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26 vizualizări11 paginiProcess Capability Index Cpk.

Jul 14, 2016

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Process Capability Index Cpk.

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26 vizualizări11 paginiProcess Capability Index Cpk.

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a Process Capability Index

_

_

Cpk = Min [ USL X, X LSL ]

3s

3s

Specification Width

Process Spread

LSL

USL

Technology Issues Committee of AMT

The Association For Manufacturing Technology

to assist in the use and understanding of the

Process Capability Index Cpk.

Published by:

AMT The Association For Manufacturing Technology

7901 Westpark Drive, McLean, VA 22102

Printed in the United States of America

Copyright 2002 AMT The Association For Manufacturing

Technology all rights reserved. Permission to photocopy this

material is granted provided credit is given to AMT.

For ordering information, see the Publication section of the

AMT Website at www.AMTonline.org or contact the AMT

Information Resource Center (IRC) at 703-827-5220 or

703-893-2900.

Phone 703-893-2900 Fax 703-893-1151

AMT@AMTonline www.AMTonline.org

11/02-PS150

a Process Capability Index

Introduction

The purpose of this guide is twofold. The first is to provide

information on the process capability index Cpk. The second is

to list various actions that can be taken or parameters checked

in order to reduce process variation.

The idea of comparing the specification of a part parameter to

the measured variation or distribution of the process producing

the parameter has been with us for many years. It has only

been in recent years that the comparison has been given a formal name and a means of calculation.

All authors and analysts writing on Cpk hasten to point out that

the index is a statistic based on measurements and, like all such

statistics, has an associated degree of uncertainty. However,

most practitioners consider Cpk to be a fixed number without

regard to the nature of the data that produced it. We will point

out the uncertainty involved in any statement of Cpk.

This guide assumes the reader has knowledge of control charts

and methods for calculating standard deviations. A good reference is the NIST/SEMATECH Handbook of Statistical Methods.

The complete Handbook is on the Internet and may be accessed

at www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook.

What is Cpk?

Cpk is a Process Capability Index. The term index is used

because the value is a comparison or ratio. It is the ratio of the

workpiece specification or tolerance (allowed variation) compared to the process variation (produced variation) expressed in

terms of 3 standard deviations. When standard deviation is

used in a calculation, the assumption is that the underlying

measurements form a normal distribution.

Therefore, in the case of calculating Cpk, all known assignable

causes for variation in the process should be minimized before

measurements are taken that will be used in the final calculation. In other words, the process should be stable and in statistical control.

Some processes may use a positive stop or an in-process gage

to produce part size. In those cases, the size distribution may

not be normal, and the calculations described here will not be

valid. Other sources should be consulted on how to deal with

skewed distributions.

In other cases, the specification is not bimodal nor is it given as

a range. Examples might be hardness at least or surface

finish not to exceed . In those situations a Cpk cannot be calculated since the part specification is not stated as a range. Of

course, the standard deviation for the process output can still be

calculated, and an estimate made about the probability of staying within the specification. But this is not a comparison such

as Cpk.

The importance of sample size in acquiring data cannot be over

emphasized. As we shall see, the calculated value of Cpk

depends on what is technically termed an estimate of the

standard deviation. The larger the sample size, the more accurate is the estimate.

Calculating Cpk

Once data on the process has been gathered and analyzed, and

the standard deviation calculated, a comparison to the products

specification can be made. This simple comparison yields the

process potential Cp. In some cases, the mean of the process is

at the center of the products specification limit as shown in

Figure 1. The term Cp assumes centering and should be equal

to or greater than 1.

Cp =

Specification

Width USL LSL

Specificat

ion Width

=

Process

6s

Pr ocess Spread

Spread

LSL is the lower specification limit

X is the process mean

large samples are used that accurately represent the total population. In most cases, it is not feasible to use large samples,

and the resultant standard deviation is represented by s.

specification as shown in Figure 2. The actual process capability Cpk then becomes

Cpk =

X Nearest Specificat

ion Limit

Specification

X

3s

Cpk = Min [

USL X

,

3s

X LSL

]

3s

FIG. 2

inspection of Figure 2 will show that the first step in increasing

Cpk should be to take action to align the center of the process

spread with the center of the specification spread. This

assumes that the two spreads are close to equal, or the process

spread is actually less than the specification spread.

Of course, if the process spread greatly exceeds the specification spread, steps must be taken to reduce the process spread.

In Figure 2, Cpk would be about 0.5. However, if the process

spread were aligned with the specification, Cpk would be about

1.0.

For the sake of simplicity, lets assume that the process is centered on the product specification. How many defective parts

per million (parts out of tolerance) would we expect for different values of Cpk? Table 1 lists some values:

Table 1: Expected number of defective parts

for values of Cpk

Cpk

1.00

1.10

1.20

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

1.70

1.80

2.00

2,700.0

967.0

318.0

96.0

26.0

6.8

1.6

0.34

0.06

0.0018

per billion defective! Such a number highlights the significance of sample size and the related issue of uncertainty associated with the actual value of Cpk.

that a calculated value of Cpk based on measured data is equal

to or greater than a specified value. What value would we have

to see based on various sample sizes? Table 2 provides some

examples:

Table 2: Required Test Cpk Values for 90% Confidence

in Specified Value

Specified Value for Cpk

Sample

Size

200

100

50

30

10

1.00

1.30

1.50

1.70

2.00

1.08

1.11

1.17

1.24

1.50

1.40

1.44

1.51

1.60

1.93

1.61

1.66

1.74

1.84

2.22

1.82

1.88

1.97

2.07

2.52

2.14

2.21

2.31

2.45

2.95

Most experts agree that the sample size should be at least 30.

For derivation of how to calculate the values in Tables 1 and 2

above, see the referenced NIST/SEMATECH Handbook (noted

on page 1), section 7.1.4.

Cpk is used to provide some expectation about the future

capability of a process. However, the number calculated

is based on a snapshot of the process at only one point

in time. The calculated Cpk is only an estimate of how

the process might be expected to perform.

The confidence level we can assign to the calculated

value is a function of sample size.

capability gives us a benchmark for improvement. Continuous

improvement is the ultimate goal of making the measurements.

Measurement

The key element in establishing Cpk with a customer is reaching agreement on the measurement method and gauges to be

used. The condition of the measurement equipment, and gauge

reproducibility and repeatability (R&R) should be stated. In

fact, for tight tolerances, the conditions used to determine R&R

should be stated such as the number of appraisers and the

number of repeat measurements. In order to be able to analyze

data for events that happen during a test run, make sure that

measurements are recorded chronologically.

See Section 2.4 in the NIST/SEMATECH referenced Handbook

for a complete discussion on gauge R&R.

Machine

Thermal deformation is one of the greatest contributors to

change in the output of a machine tool. All elements responding to temperature change should be understood and monitored.

Machine accuracy and repeatability should be determined using

statistical techniques. Factors such as alignment, spindle

runout and balance, and dynamic stability should be accessed

with respect to the contribution to desired workpiece parameters.

Machine maintenance is useful to restore parameters that have

deteriorated and are contributing to variations. Company procedures should be established for maintaining machine calibration.

Tooling

Changes in tool condition are a common source of shift in

workpiece size or surface finish. These changes can best be

analyzed from a histogram of data taken chronologically.

Changes are not limited to tool wear, but may also be created

by dirt on the toolholder, a balance condition, or repeatability

when changing inserts.

Workholding

The ability of the workholding device to position each part consistently is critical to maintaining uniform output. Tests should

be made to determine the repeatability of workholding devices.

The rigidity of the workholding device in relation to the rigidity

of the workpiece and process-induced forces can also influence

size variation.

Workpiece

Variations in workpiece initial stock conditions are a common

source of output variation. Workpieces should be checked for

incoming size and hardness. Both parameters cause changes in

process forces. Cpk of incoming parts would be desirable.

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