Collecting bottles , polythene packet
6. Chemicals, viz formalin , alcohol etc.
7. Plankton tube, plankton net.
8. Fishing gears
9. Measuring strip
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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

10. Succhi disc

Laboratory tools:
1. Testtube ,beaker , funnel, measuring flask
2. Titrating agents and reagents
3. Dissecting tools
4. Microscope
5. Spectrophotometer

Materials and method


In this present piece of work, primarily different beels (wetlands) of Cachar district ,at
Katigorah, Kalain and it neighbouring areas were studied. Water Sample from these sites were
collected monthly in three seasons viz. summer (March-Jun), monsoon (JulySept) and winter
(OctFeb) for about 1 year. Collections were done during morning hours (8.80 am 10.30 am).
Water samples were collected from different sampling sites and brought to the laboratory for
analysis. Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), TA, FCO 2 etc., were determined in the
field itself.
The physico-chemical parameters were studied with the help of precision equipments and
by following standard procedures: (APHA,2006).
The fishes were sampled by following standard procedures using cast net, gill net, drag
net, etc., of required dimensions and meshes (Jayaram, 1981, 1999, 2010; Dey, 1981; Kar, 2007)
and were identified after standard literature and keys (Day, 1878, 1889; Menon, 1994, 1999;
Jayaram, 1981, 1999; Sen, 1982; Sen, 1985; Vishwanath, 2000, 2002; Dey, 1973; Dutta Munshi
and Srivastava, 1998; Talwar and Jhingran, 1991; Kar, 2007; Kar and Sen 2007).

SAMPLING
The water sample tends to modify itself to the new environment. The sample collected should be
small in volume, enough to accurately represent the whole water body. It is necessary to ensure
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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

that no significant changes occur in the sample and preserve its integrity till analysed (by
retaining the same concentration of all the components as in the water body). The essential
objectives of water quality assessment are to:
1. Define the status and trends in water quality of a given water body.
2. Analyse the causes for the observed conditions and trends.
3. Identify the area specific problems of water quality and provide assessments in the form
of management to evaluate alternatives that help in decision-making.
Types of sampling
Generally three types of sampling are adopted for collecting water samples.
1. Grab or Catch sampling: the sample is collected at a particular time and place that
represents the composition of the source at that particular point and time.
2. Composite sampling: a mixture of grab samples is collected at the same sampling point at
different time intervals.
3. Integrated sampling: a mixture of grab samples collected at different points
simultaneously.
Sampling frequency
The monitoring has to be done in a way that records all the changes in the quality. The sampling
frequencies generally adopted in Monthly sampling at predefined time.
Variations in water quality are mainly due to changes in the concentrations of the components of
the water flowing into the water body. These variations can be man-made or natural and can
either be cyclic or random.
Random variations: due to spasmodic, often unpredictable events such as accidental oil
spills, sewage leaks, overflows, etc.
Cyclic variations: may be a result of regular seasonal changes triggering certain natural
processes such as rainfall, snowmelts and seasonal temperature changes, altering the ecosystem.
Seasonal growth and decay of vegetation will also rise due to cyclic changes in the composition
of water.
Sampling container
The sampling container should not react with the sample, be of adequate capacity to store the
sample and be free from contamination.

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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Sampling method
Water samples were collected in a sampling bottle avoiding floating materials. The stoppers of
the sample containers were closed properly to prevent outside contamination. Grab sampling was
done at the 3 and more points of beel randomly ,in most of the water bodies studied to assess
their physical and chemical qualities at monthly intervals .The samples were collected in
thoroughly cleaned 2.5-litre inert plastic containers. The container was labelled describing the
name of the water body, date, time, sampling-point, and conditions under which it was sampled.

ANALYSES OF PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS


The parameters analysed to assess the water quality are broadly divided into:
Physical parameters: Colour, Temperature, Transparency, Turbidity and Odour, Area of the
water body, depth etc.
Chemical parameters: pH, dissolved oxygen, Free Co2 Concentration etc.
Biological parameters: The biological parameters involved the qualitative analyses of
planktons, fishes , etc.
Physical & Chemical parameters
COLOUR: In natural water, colour is due to the presence of humic acids, fulvic acids, metallic
ions, suspended matter, plankton, weeds and industrial effluents.
(a) TEMPERATURE
Temperature measurement is made by deeping the thermometer or by taking a portion of the
water sample (about 1litre) and immersing the thermometer into it for a sufficient period of time
(till the reading stabilizes) and the reading is taken, expressed as C. Impinging solar radiation
and atmospheric temperature brings about spatial and temporal changes in temperature, setting
up convection currents and thermal stratification. Temperature plays a very important role in
wetland dynamism affecting the various parameters such as alkalinity, salinity, dissolved oxygen,
electrical conductivity etc. In an aquatic system, these parameters affect the chemical and
biological reactions such as solubility of oxygen, carbon-di-oxide-carbonate-bicarbonate
equilibrium, increase in metabolic rate and physiological reactions of organisms, etc. Water
temperature is important in relation to fish life. The temperature of drinking water has an
influence on its taste.

(b) pH
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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

The effect of pH on the chemical and biological properties of liquids makes its determination
very important. It is one of the most important parameter in water chemistry and is defined as
-log [H+], and measured as intensity of acidity or alkalinity on a scale ranging from 0-14. If free
H+ are more it is expressed acidic (i.e. pH<7), while more OH - ions is expressed as alkaline (i.e.
pH> 7).
In natural waters pH is governed by the equilibrium between carbon
dioxide/bicarbonate/carbonate ions and ranges between 4.5 and 8.5 although mostly basic. It
tends to increase during day largely due to the photosynthetic activity (consumption of carbondi-oxide) and decreases during night due to respiratory activity. Waste water and polluted natural
waters have pH values lower or higher than 7 based on the nature of the pollutant.
pH is the limnological value of pH is a limiting factor and works as an index of general
environmental condition, Welch (1952). The pH value of the beels showed with slightly acidic
with a few variations. The maximum pH value were in the month of April and minimum in the
month of October .It is evident from the data that the pH declines during the rainy and increases
during summer. Sharma et al.,(1984)
pH paper: The pH paper is deeped in to the water sample and waited for colour changes and
then matched with standard colour changing guide line varying with pH, which shows the pH of
the water.

Electrometric method: The pH is determined by measuring the Electro Motive Force (E.M.F)
of a cell comprising an indicator electrode (an electrode responsive to hydrogen ions such as a
glass electrode) immersed in the test solution and the reference electrode (usually a
mercury/calomel electrode). Contact between the test solution and the reference electrode is
usually got by means of a liquid junction, which forms a part of reference electrode. E.M.F of
this cell is measured with pH meter, that is a high impedance voltmeter calibrated in terms of pH.
The electrode is allowed to stand for 2 minutes to stabilize before taking reading for reproducible
results (at least 0.1 pH units).

(c)TRANSPARENCY (LIGHT PENETRATION)


Solar radiation is the major source of light energy in an aquatic system, governing the primary
productivity. Transparency is a characteristic of water that varies with the combined effect of
colour and turbidity. It measures the light penetrating through the water body and is determined
using Secchi disc.
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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Apparatus required: Secchi disc, a metallic disc of 20cm diameter with four quadrats of
alternate black and white on the upper surface. The disc with centrally placed weight at the lower
surface, is suspended with a graduated cord at the center.
Procedure: Transparency is measured by gradually lowering the Secchi disc at respective
sampling points. The depth at which it disappears in the water (X 1) and reappears (X2) is noted.
The transparency of the water body is computed as follows:

Transparency (Secchi Disc Transparency)

= (X1 + X2 )/2

eq(a)

Where, X1 = Depth at which Secchi disc disappears


X2 = Depth at which Secchi disc reappears

Turbidity
Turbidity is important in aquatic systems as it can alter light intensities through the water
column, thus potentially affecting rates of photosynthesis and the distribution of organisms
within the water column. The turbidity of a body of water is related to the cleanliness of the
water. Waters with low concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) are clearer and less turbid
than those with high TSS concentrations. Turbidity can be caused by high concentrations of biota
such as phytoplankton, or by loading of abiotic matter such as sediments. Lowered rates of
photosynthesis may in turn affect the levels of dissolved oxygen available in a given body of
water, thus affecting larger populations such as fish. High turbidity can also cause infilling of
lakes and ponds if the suspended sediments settle out of the water column and are deposited.
Turbidity Measurement:
Turbidity can be measured using several methods. The easiest and least
expensive method is through the employment of a Secchi disk. A Secchi disk
is an 8-inch diameter disk with alternating black and white quadrants that is
lowered into the water column until it can no longer be seen from the
surface.
(e) ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY
Conductivity (specific conductance) is the numerical expression of the water's ability to conduct
an electric current. It is measured in micro Siemens per cm and depends on the total
concentration, mobility, valence and the temperature of the solution of ions. Electrolytes in a
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PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

solution disassociate into positive (cations) and negative (anions) ions and impart conductivity.
Most dissolved inorganic substances are in the ionised form in water and contribute to
conductance. The conductance of the samples gives rapid and practical estimate of the variation
in dissolved mineral content of the water supply. Conductance is defined as the reciprocal of the
resistance involved and expressed as mho or Siemen (s).

1
G=

--------

eq------(b)

R
G Conductance (mho or Siemens) and R - Resistance
Apparatus required: Conductivity meter
Procedure: The electrode of the conductivity meter is dipped into the sample, and the readings
are noted for stable value shown as mS/cm.
(f) TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS
Dissolved solids are solids that are in dissolved state in solution. Waters with high dissolved
solids generally are of inferior palatability and may induce an unfavourable physiological
reaction in the transient consumer.
Principle: The difference in the weight of total solids and the total suspended solids expressed
in the same units gives the total dissolved solids.
Apparatus: Glass-fiber filter disks, membrane filter funnel, filtration apparatus, suction flask
and pump, drying oven and Grooch crucible.
Procedure: The difference in the weights of Total Solids (W1) and Total Suspended Solids (W2)
expressed in the same units gives Total Dissolved Solids (TDS).
Calculation:

Total Dissolved Solids = (W1-W2) X 1000/ Sample volume (ml) (mg/L)


W1 = Weight of total solids + dish
W2 = Weight of total suspended solids
17

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

(g) DISSOLVED OXYGEN


. Oxygen is considered to be the major limiting factor in water bodies with organic materials.
Oxygen dissolved in water is a very important parameter in water analysis as it serves as an
indicator of the physical, chemical and biological activities of the water body. The two main
sources of dissolved oxygen are diffusion of oxygen from the air and photosynthetic activity.
Diffusion of oxygen from the air into water depends on the solubility of oxygen, and is
influenced by many other factors like water movement, temperature, salinity, etc. Photosynthesis,
a biological phenomenon carried out by the autotrophs, depends on the plankton population, light
condition, gases, etc

Winklers method
Principle: Oxygen present in the sample oxidizes the dispersed divalent manganous hydroxide
to the higher valency to precipitate as a brown hydrated oxide after addition of potassium iodide
and sodium hydroxide. Upon acidification, manganese reverts to its divalent state and liberates
iodine from potassium iodide, equivalent to the original dissolved oxygen content of the sample.
The liberated iodine is titrated against N/80 sodium thiosulphate using fresh iodine as an
indicator.
Apparatus required: BOD bottles-300ml capacity, sampling devices, lab glassware - measuring
cylinder, conical flasks, etc., and Bunsen burner.
Reagents:

Manganese sulphate: 480g of manganous sulphate tetrahydrate is dissolved and made up


to 1000ml with distilled water (Discarded if it changes colour with starch).

Alkaline iodide-azide reagent: 500g of sodium hydroxide and 150g of potassium iodide
along with 10g of sodium azide (NaN3) is dissolved and made up to 1000ml with distilled
water.& Conc. sulphuric acid

Starch indicator: 0.5g of starch is dissolved in distilled water and boiled for few minutes.

18

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Stock sodium thiosulphate: 24.82g of sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate (Na2S202. 5H2O)


is dissolved in distilled water and made up to 1000ml.

Standard sodium thiosulphate (0.025N): 250ml of the stock sodium thiosulphate


pentahydrate is made up to 1000ml with distilled water to give 0.025N.
Procedure: The samples are collected in BOD bottles, to which 2ml of manganous sulphate and
2ml of potassium iodide are added and sealed. This is mixed well and the precipitate allowed to
settle down. At this stage 2ml of conc. sulphuric acid is added, and mixed well until all the
precipitate dissolves. 203ml of the sample is measured into the conical flask and titrated against
0.025N sodium thiosulphate using starch as an indicator. The end point is the change of colour
from blue to colourless.
Calculations:
203ml because (200) (300)/ (200-4) = 203ml.

eq--

1ml of 0.025N Sodium thiosulphate = 0.2mg of Oxygen


Dissolved Oxygen(as mg/L) =

(0.2) (1000 ml of Sodium thiosulphate)/ 200

(Water analysis, APHA, 16th edn., pp 423-17)


(h) BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
The test is used to determine the pollution load of wastewater, the degree of pollution and the
efficiency of wastewater treatment methods. 5-Day BOD test being a bioassay procedure
(involving measurement of oxygen consumed by bacteria for degrading the organic matter under
aerobic conditions) requires the addition of nutrients and maintaining the standard conditions of
pH and temperature and absence of microbial growth inhibiting substances.
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is the amount of oxygen required by microorganisms
for stabilizing biologically decomposable organic matter (carbonaceous) in water under aerobic
conditions.
Principle: The method consists of filling the samples in airtight bottles of specified size and
incubating them at specified temperature (20 oC) for 5 days. The difference in the dissolved
oxygen measured initially and after incubation gives the BOD of the sample.
Apparatus required: BOD bottles - 300ml capacity, air incubator - to be controlled at 20 oC -\+
1 oC, oximeter and magnetic stirrer.
19

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Reagents:

Preparation of dilution water: To 1000ml of water, 1ml each of phosphate buffer,


magnesium sulphate, calcium chloride and ferric chloride solution is added, before bringing it to
20 oC and aerating it thoroughly.
Procedure: The sample having a pH of 7 is determined for first day DO. Various dilutions (at
least 3) are prepared to obtain about 50% depletion of D.O. using sample and dilution water. The
samples are incubated at 20 oC for 5 days and the 5th day D.O is noted using the oximeter. A
reagent blank is also prepared in a similar manner.
Calculation:
BOD

= {(D1 - D2) - (B1 - B2) X f} / p

eq---(d)

(In mg/L)
D1 - 1st day D.O of diluted sample
D2 - 5th day D.O of diluted sample
P - decimal volumetric fraction of sample used.
B1 - 1st day D.O of control
B2 - 5th day D.O of control
(Water analysis, APHA, 16th edn)

(i) FREE CARBON-DI-OXIDE (FCO2)


The important source of free carbon-di-oxide in surface water bodies is mainly from respiration
and decomposition by aquatic organisms. It reacts with water partly to form calcium bicarbonate
and in the absence of bicarbonates gets converted to carbonates releasing carbon-di-oxide.
Principle: Free carbon-di-oxide reacts with sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide to form
sodium bicarbonate. The completion of the reaction is indicated by the development of pink
colour, characteristic of phenolpthalein indicator at an equivalent pH of 8.3
20

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Apparatus required: Lab glassware - measuring jar, pipette, conical flask etc.
Reagents:

Sodium hydroxide solution (0.22N): 1g of sodium hydroxide was dissolved in 100ml of


distilled water and made up to 1000ml to give
0.22N.

Phenolpthalein indicator

Procedure: A known volume (50ml) of the


sample is measured into a conical flask. 2-3
drops of phenolpthalein indicator is added and
titrated against 0.22N sodium hydroxide till the
pink colour persists indicating the end point.
Calculation:

Free CO2

mg/L) = (Vt)

(1000) / Vs
eq(e)
Where, Vt - volume of titrant (ml)
Vs - volume of the sample taken (ml)

(j) Area and depth measurement: Area is measured with two basic means :
Graphical method of calculating area of a beel:
A map is prepared in a paper by taking proper scaling , and it is put under a transparent
graph paper. The total number of squire is counted . The unit scaling and the graph unit
squire must be of covering same distance, lastly unit area and number of the squires are
multiplied.
Eg, Scale 1:2000 or 1 cm = 20 m
or 1 mm = 2 m
21

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Grid square size is 2 mm x 2 mm


Equivalent unit area of grid = 4 m x 4 m = 16 m2
Again, total number of squire is 2000
Then, area is 162000 sq meter =32000 sq meter.

Measuring by tap: During the full storage level of water a boat was chosen measuring its length
from one end to other, the starting point was marked and a full boat length covered distance is
marked too and the process is repeated while rowing from an arbitrary centre to any point ,and
total number of observation is counted. The process is done taking consideration of making
circular loopes, lastly it is assembled and length of radius from the centre is taken . similarly
considering small circle of rest parts of beel the total area is calculated by adding all the arbitrary
circles and deducting common areas.
Area of waterbody (Circle) == radious squre

eq(f)

Again the common area of two circles are in the form of ellips. Two observation are taken one
from centre to vertex (a) and another from centre to co-vertex(b).
Deducting area (ellips) = ab

eq---(g)

Co- vertex(b)

22

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Radious (r)

Vertex (a)

Thus adding all the circular area and deducting the common elliptical common areas the total
area of the beel is calculated.

QGIS method of estimating area of beel:

23

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Calculating wetland area requires three steps. The first step is to create a new layer that includes
only wetlands (and parts of wetlands) within 1000m of the stop (this is called a clip). The
second step is to calculate the area of all the wetlands within the clip layer. And the third step is
to sum up the areas. To create the clipped layer, go to the top menu and click on Vector then
Geoprocessing Tools then Clip. For Input vector layer, select the nwi wetlands layer. For Clip
layer, select the 1000m buffer for the stop (e.g. stop7_1000). Use Browse to set the name and
location for the output file (something like stop7_clip, in the same folder with the data for the
route). Then click OK to generate the output and add it to the table of contents. Note that any
wetlands within the 1000m buffer have now changed color, as your new layer is now showing on
the map. For step two (calculating area of the wetlands within the clip), highlight the new layer
(e.g. stop7_clip) in the layer window. Open the attribute table for the clipped layer that you just
created and turn on editing by clicking on the pen in the middle of the bottom row of icons in the
attribute table window. The QGIS area calculating is based on the satellite mapping
and GPS of that beel. The simple step involves streaming the google map in the
QGIS software and marking the area under the beel. The total quantity of area of

studied beels are displayed.

Depth Record: The depth is measured with the help of deeping heavy metalled tool connected
with a strip known as ulum, which is deeped in the water body until touches the bottom . The
deeped strip is measured , the process is repeated randomly and average month wise depth is
taken.

24

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Biological parameters
PLANKTON ANALYSIS:
The biological methods used for assessing water quality includes collection,
counting and identification of aquatic organisms; biomass measurements;
measurements of metabolic activity rates; toxicity tests; bioaccumulation;
biomagnification of pollutants; and processing and interpretation of biological data.
The physical and chemical characteristics of water affect the abundance, species
composition, stability and productivity of the indigenous populations of aquatic
organisms. The work involving plankton analysis would help in:
1.
Explaining the cause of colour and turbidity
objectionable odour, tastes and visible particles in waters.

and

the

presence

2.

The interpretation of chemical analyses.

3.

Identifying the nature, extent and biological effects of pollution.

4.

Providing data on the status of an aquatic system on a regular basis.

of

Plankton: A microscopic community of plants (phytoplankton) and animals


(zooplankton), found usually free floating, swimming with little or no resistance to
water currents, suspended in water, nonmotile or insufficiently motile to overcome
transport by currents, are called "Plankton".
Plankton, particularly phytoplankton, has long been used as indicators of water
quality. Because of their short life spans, planktons respond quickly to
environmental changes. They flourish both in highly eutrophic waters while a few
others are very sensitive to organic and/or chemical wastes. Some species have
also been associated with noxious blooms causing toxic conditions apart from the
tastes and odour problems.
Phytoplankton (microscopic algae) usually occurs as unicellular, colonial or
filamentous forms and is mostly photosynthetic and is grazed upon by the
zooplankton and other organisms occurring in the same environment. The species
assemblage of zooplankton also may be useful in assessing water quality.
The structure of photosynthetic populations in the aquatic ecosystems is dynamic
and constantly changing in species composition and biomass distribution. An
understanding of the community structure is dependent on the ability to understand
the temporal distribution of the different species. Changes in species composition

25

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR


and biomass may affect photosynthetic rates, assimilation efficiencies, rates of
nutrient utilization, grazing, etc.

Plankton net: The plankton net is a field-equipment used to trap plankton. It has
a polyethylene filter of a defined mesh size and a graduated measuring jar attached
to the other end. A handle holds the net. The mesh size of the net determines the
size range of the plankton trapped. The mesh number 30 of size 60 mm was used
for collecting samples.
Sampling Procedure: The manner in which sampling is done should conform to
the objectives of the study. The surface samples (samples collected from the
surface) are collected as close to the water surface as possible, mostly towards the
center of the lake at regular monthly intervals. A known volume of the sample, 5L to
50 L is filtered and planktons are filtered and preserved for further analysis

Labels: The sample label has the date, time of sampling, study area-lake name and the volume
measured and pasted on the containers of 50ml capacity.
Preservation: The samples collected into the 100ml polyethylene vials were preserved by adding
suitable amounts of 1ml chloroform to act as the narcotizing agent and 2ml of 2% formalin for
preservation and analyses.
Concentration technique: The plankton nets are used to collect samples for the qualitative and
quantitative estimation of the plankton, by filtering a known volume of water (5-50 liters)
through the net depending on the plankton density of the tanks.
Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of plankton: Detailed analyses of phytoplanktonic
populations are done by estimating the numbers in each species. The phytoplankton consisting of
individual cells, filaments and colonies are counted as individual cells. When colonies of species
are counted, the average number of cells per colony is counted, and in filamentous algae, the
average length of the filament has to be determined.
Sedimentation and enumeration by microscope: Preserved samples in bottles are mixed
uniformly by gentle inversion and then exactly 1ml of the sample is pipetted out into the S-C cell
for analysis.
Microscope:
Compound microscope:

26

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR


A monocular compound microscope is used in the counting of plankton with
different eyepieces such as 10X, 15X and 20X. The microscope is calibrated using
plankton-counting squares.

Counting:
Counting cell- Sedgwick-Rafter (S-R) cell:
The Sedgwick-Rafter cell is a devise used for plankton counting and is about 50mm long by
20mm wide and 1mm deep. The cell is covered by a relatively thick cover slip and is calibrated
to contain exactly 1.0 ml.
Method:
Filling the cell:
The cover slip is placed diagonally across the S-R cell and filled with the sample carefully
without air bubbles with a large bore pipette. The sample is allowed to settle for about 5 minutes
before the actual counting begins.
Note: Since the configuration of the S-R cell does not allow the use of high power microscope
objectives, the identification of organisms smaller than 10 15 mm is difficult or impossible,
limiting the usage to only larger forms of relatively dense populations.
Strip counting:
A "strip" is the length of the cell that constitutes a volume approximately 50 mm long, 1-mm
deep accounting to the volume of 25mm3 or 1/40 (2.5%) of the total cell volume. By moving the
mechanical stage from left to right, the organisms can be examined in a systematic manner. By
knowing the surface area of the portion counted in relation to that of the total, a factor is
determined to expand the average counts of the plankton to the total area of the counting surface.
This total area represents the number of organisms present per given volume of the sample. This
volume expanded to an appropriate factor yields the organisms per litre of water for the lake.
The total number of planktons in the S-R cell is obtained by multiplying actual count in the
strip by the number (enumeration factor) representing the portion of the S-R cell counted. The
number of the strips counted is a function of the precision desired and the number of units (cells,
colonies) for the strips measured. In this study, 500 cells were counted for estimation.

27

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

The plankton count in the S-R cell is got from the following,

Number/ml =

C X 1000 mm /

LXDXWXS

eq---(h)

Where,
C = Number of organisms counted
L = Length of each strip (S-R cell length) mm
D = Depth of a strip (S-R cell depth) mm
W = Width of a strip in mm
S = Number of strips counted
V1 = (50)(1)(W)
= mm3
The plankton counts per strip are then determined by multiplying the actual count by the factor
representing the counted portion of the whole S-R cell volume.
Number/ml = (C) (1000 mm3) / (L) (D) (W) (S)
Where, C = Number of organisms counted.
L = Length of each strip in mm (of S-R cell)
D = Depth of the strip in mm (S-R cell)
28

eq---(i)

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

W = Width of the strip in mm (Whipple grid image width)


S = Number of strips counted.
Phytoplankton Counting Units: Some plankton are unicellular while others are multicellular
(colonial), posing a problem for enumeration. For analysis, a colony of plankton is accounted as
a single count. The large forms that cross two or more boundaries of the grid are counted
separately at lower magnification and their number included in the total coun

29

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

IDENTIFICATION OF FISHES
Scientific identification of fishes is based mainly on external characters such as body shape,
length, depth, mouth and nature of fish spines, scales, etc. The best way to collect fish for a
scientific or taxonomic study is to catch them alive through a fishing net, trap or any other device
locally adopted except poisoning with toxic chemicals.

The fishes caught are segregated mainly based on the presence or absence of scales on the body.
When scales are present, they are further separated based on body shape, number and length of

30

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

fins. In the case of fishes without fins, they are separated according to the total number of
barbels. After the segregation, they are identified according to the keys.
Fish have different ecological preferences and inhabit waters best suited to them.
Environmental factors influence the predominance of certain species of fish. For instance, river
fishes prefer riffle or quiet areas; a hill stream with fast flowing water over rocky bed may not
have large sized carps, while dimly lit, shallow swampy pools may have cat fishes, mussels, eels
and may not have fishes like rohu, mrigal etc.
Classification of fishes for scientific study is done through taxonomy or systematics. Under this,
each fish is given a name of two words; the first one is generic name and the second specific
name, followed by the name of the author who described it first. There may be many fishes under
the first word, which is called Genus. This indicates the affinity of the fish grouped under the
same genus due to common features. Similarly, a number of Genera (plural of genus) are
grouped under the term Family, while a number of families are put under an Order. Many orders
come under a Class. The characters differentiating orders and families are distinct, but down the
hierarchy, they become insignificant. For identification, the fishes are first grouped under orders,
then families, genera and species. Identification keys are available for all orders, families and
genera.

Glossary of terms for identification of fish:


Adipose fin: A short fleshy fin, without rays behind the dorsal fin mainly on the back of
catfishes.
31

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Antrorse: Pointing forward or towards anterior direction especially in pectoral spine.


Axilla: Space behind base of a fin.
Axillary: Pertaining to the axilla.
Barbel/s: Slender, tactile whisker-like projection extending from the head of some fishes;
functioning primarily as a sensory organ for locating food and locations.
Base: The part where a fin joins body, as in length of dorsal/anal fin base.
Branchial: As referred to gills.
Branchiostegeal rays: Numerous tiny thin bones arranged fanwise from the lower edge of the
opercle to the ventral surface of the head and covered by the branchiostegeal membrane.
Breast: Ventral part of the body situated between head and pectoral fins.
Caudal peduncle: The narrow posterior part of the fishs body between anal and caudal fin.
Ctenoid scale: Scales with rough, comb-like or toothed margin.
Cycloid scale: Scales that are smooth-edged, more or less circular with concentric striations.
Depth of body: The greatest vertical height of fish.
Dorsal: The back or upper part of the body.
Fin rays:
All paired and median fins in teleosts have long, mobile filament like prolongations called rays.
The movements of the fins are due to the action of muscles, the movements possible due to the
articulations and often flexibility of these rays. The term ray also applies to spines, whether
they are included within the membrane of a fin or not.
The chief types of fin rays encountered are:
1. Hard rays: a number of soft rays united solidly to form hard rays, which are rigid and
sharply pointed. These are formed of cartilage. The outermost caudal fin ray called the
principal ray is also a hard ray.

32

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

2. Spinous rays: are made of bone tissues and are harder and stronger than rays. These are
usually not flexible and they are commonly found in catfishes.
3. Simple ray: It is either soft or hard but without any branching at its tip or elsewhere.
4. Branched ray: It is branched either from the base or middle or tip of the ray.

Fig 3: Different caudal fin shapes


(A-slightly emarginated or furcate, B-rounded with wavy margins, C-forked, Dwedge or paddle shaped, E-notched, F-truncate or cut square, G-rounded, Hlanceolate and J-ovate)

33

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR


Fig 4: BR-branchiostegeal ray, C-chin, F-forehead, HL-head length, OPinteropercule, MB-maxillary barbell, MN-mandible, MO-mouth, MX-maxillary, NAnape, NO-nostrils,
OP-opercule, PMX-premaxillary, POP-preopercule, SOPsubopercule and SOR-suborbital
Gills: The respiratory apparatus of fishes, found within the gill openings.

Gill archers: The bony supports to which the gill rakers are attached.
Gill opening: The opening situated generally on either side of the head; the water used for
breathing enters by the mouth and is expelled through gill-openings.
Gill rakers: These are thin needle like prolongations on the gill arches.
Gill slit: Each of the narrow spaces between the gill arches.
Gular plate: A hard plate covering the under part of the throat, often present in some fishes.
Isthmus: The fleshy interspace below the head and between the gill openings.
Nare, Naris, Nostril: On the snout of fishes the opening of the olfactory or organ of smell; in
fishes these are usually a pair of nostrils on either side of head.
Opercule or operculum: The gill cover.

Opercular flap: A fleshy extension of the rear edge of opercule.


Origin of fin: The point where the first ray is inserted into the body of the fish.
Pectoral fins: The paired fins attached to the shoulder girdle.
Pelvic fins: The paired fins placed behind or below the pectoral fins.
Scale: One of the thin, bony or horny plates covering the whole or part of the body of most
fishes. Scales can be macroscopic as on eel, small as on Chela and large as on Tor. A fish may
have no scales as the catfishes.

34

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Fig 5: Different types of fins and rays


A-long dorsal fin, B-short dorsal fin, C-high dorsal fin, D-low dorsal fin, E-simple unbranched
ray, F-thick ray, G-antrorsely serrated dorsal ray and H-branched ray
Thus the identification of the fishes is done with the reference of K.C Joy Ram.

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETER OF BEELS:


Andurupa Beel
Andurupa beel is a open beel the diversity of fish in the beel is very rich.About
species of
fish are identified during the study. This beel occupies
area in FSL and during dry
season the water level decreases , and observed DSL is
.The average depth during DSL is
observed as m and during FSL is
35

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Andurupa beel is located at Tikarburangha under Revenue Circle Katigorah,under district


Cachar. It is 5Km away from Kalain town, this beel is located in coordination between
245737.6 N longitude and 923616.8E latitude. The Andurupa beel is connected with a
water channel known as Junarkhal. The Junarkhal is linked with a sub river Modhua which is
ultimately linked with Barak river via Tinnar khal & Nowagang.Thus Junamara is an open beel,

The average climatic condition of the beel of a year study on the beel, the observed
average data of the period is as follows:
Average
atmospheric Average relative humidity of Average rainfall
Temperature C
the studied site
study period (mm)
24
75.22
164.40

during

As the study was carried out from September 2015 to May 2016 , the physical chemical and
biological parameter are listed as follows:
Physico-Chemical parameters:
Parameters
Air temperature c
Water
c

Ranges
9.6-33

temperature 18-27

Mean/Average
value
25
22.5

pH of water

5.1-5.7

5.4

DO (mg/l)

8.5-11.9

10.2

Turbidity (mg/l)

79-104

91.5

FCO2 (mg/l)

0.5-1.8

2.3

Average depth (m)

1.5-7.5

4.5

The monthly variation of the climatic condition of the studied zone


Period
2015-

36

Air
Temperature
(C)

Humidity in %

Rain fall
(mm)

Depth
(m)

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

2016

Max

Min

Mornin
g

Evening

Sep

33

24

95

77

46.8

Oct

32

23

91

78

32

2.5

Nov

27.8

20.1

95

76

9.2

1.9

Dec

25.7

18

94

75

1.5

Jan

23

9.6

96

95

9.4

1.9

Feb

28.1

17.9

97

76

48

2.7

Mar

28.5

17

94

66

190

4.6

Apr

32

22

90

77

210.4

5.7

May

32.7

23

88

71

924.8

7.5

The monthly variation of the Physical & Chemical characters of water

Physical and chemical characters of soil


Characters of

Ranges

Mean

soil
pH

4.5-6.0

5.25

Moisture contents

43-99.5

71.25

Biological characters of Andurupa beel:


18 species of fishes belonging to 14 genera under have been recorded. On the other hand
zooplanktons of 3 groups and 17 genera have been identified. The diversity of fishes as well
as the planktons depends on the physical and chemical characters of water body, they are widely
influenced by the seasons.

37

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

The identified and recorded fishes are as follows:


Fish species
Cyprinus carpio
Linnaeus
Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton)
Xenentodon
cancila(Hamilton)
Labeo calbasu
Notopterus notopterus
(Pallas)
Amblypharyngodon
mola (Hamilton)
Catla catla
Puntius chola
Lepidocephalichthys
guntea (Hamilton)
Ompok bimaculatus
(Bloch)
Clupisoma garua
(Hamilton)
Channa punctatus
(Bloch)
Heteropneustes fossilis
(Bloch)
Macrognathus pancalus
(Hamilton)

STUDY OF ZOOPLANKTON DIVERSITY


Zooplankton communities respond to a wide variety of disturbances including nutrient loading,
acidification, sediment input etc. It is a well-suited tool for understanding water pollution status
Zooplankton is a good indicator of changes in water quality because it is strongly affected by
environmental conditions and responds quickly to changes in physical and chemical conditions
as well as environmental conditions. (Contreras et al., 2009).
38

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Zooplankton are a diverse group of heterotrophic organisms that consume phytoplankton,


regenerate nutrients via their metabolism, and transfer energy to higher trophic levels (Steinberg
and Robert, 2009). It plays an important role in recycling nutrients as well as cycling energy
within their respective environment. These are the main sources of natural food for fish which is
directly related to their survival and growth and are base of food chains and food webs in all
aquatic ecosystem (Miah et.al., 2013). They are the essential food item of omnivorous and
planktivorous fishes and the most essential for fish larvae culture (Alam et.al., 1987).
Zooplankton vary from site to site within the same location with similar ecological conditions
and as such both qualitative and quantitative studies of zooplankton in a waterbody are of great
importance in managing successful aquaculture operation (Boyd, 1982). Zooplankton are often
an important link in the transfer of energy from producers to aquatic carnivores (Thayer et.al.,
1974).
Zooplankton sampling: The study was conducted for a period of one year from September 2015
to March 2016. Zooplankton were sampled weekly from the site following standard methods of
Battish (1992). Then the sample were filtered and placed in Tarson (100 ml) container,
subsequently fixed in Lugols solution and stored in cool and dark place. For studying the
diversity of Zooplankton, sample were taken in a Sedgwick-Rafter counting chamber and
observed under a light microscope under required magnification (X 10 intially , followed X 40)
and the specimens were identified following standard literature of Battish (1992); Edmondson
(1959); Michael and Sharma (1998); Sharma (1998); Sharma and Sharma (2008).
Fresh waters bodies constitute an extremely diverse assemblage of organisms
represented by nearly by all phyla of invertebrates. They principally comprise of microscopic
Protozoans, Rotifers, Cladocerans and Copepods which float on the surface of water and are
carried along with the water current. The physical and chemical characteristics of water affect the
abundance, species composition, stability and productivity of the indigenous population of
aquatic organisms. The presence and dominance of zooplankton species plays an important role
in the functioning of fresh water ecosystem. Zooplanktons occupy an intermediate position
between the autotrophs and the carnivores in the food web. Many of them feed on algae and
bacteria and in turn are fed by numerous invertebrates and fishes. They also constitute an
important component of secondary production in aquatic system and plays a vital role in the
energy allocation at different trophic levels. Zooplankton is an important component of
ecosystem; they act as primary and secondary links in the food chain, (Hutchinson, 1967). The
zooplankton communities are influenced by biological interactions, predation and interspecific
competition for food resources (Neves et al., 2003; Sampaio et al., 2002). Zooplankton have
long been used as indicator of eutrophication (Vandysh, 2004; Webber et al., 2005). Knowledge
of the zooplankton communities and their population dynamics is a major requirement for better
understanding of life processes in a fresh water body since eutrophication influences both the
composition and productivity of zooplanktons (Bhora and Kumar, 2004
In the present study Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda dominate the zooplankton
population of Andurupa beel.The identification and density index was calculated as mentioned in
method section. Eq(h) & eq(i)
The planktons were identified following standard literature of Battish (1992); Edmondson
(1959); Michael and Sharma (1998); Sharma (1998); Sharma and Sharma (2008).

39

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

During the present study, 17 genera of Zooplankton were recorded from the wetland
belonging to the three groups viz, Cladocera, Copepoda and Rotifera. Among the recorded
genera, 5 belongs to Cladocera, 2 belongs to Copepoda and 10 genera belongs to Rotifera group.
Similar observation was made by many researchers throughout the country Kar and Kar (2013)
reported 26 species of Zooplankton from an oxbow lake of Cachar, again in 7 th edition Kar and
Kar(2016) reported 40 species of zooplanktons.Assam; Tyor et al. (2014) studied Zooplankton
diversity in a shallow lake of Gurgaon, Haryana revealing Rotifera with highest diversity
followed by Cladocera and then Copepoda showing least diversity.
Abundance of Zooplankton species of Andurupa beel,Kalain, Cachar
ZOOPLANKTON SE
OC
NO
DE
JA
FE
MA
P
T
V
C
N
B
R

AP
R

MAY

CLADOCERA
Bosmina sp.

Moina sp.

Diaphanosoma sp.

Chydorus sp.

Sida sp.

Neodiaptomus sp.

Mesocyclops sp.

Scaridium sp.

Colurella sp.

Filinia sp.

Brachionus sp.

Lecane sp.

Plationus sp.

Keratella sp.

Copepoda

Rotifera

40

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Anuraeopsis sp.

Asplanchna sp.

Trichocerca sp.

The density of zooplanktons per ml is counted with eq(i) and the density is listed as follows:

Zooplankton Density per ml


Cladocera
Diaphanosoma sp.

0.51

Sida sp.

0.64

Moina sp.

0.57

Chydorus sp.

0.23

Bosmina sp

0.71

Alona sp.

0.21

Copepoda

41

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Neodiaptomus sp.

0.48

Mesocyclops sp.

0.61

Rotifera
Scaridium sp.

0.50

Trichocerca sp.

0.32

Colurella sp.

0.31

Plationus sp.

0.55

Keratella sp.

0.15

Asplanchna sp.

0.52

Filinia sp.

0.72

Lecane sp.

0.60

Brachionus sp.

0.42

Anuraeopsis sp.
0.62

42

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

ZOOPLANKTON DIVERSITY OF ANDURUPA BEEL IN%


4.5
4
3.5
ZOOPLANKTON DIVERSITY
OF ANDURUPA BEEL IN%

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
CLADOCERA

43

COPEODA

ROTIFERA

Period
2015-2016

Water
temperature
C

DO
(Mg/L)

Sep

26

8.5

5.7

1.6

104

Oct

25.5

8.9

5.1

1.4

99

Nov

21.8

9.8

5.4

1.5

90

Dec

19.3

11.3

5.1

1.8

79

Jan

18.3

11.9

5.5

1.6

81

Feb

19.7

10.2

5.3

1.6

97

Mar

22

11

5.3

0.5

103

Apr

24

10

5.3

101

May

25.5

9.6

5.1

1.4

94

pH

FCO2

Turbidity

(Mg/L)

(cm)

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

30
25
20
Water Temp

15

DO
pH

10
5
0
Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

FCO2
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2

FCO2

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Sep

44

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Turbidity
120
100
80
Turbidity
60
40
20
0
Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

250

200

150
CLADOCERA
COPEPODA
100

ROTIFERA

50

0
SEP

45

OCT

NOV

DEC

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Abundance of Zooplankton species of Petuma beel,Kalain, Cachar


ZOOPLANKTON SE
OC
NO
DE
JA
FE
MA
P
T
V
C
N
B
R

AP
R

MAY

CLADOCERA
Ceriodaphnia sp.

Bosmina sp.

Moina sp.

Chydorus sp.

Sida sp.

Alona sp.

Mesocyclops sp.

Neodiaptomus sp.

Heliodiaptomus
sp.
Rotifera

Colurella sp.

Keratella sp.

Brachionus sp.

Trichocerca sp.

Scaridium sp.

Scaridium sp.

Scaridium sp.

Lecane sp.

Copepoda

46

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

ZOOPLANKTON DIVERSITY OF PETUMA BEEL IN %

Cladocera
Copepoda
Rotifera

The density of zooplanktons per ml is counted with eq(i) and the density is listed as follows:

Zooplankton Density per ml


Cladocera

47

Moina sp.

0.64

Chydorus sp.

0.51

Diaphanosoma sp.

0.23

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Ceriodaphnia sp.

0.61

Simocephalus sp.

0.80

Alona sp.

0.71

Copepoda
Neodiaptomus sp.

0.48

Heliodiaptomus sp.

0.61

Mesocyclops sp.

0.20

Rotifera
Brachionus sp.

0.50

Scaridium sp.

0.31

Brachionus sp.

0.55

Lecane sp.

0.60

Plationus sp.

0.72

Filinia sp.

0.15

Petuma
Period

Air Temperature

Humidity in %

Rain fall

Depth

(C)
2015-2016

48

(mm)

(m)

Max

Min

Morning

Evening

Sep

33

23

92

78

46.8

1.8

Oct

31

23

90

77

31

2.2

Nov

27.1

19.1

91

73

74

1.4

Dec

25.5

14

91

71

73

1.1

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR


Jan

21

9.5

93

91

9.2

1.7

Feb

27.3

17.4

93

72

45

2.8

Mar

28.3

17

90

63

190

4.2

Apr

32.2

23

86

74

205

5.3

May

32.1

24

85

63

923

7.0

Parameters

Period
2015-2016
Sep

49

Ranges

Mean/Average
value

Air temperature c

16-32

24

Water temperature c

18.4-25.6

22

pH of water

5.3-5.7

5.5

DO (mg/l)

12.3-8.4

10.35

Turbidity (mg/l)

91-103

97

FCO2 (mg/l)

0.6-1.5

1.05

Average depth (m)

1.1-7.0

4.05

Characters of soil
Ranges
Water
DO
temperature
(Mg/L)
4.4-6.1
pH
pH
C
44-98
Moisture contents
25
8.4
5.6

Mean
FCO2
5.25
(Mg/L)

71
1.4

Turbidity
(cm)
103

Oct

25.3

8.7

5.3

1.3

98

Nov

22

9.7

5.3

1.3

91

Dec

19.4

11.4

5.3

1.5

78

Jan

18.4

12.3

5.7

1.5

82

Feb

19.8

10.3

5.4

1.8

96

Mar

23

11

5.4

0.6

101

Apr

23

11

5.5

1.1

102

May

25.6

9.7

5.2

1.5

93

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

50

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

30
25
20
Water Tem

15

DO
pH

10
5
0
Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

FCO2
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2

FCO2

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Sep

51

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Turbidity
120
100
80
Turbidity
60
40
20
0
Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

250

200

150
CLADOCERA
COPEPODA
100

ROTIFERA

50

0
SEP

52

OCT

NOV

DEC

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

ZOOPLANKTON DIVERSITY OF SUSHKACHARA BELL IN %

Cladocera
Copepoda
Rotifera

Abundance of Zooplankton species of Sushkachara beel,Kalain, Cachar


ZOOPLANKTON SE
OC
NO
DE
JA
FE
MA
P
T
V
C
N
B
R

AP
R

MAY

CLADOCERA
Sida sp.

Diaphanosoma sp.

Bosmina sp.

Alona sp.

Neodiaptomus sp.

Heliodiaptomus
sp.
Rotifera

Copepoda

53

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Asplanchna sp.

Colurella sp.

Keratella sp

Macrochaetus sp.

Scaridium sp.

Trichocerca sp.

Filinia sp.

The density of zooplanktons per ml is counted with eq(i) and the density is listed as follows:

Zooplankton Density per ml


Cladocera
Sida sp.

0.64

Diaphanosoma sp.

0.51

Alona sp.

0.21

Bosmina sp

0.71

Copepoda

54

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Neodiaptomus sp.

0.48

Heliodiaptomus sp.

0.20

Rotifera
Scaridium sp.

0.50

Colurella sp.

0.31

Filinia sp.

0.42

Cephalodella sp.

0.15

Brachionus sp.

0.55

Lecane sp.

0.60

Lepadella sp.

0.15

Sushkachara

Period

Air Temperature

Humidity in %

Rain fall

Depth

(C)
2015-2016

55

(mm)

(m)

Max

Min

Morning

Evening

Sep

33

24

91

77

46.5

1.3

Oct

32

23

89

76

32

2.3

Nov

26.2

19.3

90

72

71

1.1

Dec

25.2

12

90

69

71

1.2

Jan

22

9.2

91

93

9.1

1.5

Feb

26.9

17.2

92

70

43

2.1

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR


Mar

28.1

16

89

61

191

4.1

Apr

32.3

24

84

73

201

5.1

May

32.1

23

83

62

920

6.8

Parameters

Ranges

Air temperature c

12-33

22.5

Water temperature c

18.1-25.7

21.9

pH of water

5.1-5.5

5.3

DO (mg/l)

8.1-12.5

10.3

Turbidity (mg/l)

76-103

89.5

FCO2 (mg/l)

0.7-1.7

1.2

Average depth (m)

1.1-6.8

3.95

Characters of soil

56

Ranges

Mean

5.1-5.5

pH
Period
2015-2016

Mean/Average
value

5.3

43-97
Moisture contents
Water
DO
temperature
(Mg/L)
C

70
pH

FCO2

Turbidity

(Mg/L)

(cm)

Sep

24

8.1

5.3

1.1

101

Oct

25.1

8.5

5.1

1.1

97

Nov

23

9.5

5.1

1.4

90

Dec

19.1

11.1

5.1

1.7

76

Jan

18.1

12.5

5.2

1.2

81

Feb

19.2

10.2

5.5

1.2

94

Mar

23.5

11.5

5.1

0.7

101

Apr

23

11.2

5.2

1.4

103

May

25.7

9.1

5.1

1.6

91

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

30
25
20
Water Temp

15

DO
pH

10
5
0
Sep

57

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

FCO2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
FCO2

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Turbidity
120
100
80
Turbidity
60
40
20
0
Sep

58

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

250

200

150
CLADOCERA
COPEPODA
100

ROTIFERA

50

0
SEP

59

OCT

NOV

DEC

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Result and Discussion:


Seasonal variation of physico-chemical parameters of Petuma beel, Andurupa beel, Sushkachra
beel (wetland) is depicted in the table 1.
Dissolved oxygen: The mean value of DO2 was maximum (121.5) in winter season and
minimum (61.5) in monsoon. The abundance of floating vegetation and pit formation (organic
matter) may be the cause of low dissolved oxygen of the wetland. Dissolved oxygen is the most
important parameter which can be used as an index of water quality, primary production and
pollution. Thirumala(2011).Dissolved oxygen content is the most significant factor regulating
metabolic processes of the organism and also the community as a whole. Dissolved oxygen in
general affects the solubility and activity of various nutrients and therefore, the productivity of an
aquatic ecosystem. Wetzel(1983).

FCO2: The free CO2 concentration in water indicates the presence of decomposable organic
matter, bacterial action on organic matter and physiological activities of biotic components.
Sawant(2010). In the present study, the maximum (2.10.5) and minimum (0.80.5) value of free
CO2 was recorded in the monsoon and winter season respectively. Lower level of free CO2
during winter is mainly due to high photosynthetic activity utilizing free CO2

Temperature: The mean air temperature was highest in month April, May, June (monsoon)
(341.15) and lowest (101.69) in winter. The mean water temperature was also following the
same trend (Fig 1). Temperature is one of the most important physical factors influencing the
aquatic life. Air temperature is determined by the air masses over the particular land mass,
climatic condition Hutchinson.(1967).time of sample collection, climate and solar radiation Hydrobiol.
(1970) and topography, have an impact on air temperature. Water temperature, a regulatory factor
for various physico-chemical as well as biological activities in ecosystems, was found to
fluctuate markedly with the variation in air temperature Sharma(2002) .There are several factors
which influence the water temperature in river basin. Some of these factors are basin
morphology, altitude, topography and vegetation. Unni(1996). Air and water temperature play
important role in the physicochemical and physiological behaviour of biotic components of
aquatic ecosystems. In the present study area, the water temperature was higher than the air
temperature during winter months which may be due to the accumulation organic matter from
the pit as well as droppings of the migratory birds.
,
60

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD):Zooplankton are a diverse group of heterotrophic


organisms that consume phytoplankton, regenerate nutrients via their metabolism, and transfer
energy to higher trophic levels (Steinberg and Robert, 2009). It plays an important role in
recycling nutrients as well as cycling energy within their respective environment. These are the
main sources of natural food for fish which is directly related to their survival and growth and
are base of food chains and food webs in all aquatic ecosystem (Miah et.al., 2013).During the
study in the three beels viz, Andurupa beel,petuma beel, Sushkachar beel. It is recorded a total of
genera of zooplanktons.
BOD is an indication of the organic load and it is a pollution index especially for water
bodies receiving organic effluent. values of wetlands Andurupa beel,petuma beel, Sushkachar
beel was reported high during summer season followed by monsoon and least in winter season,
obtained BOD, was 2.28 to 3.11 mg/L. the overall mean was 2.52 0.51
Being an obligate aquatic fauna, fish community of Andurupa beel,petuma beel, Sushkachar
beel (wetland) is particularly important to evaluate the ecological health of the wetland. The
present study revealed that there are as many as 42 species of fish belonging to 19 families.
Among the families Cyprinidae having 13 species followed by Channidae (04 Species), Bagridae
and Osphronemidae (3 species each). The available fish species and family wise species
composition is depicted in the table.

Alkalinity : Total alkalinity is imparted by presence of bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide


and less frequently in wetland by borate, silicate and phosphate. The CO2- HCO3- CO3
equilibrium system is the major buffering mechanism in freshwater. Alkalinity is important for
aquatic life in fresh water systems because it equilibrates a pH change that occurs naturally as a
result of photosynthetic activity of aquatic vegetation.
pH: pH of natural waters is due to available hydrogen ion concentration, the pH of the raw
water sources mostly lies within the range of 6.5 to 8.5. Webber(1963).The PH of the those beels
(50.25) during monsoon which was turned to neutral range (7.0 0.5) during winter. Higher pH
value is normally associated with the high photosynthetic activity in water . Hujare(2008). The
lowering of pH in monsoon may be due to higher runoff from the adjacent catchment area which
is having slightly acidic soil. Although the tolerance of individual species varies, pH values
between 6.5 and 8.5 usually indicate good water quality and this range is typical of most major
drainage basins of the world. Carr(2008).
The quantity, quality, intensity and duration of light influence the life of organisms in
different ways. Transparency or light penetration was found to fluctuate according to season. An
inverse relationship between transparency and suspended sediment load was observed. The rain
water brought large amounts of dissolved and suspended inorganic and organic materials from
upper catchment areas as well as from lower floodplain zone during rainy season that made
water turbid and cause lower transparency.
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): The high COD values indicate that some degree of nonbiodegradable oxygen demanding pollutants were present in the water. In the present
investigation, the maximum COD value recorded 65.15 mg/L and minimum value of COD
obtained was 18.8 mg/L. Seasonal variation revealed that COD values were higher during
summer seasons and lower during winter.
61

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Name
beel

of pH DO Water Air
BD
mg/l temp tempc O
c
mg/l

Andurupa
beel
Petuma beel
Sushkachara
beel

62

5.
4
5.
5
5.
3

2.52

CD
O
mg/l

Alkalinity FCO
mg/l
2
mg/l

Average
depth
(m)

1.2

Turbidity
in
cm
(succhi
disc)
89.5

42.3

160

10.2 22.5

25

3.95

10.3 22

24

1.5

97

4.5

10.3 21.9

22.5

2.3

91.5

4.5

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Fish Biodiversity in Assam Wetlands (+ Present, - Absent):


Fish Species

Anduru
pa beel

Amblypharyngodon
mola (Hamilton)
Notopterus notopterus
(Pallas)
Cirrhinus mrigala
(Hamilton)
Catla catla (Hamilton)
Barilius
bendelisis(Hamilton)
Cirrhinus reba
(Hamilton)
Rasbora daniconius
(Hamilton)
Labeo rohita (Hamilton)
Labeo
(Hamilton)

gonius

Labeo calbasu
(Hamilton)
Cyprinus carpio
Linnaeus
Labeo bata (Hamilton)
Puntius conchonius
(Hamilton)
Puntius chola

63

Petuma
beel

Sushkachara beel

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Puntius sarana sarana


(Hamilton)
Puntius ticto (Hamilton)
Salmostoma bacaila
(Hamilton)
Botia dario (Hamilton)
Lepidocephalichthys
guntea (Hamilton)
Acanthocobitis botia
(Hamilton)
Mystus cavasius
(Hamilton)
Mystus vittatus (Bloch)
Sperata seenghala
(Sykes)
Rita rita (Hamilton)
Ompok bimaculatus
(Bloch)
Wallago attu (Bloch and
Schneider)
Channa punctatus
(Bloch)
Channa marulius
(Hamilton)
Channa orientalis
(Schneider)
Aplocheilus panchax
(Hamilton)
Heteropneustes fossilis
(Bloch)
Chaca chaca (Hamilton)

64

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Xenentodon
cancila(Hamilton)
Clupisoma garua
(Hamilton)
Clupisoma atherinoides
(Hamilton)
Ailia coila (Hamilton)
Parambassis
ranga(Hamilton)
Badis badis (Hamilton)
Nandus nandus
(Hamilton)
Glossogobius giuris
(Hamilton)
Macrognathus pancalus
(Hamilton)

65

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

66

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Inference
Status,Difficulties , potentialities:

Potentialities and difficulties (problems) of some wetlands (Beels) of West Katigorah,Cachar

Beels (Wetlands)
Andurupa beel

Petuma beel

Sushkachara beel

67

Potentialities
A highly Potential site for culture
fishery,it is situated at Lakhipur
part III,in Kalain.It is open beel
linked with Thinorkhal during
rainy season ,this water channel is
linked with river system of Barak
via Naogon.It is a natural Beel, a
site highly rich for capture
Fishing.Near to highway from
Kalain to Katigorah.People live
their livelihood depending on this
beel.
It is situated at Hilara Katirail tea
state it is ideal site for fish
stocking as well as culturing.It is
also situated at near to highway
along Kalain to Katighorah.
Ideal site for culture fishery,linked
with water channel Madua river
near Jain Ittbhat ,neighbouring to
beel. People maintain their lives
depending in the beel.It is a big
beel and open.

Difficulties (Problems)
Siltation, urbanization, Mahajal
operation, Weeds,Human
influence, Breaks industry(Itt
bhatta) wastes. Highly paddy
cultivation.

Weeds, Tea garden effluents as


well as urbanization.

Bricks factory effluents, Siltation,

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

Conclusion:
The culture based fisheries have the added advantage over traditional form of aquaculture in that
it is less resource intensive and is therefore, important for livelihood support. The monthly as
well as seasonal variation of physico-chemical parameters of the three beels of west Katigorah
viz, Andurupa beel,Petuma beel, Sushkachara beel providing an almost vivid picture of
ecological status and their conditions. Overall water quality studied was found within the
permissible limit for biological components except some of the variation in physic-chemical
parameters,which could be in better status. They are influenced mainly by human and sewage
contamination. The planned exploration and utilization of these beels (wetlands) having
favourable water quality for fish and fishery may enhance services to society. These wetlands
supports enormous diversity of fresh water fish and also provide scope for intensification of
culture based fishery technology . (De Silva, 2003; Felsing et al., 2003).
Important suggestions such as removal/modification of man-made blockades in order to
restrict the migration of fishes, to help boost fish trade through navigation and to enable some
amount of natural desiltation. Further, some amount of man-made activities could revive the
breeding ground of the LGF, minimizing the paddy cultivation due to re-submergence of the
exposed wetland beds leading to soil infertility or denaturation for aqua culture ; rehabilitation of
immigrated fishermen, proper education and proper knowledge and awareness about the values
of beels, monitoring of the wetland users by the NGOs for less input towards eutrophication;
culture of IMCs in the deep fishing centres at the DSL to boost earnings; and, initiation /revamping of the Fishermen Co-operative Societies; could go a long way in maintaing the health
of the Wetlands and Wetland-users and in the emancipation of the poor fishermen.
This study may be helpful in optimum utilization and sustainable management of the
wetland. Deweeding should be practiced at regular intervals to control the nutrients level and silt
deposition.

68

PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS :AHMED SARWAR

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