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WCDMA PS Service Optimization Guide

For Internal Use Only

Product name

Confidentiality level

WCDMA RNP

For internal use only

Product version
Total 166 pages
3.2

WCDMA PS Service Optimization Guide


(For internal use only)

Prepared by

Reviewed by

Reviewed by

Approved by

Yu Yongxian
Xie Zhibin, Chen Qi, Xu Zili, Xu
Dengyu, Jiao Anqiang, Hu Wensu,
Ji Yinyu, Qin Yan, Wan Liang, and
Ai Hua
Qin Yan and Wang Chungui

Dat
e
Dat
e

Dat
e
Dat

2006-03-22

2006-03-22

2006-03-30

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


All Rights Reserved

Revision Records
Date
2004-1126

Versio
Description
n
1.00

Reviewer

Author

Initial transmittal.

Yu Yongxian

1.01

Removing ABCD network for


optimization target; putting analysis of
traffic statistics in a single chapter;
completing the operations and
instructions at core network side by CN
engineers; removing CDR part.

Yu Yongxian

2006-0316

1.02

Moving the comparison of APP and


RLC throughput to DT/CQT data
analysis part; supplementing flow
charts.

Yu Yongxian

2006-0322

3.00

Changing the cover; removing BLER


target and changing power control
parameters; supplementing flow chats;
adding an HSDPA case.

Yu Yongxian

2006-0523

3.10

Supplementing HSDPA KPIs; adding


flow for analyzing the poor
performance for HSDPA to bear RAN
side data in data transfer; adding
analysis of interruption of data transfer
for HSDPA service; supplementing
HSDPA cases; revising minor errors in
V3.0 guide.

Wang Dekai

2006-1024

3.11

1 Adding analysis of throughput about


lub Overbooking to R99 and HSDPA
2 adding recommendation of EPE and
GBR import analysis of UE throughput.
3 Adding the third power assign
methods description of HSDPA HSSCCH and the second power assign
method of baseline parameters change.
4 Adding the infection of V17
admittance arithmetic.
5 adding analysis of PLC Status Prohit

Wang Dekai

2006-0309

Date

Versio
Description
n

Reviewer

Author

Timer to RLC layer throughput.


6 Adding analysis and description of
APP layer throughput.
7 Adding the recommendation of V17
SET HSDPATRF commands change.
8 Modify the wrong description about
TCP/IPs content.
2007-1030

3.2

2008-0417

3.21

Adding checklist of HSPA throughputs


problem on back-check and orientation.

2008-1024

3.22

Adding UMAT tools analyze HSDPAs


throughput problem. Modifying some
content

2008-1218

3.23

Gao Bo

Adding some content about HSUPA

Change the format and covert to KPI


Monitoring and Improvemnet Guilde
series.

Hua Yunlong
Hu Wensu, Ji
Shuqi , and
Fang Ming

Zheng Kaisi

He fengming

Contents
3.1 Traffic Statistics 19
3.2 DT/CQT 20
3.3 Others 22
4.1 Traffic Statistics Indexes Related to Throughput 25
4.2 Generic Analysis Flow 29
4.2.1 Flow for Analyzing RNC-level Traffic Statistics Data 29
4.2.2 Flow for Analyzing Cell-level Traffic Statistics Data 32
5.1 Access Failure 39
5.1.1 Originating PS Service by UE Directly 39
5.1.2 UE as the Modem of PC 40
5.2 Disconnection of Service Plane 46
5.2.1 Analyze Problems at RAN Side 46
5.2.2 Analyzing Problems at CN Side 51
5.3 Poor Performance of Data Transfer 54
5.3.1 Checking Alarms 55
5.3.2 Comparing Operations and Analyzing Problem 56
5.3.3 Analyzing Poor Performance of Data Transfer by DCH 57
5.3.4 Analyzing Poor Performance of Data Transfer by HSDPA at RAN Side 62
5.3.5 Analysis of the Problem about Poor Data Transmission Performance of the HSUPA on the RAN Side 81
5.3.6 Analyzing Poor Performance of Data Transfer at CN Side 115
5.4 Interruption of Data Transfer 119
5.4.1 Analzying DCH Interruption of Data Transfer 119
5.4.2 Analyzing HSDPA Interruption of Data Transfer 121
6.1 Cases at RAN Side 124
6.1.1 Call Drop due to Subscriber Congestion (Iub Resource Restriction) 124
6.1.2 Uplink PS64k Service Rate Failing to Meet Acceptance Requirements in a Test (Air Interface Problem)
124
6.1.3 Statistics and Analysis of Ping Time Delay in Different Service Types 125
6.1.4 Low Rate of HSDPA Data Transfer due to Over Low Pilot Power 126
6.1.5 Unstable HSDPA Rate due to Overhigh Receiving Power of Data Card 127

6.1.6 Decline of Total Throughput in Cell due to AAL2PATH Bandwidth larger than Actual Physical
Bandwidth 128
6.1.7 Causes for an Exceptional UE Throughput and Location Method in a Field Test 130
6.2 Cases at CN Side 133
6.2.1 Low FTP Downloading Rate due to Over Small TCP Window on Server TCP 133
6.2.2 Simultaneous Uploading and Downloading 134
6.2.3 Decline of Downloading Rate of Multiple UEs 135
6.2.4 Unstable PS Rate (Loss of IP Packets) 136
6.2.5 Unstable PS Rate of Single Thread in Commercial Deployment (Loss of IP Packets) 138
6.2.6 Unavailable Streaming Service for a Subscriber 139
6.2.7 Unavailable PS Services due to Firewall of Laptop 139
6.2.8 Low PS Service Rate in Presentation Occasion 139
6.2.9 Abnormal Ending after Long-time Data Transfer by FTP 140
6.2.10 Analysis of Failure in PS Hanodver Between 3G Network and 2G Network 144
8.1 Transport Channel of PS Data 151
8.2 Theoretical Rates at Each Layer 152
8.2.1 TCP/IP Layer 152
8.2.2 RLC Layer 152
8.2.3 Retransmission Overhead 153
8.2.4 MAC-HS Layer 153
8.3 Bearer Methods of PS Services 154
8.3.1 DCH 154
8.3.2 HSDPA 154
8.3.3 CCH 155
8.4 Method for Modifying TCP Receive Window 156
8.4.1 Tool Modification 156
8.4.2 Regedit Modification 156
8.5 Method for Modifying MTU 157
8.5.1 Tool Modification 157
8.5.2 Regedit Modification 158
8.6 Confirming APN and Rate in Activate PDP Context Request Message 159
8.6.1 Traffic Classes: 159
8.6.2 Maximum Bit Rates and Guaranteed Bit Rates 160
8.6.3 APN 160
8.7 APN Effect 162
8.7.1 Major Effect 162
8.7.2 Method for Naming APN 162
8.7.3 APN Configuration 162
8.8 PS Tools 163

8.8.1 TCP Receive Window and MTU Modification Tools 163


8.8.2 Sniffer 163
8.8.3 Common Tool to Capture Packet: Ethereal 164
8.8.4 HSDPA Test UE 164
8.9 Analysis of PDP Activation 165

Figures
Flow for analyzing RNC-level traffic statistics data 30
Flow for analyzing cell-level traffic statistics data 32
Flow for analyzing DT/CQT data 38
Flow for analyzing access failure problems when originating PS
services by UE directly 39
Flow for analyzing access problem when the UE serves as the
modem of PC 40
Flow for processing problem of failure in opening port 41
Flow for analyzing access failure problems 42
Signaling flow of successful setup of a PS service in Probe 43
Flow for analyzing disconnection of service plane 46
Flow for analyzing RAN side problem about disconnection of service
plane for DCH bearer 47
Connection Performance Measurement-Downlink Throughput and
Bandwidth window 48
HSDPA parameters in Probe 50
Flow for analyzing problems at CN side about disconnection of
service plane 52
Flow for analyzing poor performance of data transfer 55
Flow for analyzing RAN side problem about poor performance of
data transfer on DCH 58
Flow for analyzing data transfer affected by Uu interface 59
Flow for analyzing data transfer affected by Iub interface 61
Flow for analyzing poor performance of data transfer on HSDPA at
RAN side 64

Confirming in the RNC message that PS service is set up on HSDPA


channel 65
Confirming in Probe that service is set up on HSDPA channel 65
High code error of ACK->NACK/DTX in Probe 76
Uplink and downlink RL imbalance in handover areas 77
Residual BLER at MAC layer in WCDMA HSDPA Decoding Statistics
window 80
Working process of an HSUPA UE 82
Optimization flow of a low throughput of the HSUPA UE 85
Confirming the service is set up on the HSUPA according to a
signaling message of the RNC 86
How to confirm the service is set up on the HSUPA through the drive
test tool Probe 87
RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message 90
RRC CONNECT SETUP CMP message 91
RL RECFG PREPARE message 92
Display of the Assistant HSUPA related information (limited transmit
power of the UE) 93
Display of the Assistant HSUPA related information (limited traffic)
94
PHYSICAL SHARED CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION REQUEST message
(containing the target RTWP and the background) 96
ATM transmission efficiency 97
P bandwidth utilization 98
RAB assignment request message (containing an MBR) 99
RL RECFG PREPARE message (containing NodeB MBR) 100
RB SETUP message (containing the maximum number of available
channel codes) 101
RLC PDU retransmission rate on the Probe 109
Receiver's CPU performance observation window 113
Flow for analyzing poor performance of data transfer at CN side 116
Flow for analyzing interruption of data transfer 120

Interruption delay of TCP displayed in Ethereal 122


Variation of total throughput of one IMA link of HSDPA codes 128
Variation of total throughput of two IMA links of HSDPA codes 129
Unstable PS rate (1) 137
Unstable PS rate (2) 137
Analyzing packets captured by Ethereal upon unstable PS rate 138
Interactive interface in CuteFTP 141
Signaling of normal downloading by FTP 142
Signaling of abnormal downloading by FTP 143
Signaling of normal handover between 3G network and 2G network
145
Normal signaling flow between UE and 2G SGSN. 146
Signaling flow traced on 2G SGSN 147
Transport channel of PS data 151
Packet Service Data Flow 152
Running interface of DRTCP 157
Detailed resolution of Activate PDP Context Request message 159
Converting ASCII codes into a character string by using the UltraEdit
161
PDP context activation process originated by MS 165

Tables
Requirements by DT/CQT on PS throughput 15
Major parameters to be collected in DT/CQT 20
Tools for collecting data 22
Measured items related to PS throughput in overall performance
measurement of RNC 25
Measured items related to PS throughput in cell performance
measurement 26
Measured items related to HSDPA throughput (cell measurement) 27
related to HSUPA throughput (cell measurement) 27
Other measured items related to throughput 28
Indexes to judge whether a cell has PS service request 33
Cell measurement/cell algorithm measurement analysis 33
Analysis of cell performance/Iub interface measurement 34
Cell Measurement/Cell RLC Measurement Analysis 35
Comparing operations and analyzing problem 56
Relationship between CQI and TB size when the UE is in category
1112 67
Relationship between CQI and TB size when the UE is at the level 1
6 68
HS-SCCH power offset 71
Categories of UE HSUPA capability levels 89
PO for the E-AGCH when the Ec/Io at the edge of cells is 12 dB 103
PO for the E-RGCH when the Ec/Io at the edge of cells is 12 dB 104
PO for the E-HICH when the Ec/Io at the edge of cells is 12 dB 107

Delay test result of ping packet 126


WCDMA PS Service Optimization Guide

Key words
WCDMA, PS service, and throughput

Abstract
The document serves the optimization of PS service problems in large networks. It describes problem
evaluation, data collection, and methods for analyzing problems.

Acronyms and abbreviations:


Acronyms and
abbreviations

Full spelling

RNO

Radio Network Optimization

RNP

Radio Network Planning

APN

Access Point Name

CHR

Call History Record

CQI

Channel Quality Indicator

CQT

Call Quality Test

DT

Driver Test

HSDPA

High Speed Data Packet Access

HS-PDSCH

High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel

HS-SCCH

Shared Control Channel for HS-DSCH

QoS

Quality of Service

SF

Spreading Factor

UE

User Equipment

SBLER

Scheduled Block Error Rate

IBLER

Initial Block Error Rate

HHO

Hard Handover

SHO

Soft Handover

NE

Network Element

1. Introduction
About This Guide
The following table lists the contents of this document.
Titl
e

Description

Chapter 1

Introduction

Chapter 2

Evaluation of PS Throughput Problems

Chapter 3

Data Collection

Chapter 4

Analysis of Traffic Statistics Data

Chapter 5

Analysis of DT/CQT Data

Chapter 6

Cases

Chapter 7

Summary

Chapter 8

Appendix

In WCDMA networks, besides traditional conversational service, data service is growing with
features. It has a significant perspective.
The indexes to indicate the performance of WCDMA data service includes:

Access performance
It is reflected by the following indexes of data service:

Success rate of RRC setup

Success rate of RAB setup

Success rate of PDP activation

Call drop rate of PS service

Throughput

Delay
There are access delay and the service interruption delay caused by HHO.

This document addresses on problems in PS service optimization, such as access problems, data
transfer failure, low throughput of data transfer, unstable rate of data transfer, and interruption of data
transfer. It describes the method to analyze and solve DT/CQT problems. In addition, it describes the
flow for processing access failure and data transfer failure problems in optimization of PS throughput.
For access problems, call drop and handover problems, see W-KPI Monitoring and Improvement
Guide, which provides analysis in terms of signaling flow and performance statistics. This guide
supplements the possible causes and solutions to PS service access problems in terms of operations.
This guide is for RNO in commercial network, not in benchmark trial network.
The HSDPA problem analysis and description of MML command and product function are based on
the following product versions:

BSC6800V100R006C01B064

BTS3812E V100R006C02B040

When refer RRC arithmetic and product realization default is RNC V16, refer V17 it will be labeled.
The HSUPA problem analyses, description of MML command and product function are based on the
following product versions:

BSC6800V100R008C01B082

DBS3800-BBU3806V100R008C01B062

2. Evaluation of PS Throughput
Problems
About This Chapter
This chapter describes the evaluation of PS throughput problems.

Optimize PS throughput in terms of DT/CQT. In actual network optimization, the optimization objects
and test methods are according to contract.
2 lists the requirements by DT/CQT on PS throughput.

1.

I
n
d
e
x

Average
downlink
throughput
of R99

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

PS
UL64k/DL
64k

4856 kbps

PS
UL64k/DL
128k

96106 kbps

PS
UL64k/DL
384k

300350 kbps

Requirements by
DT/CQT on PS
throughput

Reference
test method

Test in
the
areas
where
Ec/Io is
large
than
11 dB
and
RSCP
is
larger
than
90
dBm.

Test
when
traffic
is low
without
call
drop
proble
ms due
to
congest
ion.

Put

I
n
d
e
x

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

Reference
test method

FTP
servers
in CN.

Average
uplink
throughput
of R99

PS
UL64k/DL
64k

4856 kbps

Downl
oad
with 5
threads.

Exclud
e nonRAN
proble
ms or
decline
of
through
put
caused
by UE.

Test in
the
areas
where
Ec/Io is
large
than
11 dB
and
RSCP
is
larger
than
90
dBm.

Test

I
n
d
e
x

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

Reference
test method

when
traffic
is low
(the
uplink
and
downli
nk load
is not
larger
than
planne
d load)
without
call
drop
proble
ms due
to
congest
ion.

Put
FTP
servers
in CN.

Downl
oad
with 5
threads.

Exclud
e nonRAN
proble
ms or
decline
of

I
n
d
e
x

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

Reference
test method

through
put
caused
by UE.
Downlink
average
throughput
for HSDPA
single
subscriber

CAT12

1.52Mbps

The
carrier
power,
number
of HSPDSC
H
codes
and Iub
bandwi
dth
resourc
e are
not
restrict
ed. The
through
put is
determi
ned by
capabil
ity of
UE.

The
average
CQI of
tested
area is
18.

Single

(SBLER =
10%)

I
n
d
e
x

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

Reference
test method

subscri
ber in
unload
ed
conditi
ons and
in the
center
of cell.
760 kbps

Other
resourc
es
except
power
are not
restrict
ed.

The
average
CQI of
tested
area is
10.

Single
subscri
ber in
unload
ed
conditi
ons and
in the
edge of
cell.

I
n
d
e
x

Throughpu
t of
HSDPA
cell

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

CAT12

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

3.25 Mbps

800 kbps

Reference
test method

4
CAT12
UEs,
and 14
HSPDSC
H
codes

It is
restrict
ed by
HSPDSC
H code.
The
carrier
power
and Iub
bandwi
dth are
not
restrict
ed.

The
average
CQI of
tested
area is
18.

4
CAT12
UEs,
and 14
HS-

I
n
d
e
x

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

Reference
test method

PDSC
H
codes

HSUPA
Single
subscriber
throughput

CAT3

800kbps~1.1
Mbps
(cell center)

It is
restrict
ed by
carrier
power.
The
HSPDSC
H code
and Iub
bandwi
dth are
not
restrict
ed.

The
average
CQI of
tested
area is
18.

Uplink
RTWP,
IUB
bandwi
dth
resourc
e and
UE TX
power
are not

I
n
d
e
x

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

Reference
test method

restrict
ed.

Pilot
power
33dBm
RSC
P>=70dBm
;

Single
subscri
ber in
unload
ed
conditi
ons

Set
MTU
size
1500
bytes ,
set
PDU
size=
336
bits.

In UE
QoS
profile
in
HLR,
MBR=
2Mbps,
service
type is

I
n
d
e
x

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

Reference
test method

Backgr
ound/In
teractiv
e

The
data
resourc
e of
FTP
must
make
sure
that
upload
can get
the
faster
rate in
the
wire
connect
ion
conditi
ons.

Obtain
the
faster
rate,
combin
e UE
capabil
ity, get
APP
rate in
the
conditi

I
n
d
e
x

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

Reference
test method

ons of
uplink
RTWP,
IUB
bandwi
dth are
not
restrict
ed.
200kbps~400
kbps

Uplink
RTWP,
IUB
bandwi
dth
resourc
e and
UE TX
power
are not
restrict
ed.

Pilot
power
33dBm
RSC
P>=100dB
m;

Single
subscri
ber in
unload
ed
conditi

(cell edge)

I
n
d
e
x

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

Reference
test method

ons

set
MTU
150
0
bytes ,
set
PDU =
336
bits

In UE
QoS
profile
in
HLR,
MBR=
2Mbps,
service
type is
Backgr
ound/In
teractiv
e

The
data
resourc
e of
FTP
must
make
sure
that
upload
can get
the fast
rate in

I
n
d
e
x

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

R
ef
er
e
n
ce

Reference
test method

the
wire
connect
ion
conditi
ons.

Get the
fast
rate ,
combin
e UE
capabil
ity , get
APP
rate in
the
conditi
ons of
uplink
RTWP,
IUB
bandwi
dth are
not
restrict
ed.

3. Data Collection
About This Chapter
The following table lists the contents of this chapter.
Titl
e

Description

3.1

Traffic Statistics

3.2

DT/CQT

3.3

Others

There are two major methods for evaluating PS throughput: traffic statistics and DT/CQT.

1.

Traffic Statistics

For collecting traffic statistics data, see W-Equipment Room Operations Guide.

2.

DT/CQT

To obtain DT/CQT data, use the software Probe, UE, scanner, and GPS are involved. Obtain the
information output by UE, such as:

Coverage

Pilot pollution

Signaling flow

Downlink BLER

TX power of UE

Based on the measurement tracing on RNC LMT, obtain the following information:

Uplink BLER

Downlink code transmission power

Downlink carrier transmission power

Signaling flow at RNC side

By the DT processing software Assistant, analyze comprehensively the data collected by Probe in
foreground DT and tracing record on RNC LMT.
3.2 lists the major parameters to be collected in DT/CQT.

1.

Paramete
r

Tool

Major
parameters to be
collected in
DT/CQT

Effect

Longitude and latitude

Probe + GPS

Record trace

Scramble, RSCP, Ec/Io


of active set

Probe + UE

Analyze problems

UE TX Power

Probe + UE

Analyze problems and


output reports

Downlink BLER

Probe + UE

Analyze problems and

Paramete
r

Tool

Effect

output reports
Uplink/Downlink
application layer, RLC
layer throughput

Probe + UE

Analyze problems and


output reports

RRC and NAS


signaling at UE side

Probe + UE

Analyze problems

HSDPA CQI, HSSCCH scheduling


success rate,
throughput of APP,
RLC, and MAC

Probe + UE

Analyze problems and


output reports

Uplink BLER

RNC LMT

Analyze problems and


output reports

Downlink transmission
code power

RNC LMT

Analyze problems and


output reports

Single subscriber
signaling tracing by
RNC

RNC LMT

Analyze problems

Iub bandwidth

RNC/NodeB LMT

Analyze problems

Downlink carrier
transmission power
and non-HSDPA
carrier transmission
power

RNC LMT

Analyze problems and


output reports

Downlink throughput
and bandwidth

RNC LMT

Analyze problems and


output reports

Paramete
r

Dowlink traffic

Tool

RNC LMT

Effect

Analyze problems

In PS service test, to reduce the impact from TCP receiver window of application layer, using multithread downloading tools like FlashGet is recommended. Set the number of threads to 5. For uplink
data transfer, start several FTP processes.
For the detailed test and operation methods of DT and CQT, see W-Test Guide. For detailed operations
on LMT, see W-Equipment Room Operations Guide.

3.

Others

After finding problems by traffic statistics, DT/CQT, and subscribers' complaints, analyze and locate
problems with DT/CQT and the following aspects:

RNC CHR

Connection performance measurement

Cell performance measurement

Alarms on NEs

States of NEs

FlashGet

DU Meter

3.3 lists the tools for collecting data.

1.

D
a
t
a

Traffic
statistics
data

Tool
s
for
coll
ecti
ng
dat
a

M2000

Tool
s
for
vie
win
g/
ana
lyzi
ng
dat
a

Nastar

Tools for
collecting data

E
ff
e
c
t

Re
m
ar
k

Check the
network
operation
conditions
macroscopic
ally, analyze
whether there
are abnormal
NEs.

For detailed
operations on
LMT, see WEquipment
Room
Operations
Guide. For
usage of
Nastar, see the
online help
and operation
manual of

D
a
t
a

Tool
s
for
coll
ecti
ng
dat
a

Tool
s
for
vie
win
g/
ana
lyzi
ng
dat
a

E
ff
e
c
t

Re
m
ar
k

Nastar.
DT/CQT
data

Probe + UE

Assistant

Analyze calls
in terms of
flow and
coverage
based on
DT/CQT
data and
traced data
on RNC

Connection
performance
measuremen
t, cell
performance
measuremen
t, signaling
tracing by
RNC

RNC LMT

Assistant or
RNC LMT

Alarm

M2000 or RNC
LMT

M2000 or RNC
LMT

Check alarms
whether there
are abnormal
NEs

CHR

RNC LMT

Nastar or RNC
Insight Plus

Record
historic
record of
abnormal
calls for all
subscribers,
help to locate
problems.
For
subscribers'
complaints,

See W-Test
Guide.
See the online
help of RNC
LMT

D
a
t
a

Tool
s
for
coll
ecti
ng
dat
a

Tool
s
for
vie
win
g/
ana
lyzi
ng
dat
a

E
ff
e
c
t

Re
m
ar
k

analyzing
CHR helps to
find the
problem
happening to
subscribers.
None

FlashGet

None

Downlink
with multiple
threads to
obtain more
stable
throughput

Assistant tool
for PS service
test

None

DU Meter

None

Observe
throughput of
application
layer realtime, take
statistics of
total
throughput,
average
throughput,
and peak
throughput in
a period (the
result is
recorded by
PrintScreen
shot).

Assistant tool
for PS service
test

D
a
t
a

Tool
s
for
coll
ecti
ng
dat
a

Tool
s
for
vie
win
g/
ana
lyzi
ng
dat
a

E
ff
e
c
t

Re
m
ar
k

PS data
packet

Sniffer

Sniffer

Construct
stable uplink
and downlink
data
transmission
requirement.

Used by CN
engineers. For
usage, see
appendix.

PS data
packet

Ethereal

Ethereal

Sniff data
packet at
interfaces
and parse
data packet

Used by CN
engineers. For
usage, see
appendix.

Note: CHR is called CDL in those versions prior to RNC V1.6. CHR is used in these versions after V1.6.

When analyzing data with previous tools, engineers need to combine several data for analysis. For
example, in network maintenance stage, if some indexes are faulty, analyze some relative data such as
performance statistic, alarm data, and CHR. According to the level of problems, perform DT/CQT in
cell coverage scope; trace the signaling of single subscriber and conduct connection performance
measurement on RNC LMT.
If there are problems in DT/CQT, analyze them based on traffic statistics and alarms.

4. Analysis of Traffic Statistics


Data
About This Chapter
This chapter analyzes traffic statistics data.
Titl
e

Description

4.1

Traffic Statistics Indexes Related to


Throughput

4.2

Generic Analysis Flow

The access, call drop, SHO, HHO, inter-RAT handover problems may affect throughput of PS
services. Therefore, before analyzing and optimizing throughput of PS services, analyze access, call
drop, SHO, HHO, inter-RAT handover problems.
To analyze access problems and traffic statistics indexes, see W-Access Problem Optimization Guide.
To analyze handover and call drop problems, and traffic statistics indexes, see W-Handover and Call
Drop Problem Optimization Guide.

1. Traffic Statistics Indexes


Related to Throughput
The following four tables are based on RNC V1.6.
4.1 lists the measured items related to PS throughput in overall performance measurement of RNC.

1.

Meas
ured
item

Overall
performance
measurement of
RNC/RLC
statistics
measurement

Major indexes

RLC
buffer
size

Average
utilization
of buffer

Number
of data
packets
sent and
received
by RLC
in
TM/AM/
UM
mode

Number
of data
packets
dropped
by RLC

Number

Measured items
related to PS
throughput in
overall
performance
measurement of
RNC

Effect

Check
whether
the RLC
buffer is
inadequ
ate

Check
the
probabil
ity of
droppin
g data
packets
by RLC

Or
whether
the
downlin
k
retrans
mission
rate is
over

Meas
ured
item

Major indexes

Effect

of
retransmit
ted data
packets
Overall
performance
measurement of
RNC/UE state
measurement
Overall
performance
measurement of
RNC/RB
measurement

Number of UEs in
CELL_DCH, CELL_FACH,
CELL_PCH, and URA_PCH
state

Number
of
conversat
ional
service,
streaming
service,
interactiv
e service,
and
backgrou
nd
service in
various
uplink
and
downlink
rates in
PS
domain
under
RNC
Times of
abnormal
call drops
for
previous
services

high

Serve as reference for


understanding traffic model
of subscribers

Analyze
the
number
of
subscrib
ers
using
different
services
at
different
rate;

Analyze
the call
drop
problem
s of
various
rate

Meas
ured
item

Major indexes

Effect

in various
rate in PS
domain
Overall
performance
measurement of
RNC/RNC traffic
measurement
Overall
performance
measurement of
RNC/PS interRAT handover
measurement

Uplink and downlink traffic


(RLC layer excludes traffic
of RLC header) of all
services in PS domain under
RNC

Times of
successfu
l/failure
PS interRAT
handover
s

The
failure
causes

Frequent inter-RAT and the


call drop due to it will
directly affects PS service
subscribers' experiences.
Guarantee high handover
success rate by analyzing
and optimizing the
measured item while avoid
ping-pong handover.
Reduce the impact from
inter-RAT handover on PS
throughput.

4.1 lists the measured items related to PS throughput in cell performance measurement.

2.

Mea
sure
d
item

Cell

Major
indexes

Uplink and downlink

Measured items
related to PS
throughput in cell
performance
measurement

Effect

Analyze whether the

measurement/tra
ffic measurement

traffic volume (number of


MAC-d PDU bytes) at Iub
interface, traffic of
RACH, FACH, and PCH;
Iub CCH bandwidth

CCH is to be congested;
take statistics of Iub
TCH traffic

Cell
measurement/cel
l algorithm
measurement

DCCCC and congestion


control

Analyze cell congestion


problems and rationality
of DCCC parameters

Cell
measurement/cel
l RLC
measurement

Collect cell level data


,such as:

Cell
measurement/cel
l throughput of
various services,
throughput t

Valid
RLC
data
rate
Downl
ink
service

Numb
er of
signali
ng
PDUs

Numb
er of
retrans
mitted
PDUs

Numb
er of
discar
ded
PDUs

Average throughput and


volume of various service

Take
statis
tics
of
valid
data
rate
at
RLC
layer

The
trans
miss
ion
rate
of
servi
ce
and
sign
aling

The
drop
ping
rate

Obta
in
the
aver
age

measurement

thro
ughp
ut of
vario
us
servi
ces
in
the
cell.

Cell
measurement/BL
ER measurement
of various
services in cell

Uplink
averag
e
BLER
of
variou
s
service
s in
cell

The
ratio
of time
of

Judg
e
whet
her
the
aver
age
thro
ughp
ut
meet
s the
opti
miza
tion
obje
ctive
s

maxim
um
value
of
BLER
Cell
measurement/Iub
interface
measurement

Numb
er of
reques
ted
RLs at
Iub
interfa
ce

Numb
er of
succes
sful
RLs

Numb
er of
failed
RLs,

Differe
nt
causes
of
failure
s

Check the resource


allocation condition at
Iub interface whether
Iub is congested.

In cell performance measurement, HSDPA part is added, and other indexes are the same as that of
R99. Some traffic statistics indexes corresponding to HSDPA services are not added to RNC traffic
statistics.
Table 4-3 lists the measured items related to HSDPA throughput (cell measurement).

3.

Meas
ured
item

Cell
measurement/HSD
PA service
measurement

Major
indexes

Statistic
s of
HSDPA
service
setup
and
deletion

Number
of
HSDPA
subscrib
ers in
cell

D-H, FH
transitio
n

Serving
cell
update

Intrafrequen
cy HHO

Interfrequen
cy HHO

MAC-D
flow
through
put

Measured items
related to HSDPA
throughput (cell
measurement)
Eff
ec
t

Know the
HSDPA
throughput
and number of
subscribers in
cell

Table 4-4 lists the measured items related to HSDPA throughput (cell measurement).Measured items

4. related to HSUPA
throughput (cell
measurement)
Measure
d item

Cell
measurement/HSDPA
service measurement

Major
indexes

Measured item
HSUPA.CELL include
the PI of service setup ,
release and the number of
EDCH handover

Effect

Know the HSUPA


throughput and
number of subscribers
in cell

Table 4-5 shows other measured items related to throughput.

5.

Measu
red
item

Performance
measurement at Iu
interface

GTP-U
measurement

Majo
r
inde
xes

Iu-PS reset times,


setup and release
times, and
overload control
times.

Other measured
items related to
throughput

Effect

Analyze whether lu-PS


interface is normal

Determine
the scope of
problems by
comparing
RLC layer
traffic and
GTP-U
traffic

Distinguish
RAN side
problems
from CN

Number of bytes
sent and received
by GTP-U

side
problems
UNI LINK
measurement

Average
receiving and
sending rate of
UNI LINK

IMA LINK
measurement

Average
receiving and
sending rate of
IMA LINK

IMA GROUP link


measurement

Average
receiving and
sending rate of
IMA GROUP

2.

Generic Analysis Flow

According to 4.1, the indexes related to PS throughput include:

Overall performance measurement of RNC

Cell measurement

Performance measurement at Iu interface

GTP-U measurement

UNIUNI LINK measurement

IMA LINK measurement

IMA GROUP link measurement

Analyzing traffic statistics data is mainly based on overall performance measurement of RNC and cell
measurement. Analyzing RNC-level data addresses on evaluating and analyzing performance of entire
network. Analyzing cell-level data addresses on locating cell problems. Other measured items like Iu
interface and transmission help engineers to analyze problems in the whole process of performance
data analysis.
In actual traffic statistics analysis, evaluate the indexes of entire network and then locate cell-level
problems.

1. Flow for Analyzing RNC-level


Traffic Statistics Data
Figure 4-1 shows the flow for analyzing RNC-level traffic statistics data.

1.

Flow for analyzing


RNC-level traffic
statistics data

The RNC traffic statistics indexes of current version do not include statistics of throughput of various
services, but include RNC traffic volume measurement. The traffic volume measurement is relevant to
subscribers' behaviors and traffic model.

The traffic volume is not the same every day, but is fluctuating periodically from Monday to Saturday
and Sunday. Therefore, upon analysis of RNC traffic volume, observe the fluctuation of weekly traffic
volume. For example, compare the curve chart of traffic volume for a weak with that of last weak. If
they are similar, the network is running normally according to RNC-level analysis. If they are greatly
different from each other, analyze the problem in details.
When analyzing problems, check whether the RNC-level traffic statistics indexes are normal in
synchronization, such as RB, RLC, Iu interface. Then follow the flow for analyzing cell-level traffic
statistics data.
If the PS throughput of one or two cells is abnormal, this cannot be reflected by RNC-level traffic
statistics. Therefore, analyzing cell-level traffic statistics data is necessary even if RNC-level traffic
statistics is normal.

2. Flow for Analyzing Cell-level


Traffic Statistics Data

1. Flow for analyzing celllevel traffic statistics data

The cell-level traffic statistics data is obtainable from cell measurement/cell throughput of various
services, and volume measurement, including the average throughput and total volume of various
services.
Select a representative service in the network, or a continuous coverage service. Analyze the average
throughput of each cell for the selected service by Nastar and sort the cells by cell throughput. Select
the top N worst cells for analysis.
The cells with 0 PS RAB setup request is excluded from sorting alignment, namely, the total number
of the four indexes listed in 4.2.2 is 0. Such cells are considered as having no PS service request, so
they are excluded from sorting alignment the worst cells for PS throughput.

1.

Measur
ed item

Cell measurement

Cell
measurement/HSDP
A service
measurement

Typ
e

Indexes to judge
whether a cell has
PS service
request

Index

Number of
successful
RABs with
RAB
assignment
setup in PS
domain in cell

VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Con
v

Times of
HSDPA service
setup requests
in cell

VS.HSDPA.RAB.AttEsta
b

VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Str
VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Inte
r
VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Bkg

For the worst cell, check that they are not with access, call drop, and handover problems. Then
analyze the cell performance from cell measurement/traffic measurement, cell measurement/cell
algorithm measurement, and cell measurement/cell RLC measurement.
14.2.2 describes the cell measurement/cell algorithm measurement analysis.

2.

Index

VS.LCC.BasicCongNum
UL
VS.LCC.BasicCongNum
DL

VS.LCC.OverCongNumU
L
VS.LCC.OverCongNumD
L

VS.DCCC.D2D.SuccRate
Down.UE
VS.DCCC.D2D.SuccRate
Up.UE

M
ea
ni
ng

A
na
ly
si
s

Cell
measurement/cell
algorithm
measurement
analysis
S
ol
ut
io
n

Times of
uplink and
downlink
basic
congestion in
cell

If one of them
is large than 0,
the cell is with
basic
congestion
problem

If the load of
interfrequency
cells with
overlapped
coverage is
low, optimize
load balance
parameters.
Otherwise
consider
adding
carriers.

Times of cell
congestion
due to uplink
and downlink
overload

If one of them
is large than 0,
the cell must
be badly
congested

If the load of
interfrequency
cells with
same
coverage is
low, optimize
load balance
parameters.
Otherwise
consider
adding
carriers.

Times of
successful
configuration
of DCH

If the average
service
throughput is
much lower

Confirm the
DCCC
algorithm
parameter

VS.Cell.UnavailTime.OM

dynamic
channel with
decreasing
downlink rate
in cell

than the
bandwidth,
the DCCC
algorithm
parameter
may be
irrational.

Length of
unavailable
time of cell

If it is large
than 0, the cell
must have
been
unavailable.

Check alarms
and CHR for
causes of
system
abnormalities

24.2.2 describes the analysis of cell performance/Iub interface measurement.

3.

Index

VS.IUB.AttRLSetup
VS.IUB.SuccRLSetup

M
e
a
ni
n
g

Analy
sis

Number of
requested RLs
set up at lub
interface in
cell.

If SuccRLSetup <
AttRLSetup, the
RL setup must
have failed at lub
interface. Analyze
the problem for
detailed causes.

Number of
successful
RLs set up at
lub interface
in cell.
VS.IUB.FailRLSetup.
CfgUnsup

Number of
RLs failed at

Analyze the setup


failure due to

Analysis of cell
performance/Iub
interface
measurement
S
ol
u
ti
o
n

VS.IUB.FailRLSetup.
Cong
VS.IUB.FailRLSetup.
HW

lub interface
due to
different
causes in cell

different causes.

Number of
downlink RLs
of successful
and failed
RLs of timing
adjustment in
cell

If they are larger


than 0, timing
adjustment is
present in cell. If
timing adjustment
fails, the normal
sending and
receiving may be
affected.

If the
VS.IUB.FailRLSet
up.Cong is large
than 0, the lub
interface is
probably
congested.

VS.IUB.FailRLSetup.
OM

VS.DL.RL.Timing.Ad
just.Succ
VS.DL.RL.Timing.Ad
just.Fail

3) Cell Measurement/Traffic Measurement Analysis


In cell measurement/traffic measurement analysis, take statistics of traffic at MAC layer.
Take statistics of traffic flow, signaling flow, FACH/RACH/PCH transport channel flow, and Iub CCH
bandwidth.
If the total service throughput approaches available Iub bandwidth of TCH, the throughput may
declines due to inadequate Iub bandwidth. Solve this problem by adding transmission bandwidth.
4) 4.2.2 describes Cell Measurement/Cell RLC Measurement Analysis

4.

Index

VS.RLC.AM.TrfPDU.Trans

Mea
ning

Number of PDUs
sent by RLC in
AM mode

Anal
ysis

Cell
Measurement/Cel
l RLC
Measurement
Analysis
Solu
tion

Check the power


control
parameters like

VS.RLC.AM.TrfPDU.Retrans

Number of
service PDUs
retransmitted by
RLC in downlink
in AM mode

Service
retransmission
rate = number of
PDUs for
retransmission
service/number
of sent service
PDUs. If the
retransmission
rate is high, there
may be some
problems.

VS.AM.RLC.DISCARD.TRF.
PDU

Number of
service PDUs
dropped by RLC
in downlink in
AM mode of cell

Dropping rate =
number of
dropped service
PDUs/number of
sent service
PDUs. If the
PDU drop rate is
high, there may
be some
problems.

VS.RLC.AM.SigPDU.Trans

Number of
signaling PDUs
sent by RLC in
AM mode

VS.RLC.AM.SigPDU.Retrans

Number of
signaling PDUs
retransmitted by
RLC in downlink
in AM mode

Signaling
retransmission
rate = number of
retransmitted
signaling
PDUs/number of
sent signaling
PDUs

VS.AM.RLC.DISCARD.SIG.P
DU

Number of
signaling PDUs
dropped by RLC
in downlink in

Signaling
dropping rate =
number of
dropped

target value of
service BLER,
transmission
error rate, and
clock
abnormality.
Check coverage.

Check the power


control
parameters like
target value of
service BLER,
transmission
error rate, and
clock
abnormality.
Check coverage.

AM mode of cell

signaling
PDUs/number of
sent signaling
PDUs

The causes of high RLC retransmission rate and PDU packet dropping rate are:

Bad BLER of radio link (including weak coverage)

High transmission error rate

Clock abnormality

To confirm weak coverage problem, perform DT/CQT and analyze CHR as below:

Perform DT/CQT to know the overall coverage conditions

Analyze CHR to know the RSCP and Ec/Io of subscribers in the environment

Sort the subscribers by RSCP in CHR analysis

Record the worst N subscribers and visit the location

Perform DT/CQT accordingly in these locations

5. Analysis of DT/CQT Data


About This Chapter
The following table lists the contents of this chapter.
Titl
e

Description

5.1

Access Failure

5.2

Disconnection of Service Plane

5.3

Poor Performance of Data Transfer

5.4

Interruption of Data Transfer

WCDMA PS service data transfer problems include the following three types in terms of phenomena:

Access failure (or dial-up connection failure)

Successful access but unavailable data transfer

Available data transfer but low speed or great fluctuation

For the problem with different phenomena, follow different flows for processing them.

1. Flow for
analyzing DT/CQT data

For access, call drop, signaling plane, and handover problems, see W-Access Problem Optimization
Guide and W-Handover and Call Drop Problem Analysis Guide. This guide supplements some
operations in PS service test.

1.

Access Failure

There are two ways to use PS services:

Originating PS services directly on UE, browsing web pages, and watching


video streaming directly on UE

Combining personal computer (PC) and UE. Namely, UE serves as the


modem of PC, and the service is originated through PC

In optimization test, the combination of PC and UE is most widely used. In DT/CQT, the PC is
usually a laptop with the DT software Probe installed on it. This is called Probe + UE. When the UE
fails to directly originate PS services, it can obtain more information by using Probe + UE. Therefore,
the following analysis is mainly based on Probe + UE.

1. Originating PS Service by UE
Directly
5.1.1 shows the flow for analyzing access failure problems when originating PS services by UE
directly.

2.

Flow for analyzing


access failure problems
when originating PS
services by UE directly

The signaling of originating PS services by UE directly is the same as that of PC + UE. The difference
lies in the access point name (APN), and the way to set the address for service visiting.
If the UE fails to originate PS services directly, following the step below for analyzing causes:

Verify the problem by PC + UE


If the PS services through PC + UE are normal, the system must work
normally. Then check and modify the APN, address for serving visiting,
Proxy, and password set on UE.

Follow 5.1.2 if originating PS services by PC + UE fails.

2. UE as the Modem of PC
5.1.2 shows the flow for analyzing access problem when the UE serves as the modem of PC.

1.

Failure in Opening Port


5.1.2 shows the flow for processing problem of failure in opening port.

Flow for analyzing


access problem when the
UE serves as the modem
of PC

2.

Flow for processing


problem of failure in
opening port

The major causes to failure in opening port include:

Port in Hard Config of Probe is incorrectly configured


Check the configuration in Hardware Config. The port must be consistent
with the Com port and Modem port in Device Manager in Windows
operating system.

The port state is abnormal


The driver is improperly installed. Or during DT, the DT tool may abort
abnormally, so the port mapped in Windows Device Manager is marked
by a yellow exclamatory mark.
To solve this problem, reinstall the driver, pull and plug data line or data
card of UE.

After the software aborts abnormally, the port is not deactivated


The DT software like Probe may abort abnormally, so the corresponding
port is improperly closed.
To solve the problem, quit the Probe and restart it. If the problem is still
present, restart PC.

The software of UE is faulty


Restart UE to solve the problem.

The driver of UE is incompletely installed


Reinstall the driver. This problem usually occurs upon the first connection
of PC and UE.

Successful Activation of Port but Access Failure


Opening port succeeds, but access fails. This is probably due to signaling flow problem.
5.1.2 shows the flow for analyzing access failure problems

3.

Flow for analyzing


access failure problems

Trace the NAS and RRC signaling in Probe or trace the signaling of single subscriber on RNC LMT.
Analyze the problem by comparing it to the signaling flow for standard data service. For the signaling
flow for standard data service, see the senior training slides of RNP: W-RNP Senior TrainingSignaling Flow.
5.1.2 shows the signaling flow of successful setup of a PS service in Probe.

4.

Signaling flow of
successful setup of a PS
service in Probe

In 5.1.2, Probe contains two windows: RRC Message, and NAS Messages. The signaling point
in NAS Messages window corresponds to the point of direct transfer messages in RRC Message.
The following problem may occur due to the comparison of signaling flow:

RRC connection setup failure


Description: in 5.1.2 , it is abnormal from the RRC Connection Request
message to the RRC Connection Setup Complete message.
Analysis: the UE fails to send the RRC Connection Request message
according to the RRC Messages window in Probe, probably due to:

Modem port is not selected in the Hardware Config widow in Probe.

Test Plan is not configured in Probe or improperly configured.

The port of UE is abnormal. See the Failure in Opening Port in 5.1.2for


solution.
After the UE sends the RRC Connection Request message, it receives no
response or receives RRC Connection Reject message due to the

admission rejection caused by weak coverage and uplink and downlink


overload. For details, see the section Analyzing RRC Connection Setup
Problems in W-KPI Monitoring and Improvement Guide.

UE's failure in sending Service Request


Description: There in no Service Request message in NAS Messages.
Analysis: The UE may have disabled PS functions or may have not
registered in PS domain.

The UE may have disabled PS functions. Some UE supports CS or PS, or CS


+ PS. If the UE is set to support CS, PS services will be unavailable on it.
Check the UE configuration and Set it to support PS or CS + PS.

The UE may have not registered in PS domain. According to signaling flow,


after the UE sends the Attach Request message, the network side responds the
Attach Reject message. The engineers at CN side need to check whether the
USIM supports PS services.

The flow for authentication and encryption is abnormal


Description: it is abnormal from the Authentication AND Ciphering REQ
in NAS messages to the Security Mode Complete in RRC messages.
Analysis: the engineers at CN side need to check whether the
authentication switch in PS domain of CN is on, whether the CN CS
domain, PS domain, encryption algorithm of RNC, and the integrity
protection algorithm is consistent.
On RNC LMT, query the encryption algorithm by executing the
command LST UEA. Query the integrity protection algorithm by
executing the command LST UIA.
For details, see the section Analyzing Authentication Problems and the
section Analyzing Security Mode Problems in W-KPI Monitoring and
Improvement Guide.

PDP activation is rejected


Description: after the UE sends the Activate PDP Context Request
message, it receives the Activate PDP Context Reject message.
Analysis: there are two types of problems, the improper configuration of
APN and rate at UE side, or CN problems.

Improper APN at UE side


If the cause value of Activate PDP Context Reject is Missing or
unknown APN, the APN configuration is probably inconsistent with
CN side. Check the Probe and APN at UE side, and compare them with
HLR APN. For the method to set APN of UE and Probe, see the section
Connecting Test Device in Genex Probe Online Help. Ask the CN
engineers to check the APN in HLR.

Improper rate at UE side

If the cause value of Activate PDP Context Reject is Service option not
supported, the requested rate of UE is probably higher than subscribed
rate in HLR. Check the requested rate at Probe and UE side, and
compare them with the subscribed rate in HLR. Ask the CN engineers
to check the subscriber rate in HLR.
Check the APN and requested rate in the Activate PDP Context Request
message. See the appendix 8.6.

CN problem
If the APN at UE side and restricted rate are properly configured, the
problem is probably due to CN problem. If some interfaces of CN are
unavailable, locate the problem with engineers on PS domain of CN.
If the PS service is the initial commissioning, the APN for defining a
subscriber by HLR is inconsistent with that of gateway GPRS support
node (GGSN). Confirm this with engineers on PS domain of CN.
For the analysis of causes of PDP activation rejection, see 8.9.

RB setup failure
Description: after Activate PDP Context Request, the system fails to
receive Radio Bearer Setup message, but receives the release message.
Analysis: for details, see the section Analyzing RAB or RB Setup
Problems in W-KPI Monitoring and Improvement Guide.

Others
See 5.3.2. Shrink the scope of the problem by changing each device.

2.

Disconnection of Service Plane

5.2 shows the flow for analyzing disconnection of service plane, though the PS service setup succeeds.

1.

Flow for analyzing


disconnection of service
plane

1. Analyze Problems at RAN Side


The connection setup succeeds, so the signaling plane is connected but the service plane is
disconnected. This is probably due to TRB reset at RAN side. For HSDPA, the service is carried by
HS-PDSCH and the signaling is carried by DCH. When the power of HS-PDSCH is inadequate,

probably the signaling plane is connected and service plane is disconnected. The following sections
distinguish PS services carried on DCH from PS services carried on HSDPA.

DCH bearer
5.2.1 shows the flow for analyzing RAN side problem about disconnection of service plane for DCH
bearer.

2.

Check coverage conditions

Flow for analyzing RAN


side problem about
disconnection of service
plane for DCH bearer

Trace the pilot RSCP and Ec/Io of serving cell by Probe + UE. Judge
whether a point is in weak coverage area. For weak coverage area, such as
RSCP < 100 dBm or Ec/Io < 18 dB, the data transfer for PS services is
probably unavailable.
Solution: If the RSCP is bad, optimize it by improving coverage quality. If
the RSCP is qualified, but Ec/Io is bad, check:

Pilot pollution. Then optimize the serious pilot pollution.

Power configuration of pilot channel (LST PCPICH), usually 33 dBm.

There is no external interference

Check call drop problem due to TRB reset


Obtain the CHR files corresponding to the occurrence point of problem.
On RNC LMT or in Nastar, check whether there is abnormal information
near the point of problem occurrence. This provides the evidence for
judgment.
For the analysis tool, see W-KPI Monitoring and Improvement Guide.
Trace uplink and downlink throughput and bandwidth
On RNC LMT, select Connection Performance Measurement > Uplink
Throughput and Bandwidth, Downlink Throughput and Bandwidth.
For details, see the online help for RNC LMT. Check the uplink and
downlink throughput and bandwidth.
5.2.1 shows the Connection Performance Measurement-Downlink
Throughput and Bandwidth window.

3.

Connection Performance
Measurement-Downlink
Throughput and
Bandwidth window

In 5.2.1,

The bandwidth shown is the bandwidth assigned for UE by system.

The DLThroughput is the actual throughput of downlink data transfer.


Monitor the variation of access layer rate and non-access layer rate of
uplink and downlink data transfer for the current connection. This helps
analyze the functions of dynamic channel configuration and variation
features of service source rate.

If the uplink throughput is 0, the uplink may be disconnected.

If the downlink throughput is 0, the downlink may be disconnected.


When the RNC DCCC function is valid, distinguish the variation of
bandwidth caused by DCCC.
If the problem is still not located after previous operations, collect the data
packets received and sent at RNC L2 and by GTPU by using the tracing
tool RNC CDT. This helps judge whether the disconnection of subscriber
plane is in uplink or downlink, at CN side or RAN side.

Further
Check problems at the CN side according to analysis of problems at CN
side in 5.2.2.
Refer to Comparing Operations and Analyzing Problem. Change each part
and compare the operations. This helps reduce the scope of the problem.
Feed back the problem.

HSDPA Bearer
The HSDPA feature of cell is activated, The UE supports HSDPA. The rate requested by UE or the
subscribed rate is higher than HSDPA threshold for downlink BE service (for BE service) or HSDPA
threshold for downlink streaming service (for streaming service). When the PS services are carried by
HSDPA, follow the steps below:

Alarms in RNCs and CHR


Check the alarms and CHR for the point of problem occurrence whether
there are abnormalities. Provide diagnosis.
Deactivate HSDPA features so that PS services are set up on DCH
Deactivate HSDPA features by executing the command DEA
CELLHSDPA. Connect UE to the network by dial-up so that PS services
are set up on DCH.
If the data transfer is unavailable on DCH, see the troubleshooting in
previous block DCH Bearer.
If the data transfer is available on DCH, the problem must be about
HSDPA. Follow the steps below.
Check the CQI, HS-SCCH success rate, and SBLER
Check the CQI, HS-SCCH success rate, and SBLER by Probe + UE as
below:

CQI
The UE estimates and reports CQI based on PCPICH Ec/Nt.
If the CQI reported by UE is 0, the NodeB will not send UE any data.
In the current version, if the CQI calculated by NodeB based on current
available power is smaller than 2, the NodeB will not schedule the UE and
send it any data.
If the common parameters like pilot Ec/Io, CellMaxPower, PcpichPower,
and MPO are normal, but the CQI is bad, change a PC. The PCs of
different types have different thermal noises, so they have different impact
on reported CQI.

HS-SCCH success rate


The HS-SCCH success rate is obtainable in the WCDMA HSDPA
Decoding Statistics window and WCDMA HSDPA Link
Statistics window, as shown in 5.2.1.

4.

HSDPA parameters in
Probe

Wherein, the HS-SCCH Success Rate (%) is the HS-SCCH scheduling


success rate of the UE. It is relevant to the following parameters:

Number of HS-SCCHs

Number of HSDPA subscribers

Scheduling algorithm parameter


If an HS-SCCH is configured to the HSDPA cell, the scheduling algorithm
is the RR algorithm, and all the connected subscribers keeps data transfer,
the HS-SCCH success rate is the reciprocal of number of subscribers.
Namely, all the subscribers share the HS-SCCH resource.
If the HS-SCCH success rate of a subscriber approaches 0, the data
transfer rate of the subscriber approaches 0, and the service plane may be
disconnected.
The HS-SCCH success rate approaches 0 due to:

The scheduling algorithm is much similar to MAX C/I algorithm, more than
one HSDPA subscribers connects to the cell, and the CQI of the subscriber is
low.

The transmit power of HS-SCCH is over low. Now in the indoor scenario, the
transmit power of HS-SCCH is fixed to 2% of total transmit power of cell. In
outdoor scenarios, the proportion is 5%. If the transmit power of HS-SCCH is
lower than the fixed power, the UE may fail to demodulate HS-SCCH data.

No data is transmitted at the application layer. Confirm this by the actual


transmitted data volume in the Connection Performance MeasurementUplink Throughput and Bandwidth, Downlink Throughput and
Bandwidth on RNC LMT.

The CQI reported by UE is over low, so the NodeB will not schedule the
subscriber.

SBLER being 100%


The SLBER is the slot block error rate of HS-DSCH. In 5.2.1, the right
pane of the WCDMA HSDPA Decoding Statistics window shows the
SBLER and retransmission conditions of transport blocks of different
sizes. The WCDMA HSDPA Link Statistics window shows the following
parameters:

HS-DSCH SBLER-Deta

HS-DSCH SBLER-Average
Wherein, the Delta is the instantaneous value. The Average is the average
value.
When the HS-PDSCH Ec/Nt is over low, the SBLER will be 100%. This is
actually caused by inadequate HSDPA power. Check the HSDPA power
configuration by executing the command LST CELLHSDPA. Wherein,
the HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH power are the HSDPA power
configuration.
There are two methods for HSDPA power configuration: static power
configuration and dynamic power configuration.

If the power of the parameter configuration is higher than or equal to the


maximum transmit power of cell, use dynamic power configuration.

If the power of the parameter configuration is lower than the maximum


transmit power of cell, use static power configuration.
The available power of HS-PDSCH in static power configuration =
maximum transmit power of cell power margin R99 downlink load
(including CCH load) HS-SCCH power.
The available power of HS-PDSCH in dynamic power configuration =
power of HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH HS-SCCH power.
Note the static power configuration. Due to power control, the R99
services can use HS-PDSCH power.
According to previous two formulas, in dynamic power configuration of
HSDPA power, if the power margin is over large, R99 downlink load is
over high, or HS-SCCH power is over high, the available power of HS-

PDSCH is over low. In static power configuration of HSDPA power, if the


HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH power are over low, or HS-SCCH power is
over high, the available power of HS-PDSCH is over low.
SBLER is 100% seldom due to inadequate power, unless the CQI reported
by UE is over small. When the power of NodeB is inadequate, the CQI
calculated by NodeB is smaller, the scheduled TB blocks becomes smaller,
so the rate obtained by UE declines.
Solution: adjust parameter configuration. If the R99 load is over high, add
carriers.
Check the available bandwidth, occupied bandwidth, and assigned
bandwidth at Iub interface
Query Iub bandwidth by executing the command DSP AAL2PATH on
RNC LMT. Or start the task Periodic Reporting of Iub Bandwidth
Assignment Conditions of HSDPA on NodeB console.
If errors occur in data transmission, the IMA group number of AAL2PATH
(For HSDPA) on NodeB fails to match that on RNC. When the available
bandwidth of HSDPA is inadequate due to product software problems, the
data transfer is unavailable.

2. Analyzing Problems at CN Side


The problems at CN side include abnormal work state of service servers and incorrect user name and
password.
5.2.2 shows the flow for analyzing problems at CN side about disconnection of service plane.

1.

Flow for analyzing


problems at CN side
about disconnection of
service plane

Confirm by other access network or LAN that the service software servers and service software run
normally.

LAN

Use FTP or HTTP service on a PC connected to LAN, and check whether


the service is available. In addition, verify the user name and password of
the connected user.

Other radio access network under the same CN


If different 3G access networks under the same CN sets up PS service or
sets up PS service from the GRPS network, check whether the service is
normal.

After previous checks, if the service servers work normally, focus on the problems at RAN side for
analysis. If the service servers are abnormal according to previous checks, ask the on-site engineers of
CN PS domain to solve the problem.

The IP address for visiting FTP and HTTP service servers by LAN is different from that for visiting
service servers after the UE sets up wireless connection. For details, turn to on-site engineers of CN
PS domain.

3. Poor Performance of Data


Transfer
The poor performance of data transfer, in terms of throughput measurement, lies in the following
problems:

Unstable rate like great fluctuation

Low rate

The poor performance of data transfer, in terms of QoS, lies in the following problems:

Unclear streaming image

Buffering

Low rate in browsing web pages

The appendix 8.1contains the transport path of PS data. The PS data passes Internet service servers,
GGSN, SGSN, RNC, NodeB, and finally UE. Meanwhile the PS data passes Gi, Gn, IuPS, Iub, and
Uu interfaces. During the process, the PS data passes Internet servers to GGSN using IP protocol.
Between them, there may be one or more devices like router and firewall.
The PS services use the AM mode of RLC and support retransmission function. The FTP and HTTP
services use TCP protocol which supports retransmission. The parameters of these two protocols
(RLC/TCP) have great impact on rate.
If the parameter configuration is improper, or missing and dropping data packet may cause the data
rate to decline. When checking the quality of service (QoS), engineers make UE as the modem of a
computer running applications, so the performance of computer and servers will influence the QoS.
By and large, several factors affect the performance of data transfer of PS services, and they include:

RAN side

CN equipment

Applications and service software

The applications and service software problems are contained in the CN side problems. 5.3 shows the
flow for analyzing poor performance of data transfer.

1.

Flow for analyzing poor


performance of data
transfer

1. Checking Alarms
If there is a problem, check whether there are alarms. Query the NodeB and RNC alarms at RAN side.
Query the SGSN, GGSN, LAN switch, router, and firewall at CN side. The alarms like abnormal
clock alarms, high transmission error rate, and abnormal equipment affect data transfer.
If problems cannot be located according NE alarms, refer to 5.3.2. By comparing operations and
analyzing problem, reduce the scope of problem.

If the problem is at RAN side, refer to 5.3.3.

If the problem is at CN side, refer to 5.3.6.

If the problem concerns both the RAN and CN side, analyze it from both
sides.

2. Comparing Operations and


Analyzing Problem
Compare operations and analyze problem to focus on the possible faulty NE and to determine the
scope of problem: at CN side and service software, or at RAN.

1. Comparing
operations and
analyzing
problem
Or
de
r

Opera
tion

Change USIM
card

Change UE/data
card

Re
sul
t

Anal
ysis

Data transfer
problem has
been solved

Problem maybe
related to user
information
configured in the
USIM card.

Data transfer
problem is still
unsettled

The problem
cannot be
located, so
continue checks.

Data transfer
problem has
been solved

Related to UE,
such as
incompatibility
and poor
performance of
UE

Data transfer
problem is still
unsettled

The problem
cannot be
located, so
continue checks.

Or
de
r

Opera
tion

Change PC

Re
sul
t

Anal
ysis

Data transfer
problem has
been solved

Related to
drivers, APN,
restricted rate,
and firewall.

Data transfer
problem is still
unsettled

The problem
cannot be
located, so
continue checks.

Change PC under
the same server
(ensure than the
service is running
normally, and try
to PING the server
and use streaming
services.

Data transfer
problem has
been solved

The problem at
CN side, related
to service
software

Data transfer
problem is still
unsettled

The problem
cannot be
located, so
continue checks.

Change a new
website for
visiting (from
other websites)

Data transfer
problem has
been solved

The problem at
CN side, related
to performance of
server, TCP/IP
parameters, or
service software

Data transfer
problem is still
unsettled

The problem
cannot be
located, so
continue checks.

Data transfer
problem has
been solved

The problem at
RAN side.

Change other
access network
under the same

Or
de
r

Opera
tion

Re
sul
t

Anal
ysis

server, such as
GPRS network

Data transfer
problem is still
unsettled

The problem
cannot be
located.

Test on other
NodeBs

Data transfer
problem has
been solved

The NodeB
problem, or
improper
configuration of
parameters
related to the
NodeB and
configured by
RNC

Data transfer
problem is still
unsettled

The problem
cannot be
located.

After the approximate scope of problem cannot be located after previous checks, analyze it as a
problem of data transfer at RAN side and CN side.

3. Analyzing Poor Performance of


Data Transfer by DCH
The mechanism at the air interface of HSDPA is different from that of DCH, so different factors affect
data transfer on DCH and HSDPA.
5.3.3 shows the flow for analyzing RAN side problem about poor performance of data transfer on
DCH.

1.

NE Alarms
Alarm check

Flow for analyzing RAN


side problem about poor
performance of data
transfer on DCH

If the performance of data transfer for PS services is poor, analyze NodeB


and RNC alarms. The clock alarms, alarms on transmission error rate, and
transmission interruption may cause fluctuation of PS data. For querying
NodeB and RNC alarms, see W-Equipment Room Operations Guide.
Data transfer affected by Uu interface
When PS services are carried by DCH, the factors affecting data transfer at
Uu interface includes:

DCH bandwidth

State transition

Block error rate (BLER) at Uu interface


5.3.3 shows the flow for analyzing data transfer affected by Uu interface.
2.

Flow for analyzing data


transfer affected by Uu
interface

DCH bandwidth
When PS services are carried by DCH, the RNC assigns bandwidth for
each connected UE. The bandwidth depends on spreading factor and
coding method.

On RNC LMT, in the Connection Performance Measurement-Uplink


Throughput and Bandwidth, Downlink Throughput and Bandwidth
window, check the uplink and downlink assigned bandwidth and
throughput.
The bandwidth is the channel bandwidth assigned to UE by RAN. The
DlThroughput is the actual downlink rate of data transfer. Assigning
bandwidth (namely, code resource, power resource, and Iub resource are
normal) is normal if one of the following conditions is met:

The bandwidth is the same as the request rate or subscribed rate.

Maximum assignable rate (such as 384 kbps) is met upon DCH bearer.
If the bandwidth assigned to UE is smaller than the expectation, there are
two causes:

Congestion or other causes. The RAN cannot assign UE with channels of


higher rate, which is abnormal.

DCCC algorithm of RNC. If the DCCC algorithm parameter is rational, the


decline of rate is normal.
Enable the DCCC algorithm in the existing network so that the system can
save resource by reducing assigned bandwidth upon decline or pause of
data transfer. However, the DCCC algorithm configuration may be
irrational. DCCC algorithm involves rate adjustment based on traffic and
coverage, and rate adjustment in soft handover (SHO) SHO areas.
According to the parameters configured on site and based on algorithm,
judge whether the assignment and adjustment of DCH bandwidth are
rational, whether there are abnormalities, and whether the problem is solve
by adjusting parameters.
If the assigned DCH bandwidth is small due to congestion and other
abnormalities, solve the problem by the following methods:

Trace signaling of single subscriber

Query cell downlink load, assignment of code resource, and available


bandwidth at Iub interface

Obtain CHR from BAM and check the abnormalities on RNC INSIGHT
PLUS or Nastar.

BLER at Uu interface
The BLER at uplink and downlink Uu interface directly affect data transfer
of PS services. If the average of UL BLER or DL BLER measured in a
period is equal to or better than BLER Target, the code errors at Uu
interface are normal. Otherwise, analyze this problem.
DL BLER measurement: collect DT data by Probe and UE, and then
import the DT data to Assistant for analysis.

UL BLER measurement: In Connection Performance MeasurementUplink Transport Channel BLER window, import the measurement file
to Assistant, and analyze together with the Probe DT data files.
The power control and coverage affects the uplink and downlink BLER in
the following aspects:

Outer loop power control switch. Check that the outer loop power control
switch of RNC is on.

Coverage. Check whether the uplink and downlink are restricted in the areas
with bad UL BLER and DL BLER. For details, see W-RF Optimization
Guide.

Performance of UE. Change a UE of other types and compare their


performance.

In Sequence Delivery

Set the sequence submission to TURE or FALSE. This affects the rate and
fluctuation of downlink. If you set the sequence submission to TURE, the
RLC keeps the transfer sequence of upper-layer PDUs. If set the sequence
submission to FALSE, the receiver RLC entity allows sending SDUs to
upper-layer in a sequence different from the sender. If you set the sequence
submission to FALSE, the uplink rate for data transfer will be low and data
transfer fluctuates much.

Setting sequence submission to TURE by executing the command MOD


GPRS on Huawei HLR is recommended.

Data Transfer Affected by Iub Interface


The transport code error at Iub interface, delay jitter, and Iub bandwidth
affect the performance of data transfer.
5.3.3 shows the flow for analyzing data transfer affected by Iub interface.

3.

Flow for analyzing data


transfer affected by Iub
interface

Transport code error and delay jitter


According to transport alarms and clock alarms, check whether there are
problems.
Bandwidth at Iub interface

Check whether the Iub interface is congested by the following methods:

Querying the bandwidth at Iub interface on RNC LMT and NodeB LMT.

Referring to the section Flow for Analyzing Cell-level Traffic Statistics Data.

Checking abnormal record in CHR

Querying bandwidth at Iub interface at RNC side proceeds as below:

Query adjacent node corresponding to each cell by executing the command LST AAL2ADJNODE

Query the path of the NodeB by executing the command LST AAL2PATH.

Query the bandwidth by executing the command LST ATMTRF.

Query the residual bandwidth by executing the commands DSP AAL2ADJNODE and DSP AAL2PATH
at RNC side.
Querying the bandwidth at Iub interface at NodeB side proceeds as below:
AAL2PATH is necessary at NodeB. The relevant commands include LST AAL2PATH and DSP
AAL2PATH.

Comparison of Throughput at APP and RLC Layer


The throughput at APP and RLC layer is obtainable by DT/CQT. For
the theoretical relationship of rate at each layer, see the appendix 8.2.
If the rate of APP throughput and RLC throughout is lower than the
normal range according to theoretical analysis, the retransmission cost
of TCP/IP is over large. Check and modify the TCP receiver window
and MTU configuration. For the method, see the appendix 8.4 and 8.5.

4. Analyzing Poor Performance of


Data Transfer by HSDPA at RAN
Side
The HSDPA network schedules power and code resources by code division or time division between
multiple subscribers. When there is only one HSDPA subscriber in a cell, the following factors affect
the rate for data transfer:

HSDPA available power

Number of HS-PDSCH codes in cell (when there is only one subscriber, a


HS-SCCH is necessary)

Category of UE (maximum number of codes supported by UE and whether to


support 16QAM)

Radio signals near UE

In addition, the following factors affect the reachable maximum rate:

Subscribed rate

Bandwidth at Iub interface

Maximum rate supported by RNC, NodeB, GGSN, and SGSN.

When there are multiple subscribers, besides previous factors, the scheduling algorithm used by
NodeB and number of HS-SCCH configured to cell affects the rate of data transfer.
An HSDPA subscriber works as below:

The UE reports CQI on HS-DPCCH. The NodeB obtains the CQI of UE's
location.

The scheduling module inside NodeB evaluates different subscribers by


channel conditions, the amount of data in cache for each subscriber, the last
serving time. It then determines the HS-DSCH parameters.

The NodeB sends HS-DSCH parameters on HS-SCCH, and after two slots it
sends data on HS-DSCH.

The UE monitors HS-SCCH for information sent to it. If there is any


schedule information, it starts receiving HS-DSCH data and buffers them.

According to HS-SCCH data, the UE judges whether to combine the received


HS-DSCH data and data in soft buffer.

The UE demodulates the received HS-DSCH data, and send the ACK/NACK
message on uplink HS-DPCCH according to CRC result.

If the NodeB receives the NACK message, it resends the data until it receives
the ACK message or reaches the maximum retransmission times.

In the DT tool Probe, out of consideration for multiple subscriber scheduling and retransmission at
MAC-HS layer, there are three rates at MAC-HS layer:Scheduled RateServed RateMAC Layer
Rate.

Served Rate = Scheduled Rate * HS-SCCH Success Rate


MAC Layer Rate = Served Rate * (1- SBLER)

Scheduled rate
Schedule rate = total bits of all TBs received in statistics period/total time
with TB scheduled in statistics period
The total bits of all TBs received in statistics period include all the bits
of received correct and wrong TBs.
The total time with TB scheduled in statistics period includes the time
with data received and excludes the time without data received.

Served rate
Served rate = total bits of all TBs received in statistics period/statistics
period
The total bits of all TBs received in statistics period include the bits of
received correct and wrong TBs.
The statistics period includes the time with and without data received.

MAC layer rate


MAC Layer Rate = total bits of correct TBs received in statistics
period/statistics period
The total bits of correct TBs received in statistics period include the bits
of correct TBs and exclude bits of wrong TBs.

The statistics period includes the time with and without data received.

HS-SCCH success rate is the success rate for receiving HS-SCCH data by UE

SLBER = wrong TBs received at MAC-HS layer/(received correct and wrong


TBs)

ACK->NACK/DTX is the ratio that NodeB judges the ACK message as


NACK/DTX message.

5.3.4 shows the flow for analyzing poor performance of data transfer on HSDPA at RAN side.

1.

Flow for analyzing poor


performance of data
transfer on HSDPA at
RAN side

NE Alarms
When the performance of data transfer for PS services is poor, analyze the NodeB and RNC alarms.
The clock alarms, alarms on transport code error, and transmission interruption may lead to
fluctuation of PS data. For querying NodeB and RNC alarms, see W-Equipment Room Operations
Guide.

Whether the Service Is Set Up on HSDPA Channel


Check the IE serving HSDSCH RL indicator of the message RB SETUP on RNC. If the IE is True,
and the SF of downlink channel code is 256, the service must be carried by HSDPA channel, as shown
in 5.3.4.

2.

Confirming in the RNC


message that PS service
is set up on HSDPA
channel

You can also check the information like reported CQI in the WCDMA HSDPA Link
Statistics window in the DT software Probe. If no information is in the window, the service must be
carried on DCH, as shown in 5.3.4.

3.

Confirming in Probe
that service is set up on
HSDPA channel

If the service is not set up on HSDPA channel, it will automatically be set up on DCH. Now the
service rate is the rate of R99 service, usually equal to or smaller than 384 kbps.
If it is confirmed that the service is not set up on HSDPA channel, analyze it from the following
aspects.

HSDPA cell is not set up


Check at RNC side whether the HSDPA cell is activated by executing the
command LST CELLHSDPA.
Check at NodeB side whether the local cell supports HSDPA. Check by
executing the command LST LOCELL whether the value of the local cell
is TRUE or FALSE.
If the HSDPA cell at RNC side is not activated, activate it by executing the
command MOD LOCELL: LOCELL=0, HSDPA=TRUE.
In addition, during modifying the HSDPA cell configuration on RNC, if
HSDPA codes are statically assigned, and if there are excessive R99
subscribers connected to the cell so the code assigned to HSDPA is
inadequate, the RNC still displays that the modifying HSDPA cell
configuration succeeds. However, actually the HSDPA cell is not
successfully set up. Check whether the codes assigned to HSDPA cell are
successful by selecting Realtime Performance Monitoring > Cell
Performance Monitoring > Code Tree Tracing on RNC.

Incorrect type of HSDPA AAL2PATH or No Configuration


Set the type of HSPDA AAL2PATH to HSDPA_RT or HSDPA_NRT.
Otherwise the cell can support R99 services only, but not HSDPA services.
It is recommended that one HSDPA AAL2PATH is configured to one
NodeB. If multiple HSDPA AAL2PATHs are configured, the data packets
are easily dropped in the current version. Query it at RNC or NodeB side
by executing the command
LST AAL2PATH.
If the HSDPA AAL2PATH is set to RT or NRT, the downlink subscription
rate of UE is 2 Mbps. When the UE accesses the network, setting
subscriber plane for HSDPA service fails, and the RNC will automatically
set up the subscriber plane of PS 384kbps service. According to signaling
of the RB Setup message, the service is set up on R99, and SF is 8.

HSDPA subscriber's admission failure


The HSDPA subscriber's admission failure leads to that the RNC
reconfigures HSDPA service to be carried by PS384K channel of R99
service. If the service cannot be set up, the UE continues to access the
network after lowering the rate of R99 service. If the rate of connected
HSDPA subscriber is as low as 384 kbps, 128 kbps, or 64 kbps of R99
services according to test, confirm whether the service is set up on HSDPA
channel and whether the admission fails.
Check whether the following aspects are rational:

Uplink and downlink load of R99 services

Downlink code resource

Iub transmission resource

Number of HSDPA subscribers

Threshold of HSDPA cell rate

Guaranteed rate threshold of streaming service

Guaranteed power threshold

Over high HSDPA threshold for downlink BE service


The HSDPA threshold for downlink BE service defines the rate judgment
threshold for background or interactive services carried on HS-DSCH in
PS domain. If the request rate is great than or equal to the threshold, the PS
service is carried on HS-DSCH; otherwise, the PS service is carried on
DCH.
Set HSDPA threshold for downlink BE service by executing the command
SET FRC: DlBeTraffThsOnHsdpa=D384 on RNC.

Low Scheduled Rate


The TB size of NodeB scheduling depends on CQI, HSDPA codes, available power for HSDPA, and
so on. TB size/2ms is scheduled rate.
Normally, there is mapping relationship (depending on mapping table of NodeB CQI in actual use)
between the schedule rate and CQI reported by UE. The NodeB will filter and adjust the CQI reported
by UE, so the scheduled rate and CQI scheduled by NodeB have mapping relationship, not completely
having mapping relationship with the CQI reported by UE.
5.3.4 lists the relationship between CQI and TB size according to the protocol 3GPP 25.306. It is only
for reference, the product realization does not completely consist with protocol.

1.

C
Q
I
v
a
l
u
e

T
r
a
n
s
p
o
r
t
B
l
o
c
k

N
u
m
b
e
r

M
o
d
ul
at
io
n

R
ef
er
en
ce
po
w
er
ad
ju
st
m
en
t

o
f

H
S
P
D
S
C
H

S
i
z
e

Relationship
between CQI and
TB size when the
UE is in category
1112

N/A

Out of range

137

QPSK

173

QPSK

233

QPSK

C
Q
I
v
a
l
u
e

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317

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377

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461

QPSK

650

QPSK

792

QPSK

931

QPSK

10

1262

QPSK

11

1483

QPSK

12

1742

QPSK

13

2279

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14

2583

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15

3319

QPSK

16

3319

QPSK

17

3319

QPSK

18

3319

QPSK

19

3319

QPSK

20

3319

QPSK

21

3319

QPSK

22

3319

QPSK

23

3319

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C
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10

26

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11

27

3319

QPSK

12

28

3319

QPSK

13

29

3319

QPSK

14

30

3319

QPSK

15

2. Relationship
between CQI and
TB size when the
UE is at the level
16
C
Q
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N/A

Out of range

137

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173

QPSK

233

QPSK

317

QPSK

377

QPSK

461

QPSK

650

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1483

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12

1742

QPSK

13

2279

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14

2583

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15

3319

QPSK

16

3565

16-QAM

17

4189

16-QAM

C
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18

4664

16-QAM

19

5287

16-QAM

20

5887

16-QAM

21

6554

16-QAM

22

7168

16-QAM

23

7168

16-QAM

24

7168

16-QAM

25

7168

16-QAM

26

7168

16-QAM

27

7168

16-QAM

C
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T
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s
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B
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28

7168

16-QAM

29

7168

16-QAM

30

7168

16-QAM

The following factors affect scheduled rate:

CQI
If the downlink rate of UE is low, check whether the CQI reported by UE
is over low, and check the PCPICH RSCP and Ec/Io of the serving cell
from the following aspects:

The coverage is weak, and the CQI reported by UE is low.

The interference is strong, and there is pilot pollution, and the CQI reported
by UE is low.

When the HSDPA serving cell is frequently updated, the HSDPA subscribers
cannot change accordingly due to punishment, so the CQI reported by UE is
low.
If the coverage is weak, improve the CQI reported by UE by RF optimization and
constructing sites.
If the interference is strong, adjust the azimuth and down tilt in RF optimization. This
forms a primary cell.

If the HSDPA serving cell is frequently updated, avoid frequent handover by adjusting
antenna azimuth and down tilt or constructing sites in RF optimization.

Available power of HSDPA cell


If the available power of HSDPA cell is over low, the TB size of NodeB
scheduling will be affected.
HSDPA power configuration includes dynamic and static configuration.
The RNC MML is MOD CELLHSDPA: HSDPAPOWER=430. The unit of
HSDPA power is 0.1 dB. The total power of all HS-PDSCHs and HSSCCHs must not exceed the HSDPAPOWER.
When HSDPAPOWER in previous formula is higher than or equal to total
power of cell, the HSDPA power configuration is dynamic configuration.
The available power of HSDPA cell = total power of cell * (1 power
margin) power used by R99 TCH and CCH.
When HSDPAPOWER in previous formula is lower than total power of
cell, the HSDPA power configuration is static configuration. Namely, the
available power of HSDPA cell is the HSDPAPOWER. However, the
maximum available power = total power of cell * (1 power margin)
CCH power.
In static power distribution, the R99 services may occupy the power of HSDPA cell, so the actual
power used by HSDPA cell is not the configured power.

Analyze the factors affecting available power of HSDPA cell from the
following aspects:

Query power margin by executing the command LST MACHSPARA on


NodeB. The default power margin is 10%, namely, the total downlink load of
cell can use 90% of total power of cell.

On RNC LMT, select Realtime Performance Monitoring > Cell


Performance Monitoring > Tx Carrier Power. Observe the transmit carrier
power and power used by non-HSDPA subscribers. The available power of
HSDPA = transmit carrier power - power used by non-HSDPA subscribers. If
the power used by non-HSDPA subscribers is over high, the available power
of HSDPA cell becomes low, so the scheduled rate is affected.

Available codes of HSDPA cell


If inadequate codes are assigned to HSDPA subscribers, the TB size of
NodeB scheduling will be affected..

HSDPA UE CATEGORY
The 3GPP protocol 25.306 defines 12 types of UE category. In a TTI, the
UE of a type obtains different maximum TB size, so the maximum
scheduled rate obtained by UE is different.
The UE reports its capability in the IE hsdsch physical layer category of
the RRC Connection Setup Complete message..

Amount of data to be transmitted being smaller than the maximum TB size


The TB size scheduled by NodeB depends on the available power and
codes of the subscriber, as well as the amount of data transferred by the
subscriber. If the amount of data sent is smaller than the maximum
scheduled TB size, the rate at physical layer is lower than the expectation.
This problem occurs when there is data in NodeB buffer but the amount of
data is inadequate for a scheduled maximum TB size.

Low Served Rate


According to the previous formula Served Rate = Scheduled Rate * HS-SCCH Success Rate, if the
scheduled rate is normal, over low HS-SCCH success rate leads to over low served rate. If there is
only one subscriber in normal conditions, and the HS-SCCH power and traffic are not restricted, the
success rate of HS-SCCH is shall be highly approach to 100%.
The success rate of HS-SCCH is relevant to HS-SCCH power, number of HS-SCCHs, number of
subscribers, scheduling algorithm, and transported traffic. The following paragraphs describe them
respectively.

HS-SCCH power distribution


The HS-SCCH is a downlink CCH, shared by all subscribers. The UE
keeps monitoring UE ID on HS-SCCH, and judge whether the UE ID is
for itself. If the UE ID is for itself, it demodulates HS-PDSCH data.
Therefore, correct demodulation of HS-SCCH goes before data transfer.
There are three types of HS-SCCH power, transit SET
MACHSPARA in NodeB , 0 shows that HS-SCCH power control is
based on CQI . 1 shows HS-SCCH power changeless; 2 shows use a power
control mode which go with DCH and keep a fixed power deflection
value. Default is 0. (Attention: the edition before
NodeB3812EV100R007C03B040 cant be set to type 0, need use type 1 .)
The HS-SCCH power is in static configuration or dynamic configuration.
The default configuration is static configuration. Set the HS-SCCH power
to a fixed ratio of maximum transmit power of cell as below:

Set the ratio to 3% in indoor environment.

Set the ratio to 5% in outdoor environment.


Set the HS-SCCH power on NodeB LMT by executing the command
below:
SET MACHSPARA: PWRFLG=FIXED, PWR=5;
HS-SCCH power can be configured as dynamic power control, which is
achieved by setting a power offset to the pilot bit of DL-ADPCH. The
power offset is relevant to spreading factor of downlink DPCH and
whether the UE is in SHO state. When this method is used, the HS-SCCH
power offset is listed as in 5.3.4.
The MML command is as below:

SET MACHSPARA: PWRFLG=DYNAMIC;


1.

Spreadi
ng
factor of
downlin
k DPCH

HSSCCH
power
offset
in
nonSHO
period

HS-SCCH power
offset

HSSCCH
power
offset
in SHO
period

10.75

6.75

7.75

3.75

16

4.75

0.75

32

1.75

+2.25

64

+1.25

+5.25

128

+4.25

+8.25

256

+7.25

+11.25

0 shows that HS-SCCH power control is based on CQI , which works like
this:
First set HS-SCCH initialization TX power
Then according to CQI change , adjust HS-SCCH power, like DCH innerloop power control.
At last , according to the ACK/NACK/DTX information from HSDPCCHs feedback ,adjust HS-SCCH power , like DCH outer-loop power
control.
The parameter of the power control which base on CQIs HS-SCCH : HSSCCHs initial power , Default is 28(-3 dBm), relative to pilot power ; HSSCCH power controls aim FER , Default is 10%(1%)

Number of HSDPA subscribers and number of HS-SCCHs

The success rate of HS-SCCH is relevant to number of subscribers.

If there is only one HSDPA subscriber in a cell, the traffic is not restricted and
HS-SCCH power is adequate, the success rate of HS-SCCH for the subscriber
approaches 100%.

If there are multiple HSDPA subscribers in the cell, the success rate of HSSCCH for each subscriber is relevant to scheduling algorithm and number of
HS-SCCHs.
Usually set the HS-SCCH according to available power of HS-PDSCH,
code resource, and traffic of service source. For example, if UEs used in
the cell are all category 12 UE, set number of HS-PDSCH codes and
number of HS-SCCHs as below:

If you set 5 codes to HS-PDSCH, it is recommended to set 2 HS-SCCHs.

If you set 10 codes to HS-PDSCH, it is recommended to set 3 HS-SCCHs.

If you set 14 codes to HS-PDSCH, it is recommended to set 4 HS-SCCHs.

Scheduling algorithm
Using different scheduling algorithm for multiple subscribers enables each
subscriber to be scheduled at different probability. For example, after Max
C/I scheduling algorithm is used, the subscribers far from the cell center
will hardly or even never be scheduled due to low CQI.
The scheduling algorithm is one function of new function entity of
HSDPA, the MAC-hs function entity. Four factors are involved as below:

CQI
CQI is the quality of signals received by UE at the location.

Wait_Inter_TTI
It indicates the length of time that the UE must wait for service.

Queue priority

Queue length
The following scheduling algorithms are typical:

Max C/I (only considering CQI value)

RR (only considering wait_Inter_TTI)

Classic PF (proportional fair, considering previous factors)

EPFEnhanced Proportional FairV17 edition


Parameters are not configured for current scheduling algorithm. Select one
of previous three algorithms by executing the command below:
SET MACHSPARA: LOCELL=10131, SM=PF;//The previous algorithm
corresponds to the PF scheduling algorithm.

Traffic

After previous configuration and checks, there is no problem and CQI


reported by UE is high, but the rate of subscribers fluctuates. Check
downlink traffic in Connection Performance Monitoring window on
RNC LMT, and see whether there is enough traffic for scheduling. Or
check downlink traffic in HSDPA User Flow Control Performance
Periodic Report window on NodeB LMT.
The cause of this problem is unstable source rate, single thread used upon
downloading, and small TCP window.
In the HSDPA User Flow Control Performance Periodic Report window,
there are following selections:

Queue Priority

Queue Buffer Used Ratio

RLC User Buffer Size

Input Data Size

Output Data Size


Select Queue Buffer Used Ratio to draw picture on LMT, and check the
occupation of NodeB queue.
Select RLC User Buffer Size to check RLC buffer.
Select Input Data Size and Output Data Size to check the sending and
receiving queue data. The data involved in Output Data Size is the data
with ACK indicator received.

Restricted Rate at UE side


The request service type, uplink and downlink maximum rate are sent to
UE by AT commands. The UE sends the information to CN in the
following Active PDP context request message. When the subscribed rate
is higher than or equal to the requested maximum rate, the CN sends the
RAN Assignment request message at the requested maximum rate. If the
resource is not restricted at RNC side, the final output rate is the request
maximum rate. If the downlink maximum rate in the RAB Assignment
request message is much lower than scheduled rate, and the traffic in
buffer is inadequate upon NodeB's scheduling, the success rate of HSSCCH must be low.
Execute AT commands as below:

Right click My Computer

Select Property > Hardware > Device Manager > Modem > Property > Senior

Type AT command into the Initialization Command text box. Set APN by AT
command. If you want to set APN to cmnet, the rate is restricted to 64 kbps in
uplink and 384 kbps in downlink, execute the following command:
AT+cgdcont=1,"ip","cmnet"; +cgeqreq=1,3,64,384
When you remove the restriction on rate, execute AT command to set the rate

to 0. The value 0 means that no specified rate is requested, so the system


assigns the subscribed rate as possible. Execute the following command:
AT+cgdcont=1,"ip","cmnet"; +cgeqreq=1,3,0,0

Restriction of bandwidth at Iub interface


If the physical bandwidth at Iub interface is restricted, the HSDPA service
obtains inadequate AAL2PATH bandwidth. As a result, the traffic in
NodeB buffer is inadequate, so the success rate of HS-SCCH is low.
In addition, the R99 AAL2PATH and HSDPA AAL2PATH are respectively
configured, but they share the physical bandwidth. If multiple R99
subscribers are using the bandwidth at Iub interface in the cell, the HSDPA
service obtains inadequate AAL2PATH bandwidth. As a result, the success
rate of HS-SCCH is low.

ACK/NACK repeat factor


The following parameters at physical layer are sent to UE and NodeB in
the messages at higher layer:

ACK/NACK repeat factor: N_acknack_transmit

CQI repeat factor: N_cqi_transmit

CQI feedback cycle: CQI Feedback Cycle k


After the UE demodulates HS-PDSCH data, the UE sends an HARQ ACK
or NACK message based on cyclic redundancy check (CRC) of MAC-hs,
and it repeats sending the ACK/NACK message in the continuous
N_acknack_transmit HS-DPCCH subframes. If the N_acknack_transmit is
larger than 1, the UE will not try to receive or demodulate transport blocks
between the HS-DSCH n+1 and n + N_acknack_transmit 1 subframes.
The n is the sub frame number of last HS-DSCH in the received transport
blocks. Now the rate obtained by UE is as below:
Rate of UE when the ACK/NACK is not repeatedly sent * (1/
N_acknack_transmit)

Low MAC Layer Rate


According to a previous formula MAC Layer Rate = Served Rate * (1- SBLER), low MAC layer rate
is a result of high SBLER. Normally, when the IBLER is 10%, the SLBER will be lower than 15%.
The following factors affect SBLER.

IBLER
IBLER affects MAC-HS retransmission, so it consequently affects the
actual rate of subscribers. The IBLER here is number of incorrect
TBs/number of total new data blocks when the NodeB transmits new data.
The SBLER here is number of incorrect blocks/(number of incorrect and
correct blocks) when the NodeB transmits new data or retransmits data.

IBLER directly affects SBLER. Now the default IBELR is 10%. IBLER
directly affects the power for scheduling each subscriber. This is similar
with outer loop power control of R99.
Execute the command SET MACHSPARA to set the following items:

Scheduling algorithm

MAC-HS retransmission times

Power margin

HS-SCCH power

Initial BLER
The MML command is as below:
SET MACHSPARA: LOCELL=1, SM=PF, MXRETRAN=4,
PWRMGN=10, PWRFLG=FIXED, PWR=5, IBLER=10;

Low CQI and inadequate HSDPA power


If the CQI reported by UE is low, and the available power of HSDPA is
inadequate, SBLER will be high. The size of an MAC-d PDU is 336 bits.
The MAC PDU requires the TB size larger than 336 bits in transmission.
As a result, the CQI upon NodeB's scheduling must be larger than a value
to meet that IBLER is within 10%.

CQI reported by UE being higher than actual one


The CQI reported by UE is inaccurate, higher than the actual one. The
NodeB adjusts the CQI according to target IBLER, but it takes some time
for adjustment. During this period, the NodeB transfers data with low
power according to the CQI reported by UE. As a result, the SLBER is
high, so the performance of data transfer is affected.
Solution: by Windows HyperTerminal, connect UE to the data card. Adjust
the CQI reported by UE by executing AT commands (This solution caters
for Huawei data card only. The current version does not support this).
Assume: before the following operations, the CQI reported by connected
UE is 25.

Enable the function of adjusting CQI, set the offset to 200, and lower CQI.
Type the following command:
AT^CQI=1,-200
The UE responds OK. The CQI is 23 lower than before, and is 2223.

Enable the function of adjusting CQI, set the offset to 0, and the CQI restores
to be the actual value. Type the following command:
AT^CQI=1,0
The UE responds OK. The CQI is 25.

Enable the function of adjusting CQI, set the offset to 200, and raise CQI.
Type the following command:

AT^CQI=1,200
The UE responds OK. The CQI is 23 lower than before, and is 2728.

Disable the function of adjusting CQI. Type the following command:


AT^CQI=0,200
The UE responds OK. The CQI remains 2728.

If you type wrong parameters as below:


AT^CQI=1,100,1
The UE responds TOO MANY PARAMETERS.

If you query the state of CQI adjustment function, type the following
command:
AT^CQI?
When the UE responds +CME ERROR, the current NV time 4448
NV_CQI_ADJUST_I is not activated, and the adjustment function is
disabled.
When the UE responds ^CQI:0,200, the function of adjusting CQI is disabled.
When the UE responds ^CQI:1,200, the function of adjusting CQI is enabled.

Over low pilot power


On prior version of NodeBs, according to RTT test,

If the power of other channel is 10 dB higher than pilot channel, this leads to
a 10% code error for HSDPA.

If the power of other channel is 13 dB higher than pilot channel, this leads to
a 100% code error for HSDPA.
Now the NodeB can adjust power in a certain scope according to HSDPA
SBLER. If the power of other channels is 13 dB higher than the pilot
power, the impact on throughput is little. Setting PICH over low is
forbidden; otherwise, the power is inadequate after adjustment by NodeB.
This leads to over high SBLER, and consequently the throughput is
affected.

Low RLC Layer Rate


RLC AM use the mode of positive/ negative affirm decision to carry through dependable data
transmission. Use slip window agreement carry through flux control.
Before RLC dont receive affirm package , the most number PDU which can be send is RLC send
window . the more betimes send point receive affirm information , the faster the window slip. The
faster RLC can send. Whereas , the slower RLC can send . even appear RLC replacement result in
drop call.
If Scheduled RateServed Rate and MAC Layer Rate is normal , it need more adjust whether RLC
Throughput is normal.
The relationship between RLC Throughput andMAC Layer Rate:
RLC Throughput=MAC Layer Rate * (1-MAC-HS PDUs caput spending rate)

Because PDUs caput spending rate is small , watch RLC Throughput and MAC Layer Rate from
Probe, the curve superposition
If RLC Throughput obvious less than MAC Layer Rate, it is abnormal.

High ACK->NACK/DTX ratio


ACK->NACK/DTX is the ratio that the NodeB judges ACK as
NACK/DTX. Simulation requires the average probability of ACK>NACK/DTX to be lower than 1%. If the NodeB judges ACK as
NACK/DTX, the NodeB will retransmit the data correctly received by UE.
This wastes resource and lowers subscribers' rate.
The following parameters describe an example on Probe, as shown in .
4.

High code error of


ACK->NACK/DTX in
Probe

In the WCDMA HSDPA Decoding Statistics window, you can see ACK>NACK/DTX. In , ACK->NACK/DTX is 76.01%. The right pane displays
detailed number of blocks that are correct received and retransmitted. As a
result, ACK->NACK/DTX=7808/(7808+2465)=76.01%.
In the WCDMA HSDPA Link Statistics window, the MAC Layer RateAverage is 67.33 kbps. In the left pane, the RLC DL Throughput is 16.19
kbps. The ratio of RLC rate and MAC rate is 16.19/67.33, equal to
24.05%. If the correct blocks that are repeated received is excluded from
calculating MAC layer rate, the MAC layer rate is 67.33 * (1- 76.01) =
16.15 kbps. The MAC layer rate is approximately equal to RLC rate.

Over low configuration of HS-DPCCH power parameters

HS-DPCCH is an uplink dedicated physical channel, transporting the


ACK/NACK, and CQI messages at physical layer. HS-DPCCH is not
under respective power control, but has a power offset with downlink
DPCCH. When HS-DPCCH carries different information, it uses
different offset values.
If the ACK/NACK power offset on HS-DPCCH is over low, the ACK>NACK/DTX demodulated by NodeB in uplink will be overhigh, and
consequently the subscribers' rate is affected.
For the description of HS-DPCCH power parameters, see the appendix
HS-DPCCH Power Control Parameter Configuration.

Uplink and downlink RL imbalance in handover areas


The uplink and downlink RL imbalance in handover areas are defined
as below, and shown in:
RL2_dl > RL1_dl
RL2_ul < RL1_ul
5. Uplink and downlink RL
imbalance in handover
areas

Because RL2_dl > RL1_dl, the serving cell is updated, and the HSDPA
service is set up in the cell 2. The RNC adjusts SIRtarget according to
combination result of two UL RLs due to SHO. The two cells perform
inner loop power control according to SIRtarget. The UE combines the
downlink TCP of the two cells. According to combination principles, if the
TCP of one cell is 1, lower power accordingly. When the TCP of two
cells is +1, raise power.
Because RL2_ul < RL1_ul, the RL1_ul SIR is converged to target value,
and RL2_ul SIR is lower than the target value. The power control over
HS-DPCCH is based on the associated channel of RL_ul, so the
demodulation performance of HS-DPCCH ACK/NACK/CQI cannot meet
requirement. As a result, the performance of data transfer for HSDPA
subscribers is poor.

Analysis proceeds as below:

Obtain HSDPA-HSDPA handover test data, including the data at UE side and
RNC side.

According to single subscribing signaling tracing, analyze to see whether


there is a serving cell updated due to UL RL failure. If yes, find the UE APP
throughput at the corresponding point.

With the data at RNC side, draw a chart involving uplink SIR, SIRtarget, UL
BLER, downlink throughput, PCPICH RSCP and Ec/No. Obtain the SIR
information on HSDPA uplink associated channel.

Based on the results from Step 2 and 3 above, obtain the information about
RL imbalance.

Analyze RL imbalance and provide solutions.

Impact from power control of uplink associated DCH


The impact from power control of uplink associated DCH includes the
following two aspects:

HS-DPCCH is not under individual power control, but has a power offset
with uplink DPCCH. If the uplink DCH power control is not converged, and
BLER is overhigh, the uplink HS-DPCCH power will be over low, and the
NodeB will judge ACK as NACK/DTX in a great probability. As a result, the
rate of RLC layer for HSDPA subscribers is over low.

TCP and RLC uses AM mode, so sending the ACK message is necessary on
uplink DCH.
TCP provides reliable transport layer, the receiver responds the ACK
message. Any the data and the ACK message may be lost during
transmission, so TCP sets a timer upon sending for solving this
problem. If the sender does not receive the ACK message till expiration
of the timer, it resends the data. As a result, the rate for data transfer is
affected. If the uplink DCH power control is not converged, and BLER
is over high, the sender TCP will fail to receive the ACK message and
resend the data. As a result, the rate of data transfer is affected.
RLC uses AM mode. If the uplink BLER is not converged, the RLC
will receive a late ACK response or no response. After expiration, the
RLC resend the data, so the rate for data transfer is affected. If the RLC
fails to receive the ACK message after multiple times, RLC reset
occurs. The RLC sending window can configure the maximum value to
2047 at most. When the rate for sending by RLC is high, and the
response to RLC is late, the RLC sending window will be full and no
new data can be sent.
Check the uplink BLER in Uplink BLER of RNC Connection
Performance Monitoring window. The baseline requires target uplink

BLER as 1%. Find the causes of non convergence of uplink power control
from the following two aspects:

Check whether the RTWP fluctuates abnormally, and whether there is uplink
interference. Check RTWP in RNC cell performance monitoring.

Check whether the configuration of outer loop power control parameters for
the current services is proper. Focus on SIRTarget and BLERTarget. Follow
the steps below:
Query the index value for current services by executing the command
LST TYPRAB. For example, the index value for the 384 kbps services
is 22.
Query SIRTarget and BLERTarget by executing the command LST
TYPRAB: RABINDEX=22, TRCHTYPE=TRCH_HSDSCH,
IUBTRANSBEARTYPE=IUB_GROUND_TRANS;
Modify SIRTarget and BLERTarget for current service by executing the
command MOD TYPRABOLPC: RABINDEX=22,
SUBFLOWINDEX=0, TRCHTYPE=TRCH_HSDSCH,
IUBTRANSBEARTYPE=IUB_GROUND_TRANS,
BLERQUALITY=-20;
----End
In addition, in remote deployment test of single HSDPA subscriber in a
single HSDPA cell, at the cell edge, the CQI reported by UE is good, but
subscriber's rate is low, even as low as 0. The major cause is that the uplink
power of UE is restricted, that uplink power control is not converged, and
that uplink BLER is high, even as high as 100%.

Wrong configuration of AAL2 PATH (NodeB RCR > RNC PCR, or


configured bandwidth > physical bandwidth)
The RCR parameter is added to AAL2 PATH at NodeB side to fulfill flow
control. It is the receiving rate of NodeB. For ATM driver, the receiving
rate cannot be restricted, so the RCR parameter is logical only. The
receiving rate is not necessarily equal to the configured RCR parameter,
but depends on the sending rate of RNC, namely, the PCR and SCR upon
configuration of AAL2PATH by RNC.
The NodeB deducts the bandwidth corresponding to R99 call from the
total bandwidth of PATH according to receiving rate, and then obtains the
residual bandwidth of all PATH. The RCR is reported to DSP, and the DSP
construct frame informs RNC of residual bandwidth. The residual
bandwidth is for HSDPA subscribers, so the flow is controlled.
If the receiving bandwidth RCR of NodeB AAL2 PATH is larger than PCR
of RNC AAL2 PATH, the data packets at Iub interface will be dropped.

In addition, if the configured bandwidth of AAL2PATH is larger than the


physical actual bandwidth, the data packets at Iub interface will be
dropped. As a result, the total throughput of cell declines.
In V17 edition, when R99 new operation connect, Max-rate multiply
activation gene as operation rate to admittance. So if you want to adjust
activation gene, you can adjust connection number . if configure activation
gene is small , it can connect more connection , but multi-connection whit
high rate will bring lub congestion, result in R99 PS or HSDPA PS lose
package , touch off a lot of RLC send again , consequently, R99 PS or
HSDPA PS RLC layer rate astaticism.
Solution: open lub overbooking flow control switch which base on RLC
retransmission rate. If discover R99 or HSDPA PS retransmission rate
exceed the gateway which set before , initiate R99 PS TF limit fall quickly
or HSDPA PS PS rate * fall coefficient , lighten or eliminate congestion. In
RLC retransmission rate under gateway , cancel TF limit , renew R99 PS
transmit rate , or HSDPA PS rate * rise coefficient , renew HSDPA PS
transmit rate.

Over high RLC retransmission rate due to over high residual BLER at MAC
layer
If the retransfer at MAC layer reaches the maximum times, the TBs
incorrectly received will be dropped. If the receiver detects dropping data
packets, it requires the sender to resend data packets by state report.
Retransfer lowers the sending efficiency of RLC, so it affects the valid
throughput of RLC. When residual BLER at MAC layer is over high, the
SBLER at MAC layer is probably over high. For detailed analysis, see the
analysis of over high SLBER in previous sections.
Normal the residual BLER at MAC layer is smaller than 1%.
shows the residual BLER at MAC layer in WCDMA HSDPA Decoding
Statistics window.

6.

Residual BLER at MAC


layer in WCDMA
HSDPA Decoding
Statistics window

Downlink rate affected by restriction over uplink rate


TCP and RLC uses AM mode, and transferring the ACK message is
necessary on uplink DCH. According to test data, the transmission rate for
feeding back information on uplink channel takes 2%3% of transmission
rate of downlink channel.
For example, the downlink rate is 1.6 Mbps, and the corresponding uplink
rate is 3248 kbps. When the downlink rate is 3.6 Mbps, the corresponding
uplink rate is 72108 kbps. If the uplink subscribed rate is 64 kbps, the
requirement on uplink rate corresponding to downlink data transfer cannot
be met.
In addition, if there is data to be transferred in uplink for HSDPA
subscribers, the uplink channels must transport the confirmation data of
TCP and RLC, as well as uplink data of subscribers. If the uplink
subscribed rate is low, the downlink data transfer is affected.
Check the uplink rate for service setup in RAB Assignment Request
message. If the uplink rate is low, check the HLR subscribed rate.
Check the actual uplink bandwidth in RB SETUP message.

The RTT delay at the RLC layer is exceptional (the RLC state report disable
timer is not set properly/the uplink BLER is not converged) so that the RLC
send window is full.
Currently, the maximum size of the RLC send window can be set to 2047
(the RLC receive/send window size of the terminal is 2047). When the
RLC transmission rate is very high, the RLC send window is easily full
and cannot send other data if the state report is not returned in time.
For example, the rate on the air interface is 3 Mbit/s and the MAC-D PDU
size is 336 bits, the RLC send window can send data for (2047 x 336)/(3 x

1024) = 224 ms. If the RNC fails to receive a state report within 224 ms,
the RLC send window is full.
The return time of the state report is related to the state report disable timer
and the uplink air interface quality. If the state report disable time is set too
long, or the uplink BLER is not converged, the RLC send window may be
full.
Solution:
Check whether the state report disable timer is set properly and whether it
is set to the default of the baseline. Currently, the default timer length is
120 ms (service-oriented configuration) in the RNC V16 and 80 ms for the
3.6 Mbit/s services (service-oriented configuration) in the RNC V17.
Check the convergence of the uplink BLER to ensure the BLER is
converged.

Compare the throughputs at the application layer (APP) and the RLC layer.
TCP/IP adopts the inclusive acknowledgment strategy for reliable data
transmission and the sliding window protocol for flow control, and
performs congestion control when detecting a network congestion.

Flow control (sliding window)


Flow control is used to prevent buffer overflows and saturation of the
receiving machine. Flow control generates a window value for the
sender to transmit the specified number of bytes in the window. After
that, the window is closed and the sender must stop data transmission.
The window is not opened until the sender receives an ACK from the
receiver.

Inclusive acknowledgment strategy


All to-be-transmitted bytes before the confirmed byte number are
acknowledged. Suppose that 10 data fragments are to be transmitted.
These data fragments cannot reach the destination in sequence. TCP
must acknowledge the highest byte number of consecutive bytes
without any error. The highest byte number is not allowed to be
acknowledged before all the middle bytes reach the destination. If the
acknowledgment to the middle bytes is not sent to the sender, the sender
TCP entity finally times out and retransmits the unacknowledged data.

Congestion control (timeout and retransmission)


The TCP determines a network congestion by measuring the round-trip
time (RTT) delay timeout or receiving a repeated acknowledgment.
When a network congestion is detected, the congestion avoidance
algorithm (downspeeding and retransmission) is enabled.
Therefore, the factors affecting the TCP/IP data transmission rate include:

Configured TCP receive/send window

Although the receive window size is dynamic (if packets out of


sequence are received or packets cannot be submitted to the upper layer
in time, the available window size becomes small), the configured
window size determines the maximum available size of the receive
window.
According to the formula Capacity (bit)=bandwidth (b/s)*round-trip
time (s), if the receive/send window is too small, the transmission rate is
affected.

Congestion caused by RTT fluctuation


The throughput at APP and RLC layer is obtainable by DT/CQT. For
the theoretical relationship of rate at each layer, see the appendix 8.2.
If the rate of APP throughput and RLC throughout is lower than the
normal range according to theoretical analysis, the retransmission cost
of TCP/IP is over large. Check and modify the TCP receiver window
and MTU configuration. For the method, see the appendix 8.4 and 8.5.

5. Analysis of the Problem about


Poor Data Transmission
Performance of the HSUPA on
the RAN Side
The PS data transmission performance is end-to-end (UE <->data service server) system performance.
Each component in the system may affect data transmission. When we test and optimize the HSUPA
data transmission performance, we usually focus on the effects of the RAN side (RNC-NodeB-UE) on
the data transmission performance. We hope that the effects of the other parts (SGSN, GGSN, data
service server, and external networks) of the system can be removed before the test so that we can
concentrate on the radio network.
From the angle of throughput measurement, poor data transmission performance reflects a low
unsteady rate with a wide fluctuation range. From the angle of the QoS, poor data transmission
performance reflects unclear streaming images, buffering, and slow response to web browsing.
The working process of an HSUPA UE is as follows:

The UE originates a data transmission request according to the Scheduling


Information (determined by the UE power headroom [UPH] and the quantity
[Q] of data to be transmitted) carried on the E-DPDCH.

The NodeB determines the granted level (the E-AGCH sends T/P and the ERGCH sends an adjust command to tune (+1, 0 -1)) according to the UE
request (SI), monitored RoT, and the satisfaction (Happy bit indication
carried on the E-DPCCH) from the UE.

The UE sends corresponding data according to the granted level. Meanwhile,


the UE attaches the next frame request (SI) on the E-DPDCH and feeds back
the satisfaction (Happy bit) at the allocated granted level on the E-DPCCH.

After receiving and demodulating the data, the NodeB returns an AcK/Nack
on the E-HICH.
1. Working process of an
HSUPA UE

During the optimization of the HSUPA throughput, you should combine the drive test data of the
Probe tool for analysis. The following describes HSUPA-related rates in the Probe tool:

MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate = Sum of all TB sizes in the case of non-DTX/
(number of non-DTXs * TTI)
This rate is the actual rate of the MAC-e (excluding DTX, but including
the rate of retransmission blocks)

Sum of all TB sizes in the case of non-DTX: Not only the block transmitted first but also the
retransmitted blocks are included.

Number of non-DTXs * TTI: Only the time when data is transmitted is counted and the time when no
data is transmitted is excluded. For example, if only 50 sub-frames send data within the measurement
period of 100 sub-frames (200 ms), the denominator is 100 ms.

MAC-e PDU Served Rate = Sum of all TB sizes in the case of non-DTX/
(NUM_SAMPLES * TTI)
This rate is the served rate of the MAC-e (including DTX and the rate of
retransmission blocks)

Sum of all TB sizes in the case of non-DTX: Not only the block transmitted first but also the
retransmitted blocks are included.

NUM_SAMPLES * TTI: The time when data is transmitted and the time when no data is transmitted
are both included. For example, if only 50 sub-frames send data within the measurement period of 100
sub-frames (200 ms), the denominator is 200 ms.

MAC-e PDU Available Rate = Sum of TB sizes when COMB_HICH is ACK


or ACK_NS in the case of non-DTX/(NUM_SAMPLES*TTI)

Sum of TB sizes when COMB_HICH is ACK or ACK_NS in the case of non-DTX: Only the TBs
transmitted correctly are counted.

NUM_SAMPLES * TTI: The time when data is transmitted and the time when no data is transmitted
are both included.

Relationship between these three throughputs:

MAC-e PDU Served Rate = MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate * Non-DTX


Probability

MAC-e PDU Available Rate MAC-e PDU Served Rate *(1-SBLER)


Where,
Non-DTX Probability = Number of non-DTXs/NUM_SAMPLES *
100%
SBLER = (Number of non-DTXs Number of ACK or
ACK_NS)/Number of non-DTXs * 100%

UL RLC PDU Throughput = Sum of bits of all RLC PDUs sent by the RLC
layer within the measurement period/Measurement period duration

Sum of bits of all RLC PDUs sent by the RLC layer within the measurement period: The first
transmitted data and the retransmitted data are included. In addition, the data is transferred by MAC-d
and contains the header overhead (16 bits) of the RLC PDU.

Measurement period duration: The time when data is transmitted and the time when no data is
transmitted are both included.

Relationship with MAC-e PDU Available Rate:

RLC PDU Throughput UL = MAC-e PDU Available Rate * (1-header


overhead ratio of MAC-e PDU)

A precise relationship should exclude the header overhead and the padding bits when the TB size does
not match N RLC PDU bits

UL RLC SDU Throughput = Sum of bits of all RLC SDUs sent by the RLC
layer within the measurement period/Measurement period duration

Sum of bits of all RLC SDUs sent by the RLC layer within the measurement period: Compared with the
sum of RLC PDU bits, the retransmitted data and header overhead (16 bits) of the RLC PDU are
excluded.

Measurement period duration: The time when data is transmitted and the time when no data is
transmitted are both included.

Relationship between RLC SDU Throughput UL and RLC PDU


Throughput UL:

RLC SDU Throughput UL RLC PDU Throughput UL*(1-RLC PDU


Retransmission Rate UL)*header overhead ratio of the RLC PDU

The figure below shows the optimization flow of a low throughput of the HSUPA UE.

2. Optimization flow of a
low throughput of the
HSUPA UE

Service Setup on an E-DCH


Check whether the serving E-DCH RL indicator in the RB SETUP message of the RNC is True, as
shown in the figure below. If yes, the service is borne on the HSUPA.

3. Confirming the service is


set up on the HSUPA
according to a signaling
message of the RNC

You can also observe whether an SG is reported in the HSUPA Link Statistics window provided by a
drive test tool, for example, Probe. If no information is displayed in the window, the service is borne
on a DCH, as shown in the figure below.

4. How to confirm the


service is set up on the
HSUPA through the
drive test tool Probe

If the service is not borne on the HSUPA, the service is automatically set up on a DCH. In this case,
the service rate is the rate of the R99 service, usually 384 Kpbs or below.
If the service is not set up on the HSUPA, you can make analysis in terms of the following aspects:

Check whether the capabilities reported by the UE include the HSUPA. The
RRC_CONN_REQUEST message reported by the UE indicates whether the
HSDPA and HSUPA are supported. The specific E-DCH capability level is
reported in an RRC_CONN_SETUP_CMP message.

Check whether the MBR in the subscription information in the previous line
is normal and whether the rate threshold over an E-DCH is set too high. If the
MBR assigned by the CN does not exceed the rate threshold over an E-DCH,
the service is set up on a DCH.

Check whether the HSUPA cell is available and activated.

The access of the HSUPA UE fails.

Check whether the type of the HSUPA AAL2PATH is configured correctly


and whether a type of HSUPA AAL2PATH is configured.

Abnormal MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate


The UE compares its current MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate with the maximum allowable ETFC
according to the corresponding ETFC of the SG that the UE currently maintains. Make analysis in
combination with the Happy/Unhappy information reported by the UE.
If the UE reports HAPPY, the user may not feel happy. Make specific analysis according to the
happy reasons.

If the MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate is abnormal, use the drive test tool Probe to determine whether the
UE reports HAPPY or UNHAPPY.
If the UE reports HAPPY and the UE rate cannot reach the MBR, the possible causes are as follows:

The terminal capability or the RAN capability is limited.

The transmit power of the terminal limited.

The traffic of the terminal is limited.

If the UE reports UNHAPPY and the UE rate cannot reach the MBR, the possible causes are as
follows:

The SG (UE grant) is limited.

The resources (air interface load, IUB bandwidth, and CE) on the RAN side
are limited.
Cause 1: The air interface load is limited.
Cause 2: The IUB bandwidth is limited.
Cause 3: The NodeB CEs are limited.

The service MBR (NodeB MBR) is limited.

The UE demodulates incorrectly.


Cause 1: The SG is not updated because the CRC of the AG value fails
Cause 2: The UE demodulates the RG incorrectly.

The protocol gives the conditions when the UE report HAPPY and UNHAPPY.
The UE indicates that it is unhappy if the following criteria are met:

UE is transmitting as much scheduled data as allowed by the current Serving


Grant.

UE has enough power available to transmit at higher data rate.

Total buffer status would require more than Happy_Bit_Delay_Condition ms


to be transmitted with the current Serving_Grant the ratio of active
processes to the total number of processes.

The first criteria are always true for a deactivated process and the ratio of the third criteria is always 1
for 10ms TTI.
Otherwise, the UE indicates that it is happy.

The terminal capability or the RAN capability is limited.

Principle description
Currently, the capability of Qualcomm HSUPA and Huawei E270 HSUPA
is CAT5 (the corresponding MAC-e rate is 2 Mbit/s). The maximum
capability supported by Huawei RAN6.0 (RNCV1.8 and NodeBV1.8) is 2
x SF4 (the corresponding MAC-e rate is 1.4484 Mbit/s). Currently, the
maximum rate that a single UE can obtain is limited to the capability of the
RAN6.0.
The RAN6.0 supports 2 x SF4, the maximum TB size is 14484), and the
MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate is 14484/10 = 1.4484 Mbit/s
The CAT5 terminal supports 2 x SF2, the maximum TB size is 20000, and
the MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate is 20000/10 = 2 Mbit/s.
1. Categories of UE
HSUPA
capability levels

E
D
C
H
C
a
t
e
g
o
r
y

M
ax
im
u
m
Nu
m
be
r
of
EDC
H
Co
de
s
Tr
an
sm
itt
ed

M
i
n
i
m
u
m

S
u
p
p
o
r
t

S
p
r
e
a
d
i
n
g
F
a
c
t
o
r

f
o
r
1
0
a
n
d
2
m
s
T
T
I
E
D

M
ax
im
u
m
Nu
m
be
r
of
Bit
s
of
an
EDC
H
Tr
an
sp
or
t
Bl
oc
k
Tr
an
sm
itt
ed

M
ax
im
u
m
Nu
m
be
r
of
Bit
s
of
an
EDC
H
Tr
an
sp
or
t
Bl
oc
k
Tr
an
sm
itt
ed

C
H

Wi
thi
n
a
10
ms
EDC
H
TT
I

Wi
thi
n
a
2
ms
EDC
H
TT
I

Category 1

SF4

10 ms TTI
only

7110

Category 2

SF4

10 ms and

14484

2798

2 ms TTI
Category 3

SF4

10 ms TTI
only

14484

Category 4

SF2

10 ms and

20000

5772

2 ms TTI
Category 5

SF2

10 ms TTI
only

20000

Category 6

SF2

10 ms and

20000

11484

2 ms TTI
NOTE: When 4 codes are transmitted in parallel, two codes shall be transmitted with SF2 and
two with SF4

Observation method:

Observe the UE capability


Generally, the terminals supporting the HSUPA function all support the
HSDPA function. That is, the HSPA bears the services of users as a
whole. The following describes how to observe the HSPA function that
the UE supports and the specific HS-DSCH/E-DCH capability level in
combination with actual RRC messages.
First, the RRC_CONN_REQUEST message reported by the UE
indicates whether the HSDPA and the HSUPA functions are supported.
In the figure below, the capability reported by the UE indicates that the
UE supports HS-DSCH and E-DCH.
5. RRC CONNECTION
REQUEST message

The specific E-DCH capability level is reported in an


RRC_CONN_SETUP_CMP message. As shown in the figure below,
the HS-DSCH physical layer level of the UE is category 6 and the EDCH physical layer capability level is category 5.

6. RRC CONNECT SETUP


CMP message

Observe the maximum capability configured on the RAN side


When the service is set up, the RL RECFG PREP message sent by the
RNC to the NodeB gives the maximum spreading factor that the UE can
use and the corresponding information element (CE) is maxSet-EDPDCHs. In the figure below, two spreading factors (SF=4) are
supported.

7. RL RECFG PREPARE
message

When the DCCC algorithm of the HSUPA is disabled, the RNC configures the maximum capability
according to the MBR of the UE. When the DCCC algorithm of the HSUPA is enabled, the
maximum capability is affected by the initial access rate of the DCCC.

Solution:
Improve the capability of the RAN side or use a terminal with a higher
capability level.

The transmit power of the terminal is limited.

Principle description
The UE calculates the transmit TB size according to the currently available
transmit power. Then, the UE selects the smaller between the TB size
supported by the transmit power and the TB size supported by the SG as
the actual transmit TB size.

The available transmit power of the UE is the same, but the transmit TB
size may be not the same. The factors that influence the TB size are as
follows:

The UE is at the edge of a cell and the uplink path loss is large.

The uplink load of the cell is high (the UE is not at the edge of a cell).

The UE performs combined services. The DCH service consumes much


power and insufficient power is available to the E-DCH service.

Observation method:
Method of observing whether the transmit power of the UE limited:

Observe the power limited rate reported by the UE through the Assistant. If
the power limited rate is greater than 0%, the transmit power of the UE within
the corresponding measurement period of the measurement value is limited.
8. Display of the Assistant
HSUPA related
information (limited
transmit power of the
UE)

When the UE uses the maximum block (14480), Qualcomm chips of early versions also display the
limited transmit power, but in fact, the transmit power is not limited. This problem can be ruled out
by combining the current MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate with the actual transmit power of the UE.

After confirming that the transmit power of the UE is limited, analyze the
limitation causes.
a.View the PCPICH RSCP of the cell where the UE is located and
check whether the UE is at the edge of the cell.

b.View the RTWP of the cell where the UE is located before the access
and check whether the uplink load of the cell is high.
c.View the uplink SIR of the UE to check whether the SIR is
exceptionally high.
d.View the service that the UE sets up and check whether the service is
a combined service.

Solution:

If the UE is at the edge of the cell, move the UE to the center of the cell.

If the uplink load of the cell is high and the cell load is adjustable, reduce the
cell load.

If the service that the UE sets up is a combined service, deactivate the R99
service and observe the rate of the HSUPA service.

The traffic of the terminal is limited.

Principle description:
If the data in the UE RLC Buffer is insufficient, the actual MAC-e PDU
Non-DTX Rate is low.

Observation method:

Method of observing whether the traffic of the UE is limited


Observe the buffer limited rate reported by the UE through the
Assistant. If the buffer limited rate greater than 0%, the traffic of the UE
within the corresponding measurement period of the measurement value
is limited.

9. Display of the Assistant


HSUPA related
information (limited
traffic)

After confirming that the traffic of the UE is limited, probable reasons:


a. The TCP/IP layer is exceptional so that the TCP sends no data.
b. The RLC layer is exceptional so that the RLC sends no data.

Solution:
You can consider sending packets in the uplink to eliminate the effect of
the TCP mechanism. If this method does not work, check whether the
problem about packet loss exists on the RAN side.
In addition, some applications in the portable PC also affect the data
transmission. In this case, replace the portable PC. If the problem still
exists, use a tool to capture packets and locate the exceptions between the
portal PC and the UE.

The SG (UE grant) is limited.


Two basic functions of the HSUPA scheduling

[Basic function 1]: Control the cell load


When the actual cell load is greater than the target value, the cell
throughput can be reduced by lowering the SG of the UE. When the
actual cell load is less than the target value, the cell throughput can be
improved by increasing the SG of the unhappy UE.

[Basic function 2]: Limit the MBR of a single UE


When the actual value of the MAC-e rate (including retransmitted
blocks) is greater than the MBR, an RG Down is sent to the UE to

reduce the SG of the UE. As a result, the transmission rate of the UE is


reduced and is kept approximate to the MBR.
The UE maintains the SG according to the AG (AG is used only to
increase the rate in the RAN6.0) and the RG (Up, Hold, and Down) sent
by the NodeB. The UE determines the actual transmission rate by
reference to the SG. The actual transmission rate is less than or equal to the
corresponding transmission rate of the SG.
The resources (air interface load, IUB bandwidth, and CEs) on the RAN
side are limited.
If the resources on the RAN side are limited, the SG that the NodeB
actually allocates to the UE is small. As a result, the UE reports that the
SG is limited.

Cause 1: The air interface load is limited.

Principle description:
1) According to basic function 1 of the HSUPA scheduling, when the air
interface load on the RAN side is limited, the target load value is the
target value configured on the RNC (this value is usually determined at
the time of network planning). If the actual value of the cell load
exceeds the target value, the uplink coverage of the cell may shrink (the
shrinkage depends on the uplink budget margin) and the service at the
edge of the cell is affected. Therefore, the cell load needs to be
controlled.
2) RNC-related parameter configuration
The RNC-related parameters include MaxTargetUlLoadFactor and
BackgroundNoise.
MaxTargetUlLoadFactor is the target ROT. Related command: MOD
CELLHSUPA MaxTargetUlLoadFactor=75 (75 represents 75%,
namely, 6 dB)
BackgroundNoise is the background noise. Related command: MOD
CELLCAC: BackgroundNoise=71 (71 represents 112 + 7.1 = 104.9
dBm)
The target RTWP is calculated according to the following formula:
Target RTWP = Target ROT + Background Noise.
Hence, the target RTWP = 104.9 + 6 = 98.9 dBm
3) The RNC sends a message to the NodeB.
The RNC carries the target RTWP and the background noise to the
NodeB by sending a PHYSICAL SHARED CHANNEL
RECONFIGURATION REQUEST message on the Iub interface.
The relationship between the protocol value and the physical value is:
physical value = 112 + protocol value/10 (unit: dBm)

As shown in the figure below, the protocol value of the target RTWP is
114, the corresponding physical value is 112 + 11.4 = 100.6 dBm.
The background noise of the RTWP is 54 and the corresponding
physical value of the background noise is 112 + 5.4 = 106.6 dBm.
10. PHYSICAL SHARED
CHANNEL
RECONFIGURATION
REQUEST message
(containing the target
RTWP and the
background)

The disagreement of the background set on the RNC LMT with the cell
background affects the throughput of the cell. If the setting value of the
background noise is much larger than the actual background noise
value, the system stability may be reduced.
When the setting value of the background noise is greater than the
actual background noise value, the actual cell throughput is greater than
the throughput that the target ROT corresponds to.
When the setting value of the background noise is less than the actual
background noise value, the actual cell throughput is less than the
throughput that the target ROT corresponds to.

Observation method:

Observe the cell uplink RTWP measurement recorded and displayed on


the RNC LMT to check whether it is close to the configured target
RTWP. If the measured value is close to the target RTWP, the air
interface load is limited and reaches the target value.

Solution:
1) Set the target ROT reasonably.
2) Keep the setting value of the background noise equal to the actual
background noise value.
The background noise update algorithm has not been commercially
verified. It will be subsequently supplemented.
3) Eliminate external interference.

Cause 2: The IUB bandwidth is limited.

Principle description:
1) According to basic function 1 of the HSUPA scheduling, when the
available bandwidth of the Iub HSUPA is limited on the RAN side, the
target load is the adjusted target value after flow control (principle of
the Iub flow control: adjust the target load according to the buffer
change trend on the transmission path). If the actual cell load exceeds
the target load value, the data transmission delay is prolonged or even
packet loss occurs on the Iub interface so that the data transmission
performance is affected. Therefore, the actual cell load needs to be
controlled.
2) When the ATM is adopted on the Iub interface, the HSUPA Iub
bandwidth utilization = TCP layer rate/ATM bandwidth

11. ATM transmission


efficiency

When the TCP layer rate is less than 320 kbit/s, the utilization is less
than 73%.
When the TCP layer rate ranges from 320 kbit/s to 736 kbit/s, the
utilization is 74% or so.
When the TCP layer rate ranges from 768 kbit/s to 1376 kbit/s, the
utilization is 75% or so.
3) When the IP is adopted on the Iub interface, the HSUPA Iub
bandwidth utilization = TCP layer rate/IP bandwidth

12. P bandwidth utilization

When the TCP layer rate is less than 224 kbit/s, the utilization is less
than 80%.
When the TCP layer rate ranges from 224 kbit/s to 448 kbit/s, the
utilization is 80% to 85%.
When the TCP layer rate ranges from 480 kbit/s to 1376 kbit/s, the
utilization is 85% to 90%.

Observation method:
Since the Iub bandwidth is shared by all cells of a NodeB, you need to
obtain the rate information of all HSUPA UEs of the NodeB when
determining whether the Iub bandwidth is limited.
If the sum of the rates of all UEs is approximate to the available
bandwidth of the HSUPA times the bandwidth utilization, the Iub
bandwidth is limited. In addition, observe the measured RTWPs of all
cells. They should all be less than the target value configured on the
RNC.

Solution:
Improve the available Iub bandwidth of the HSUPA.

Cause 3: The NodeB CEs are limited.

Principle description:
When the NodeB CE resources on the RAN side are limited, the
dynamic CE adjustment algorithm (not implemented in NodeB V18 but
implemented in later versions) reduces the MBR of the UEs or the
minimum available SF.

Observation method:
Make observations on the NodeB debugging console.

Solution:
Add CEs.

The service MBR (NodeB MBR) is limited.

Principle description:

See the description of basic function 2 of the HSUPA scheduling.

Concepts of CN assigned MBR, RNC MBR, and NodeB MBR


CN assigned MBR:
The CN notifies the RNC of the assigned MBR in a RAB Assignment
Request message.
13. RAB assignment request
message (containing an
MBR)

RNC MBR:RLC SDU rate (excluding the RLC PDU header)

The RNC combines the MBR in the RAB Assignment Request message
with the UE capability and the resources on the RAN side to obtain an
MBR for the final service setup. This MBR is called RNC MBR.
NodeB MBR: MAC-e PDU rate (including retransmitted blocks)
The RNC notifies the NodeB of the NodeB MBR in an RL RECFG
PREPARE message.
14. RL RECFG PREPARE
message (containing
NodeB MBR)

UE MBR:

15. RB SETUP message


(containing the
maximum number of
available channel codes)

Mappings between CN assigned MBR, RNC MBR, and NodeB MBR


RNC MBR = Typical service rate configured on the RNC background,
most approximate to the CN MBR
E-DCH Maximum Bitrate (NodeB MBR) = Requested maximum rate
(RNC MBR) * Requested rate up scale
Requested rate up scale:
Command: ADD TYPRABHSPA

HsupaMaxRateUpScale

Requeste
d rate up

Value range: 10 to 255

scale for
the
HSUPA
service

Physical indication range: 1 to 25.5, a


step of 0.1
Physical unit: None
Content: The value of this parameter
times the uplink maximum rate in an
RAM Assignment Request message is
the peak rate when the service is borne
on an E-DCH. The RNC configures the
bottom-layer bandwidth for the UU
interface and IUB interface according to
the peak rate. The configuration of this
parameter is related to the target number
of service retransmissions on the EDCH.
Recommended value: 11

Observation method:

Step1: Obtain the uplink rate (IP layer rate) of the UE from a DU meter and
UE MAC-e PDU Served rate from the Assistant.

Step 2: Obtain the CN MBR from the RAM Assignment Request message,
the RNC MBR from the typical rate configuration in the RNC MML
command, and the NodeB MBR from the RL RECFG PREP message.

Step 3: Compare the rates obtained in the previous two steps.


If the rate on the DU meter is approximate to the RNC MBR and the
corresponding UE MAC-e PDU Served Rate is approximate to the
NodeB MBR, the NodeB MBR is limited.

Solution:
To improve the throughput of a UE, modify the subscription information
and configure a higher MBR.

The UE demodulates incorrectly.

Cause 1: The SG is not updated because the CRC of the AG value fails

Principle description:
According to the AG, the UE updates the SG that it maintains. If an AG
reception error (CRC failure) occurs, the SG maintained by the UE is
incorrect.
There are two possible causes for the AG reception error:
1) The E-AGCH power in the position where the UE is located is low.

Huawei RNC provides two power control modes for the HSUPA
downlink control channels (including E-RGCH, E-AGCH, and EHICH).
Power control mode 1: Fixed transmit power relative to the PCPICH. In
this mode, each channel adopts a fixed power and all UEs use the same
power. This is equivalent to "no power control".
Power control mode 2: Power control for UE based on the DPCH
transmit power. Since each UE is assigned with its own E-RGCH and
E-HICH and signaling can be sent to only one UE on the E-AGCH at a
specific time, the downlink control channel of the HSUPA can
separately perform power control for each UE.
2) The quality of the E-AGCH signals at the receiving end is high but
the UE has bugs so that demodulation errors occur.

Observation method:
For cause 1:
Step 1: Confirm the current power control mode by using an MML
query command.
COMMAND: LST MACEPARA (NodeB LMT)
Step 2: If the power control mode is fixed transmit power relative to the
PCPICH (default algorithm in V18), check whether the parameters used
by the system are baseline parameters.
If not, change the parameters to the baseline parameters and observe
whether the problem is solved. If the problem is not solved, confirm the
pilot signal quality (PCPICH RSCP and Ec/Io) in the position where the
UE is located. The baseline parameters are set on the assumption that a
signal Ec/Io is given at the edge of the cell. If the actual signal Ec/Io at
the edge of the cell is less than the assumed value, increase the power
offset (PO) on the basis of the baseline parameters.
1. PO for the EAGCH when the
Ec/Io at the edge
of cells is 12 dB
Control
channel

Scenario

Power
Offset
(dB)

E-AGCH

None

11.2 dB

If the actual signals at the edge of the cell in a scenario are worse, the
Ec/Io decreases by 1 dB and the PO of each channel increases by 1 dB.
Compare the AG received by the UE with the one sent by the NodeB
(the latter can be obtained from the NodeB scheduling debugging
information file).
It is forbidden to use the NodeB debugging management system in a commercial network.

Solution:
For cause 1, increase the PO of the E-AGCH on the basis of the
baseline parameters according to the actual signal coverage quality at
the edge of the cell.
For cause 2, remove the bugs from the terminal.

Cause 2: The UE demodulates the RG incorrectly.

Principle description:
The UE updates the SG that it maintains based on the RG information.
If an RG reception error occurs, infer that the maintained SG is
incorrect.
The possible causes for a UE RG demodulation error are as follows:
1) The E-RGCH power in the position where the UE is located is low.
2) The E-RGCH power is sufficient, but the E-HICH ACK is
demodulated into RG UP owing to the E-HICH interference when RG
Hold is sent.

Observation method:
Make observations on the NodeB maintenance/debugging console.
For cause 1:
Step 1: Confirm the current power control mode by using an MML
query command.
COMMAND:LST MACEPARA (NodeB LMT)
Step 2: If the power control mode is fixed transmit power relative to the
PCPICH (default algorithm in V18), check whether the parameters used
by the system are baseline parameters.
Check whether the parameters used by the system are baseline
parameters. If not, change the parameters to the baseline parameters and
observe whether the problem is solved. If the problem is not solved,
confirm the pilot signal quality (PCPICH RSCP and Ec/Io) in the
position where the UE is located. The baseline parameters are set on the
assumption that a signal Ec/Io is given at the edge of the cell. If the
actual signal Ec/Io at the edge of the cell is less than the assumed value,
increase the PO on the basis of the baseline parameters.

2. PO for the ERGCH when the


Ec/Io at the edge
of cells is 12 dB
Control
Channel

Scenario

Power
Offset
(dB)

E-RGCH

Single link or serving


E_DCH RLS

22

Non-serving E_DCH
RLS

17.3

If the actual signals at the edge of the cell in a scenario are worse, the
Ec/Io decreases by 1 dB and the PO of each channel increases by 1 dB.
Make comparison tests between NodeB and UE and ensure that the ERGCH power is properly set.
Step 3: If the power control mode is power control for UE based on the
DPCH transmit power (default algorithm in V22), no test experience is
available in V18 and test experience will be supplemented in later
versions.
For cause 2:
Cause 2 is caused by the signature used by the E-HICH and the ERGCH. A signature error exists in a NodeB test version. When the pilot
power is 33 dBm and HICH power is set to 33 21 = 12 dBm, AG Hold
is normally demodulated. When the HICH power is set to 13 dBm, AG
Hold is occasionally demodulated into AG UP. When the HICH power
is set to 14 dBm, AG Hold is most demodulated into AG UP. When the
HICH power is set to 16 to 18 dBm, AG Hold is basically all
demodulated into AG UP.

Solution:
For cause 1, increase the PO of the E-RGCH on the basis of the baseline
parameters according to the actual signal coverage quality at the edge of
the cell.
For cause 2, rectify the product.

MAC-e PDU Served Rate Exception Location


If MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate is normal, further determine whether the MAC-e PDU Served Rate is
exceptional.
Relationship between the MAC-e PDU Served Rate and the MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate:
Served Rate = MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate * Non-DTX Probability
Locating an served rate exception is the process of locating a non-DTX probability exception.
When a single HSUPA UE uploads a large-sized file, normally, the non-DTX probability should be
100%.A non-DTX probability less than 100% is considered an exception and the cause needs to be
analyzed.
Factors affecting a non-DTX probability:

The RLC layer is exceptional so that RLC data is not sent in time.
See "RLC SDU Throughput UL Exception Location".

The TCP/IP layer is exceptional so that TCP data is not sent in time.
See "TCP/IP Layer Rate Exception Location".

MAC-e PDU Available Rate Exception Location


If MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate and MAC-e PDU Served Rate are both normal, further determine
whether the MAC-e PDU Available Rate is exceptional.
Relationship between the MAC-e PDU Available Rate and the MAC-e PDU Served Rate:
MAC-e PDU Available Rate MAC-e PDU Served Rate *(1-SBLER)
Locating a MAC-e PDU available rate exception is the process of locating an SBLER exception.
You can set the target number of the MAC-es PDU retransmissions (usually 0.1 on average) on the
RNC LMT.
If the measured SBLER deviates greatly from the target number of MAC-es PDU retransmissions, it is
considered as an SBLER exception.
Factors affecting the SBLER convergence:

The uplink outer loop power control is exceptional.


The SBLER obtained from the terminal side refers to the block error rate
of the MAC-e TB, while the BLER obtained from the RNC side refers to
the average number of MAC-esPDU transmissions.

The maximum uplink SIRtarget is set so low that the SBLER is high.

Principle description:
When the actual SBLER is greater than the target value, the uplink
outer power control of the HSUPA increases the value of the SIRtarget
so that the actual SBLER can be converged to the target value.

A maximum SIRtarget value is set on the RNC for the purpose of


exception prevention. When the SIRtarget required for power control is
greater than the maximum SIRtarget value, the maximum SIRtarget
value is used. That is, the SIRtarget value is truncated.
If the SIRtarget is set too small, the actual SBLER will be greater than
the target value.
The maximum SIRtarget value is related to other outer loop power
control parameters (including reference ETFCI, reference PO, and
target number of retransmissions).

Observation method:
Query the maximum SIRtarget that the system currently uses.
MML command: LST TYPRAB

Solution:
Step 1: Check whether the maximum SIRtarget is the default. If not,
change it to the default value and observe whether the problem is
solved.
Step 2: If the problem is not solved after the maximum SIRtarget is
changed to the default, check whether the outer loop power control
parameters (mainly including reference ETFCI, reference PO, and target
number of retransmissions) are set to the defaults. If not, change the
values of these parameters to the defaults and observe whether the
problem is solved.

Packet loss on the Iub interface causes a high SIRtarget but a low SBLER.

Principle description:
The statistics of the number of MAC-es PDU retransmissions for the
uplink outer loop power control in the version earlier than V18 involves
bit errors on the air interface and packet loss on the Iub interface. When
packet loss occurs on the Iub interface, the number of MAC-es PDU
retransmissions is larger than the target value. As a result, the SIRtarget
is high. In this case, the air interface quality is high, that is, the SBLER
observed from the UE is low.
The statistics of the number of MAC-es PDU retransmissions for the
uplink outer loop power control in the version later than V18 involves
only bit errors on the air interface, regardless of packet loss on the Iub
interface. Therefore, packet loss on the Iub interface does not affect the
performance of power control.
The possible causes for packet loss on the Iub interface are as follows:
1) The bottom-layer transmission is exceptional.
2) The Iub uplink transmission is configured incorrectly.
3) Transmission buffer overflows occur.

Observation method:
See "RLC SDU Throughput UL Exception Location".

Solution:
See "RLC SDU Throughput UL Exception Location".

The probability of demodulating ACK into NACK/DTX is high.

Principle description:
The UE obtains ACK/NACK/DTX information by demodulating the EHICH. If ACK is taken for NACK or DTX, the UE performs a
retransmission. In this case, the SBLER measured on the UE side is greater
than the actual one and the effective rate is reduced.
If the E-HICH transmit power is low, the probability of demodulating
ACK into NACK or DTX is high.
There are two power control algorithms for the E-HICH: 1) Fixed transmit
power relative to the PCPICH. 2) Power control for UE based on the
DPCH transmit power.
Currently, the first algorithm (NodeB V1) is adopted. When the E-HICH
power offset is set low, the E-HICH demodulation performance of the UE
at the edge of a cell is affected.
When the UE is located in a soft handover cell, a soft combination is
performed for the E-HICHs in the same RLS, and the E-HICHs in the nonserving RLS can send ACK and DTX coming from the E-HICHs in
different RLSs.

Observation method:
Confirm the current power control mode by using an MML query
command.
LST MACEPARA

Solution:

Step 1: If the power control mode is fixed transmit power relative to the
PCPICH (default algorithm in V18), check whether the parameters used by
the system are baseline parameters.
If not, change the parameters to the baseline parameters and observe
whether the problem is solved. If the problem is not solved, confirm the
pilot signal quality (PCPICH RSCP and Ec/Io) in the position where the
UE is located. The baseline parameters are set on the assumption that a
signal Ec/Io is given at the edge of the cell. If the actual signal Ec/Io at
the edge of the cell is less than the assumed value, increase the Ec/Io on
the basis of the baseline parameters.

3. PO for the EHICH when the


Ec/Io at the edge
of cells is 12 dB
Control
Channel

Scenario

Power
Offset
(dB)

E-HICH

Single link

21.2

RLS including serving


E_DCH cell

21.2

RLS excluding serving


E_DCH cell

12

If the actual signals at the edge of the cell in a scenario are worse, the
Ec/Io decreases by 1 dB and the PO of each channel increases by 1 dB.
Since the R&D personnel do not distinguish between two cases (single
link and RLS including serving_DCH cell) in the implementation of the
power control, the PO for a single link is the same as that for RLS
including serving E_DCH.
Make comparison tests between NodeB and UE and ensure that the EHICH power is properly set.
When performing a test, ensure that the uplink channel is in good
condition, disable the outer loop power control, and set the SIR to 11
dB. Construct a scenario without HARQ retransmissions so that the
NodeB sends HARQ_ACK all the time. Test the probability of
demodulating ACK into NACK from the UE side.

Step 2: If the power control mode is power control for UE based on the
DPCH transmit power (default algorithm in V22), no test experience is
available in V18 and test experience will be supplemented in later versions.

RLC SDU Throughput UL Exception Location


Working principle of data transmission at the RLC layer:

RLC transmission includes transparent transmission (TM), unacknowledgment mode (UM), and acknowledgment mode (AM). PS services
(FTP and HTTP) usually adopt the AM and the sequence in which the RLC

submits SDUs can be configured (sequential submission and non-sequential


submission) on the RNC LMT.

The AM adopts the positive/negative acknowledgment strategy for reliable


data transmission and adopts a sliding window protocol for flow control.

Before the RLC receives an acknowledgment packet, the maximum number


of PDUs that the RLC can send is the RLC Send Window. The sooner the
sender receives an acknowledgment, the faster the window slides and the
higher the allowed RLC transmission rate is. Otherwise, the RLC
transmission rate is lower. Even call drops occur because the RLC is reset.

The sequential submission ensures that no packet loss occurs to the data
submitted to the upper-layer and the data is submitted in sequence. PS
services usually use TCP/IP. If packet loss happens at the upper layer, it may
lead to congestion and slow starting of TCP.. This affects the transmission
rate.

Sequential submission is recommended for the RLC and the non-sequential


submission for the core network.

Factors affecting the RLC layer rate:

Packet loss causes a high RLC retransmission rate.

The RLC send window is full.

Judge RLC SDU throughput UL exceptions.

If MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate and MAC-e PDU Served Rate are both
normal, further determine whether the RLC PDU throughput UL and RLC
SDU throughput UL are exceptional.

Relationship between the RLC PDU throughput UL and the MAC-e PDU avaivable rate:

RLC PDU Throughput UL = MAC-e PDU Available Rate * (1-header


overhead ratio of MAC-e PDU)

As the header overhead ratio is small, seen from the Probe, the RLC throughput curve and the MAC
layer rate curve are basically overlapped.
This relationship should be kept between RLC PDU throughput UL and MAC-e PDU available rate
all the time and no exception should occur.
Relationship between RLC SDU throughput UL and RLC PDU throughput UL:

RLC SDU Throughput UL RLC PDU Throughput UL*(1-RLC PDU


Retransmission Rate UL)*header overhead ratio of the RLC PDU

For BE services, the uplink outer loop power control usually ensures that the RLC PDU
retransmission rate UL is 0% when only MAC-e PDU retransmission happens. Therefore, RLC SDU
throughput UL is approximate to the RLC PDU throughput UL * header overhead ratio of the RLC
PDU. Otherwise, an exception is considered, that is, the RLC retransmission high.

For time sensitive services such as VoIP over the HSUPA, to ensure the real-time of services, the
uplink outer loop power control ensures that the MAC-es PDU has a residual BLER. In this case, the
RLC PDU retransmission rate UL is approximate to the target residual BLER. Otherwise, an
exception is considered, that is, the RLC retransmission rate is not converged within the target value.
The version V18 supports only the BE services over the HSUPA. Therefore, the RLC retransmission
rate is usually required to approach 0.
Factors affecting the RLC SDU throughput UL:

The uplink packet loss on the air interface (MAC-e layer residual SBLER
>1%) causes a high RLC retransmission rate.

Principle description:
1) TBs are discarded if they are not received when the number of MACe layer retransmissions reaches the maximum. This is packet loss for the
RLC layer.
2) If the receiver at the RLC layer detects packet loss, it requires the
sender to retransmit the packet through a state report.
3) Data retransmission reduces the transmission efficiency of the RLC,
and further affects its efficient throughput.
4) The uplink transmission quality on the air interface is controlled by
the uplink outer loop power control. If packet loss occurs in the uplink
of the air interface, the uplink outer loop power control is generally
exceptional.

Observation method:
Method 1: Observe the RLC PDU retransmission rate UL on the Probe.
16. RLC PDU
retransmission rate on
the Probe

Method 2: Observe the residual BLER (Res. BLER) of the MAC-e


layer on the Probe. Normally, the Res. BLER is less than 1%.
Block

Number of frames failing to be transmitted at the MAC-e layer. That is,


if the transmission of a frame still fails after the MAC-e layer
retransmits it for multiple times, the RLC layer originates a
retransmission. In this case, the value is increased by 1.
Block +
Number of frames transmitted successfully at the MAC-e layer, equal to
SB +
Res. BLER
Residual block error rate at the MAC-e layer, namely, the number of
frames failing to be transmitted at the RLC layer/total number of
transmissions at the RLC layer: (Block -) / ((Block -) + (Block +)) *
100%

Solution:
The uplink transmission quality on the air interface is controlled by the
uplink outer loop power control. If packet loss occurs in the uplink of
the air interface, the uplink outer loop power control is usually
exceptional.
You need to check whether
a) Target values for power control are configured correctly.
b) The uplink SIRtarget is normal.
c) The actual SIR is converged within the target value.

The downlink packet loss on the air interface (the probability of


demodulating NACK into ACK is high) causes a high RLC retransmission
rate.

Principle description:
If the UE takes the NACK sent by the NodeB for ACK, the
corresponding TB is not retransmitted. As a result, a block error is
introduced at the RLC layer. The block error causes RLC retransmission
and affects the throughput.
The possible causes for a UE E-HICH demodulation error are as
follows:
The E-HICH power in the position where the UE is located is low.

Observation method:
See High Probability of Demodulating ACK into NACK/DTX.

Solution:
See High Probability of Demodulating ACK into NACK/DTX.

The uplink packet loss on the Iub interface (the bottom-layer transmission is
exceptional) causes a high RLC retransmission rate.

Principle description:

The exceptional bottom-layer transmission (for example, intermittent


failure of E1) causes uplink packet loss.

Observation method:
The packet loss in the uplink in this case can be observed only on the
RNC, instead of the NodeB.

Solution:
Observe whether there is any transmission alarm, solve any
transmission exception, and clear the alarm.

The uplink packet loss on the Iub interface (the uplink transmission of the Iub
interface is configured incorrectly) causes a high RLC retransmission rate.

Principle description:
The incorrect uplink transmission configuration on the Iub causes
uplink packet loss.

Observation method:
The packet loss in the uplink in this case can be observed only on the
RNC, instead of the NodeB.

Solution:
Check the configuration data of the transmission layer and ensure that
the configuration data is correct.

The uplink packet loss on the Iub interface (a transmission buffer overflow
occurs) causes a high RLC retransmission rate.

Principle description:
The untimely flow control on the Iub interface causes buffer overflows
and packet loss.

Observation method:
The packet loss in the uplink in this case can be observed through the
NodeB debugging console.

Solution:
Determine whether the flow control algorithm is exceptional.

The RLC layer fails to return an ACK in time (the RLC state report disable
timer is not set properly/the downlink BLER is not converged) so that the
RLC send window is full.

Principle description:
Currently, the maximum size of the RLC send window can be set to
2047 (the RLC receive/send window size of the terminal is 2047).
When the RLC transmission rate is very high, the RLC send window is
easily full and cannot send other data if the state report is not returned
in time.

For example, if the rate on the air interface is 1.4 Mbit/s and the RLC
PDU size is 336 bits, the RLC send window can send data for (2047 x
336)/(1.4 x 1000) = 491.28 ms. If the RNC fails to receive a state report
within 491.28 ms, the RLC send window is full.
The return time of the state report is related to the state report disable
timer and the uplink air interface quality. If the state report disable time
is set too long, or the uplink BLER is not converged, the RLC send
window may be full.

Observation method:
Currently, we have very limited means to observe whether the RLC
send window is full on the UE side. We must analyze the data on the
user plane and the control plane at the RLC layer to learn whether the
RLC window is full. Currently, the Assistant V1.4 does not support this
function. We can use only the QCAT to make analysis.
Therefore, a simple method is reverse inference. Assume that the RLC
send window is full and try the following methods to check whether the
problem is solved. If the problem is solved, the cause is that the RLC
send window is full.

Solution:
Method 1: Increase the RLC send window by changing the RLC PDU
size from 336 to 656.
Method 2: Check whether the state report disable timer is set properly
and whether it is set to the default of the baseline.
Method 3: Check the convergence of the downlink BLER to ensure the
BLER is converged.

TCP/IP Layer Rate Exception Location


Working principle of data transmission at the TCP/IP layer:
TCP/IP adopts the inclusive acknowledgment strategy for reliable data transmission and the sliding
window protocol for flow control, and performs congestion control when detecting a network
congestion.

Flow control (sliding window)


Flow control is used to prevent buffer overflows and saturation of the
computer at the receiving end. Flow control generates a window value for
the sender to transmit the specified number of bytes in the window. Then,
the window is closed and the sender must stop data transmission. The
window is not opened until the sender receives an ACK from the receiver.

Inclusive acknowledgment strategy


All to-be-transmitted bytes before the confirmed byte number are
acknowledged. Suppose that 10 data fragments are to be transmitted.
These data fragments cannot reach the destination in sequence. TCP must

acknowledge the highest byte number of consecutive bytes without any


error. The highest byte number is not allowed to be acknowledged before
all the middle bytes reach the destination. If the acknowledgment to the
middle bytes is not sent to the sender, the sender TCP entity finally times
out and retransmits the unacknowledged data.

Congestion control (timeout and retransmission)


TCP determines a network congestion by measuring the round-trip time
(RTT) delay timeout or receiving a repeated acknowledgment. When a
network congestion is detected, the congestion avoidance algorithm
(downspeeding and retransmission) is enabled.

Therefore, the factors affecting the TCP/IP data transmission rate include:

Configured TCP receive/send window


Although the receive window size is dynamic (if packets out of sequence
are received or packets cannot be submitted to the upper layer in time, the
available window size becomes small), the configured window size
determines the maximum available size of the receive window.
According to the formula Capacity (bit)=bandwidth (b/s)*round-trip
time (s), if the receive/send window is too small, the transmission rate is
affected.

Actual receive window size

RTT fluctuation triggers the congestion avoidance mechanism (packet loss on


the CN side, downlink BLER convergence failure, and too small a reverse
bandwidth of TCP/IP)

TCP/IP layer rate exception judgment:


If MAC-e PDU Non-DTX Rate, MAC-e PDU Served Rate, and MAC-e PDU Served Rate are all
normal, the traffic of the UE is limited, but the data to be sent is sufficient, it can determined that the
TCP/IP layer rate is exceptional.

Too small a TCP receive window on the receiver side makes the send window
easily full.

Principle description:
TCP/IP adopts the sliding window protocol. The sliding window
protocol allows the sender to transmit multiple consecutive packets
before the sender stops transmission and waits for an acknowledgment.
As it is unnecessary for the sender to stop and wait for an
acknowledgment each time it transmits a packet, the sliding window
protocol increases the data transmission rate.
Theoretically, TCP receive window size should be greater than the
product of the bandwidth and the delay.
Capacity(bit)=bandwidth(b/s)*round-trip time(s)

A 66535-byte window is sufficient for the 1.6 Mbit/s service, but


insufficient for 3.6 Mbit/s service. Especially when the delay is greater
than 200 ms, the TCP window is easily full. As a result, you observe
that the buffers of the RLC and the NodeB are 0.

Observation method:
1) Query the configuration of the TCP receive window at the receiver
end.
2) Obtain the current Ping delay (test the RTT)
3) Observe the rate on the UE/DU meter is approximate to the TCP
receive window size/RTT.

Solution:
1) Change the TCP receive window size at the receiver end.
Use the following registry entries to set the receive window size to 80
KB (80*1024 = 81920).
Method 1:
Use the DRTCP tool to modify the receive window size and restart the
computer.
Method 2:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\
Services\Tcpip \Parameters\TcpWindowSize (REG_DWORD)
Restart the computer.
2) If no DRTCP tool is available, use multiple processes to perform
verification.

A 100% CPU load at the receiving end cause the TCP receive window to be
full.

Principle description:
When the CPU load at the receiving end reaches 100%, the data in the
TCP receive window cannot be submitted to the upper layer and the
TCP receive window is full.
When the TCP receive window is full, the receiver notifies the TCP
sender of it and the sender stops transmitting data. As a result, the RLC
BO is 0 and the UE transmits no data.

Observation method:
Observe the Performance tab page in the Windows Task Manager.

17. Receiver's CPU


performance observation
window

Solution:
1) Close the programs not related to the test at the receiving end.
2) Use high-performance computer at the receiving end.

The RTT timeout at the TCP/IP layer caused by packet loss at the CN side
triggers congestion avoidance.

Principle description:
TCP provides the reliable transport layer. One of the methods that TCP
uses is acknowledging the data received from the other peer, however,
data and acknowledgment may be lost. TCP solves the problem by
starting a timer when it starts transmitting data. If no acknowledgment
is received when the timer expires, TCP retransmits the data.
The TCP sender measures the RTT of a connection (measures the RTT
from when it transmits a byte with a special sequence number to when it
receives an acknowledgment containing this byte) to maintain an RTT
timer.

If the RTT timer expires, TCP considers that a network congestion


occurs and triggers the congestion avoidance mechanism. As a result,
the data transmission rate is affected.
IP packet loss on the CN side causes the RTT timeout.

Observation method:
Start Ethereal on the portable PC attached with a data card to capture
TCP data packets, and then analyze the captured packets. Check
whether the receiver sends repeated acknowledgment packets.

Solution:
Check segment by segment to confirm that the problem lies in the RAN
or the CN.
Packet loss may happen on the Iu-PS interface, interface between the
SGSN and the GGSN, and interface between the GGSN and the
receiver.

The RTT timeout at the TCP/IP layer caused by the convergence failure of the
downlink BLER triggers congestion avoidance.

Principle description:
TCP provides the reliable transport layer. One of the methods that TCP
uses is the acknowledgment to the data received from the other peer.
However, data and acknowledgment may be lost. TCP solves the
problem by starting a timer when data transmission begins. If no
acknowledgment is received when the timer expires, TCP retransmits
the data.
The TCP sender measures the RTT of a connection (measures the RTT
from when it transmits a byte with a special sequence number to when it
receives an acknowledgment containing this byte) to maintain an RTT
timer.
If the RTT timer expires, TCP considers that a network congestion
occurs and triggers the congestion avoidance mechanism. As a result,
the data transmission rate is affected.
IP packet loss on the CN side causes the RTT timeout.

Observation method:
If the downlink bearer is a DCH,
Step 1: Check the convergence of the downlink BLER on the RNC
LMT.
Often, you are unable to observe the downlink BLER and the terminal
does not report the downlink BLER. In this case, you need to use a
terminal tool to observe the downlink BLER.
Step 2: Observe whether the downlink transmit power is limited and
confirm the causes for the downlink BLER convergence failure.

If the downlink bearer is an HSDPA,


Observe the downlink SBLER and the residual BLER through the
Probe.

Solution:
If the downlink transmit power is limited, analyze the cause (a long
distance from the NodeB) and determine a solution according to the
cause.
If the downlink transmit power is not limited but the downlink outer
loop power control does not converge, the power control performance
of the terminal is not ideal. In this case, you can use another type of
terminal to perform a test.

Too small a downlink TCP/IP reverse bandwidth causes a large RTT delay.

Principle description:
TCP provides a reliable transport layer. One of the methods that TCP
uses is acknowledging the data received from the other peer. However,
data and acknowledgment may be lost. TCP solves the problem by
starting a timer when data transmission begins. If no acknowledgment is
received when the timer expires, TCP retransmits the data.
The TCP sender measures the RTT of a connection (measures the RTT
from when it transmits a byte with a special sequence number to when it
receives an acknowledgment containing this byte) to maintain an RTT
timer.
If the RTT timer expires, TCP considers that a network congestion
occurs and triggers the congestion avoidance mechanism. As a result,
the data transmission rate is affected.
IP packet loss on the CN side causes the RTT timer expiration.

Observation method:
Step 1: Check the downlink rate of the service through the RAB
Assignment Request message.
Step 2: When the downlink channel is a DCH, check the actual
downlink bandwidth through the RB SETUP message. When the
downlink channel is an HSDPA channel, combine the available
bandwidth on the Iub interface to determine the bandwidth that is
currently available.
Step 3: Query the subscription rate in the HLR. The minimum downlink
subscription rate of the HSUPA is recommended to be no less than 128
kbit/s.
Step 4: Check whether the AT command is run on the portable test PC
to specify a downlink rate.

Solution:

If the subscription rate is too low, change the subscription rate or use
the AT command to ensure that the downlink rate matches the uplink
rate.
If the subscription rate is reasonable but the actual RB rate is low, locate
the problem from the RAN side. Usually, network resource congestion
causes an RB rate increase failure.

6. Analyzing Poor Performance of


Data Transfer at CN Side
5.3.6 shows the flow for analyzing poor performance of data transfer at CN side.

1.

Flow for analyzing poor


performance of data
transfer at CN side

NE Alarms
At CN side, analyze the alarms on SGSN, GGSN, LAN switch, router, and firewall (collecting SGSN
and GGSN alarms as key task). Clock alarms and transport code error alarms may lead to fluctuation
of PS data.

Package lose on CN side result in TCP/IP layer RTT overtime


touch off congestion avoidance
TCP apply credible transmit layer. One method is to affirm the data which receive from the other side.
But data and affirmance may lose . TCP transit set a timer in the send time to solve the problem. When
the timer overflow , it dont receive affirm message, it will retransmission data.
TCP send point will be a measure to a connect RTT. Maintain a RTT timer.

If it measure RTT overtime , TCP think net congestion , it will start-up congestion avoidance.
Consequently, it will affect data transmit rate.
IP package lose on CN side will make RTT overtime.

Environment Problems
The rate is relevant to PC, OS, and applications. The internal algorithm of software at different
application layer and TCP parameters of OS have great impact on performance. If other conditions are
the same, the rate of data transfer on Windows 2000 computer is superior to that on Windows 98
computer. Therefore, it is recommended to use Windows 2000 Professional and Windows 2000 server
as the OS of PCs and servers.
Now the laptops are installed with Windows XP, so there is no problem concerning perform due to
OS. Anyhow, the servers must be installed with Windows 2000 server, because Windows XP will
affect the performance of data transfer.
The PC (laptop) for being daemon of UE must be of good performance. Tests prove that IBM laptops
have good performance in playing VODs. Now Huawei RNP engineers use the new laptops of D
Corporation, which have worst performance in data transfer of HSDPA test than the new ones of H
Corporation.
If the utilization CPU being daemon of UE is 100%, the TCP/IP receiver window is full. As a result,
the performance of data transfer is affected.
The performance of servers may affect service effect, which must be considered.

TCP Receiving and Sending Window


For the services (such as VOD and FTP) using TCP protocol, the TCP window size of test laptop
(client) and server have great impact on performance of services. Set the window as large as possible
to guarantee good performance. Set the window of client and server in the same size, such as 64K.
For modification method, see the appendix.

Maximum Transmission Unit


If a data packet at IP layer is to be sent, and the data packet is larger than the maximum transmission
unit (MTU), the IP layer will divide the data packet to pieces. Each piece is smaller than MTU. Using
larger MTU and avoiding IP segment and reassembly helps to raise efficiency. MTU is usually smaller
than or equal to 1450.
Changing MTU includes changing the MTU of server and changing the MTU of test laptop. After PS
service connection setup, the service negotiates with the client. The MTU in use takes the smaller of
the two MTUs.
For modification, see the appendix.

Service-related Problems

FTP
Use the commercial FTP software, because the FTP software embedded in
Windows OS is of average performance. Download data with FTP in

binary. The multi-thread downloading software like FlashGet is


recommended.
If update rate is low , it can consider process multi-FTP transmission at the
same time, or use tools send fixed rate package to make sure whether the
bottom has a problem.

VOD
The software RealPlayer sets the maximum play rate to larger than 384
kbps. The buffer time must not be over long, and 3s is proper. Some
computers are installed with qualified video adapter, so the monitor jumps
some frames. Change the resolution to 800x600. If the problem is still
present, change the video adapter.

Net TV
When the rate of down-layer declines, the Net TV is difficult to restore.
Note this.

Video conference
Set the output rate of convergence TV smaller than the rate of down-layer;
otherwise, data packets will be dropped. Huawei conference video sets 64
kbps as step from 128 kbps. The recommended configuration is 320 kbps.
If the rate is over low, utilization rate of down-layer rate will be over low.
Otherwise, using the rate higher than 320 kbps, such as equal to or larger
than 384 kbps, leads to dropping data packets because the rate of downlayer cannot meet the requirements by application layer. As a result, the
performance of video conference declines. If a lightning sign appears on
the right upper corner of conference TV, there must be code error or packet
dropping during transmission.

HSDPA Subscribed Rate


In test, if the downlink throughput of HSDPA subscriber is only 384 kbps, 128 kbps, or 64kbps. By
check the HSDPA cell is set up exactly. After confirmation that the problem is not at RAN side, check
the HLR subscribed rate and subscribers' QoS parameters of SGSN and GGSN.

HLR
The APN and subscribed rate is changed in MOD GRPS of HLR. You can
set multiple APNs to a SIM card. Each APN matches a highest rate.
When the maximum rate is not restricted at UE side, the RAB assignment
request message sent by CN brings the subscribed rate.
If no resource, such as power resource and code resource, is restricted at
RNC side, the Activate PDP content Accept message of NAS signaling
brings the assigned rate to UE. Obtain the rate contained in the Activate
PDP content Accept message in Probe or other DT tools.

GGSN

Modify subscribers'' QoS parameters on GGSN. Set downlink bit rate and
downlink guaranteed rate as required. The default configuration is 384
kbps. The commands are as below:
SET QOS: MBRDNLK=2048, GBRDNLK=2048;
The previous command sets the downlink maximum rate to 2048 kbps. As
a result, the CN allows the downlink maximum rate of HSDPA to be 2
Mbps.

SGSN
Modify downlink maximum rate and downlink guaranteed rate of
subscriber by executing the command below:
SET 3GSM: MBRDNLK=151, GBRDNLK=151;
Set the maximum bandwidth to 151 (standing for 2 Mbps) by executing
the command SET 3GSM.

4.

Interruption of Data Transfer


1. Analzying DCH Interruption of
Data Transfer

Description: data transfer is interrupted for a period.


The possible causes include:

Call drop during data transfer

After the UE hands over 3G networks to 2G networks, it cannot perform data


transfer.

A state transition occurs. After the UE transits from CELL_DCH to


CELL_FACH and CELL_PCH, when restoring data transfer is necessary and
the resource for restoring data transfer is inadequate, the UE cannot restore to
CELL_DCH state. Therefore data transfer is affected.

Other causes, like interruption of data transfer.

Analyze the problem from alarms, signaling flow, and CHR.

1. Flow for analyzing


interruption of data
transfer

Alarms
Query the alarms on CN and RAN. Know the abnormalities in the operation of current system. Guide
to analyze and exclude problems. Some problem, such as interruption of data transfer, clock
asynchronization in some cells, and NE congestion, can be known from alarms.

Signaling Flow
Analyze signaling in details to locate interruption of data transfer. Check whether call drops, whether
the UE hands over from 3G networks to 2G networks, and whether state transits.
Collect signaling in several ways. Collect the signaling at UE side by using Probe and UE. Collect the
signaling at RNC side on RNC LMT. By comparison of two signaling flow, check whether messages
are lost at air interface. Based on analysis and CHR, engineers can locate the problem or obtain the
rough direction.

Call Drop
For call drop problems, see W-Handover and Call Drop Problem
Optimization Guide.

Channel State Transit


When the cell state transits to CCH, it cannot restore to CELL_DCH.
Check the abnormal information in CHR. If the downlink load is over
large by confirmation, or the bandwidth at Iub interface is congested, add
carriers or transport resources.

3G2G handover
If the data transfer is problematic after handover from a 3G network to a
2G network, the problem involves the cooperation of the two networks. If
the 2G network was constructed by partners, locating the problem will be
more difficult.
Try to set up PS services in the 2G network, and see whether it runs
normally. If the data transfer upon access to the 2G network is normal, but
the data transfer after handover from the 3G network to the 2G network is
abnormal, check the UE and the signaling flow at 3G and 2G NE side.
In terms of causes, defining a subscriber or inconsistent configuration of
authentication and encryption algorithm may lead to failed update of
routing area.
Take the case 6.2.10 Analysis of 3G-2G PS Handover Failure in a
Deployment. The 3G SGSN encryption algorithm is UEA1, but the partner
does not use encryption algorithm. When the UE hands over from the
encrypted 3G network to unencrypted 2G network, the 2G network does
not send a message to indicate UE to disable encryption algorithm, and the
encryption state of UE's message does not synchronize. As a result, when
the UE sends the RAU (routing area update) Complete message, the
network side fails to receive the message because the UE encrypts the
message but the network side does not.

2. Analyzing HSDPA Interruption of


Data Transfer
An RAB can be mapped on the HS-DSCH of only one cell, so SHO is unavailable on HS-DSCH. As a
result, data transfer is interrupted inevitably upon update of serving cell.
The SHO associated HSDPA serving cell update includes two aspects:

Intra-NodeB. In the same DSP of a NodeB, interruption of data transfer does


not occur because no data needs transiting from one MAC-hs buffer to
another MAC-hs buffer.

Inter-NodeB. When MAC-HS is reset, the NodeB drops original data in


buffer and restores the dropped data by RNC RLC retransmission. The
interruption of data transfer lasts for about 300ms.

During the inter-frequency and intra-frequency HHO associated HSDPA serving cell update, the
MAC-HS is reset, the NodeB drops original data in buffer and restores the dropped data by RNC RLC
retransmission. The interruption of data transfer also occurs.

During H2D SHO, intra-frequency HHO, inter-frequency HHO, D2H SHO, intra-frequency HHO,
and inter-frequency HHO, the interruption of data transfer also will occur.
During the handover between HSDPA and GPRS, data transfer will also be interrupted.
The interruption of data transfer includes two aspects:

The interruption of data transfer without update of serving cell or handover

Over long interruption of data transfer with update of serving cell or


handover

Interruption of data transfer without update of serving cell


or handover
The causes of interruption of data transfer without update of serving cell or handover includes:

Call drop or TRB reset occurs during data transfer

Other abnormalities, such as interruption of transport resource like Iub or


completing downloading data files.

Locate the problem by checking alarms, whether downloading is complete, and signaling flow.

Alarms
Query the alarms on CN and RAN. Know the abnormalities in the
operation of current system. Guide analyzing and identifying problems.
Some problem, such as interruption of data transfer, clock
asynchronization in some cells, and NE congestion, can be known from
alarms.

Whether downloading is complete


Data transfer is interrupted for a long time, so restoring it is impossible.
Check whether downloading the file by FTP is complete.

Signaling Flow
According to detailed analysis of RNC and UE signaling, judge whether
call drops upon interruption of data transfer, whether the H-H serving cell
is updated, and whether H2D or D2H handover occurs. If the interruption
of data transfer is caused by call drop, analyze the cause of call drop. For
details, see W-Handover and Call Drop Problem Optimization Guide.

Analysis of interruption time of data transfer


The following two methods help to take statistics of interruption time of data transfer:

Use Qualcomm QXDM and QCAT tool. The interval between dropping
packet at receiver and receiving current data is the interruption time of data
transfer.

Capture TCP/IP packets directly by using the software Ethereal. Analyze the
interval between TCP/IP.

1.

Interruption delay of
TCP displayed in
Ethereal

In 5.4.2, the data transfer is interrupted for two times, and the interruption delays are respectively
300ms and 300ms. Compare the TCP rate in Ethereal and the rate at application layer in Assistant, and
they must match. Therefore, obtain the update point of serving cell in Assistant.

6. Cases
About This Chapter
The following table lists the contents of this chapter.
Title

Description

6.1

Cases at RAN Side

6.2

Cases at CN Side

1.

Cases at RAN Side


1. Call Drop due to Subscriber
Congestion (Iub Resource
Restriction)

Description
In a project, there are abundant 3G UEs or data cards. The subscribers are test subscribers, so they
need not to pay. As a result, the traffic model in the area is special. The busy hour of traffic is around
23:00, when PS call drops.

Analysis
According to traffic statistics, the traffic in the cell is heavy. The bandwidth at Iub interface is 1 Mbps,
always fully used. If a UE keeps transferring data on line, the transferring is stable. If the subscriber
browses web pages without data transfer, the UE transits to idle mode to save resource according to
DCCC algorithm. When the UE needs to transfer data again, it must apply for resource again.
However, the resource may be used by other UEs, so no resource is assigned to it. As a result, the
connection fails. The subscriber feels that he/she is off line. It is difficult to reconnect to the network.
When other subscribers use less resource, the subscriber can succeed in dial to connect to the network.
The essence of the problem lies in that excessive subscribers use the resources, so the resource is
congested.
To solve this problem, use the methods below:

Reduce test subscribers

Add E1 bandwidth

2. Uplink PS64k Service Rate


Failing to Meet Acceptance
Requirements in a Test (Air
Interface Problem)
Description
For PS64k service, the acceptance contract prescribes that the actual average rate must be larger than
51 kbps, but the uplink rate is about 50 kbps in test.

Analysis
According to statistics of rate at RNC RLC layer, the maximum rate exceeds 64 kbps, and it fluctuates
sharply. As a result, the average rate at application layer displayed by the software FTP is low.
According to signaling tracing and statistics of uplink BLER, the uplink BLER is about 10%. As a
result, the rate at application layer fluctuates and the throughput declines.

Solution
Change the target uplink BLER to 6% or 1%. Change related power control parameter.
Setting different target BLER helps balance the performance of single UE and more UEs. According
to the information from other networks, different target BLER are set for different networks, but they
are small.
Note that setting target BLER is according to index of service type. The uplink and downlink
bandwidth are usually different, namely, the index of service type is different. Set target BLER after
confirming the index of service type.

3. Statistics and Analysis of Ping


Time Delay in Different Service
Types
Description
On SNSN, test the transfer delay of streaming and conversational service. CN test engineers feed back
that the transfer delay of conversational service cannot meet the protocol requirement. The test result
is that: the ping delay of conversational service is 230ms and that of streaming service is 109ms.
According to R5 TS23.107 requirement, the delay of conversational must be smaller than 100ms. The
delay in the test is 115ms (230ms/2), so it does not meet the requirement.

Analysis
In formal tests, the ping delay of conversational service is 230ms and that of streaming service is
109ms. The conversational service uses 8k/8k, and the streaming service uses 64k/128k. Their
bandwidth is different, so their delay is different.
According to R5 TS23.107 requirement, the delay of conversational must be smaller than 100ms. The
unidirectional delay from UE to Gi interface (UMTS bearer) is 100ms. The delay at RAN is 80ms.
The 80ms shall contain the delay at access layer of UE and exclude that of USB and PC. According to
test, the end-to-end delay is 115ms (230ms/2), so it does not meet the requirement.
It is almost certain that engineers cannot test with 8k/8k bandwidth whether the delay meets the
requirement, because the bandwidth is too small. The RNC of current version support PS
conversational service of 8k only. Now which service uses the type of PS conversational service is
unknown.
Test twice with Sony-Ericsson Z1010, because other UEs fail to support conversational service. After
the UE is activated, execute the command ping over firewall on GGSN through a laptop.

Activate the four 8k/8k services: background, interactive, streaming, and


conversational. Test the delay, and trace SGSN and RNC CDR.

Activate the three 64k/128k services: background, interactive, and streaming.


Test the delay, and trace SNSN and RNC CDR.

6.1.3 lists the delay test result of ping packet.

1.

Conv
ersat
ional

St
re
a
mi
ng

Int
er
ac
tiv
e

Delay test result


of ping packet
Bac
kgr
oun
d

8k/8k

275ms

258ms

293ms

307ms

64k/1
28k

121ms

134ms

131ms

In 8k/8k, the delay of each service is larger than 220ms. In 64k/128k, the delay is smaller. Therefore
the delay and bandwidth are relevant.
Execute the command ping by 32 bytes, and analyze as below:
In 8k/8k, execute the command ping by 32 bytes. It is 60 bytes including the IP head. The TTI of 8k is
40ms. Each TTI has a block. The TB size is 336 bits. As a result, executing the command ping by 32
bytes occurs on two TTIs, namely, 80ms. The downlink is similar.
The uplink and downlink must stagger a TTI. Assume that the processing at nodes and interface goes
infinitely fast. To the air interface and from the air interface take 200ms (5*40 ms).
In addition, a PC always sends data about MSN, HTTP protocols. If the PC sends other packet during
sending ping data, the ping command has to wait. Therefore, 8k bandwidth is over small.
In 64k/128k, execute the command ping by 32 bytes. It is 60 bytes including the IP head. The TTI of
128k is 20ms. Each TTI has 8 blocks. The TB size is 336 bits. As a result, executing the
command ping by 32 bytes occurs on a TTI, namely, 20ms. The downlink is similar.
The uplink and downlink must stagger a TTI. Assume that the processing at nodes and interface goes
infinitely fast. To the air interface and from the air interface take 60ms (3*20 ms). Adding this to CN
cost and laptop cost makes more than 100ms.
Execute the command ping by 8 bytes on conversational service. After on-site verification, the test is
consistent with prediction.
Analyze the parts of total delay from laptop, to UE, to NodeB, to RNC, to CN, and to server. Analyze
the factors that affect delay in each part. This helps locate delay problems.
Compared with 8k/8k streaming service, the typical parameters of 8k/8k conversational service must
be optimized.

4. Low Rate of HSDPA Data


Transfer due to Over Low Pilot
Power

Description
In an HSDPA live demonstration, when the commissioning is complete, the rate of HSDPA service is
as low as half of standard rate, and the retransmission rate is high.

Analysis
On-site NodeB engineers have demonstrated the service in laboratory, and the rate is normal, 1400
kbps. They use big antenna and lower the power on site to cover the sites of the operator. After this,
the Ec is 50 dBm, and Ec/Io is 3 dB. Namely, the coverage is qualified. In the on-site test, after
starting downloading data, the Ec/Io deteriorates sharply. According to QXDM tracing, the
transmission rate is 100% (engineers doubt that the problem is caused by interference and improper
installation of antenna, but the cause is not them according to frequency sweep and SITEMASTER
test). As a result, engineers doubt that the transmission on the interface board of NodeB and trunk are
faulty. After changing the interface board and trunk, the problem is still present.
Test with PS384k service, the result is normal. According to causes of problem, the HSDPA feature
leads to weak Ec/Io, as a result, the BLER and retransmission rate are high. At the beginning of test, to
reduce radiation, engineers lower the pilot power. However, the HSDPA network distribute power
according to amount of data as its feature, so the network distributes high power (near 35 dBm) to
TCH upon downloading. As a result, the Ec/Io declines, which consequently causes decline of
demodulation performance and increment of retransmission rate. Raise the pilot power, and then the
transmission rate is normal. The problem is solved.

Solution
Raise the pilot power from 23 dBm to 33 dBm, and the transmission rate will be normal.

Suggestions and Summary


As a habit of test, engineers will lower pilot power and then perform test. However, due to new
features of HSDPA, lowering pilot power leads to new problems.
Lower the pilot power and HSDPA power in the following tests, such as by using attenuator.

5. Unstable HSDPA Rate due to


Overhigh Receiving Power of
Data Card
Description
On HBBU, activate HSDPA service, and the retransmission rate is high. The BLER of data sent at the
first time is about 60%, the residual BLER is 5%. The downloading rate is low, and the rate fluctuates
sharply.

Analysis
Once the on-site engineers download data, the CQI fluctuates sharply and frequently between 15 and
26. The rate fluctuates between 100 kbps and 600 kbps.
The load of HSDPA fluctuates sharply between 3% and 24%. This must be relevant to downloading
rate.

No FP packet is missing. No packet is missing because the queue is full. In the scheduling period,
abundant DTXs exist according to NodeB, with few NACK messages.
According to check, the receiving power of data card is as high as 45 dBm, exceeding the normal
range (55 dBm to 85 dBm). The signals are strong, and the attenuation is inadequate, so the
measured CQI is inaccurate.

Solution
Add an attenuator at the antenna port, and keep the receiving power at about 70 dBm. After this, the
problem of frequently fluctuation, as well as the BLER problem, is solved.

6. Decline of Total Throughput in


Cell due to AAL2PATH Bandwidth
larger than Actual Physical
Bandwidth
The WCDMA network runs normally. The admission of the cell to be measured is disabled. The cell is
unloaded. The neighbor cells are disabled. The HSDPA cell is successfully set up. The power is
dynamically distributed. HSDPA uses 5 codes. The MAC-HS scheduling algorithm uses PF. There is
one HS-SCCH. The cell uses 8 E1's. One of them uses UNI method, and the rest 7 E1's use the IMA
group method. The IMA group bears HSDPAAAL2 PATH. The UNI bears the
NCP/CCP/ALCAP/R99 AAL2 PATH at other Iub interfaces.
Select a good test point (CPICH RSCP is about 70 dB, Ec/Io is above 6 dB, and the fluctuation is
stable). Connect 6 HSDPA UEs one by one to the network. The PS service is activated on UE. The
RAN bears PS service on HS-DSCH. Download with FTP, and record the peak throughput of cell.
Disconnect the E1 link of IMA group one by one manually while connect 6 subscribers one by one to
the network. Record the total peak throughput of cell after one subscriber accesses the network.
Draw a curve chart with the recorded peak throughput of cell at every point, as shown in Figure 6-1
and Figure 6-2.

1.

Variation of total
throughput of one IMA
link of HSDPA codes

2. Variation of total
throughput of two IMA
links of HSDPA codes

In Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2, the throughput of one E1 is lower than the throughput of two E1's.

Analysis
The cell uses 5 HSDPA codes, and class-12 UE. The maximum throughput at MAC layer of cell is
1.72 Mbps. The SBLER is 10%, so the throughput at MAC layer of cell is about 1.55 Mbps. In Figure
6-2, the measured throughput of cell is consistent with the theoretical rate, but in Figure 6-1, the
throughput of cell declines.
Check the Iub bandwidth. The AAL2PATH bandwidth is 10 Mbps, but the physical bandwidth is
about 1.9 Mbps with one E1, and 2.8 Mbps with 2 E1's. Obviously, the NodeB flow control does not

consider the variation of physical bandwidth, but allocates bandwidth according to configured
AAL2PATH bandwidth.
The throughput of cell with 2 E1's is not affected by physical bandwidth. This must be analyzed in
terms of flow control at NodeB Iub interface. The Node flow control allocates bandwidth for each
subscriber according to the data amount in NodeB buffer, the data amount of RNC RLC buffer, and
the rate at the air interface.
The Iub flow control allocates bandwidth for subscribers that the maximum allocated bandwidth is
twice of the rate at the air interface. According to previous analysis, the twice of the rate at the air
interface is 3.4 Mbps at most, not exceeding the physical bandwidth of 2 E1's. As a result, the rate of
air interface is not affected when there are 2 E1's. When there is 1 E1, the twice of the rate at the air
interface exceeds the physical bandwidth of 1 E1. As a result, data packets are missing at Iub
interface, and the rate of subscribers is affected.

Solution
Change the AAL2PATH of HSDPA to 1.9 Mbps when there is one E1. Test again, and the rate of
subscribers is about 1.5 Mbps.
In actual networks, guarantee that the AAL2PATH allocated bandwidth to HSDPA is smaller than the
physical bandwidth at Iub interface. This will affect throughput of cell. Meanwhile, check NodeB
alarms whether there are E1 fault alarms.

7. Causes for an Exceptional UE


Throughput and Location Method
in a Field Test
Factors Affecting the HSUPA Uplink Throughput
The uplink throughput of the HSUPA is affected by the following three factors:

Maximum transmit power provided by the UE for uplink packet access


(UPA)

SG that the UE obtains, which indicates the maximum power that the NodeB
allows the UE to transmit

Percentage of the data to be transmitted to the buffer, which indicates the size
of data that the UE needs to transmit

These factors are represented by corresponding parameters in the QXDM and Probe tools accordingly.

In the Probe, the following limited rates are displayed in the HSUPA Link
Statistics window to represent these factors.

Power Limited Rate

SG Limited Rate

Buffer Limited Rate


The highest limited rate indicates that it is the major factor affecting the
uplink transmission rate of the UE. The measurement period of the Probe

is long. These three limited rates are measured within a measurement


period of 200 ms.

In each TTI in the data packets recorded by the QXDM, the Payload Reason
option is recorded. This option indicates the three factors for the limited
server payload: MAX power, SG, and buffer occupancy (that is, whether data
lacks or not).

In the figure below, MP in the Reas column indicates the transmission rate of
the UE is currently subject to the maximum transmit power.

In the figure below, BO in the Reas column indicates that the UE current has
no data to send.

During tests, if the throughput of the UE is abnormal (for example, low or


fluctuates greatly), you can query the previous parameters to determine the
cause.

Low UL Rate Caused by the Limited Rate of the Buffer to


Which the UE Sends Data Through FTP

Location method: The Buffer Limit Rate observed in the HSUPA Link
Statistics window of the Probe is high, approximate to 100%. BO is all
displayed in the Reas column of all packets captured by the QXDM.

Solution: When the UE uploads data through FTP, the displayed cause for the
buffer limited rate is that the vacancy of the Buffer on the UE side is high
because the application layer sends data to the RLC layer at a low rate. After
the UE is connected to another portable PC, the uplink transmission of UE is
normal. Then, a comparison is made and it is found that the version of the UE
drive on the portable PC is old. After the drive is updated, the uplink
transmission rate is improved. The records on the Probe and the QXDM are
observed later. It is found that no buffer limit exists.

It is also found that different configurations on the portable PC and different


types of portable PCs affect the uplink throughput to different extents. For
example, the uplink throughput tested by an HP portable PC is slightly higher
than that tested by a Dell portable PC. The larger the memory in the portable
PC is, the smaller the buffer limit is.

Low Uplink Transmission Rate Owing to Limited UE SG


Caused by Limited Cell Load

Location method: The SG limited rate observed in the HSUPA Link Statistics
window on the Probe is very high. SG is displayed in the Reas column in
most captured packets but the current SG does not reach the maximum value.
The maximum value in HSUPA phase1 of E270 (cat3) is 23.

Symptom and cause: If the cell load is limited, you often see that the cellload
value reaches 1023 (maximum value) when you observe the cell load
information on the NodeB debugging console. In addition, you can find that
the RTWP of the cell is increased greatly to 90 dBm or so. There are many
causes for cell load increase. For example, when multiple UEs
simultaneously upload data, the RTWP is increased. It is found during the test
that the SIR of some UEs is not converged and leads to exceptional rise in the
transmit power of another UE. As a result, the cell load also increases
exceptionally and the other UEs cannot transmit data normally.

Solution: When the cell load (or RTWP) is high, first stop the uploading
service of all UEs in the cell and observe the RTWP in the cell to determine
whether the RTWP increase is caused by the UEs in the cell or other
interference. After other interference is removed, test the RTWP increase in
the cell when only one UE uploads data. If the RTWP in the cell is increased
exceptionally, the problem is caused by the UE.

2.

Cases at CN Side
1. Low FTP Downloading Rate due
to Over Small TCP Window on
Server TCP

Description
Activate uplink 64 kbps and downlink 384 kbps services on UE and laptop. Download data from the
servers of operator with CUTEFTP. The average downloading rate of UE is 33 kbps, much lower than
384 kbps. The average rate at FTP application layer is about 28 kbps.

Analysis
Activate uplink 64 kbps and downlink 128 kbps services, and download data. Engineers obtain the
required rate. However, after activating 384 kbps, the maximum rate cannot be reached. Try to
connect the UE to Huawei web server (the GGSN Gi interface <-> Lanswitch <-> NE08 <-> Internet
<-> Server of operator. The <-> used here means connection between two network elements (NEs).
Huawei web servers connect to Lanswitch by Gi interface. The address of web server and the address
of GGSN Gi interface share the same network segment).
The downloading rate reaches 47 kbps. After engineers connect UE to the server of operator, the
downloading rate is 30 kbps, far from the required rate. After engineers activate PS service from
Huawei SGSN to the GGSN of other vendors (such as N), the rate is about 30 kbps after visiting the
server of operator by N's GGSN. Therefore, the problem must not be due to system. Probably the
operator restricts the rate on the server, so the downlink 384 kbps is unavailable.
Capture packets on Gn and Gi interface, and UE by Sniffer. According to analysis of packet capture,
the TCP at the FTP server of operator restricts the sending window (the TCP window of the operator's
host server is 63136, but probably the software at application layer restricts the sending window.
According to the analysis below, the sending window size of FTP on operator's server is about 8 kbps,
much smaller than 64 kbps).
According to the basic regulations of data packet at Gi interface,

FTP server to client: After sending 6 TCP packets (4 * 1500 + 2 *1190), the
server stops sending, and 6 packets must be confirmed.
The FTP server receives an ACK message. After the FTP server and client
confirm two TCP packets, the server stops sending. There are 4 packets to
be confirmed.
The FTP server receives an ACK message again. After the FTP server and
client confirm two TCP packets, the server sends three continuous TCP
packets (2 * 1500 + 1190). There are 5 packets to be confirmed.
The FTP server receives an ACK message again. After the FTP server and
client confirm two TCP packets. The server sends 3 continuous TCP
packets (2 * 1500 + 1190). There are 6 packets to be confirmed.

It goes back to the first step. A cycle forms.


The FTP server sends at most 8.4 kbyte (4 *1500 + 2 * 1190) packets to be confirmed. According to
the second step above, the sender needs to send 4 kbyte data continuously. Therefore, the FTP server
sets the TCP sending window to be smaller than 10 kbyte, and the TCP is optimized to send large
block data (over 4 kbytes). The actual TCP window is 7 kbytes on average for FTP server. Assume
that the round-trip delay is t mm, so the maximum available rate is (7 kbytes/t) * 8 kbps.
According to previous analysis, after activating PS service, do not transfer data. Execute ping to server
on UE, and check the delay at the air interface. In Huawei system, the average delay for ping packets
is 250ms. According to analysis, 7 kbps/0.25 = 28 kbps. Namely, the theoretical average rate at
application layer is 28 kbps. This theoretical value is the same as the actual value. Therefore, the
operator must have restricted the TCP window at application layer on the server, so the rate keeps low.

Solution

To increase rate, engineers must reduce the round-trip delay. When the delay
is smaller than 150ms, the rate can reach 384 kbps (7 kbps/0.15 = 46.7 kbps).
Actually reducing the delay at air interface is difficult. The Huawei delay at
air interface is about 250ms. Therefore, the rate cannot reach 284 kbps.

Download data with multiple threads tool, such as FlashGet and NetAnt.
Multiple TCP connects to the server, so the rate can increase. According to
test result, download data with more than two threads by using FlashGet or
NetAnt, the rate can reach 47 kbps.

Remove the restriction on sending window size of server, and set the sending
window size of server to 65535.

2. Simultaneous Uploading and


Downloading
Description
Activate uplink 64 kbps and downlink 384 kbps services on UE and laptop. Connect UE to the server
of operator, and upload and download data with FTP simultaneous. Wherein, the downloading rate is
greatly affected, and fluctuates sharply. The average downloading rate declines from 47 kbyte to 20
kbyte. However, downloading and uploading respectively are available.

Analysis
Uploading and downloading simultaneously affect the ACK delay of TCP. This leads to prolonged
delay upon confirmation, and the TCP window size is inadequate. Execute the ping command upon
for confirming delay upon simultaneous uploading and downloading. Obtain the maximum supported
rate with the TCP window size/delay.
According to the analysis of the second problem, the TCP window size of operator's server is about
8.4 kbyte (the operator may use the FTP software Serv-U. Its default sending and receiving buffer is
8293 bytes). Upon simultaneous uploading and downloading, check the ping packet delay by
executing the command ping to the server. The ping packet delay is about 1500ms, 8.4/1.4 = 6 kbyte.

The previous two paragraphs describe the case of single thread. Start 3 threads and the theoretical rate
should be 18 KB/s (6 * 3 = 18). According to actual test, download data with 3 threads by using
FlashGet from the operator's server, and upload data with CuteFTP simultaneously. The average
sending and receiving rate of UE is 17.9 KB/s in downlink and 7.2 KB/s in uplink. The downlink rate
is approximately equal to theoretical value.
Namely, when the UE sends data in uplink, the delay increases sharply, so is the uplink response delay
to the ACK message. As a result, the TCP judges it as congestion, so the rate declines. This explains
that uploading and downloading respectively are available but simultaneous uploading and
downloading lead to decline of downlink rate.

Solution
According to previous analysis, increasing TCP window size of server leads to increasing downlink
theoretical rate. Actually, when using Huawei servers for test, set the TCP window size to 65535,
download with three threads by using FlashGet. Simultaneously upload data with CuteFTP. The
average sending and receiving rate is 46.5 KB/s in downlink and 6 KB/s in uplink.
Download data with multiple threads. According to test, download data with 10 threads from
operator's server when the TCP window size is 8192. The average sending and receiving rate is 42
KB/s in downlink and 6 KB/s in uplink. The data transfer is unstable with jitters.
Send the ACK message in downlink data packets, and sends uplink data packets at a fixed rate.
Restrict the uplink rate so that the uplink data packets will not be blocked at the air interface and the
delay at the air interface will not increase, and there is no jitter. Obviously, the decline of downlink
rate upon uplink and downlink data transfer is not due to Huawei system, and this problem cannot be
mitigated by this solution. This is a defect of TCP/IP protocol used in radio transmission. It is good to
combine the UE and the driver of wireless Modem to carry out the solution.

3. Decline of Downloading Rate of


Multiple UEs
Description
Activate 6 UEs with downlink 384k service, and connect them to the operator's server simultaneously.
Download data with FTP, and the rate declines to 30 KB/s.

Analysis
Download data on one UE by FTP from operator's server, and the rate is as normal as above 47 KB/s.
Download data on two UEs, and then on three. The downloading rate keeps at about 47 KB/s with 4
UEs connected at most. When the fifth UE connects to the server, the rate declines. Try on site as
below:

Download data with four UEs from the operator's server, and with two UEs
from Huawei servers. Check whether the rate is faulty.
As a result, the downloading rate of 6 UEs reaches 47 KB/s.
Probably, the operator's server does not well cooperate with Huawei
networks.
Download data with six UEs from Huawei servers. Check whether the rate is
faulty.

Huawei servers cooperate well with Huawei networks. Probably the


operator's server does not well cooperate with Huawei networks.
The difference between the operator's server and Huawei server lies in the
router and firewall over the operator's server. Try to avoid the impact from
firewall and router, and check whether the rate increases.
Connect the Gi interface of GGSN to NE08 directly, and download data
with UE from the operator's server. Check whether the rate increases. The
result proves that the rate remains the same.
Therefore, the firewall has no impact on the rate.
Download data with six UEs from Huawei servers, and there is no problem.
Connect Huawei server to NE08 port to replace the operator's server for
test, and check whether the rate is faulty.
As a result, the downloading rate of six UEs reaches above 47 KB/s.
Therefore, the router is normal.
Connect a laptop to Gi interface. Download data with 4 UEs and with a laptop
simultaneously, and check whether their downloadings affect each other.
Tests prove that they seldom affect each other. The rate of some UEs
declines a little, and that of some UEs are seldom affected. The rate of
downloading data directly by laptop is 388 KB/s (single thread) or 1000
KB/s (three threads).
The export bandwidth to the operator's server is enough, so decline of rate
must not be due to bandwidth used for downloading data by multiple UEs
simultaneously.
After previous verifications, the peripheral equipment problems are excluded,
so probably the problem lies in the cooperation between the operator's
server and Huawei network. The major differences between Huawei server
and the operator server lie in two aspects: MTU and TcpWindowSize. Still
on Huawei Server, modify the two parameters for verification:
The configuration in the regedit on server is MTU 1450, and
TcpWindowSize is 65535. Activate six UEs simultaneously, and the rate is
as stable as above 47 KB/s.
Keep the MTU of web server at 1450. Modify the TcpWindowSize in
regedit to 10 KB (10240). After restart, the rate of simultaneous rate by six
UEs keeps above 47 KB/s.
Delete the MTU from the regedit of web server (use the default value
1500). Keep TcpWindowSize at 65535. After restart, the rate of six UEs
declines sharply (2030 KB/s). The downloading rate of three UEs keeps
at 47 KB/s until the fourth UE joins.
Therefore, when the MTU is the default value 1500, the rate of
simultaneous downloading by multiple UEs declines. According to the
packets captured by Sniffer, the MTU on the operator's server is the default
value 1500.
According to analysis, when the MTU is 1500, due to the TCP header
encapsulated along the path, the data packet is over long when the

downlink data packet reaches SGSN. Before sending data packet to RNC,
the SGSN must fragment and reassemble the packet. The current SGSN
transfers data by using software, so it starts flow control to protect main
controller. As a result, the downlink rate declines upon fragment and
reassembly.
Solution:

Set the MTU of the operator's server to 1450 (if fragment is unnecessary,
MTU should be as large as possible. According to test, 1450 is improper).

Set the MTU of laptops connected to UE to 1450 (you must change the MTU
at USB port of laptops) so that the SGSN will not start fragment and
reassembly.
Since it is impossible to modify MTU of the operator's server, solve the
problem by using the second method. For how to TCP parameters in
Windows, see the appendix.

4. Unstable PS Rate (Loss of IP


Packets)
Description
On-site engineers feed back that the data transfer fluctuates at the beginning every morning. Facts
prove this right upon downloading. Figure 6-3 and Figure 6-4 show unstable PS rate.

1.

Unstable PS rate (1)

2.

Unstable PS rate (2)

Analysis
Figure 6-5 shows analyzing packets captured by Ethereal upon unstable PS rate.

3.

Analyzing packets
captured by Ethereal
upon unstable PS rate

The messages at IP layer mean as below;

499 SN: 436540---next seq = 438000

500: ACK

501 SN: 439460---next seq = 440920

515: ACK. It needs a SN of 438000. This means that the frame 499 is
missing, so the TCP layer keeps resending it.

Check the cable at Gi interface. After engineers pulling the cable out and plugging it in, the problem is
solved. The problem does not occur in the following tracing period.

5. Unstable PS Rate of Single


Thread in Commercial
Deployment (Loss of IP Packets)

Description
After the commercial network is launched, the rate of 384 kbps service is unstable. It cannot reach the
required rate, and even keeps at several dozen kbps.

Analysis
Probably the problem is caused by loss of data packets and delay. After capturing packets by segment,
the cause proves on the firewall.
After repeated tests, the Up/Down and CRC Error occur frequently at the firewall 2 interface 2/2.
After another 3 hours' test, the cable between the firewall 2 interface 2/2 and LS12 must not be
physically broken, and CRC error must be due to improper installation of fiber.
A faulty firewall leads to loss of packets at the application layer, which has great impact on rate.
When the firewall is normal, the PS rate increases greatly. However, the rate is still unstable.
According to further analysis, the BLER at the air interface is 10%, so it is normal for PS rate to
fluctuate at the air interface. After engineers modify the BLER to 1%, the problem is solved.
However, the cost is more consumption of power at the air interface and impact on capacity.

6. Unavailable Streaming Service


for a Subscriber
Description
A subscriber cannot use streaming service in a deployment.

Analysis
The subscriber can browse the portal websites, but cannot use streaming service. Meanwhile other
subscribers can use streaming service. Therefore, the PS service bearer is normal, and the cause
cannot be on RAN, SGSN, and GGSN. Probably the UE, USIM card, and server are faulty. According
to further analysis, the problem must be on the USIM card, and the subscriber did not pay for using
streaming service. The subscriber can browse the free portal websites.

7. Unavailable PS Services due to


Firewall of Laptop
Description
A subscriber cannot use PS services with Nokia 7600 connected to his laptop.

Analysis
The subscriber feed back that other subscribers can use PS services with his card. He could use PS
service until one day recently. Therefore, the problem is about the laptop. The problem does not occur
after he changes the laptop. According to check, the subscriber has installed a firewall on his laptop
recently. After uninstalling the firewall, he can use PS services again.

8. Low PS Service Rate in


Presentation Occasion
Description
The rate of PS downlink 384k service is low in presentation.

Analysis
After numerous tests and analysis, the problem must be at RAN. After engineers analyze to detailed
subscriber signaling, data statistics at subscriber plane, the quality of signals at the air interface, and
loss of packets at Iub interface, the problem is still present. It is difficult. RNP engineers check the
signals on site, and the signals are qualified. After using the laptop of an RNP engineer, the data
transfer of PS service is normal. According to further analysis, the problem lies in the driver of public
laptop used in presentation. After engineers change the laptop, the problem is solved.

9. Abnormal Ending after Longtime Data Transfer by FTP


Description
An operator's engineer feed back that the downloading cannot be ended normally when it lasts for
over 10 minutes with Huawei 3G network. The downloading is normal with other operators' networks
or 2G networks.

Analysis
According to analysis of FTP messages captured by Ethereal, the data session of FTP is over, but it
misses the last interactive completion process, and no messages like 221-Goodbye is found. The
downloaded files can be opened.
After the files are downloaded, they can be opened according to check.
Figure 6-6 shows the interactive interface in CuteFTP.

1.

To describe the problem, compare the messages as below:


Figure 6-7 shows the signaling of normal downloading by FTP.

Interactive interface in
CuteFTP

2.

Figure 6-8 shows the signaling of abnormal downloading by FTP.

Signaling of normal
downloading by FTP

3.

Signaling of abnormal
downloading by FTP

According to comparison of previous two figures, there are differences.


Activate UL64k/DL 32k service, and download data with Qualcomm 6250, and capture packets on
RNC and SGSN.
Download a 3.5 Mb file with the operator's FTP, and it takes 12 minutes. The problem is still present.
Download a 3.5 Mb file with the Windows FTP command, and it takes 30 minutes. After downloading
is complete, quit the FTP by typing bye. The problem is still present. Maybe the Outlook is
transferring data in daemon during data transfer, so there may be impact. After the transfer is
complete, the transfer is abnormally disconnected after a long time.
Download a 0.4 Mb file with the Windows FTP command, and it takes 2 minutes. Quit the FTP by
typing bye. The problem is not present.
Download a 0.4 Mb file with the operator's FTP, and it takes 2 minutes. The problem is not present.
Perform the same operations as the second step. Disconnect the downloading by Outlook in daemon.
The result is the same as the second step. See the following print.
----End
According to previous operations, the downloading is relevant to time, not the file size. Based on
analysis of massive data, the data transfer by FTP is normal, the downloaded content is correct and
available, but the signaling is abnormally closed.

Without other better method, the method of exchanging NEs and segment is used.

Check whether the problem is about UE and server.


The problem is still present with verification by three UEs: Nokia 6630, Qualcomm 6250, and Moto
835. The problem is still present with verification by two servers: Eurotel FTP server and Huawei FTP
server. The problem is still present with verification by Huawei FTP server in UNIX operating system
and in Windows 2000 Professional FTP server.
Search for the configuration of FTP server, and no relevant configuration is found.
Conclusion: the problem is present with multiple UEs, operators, and Huawei FTP server, so the
problem is irrelevant to UEs and FTP server, but relevant to Huawei network.

Compare the tests in the 3G network, the 2G network, and the tests of
handover to the 2G network after access in the 3G network.
According to tests, the problem must be between GGSN and FTP server. This reduces the scope of
problem.
According to other tests, the problem does not occur when no firewall is over Huawei server. This
shows the cause. The problem does not reoccur due to no firewall.
According to data analysis, the data transfer at the FTP port is normal, but the signaling port is
disconnected after 10 minutes. This must be due to firewall. It is the firewall that can disconnect a port
without data transfer after 10 minutes, so the problem is due to firewall.
Processing the problem goes smoothly after focusing on the firewall. The expert on firewall explains
as below:
The FTP session includes two session tables on firewall. One is for FTP control channel, and the
default aging time is 10 minutes. The other is FTP data channel, and the default aging time is 4
minutes. The no detect ftp command is configured between domains, the data channel will not update
the aging time of control channel upon data transfer. As a result, the control channel is aging and
deleted after 10 minutes with the following phenomenon.
If the detect ftp command is configured, the data channel will update the aging time of control
channel. As a result, the problem does not occur.
The problem, in whole process, is irrelevant to RAN. However, the process and result of locating
problem is considerable.
Changing NEs in test is significantly useful.
The difficulty of problem may exceed engineers' consideration. It needs wide-range knowledge.
However, after the problem is solved, it seams easy.

10. Analysis of Failure in PS


Hanodver Between 3G Network
and 2G Network
Description
A test of handover between Huawei 3G network of trial deployment and the 2G network of a partner
is going in a deployment. The test UE is Huawei U626. When the UE hands over from the 3G network

to the 2G network in connection mode, it keeps being in PS connection, but it cannot transfer data
normally. When the UE hands over from the 2G network to the 3G network, it can transfer data
normally.

Analysis
The UE hands over between the 3G network and 2G network. The UE camps on 3G network, and has
activated PDP, in PMM Connected state. When the UE moves at the edge of 3G network coverage
areas, it starts handing over to 2G network. When the handover is complete, the PS user plane is
restores and can perform data transfer. However, the problem lies in that the UE cannot continue data
transfer.
Analyze traced signaling.
Figure 6-9 shows the signaling of normal handover between 3G network and 2G network.

1.

Signaling of normal
handover between 3G
network and 2G network

Check the 3G signaling LMT. During the handover from the 3G network to the 2G network, the
handover signaling is normal at 3G network side. After the UE sends the routing area update request
message to the 2G SGSN, the SGSN context and response flow between the 2G SGSN and 3G SGSN
is normal. Till now, the handover of 3G SGSN is complete. The next step is the signaling interaction
between the UE and the 2G SGSN, as shown in Figure 6-10:

2.

Normal signaling flow


between UE and 2G
SGSN.

Trace the signaling on the partner's 2G SGSN. It is found that the signaling interaction flow from 2G
SGSN to GGSN and that of HLR are complete. After the 2G SGSN sends UE the routing area update
request message, the UE must sends 2G SGSN the routing area update complete message according to
standard flow, which is not found in traced signaling. As a result, the 2G SGSN judges that the UE has
not completed the routing area update, so the UE cannot transfer data after handover to the 2G
network. However, the UE keeps being in connected mode after handover to 2G network, so the UE
judges that it has completed routing area update. This indicates that the problem lie between the UE
and SGSN.
Figure 6-11 shows the signaling flow traced on 2G SGSN.

3.

Signaling flow traced on


2G SGSN

Check the encryption state of 3G SGSN. The SGSN uses UEA1 as the encryption method, but the
serving 2G network uses no encryption method. When the UE hands over from the encryption in 3G
network to the non-encryption in 2G network, the 2G network fails to send the encryption and
authentication message, indicating UE to disable encryption state, and the encryption state of UE has
not synchronized with network side. As a result, the UE encrypted its messages upon sending RAU,
but the RAN side does not encrypt messages. Therefore, the RAN side fails to receive RAU result.

Solution
This problem concerns the partner's equipment at RAN side. It cannot be solved at UE side due to
restriction from protocols. Therefore, the solution is to set the encryption item to non-encryption so
that the messages sent by UE are not encrypted. As a result, the problem is mitigated.

Suggestion and Summary


The problem concerns the partner's equipment at RAN side. Not every type of UE meets the problem,
because the problem is just incidental. Therefore locate the problem based on signaling and analyze
the problem to obtain the correct result.

7. Summary
This document describe the access, disconnection of data transfer, low rate of data transfer, unstable
rate of data transfer, and interruption of data transfer. It provides the methods for analyzing and
processing these problems in terms of traffic statistics and DT/CQT. The experience from analyzing
problems in terms of traffic statistics is little, and will be supplemented.
In addition, the document details the flow for optimizing DCH bearer of data service and the flow for
optimizing HSDPA bearer of data service.
The used cases include abundant cases at CN side. Actually, analyzing problems or modifying
parameters at CN side must be processed by engineers at CN side. These CN cases just serve as
reference for analyzing problems.

8. Appendix
About This Chapter
The following table lists the contents of this chapter.
Title

Description

8.1

Transport Channel of PS Data

8.2

Theoretical Rates at Each Layer

8.3

Bearer Methods of PS Services

8.4

Method for Modifying TCP Receive Window

8.5

Method for Modifying MTU

8.6

Confirming APN and Rate in Activate PDP Context


Request Message

8.7

APN Effect

8.8

PS Tools

8.9

Analysis of PDP Activation

1.

Transport Channel of PS Data

8.1 shows the transport channel of PS data.

1.

Transport channel of PS
data

Wherein, the Gi interface connects to the application server, on which the FTP Server software is
running. Download data from the application server to UE (MS) through five interfaces: Gi, Gn, IuPS,
Iub, and Uu. The PS services use the AM mode of RLC, which supports retransmission. The services
like FTP and HTTP use TCP protocol, which also supports retransmission.
The parameters of these two protocols (RLC/TCP) have great impact on rate. If the parameters are
improper, or packet error or loss of packets occurs during transmission, the rate will decline. Evaluate
QoS based on that a computer with UE as its modem runs applications. This concerns the performance
of computers and servers.

2. Theoretical Rates at Each


Layer
8.2 shows the packet service data flow.

1.

Packet Service Data


Flow

Observe different protocol layers, and there are different definitions of throughput, such as the
application layer throughput, RLC layer throughput, and MAC layer throughput.
Due to data packet header at each protocol layer, there is overhead. Except the physical layer, the
TCP/IP and RLC layer have high overhead. The typical PDU size and overhead at each layer are listed
as below.

1. TCP/IP Layer
Assume that the MTU is 1500 Bytes.
The TCP/UDP header overhead is 20 Bytes. The IP header overhead is 20 Bytes.
The TCP/UDP PDU size, namely, the payload at application layer, is 1460 Bytes, but the whole IP
packet size is 1500 Bytes.

2. RLC Layer

The RLC header overhead is 16 Bits.


The RLC PDU size is 336 Bits.
Assume that the rate at the application layer is 1 Bytes/s. if retransmission at each layer is not
considered, the corresponding rate at RLC layer is 1500/1460, namely, 1.027. The rate at MAC-d
layer is 1500/1460 * 336/320, namely, 1.079.

3. Retransmission Overhead
If the TCP layer retransmission (assume that the retransmission rate is r1) and RLC layer
retransmission are considered, the corresponding rate at RLC layer is 1500 * (1 + r1)/1460. The rate at
MAC-d layer is 1500 * (1 + r1)/1460 * (1 + r2) * 336/320.

4. MAC-HS Layer
If there is only one subscriber, without retransmission at MAC-HS layer, the rate at MAC-HS is
(scheduling transport block size TBs)/2ms, and the rate at MAC-d layer is 336 * (TBs/336s)/2ms.
In the DT tool Probe, with consideration of multiple subscriber scheduling and retransmission at
MAC-HS, there are three rate involved at MAC-HS layer: scheduled rate, served rate, and MAC layer
rate.
Served Rate = Scheduled Rate * HS-SCCH Success Rate
MAC Layer Rate = Served Rate * (1- SBLER)
Wherein, the HS-SCCH Success Rate is the success rate for receiving HS-SCCH data by a subscriber,
and SLBER is incorrect TB received at MAC-HS layer/total TBs received.

3.

Bearer Methods of PS Services

In Rel 4 and R99 protocol versions, data service is carried on DCH. If the data services are low in
traffic, it can also be carried on FACH.
When HSDPA is used in Rel 5, the data service can be carried on DCH or HSDPA. If the traffic is low,
the data service can be carried by FACH through state transition.
The following three paragraphs describe the method for RNC to judge whether a PS service is carried
by DCH or HSDPA in a cell supporting HSDPA.
Two parameters are relevant to the SET FRC command on RNC LMT: downlink streaming service
HSDPA threshold and downlink BE service HSDPA threshold.
Downlink streaming service HSDPA threshold indicates the rate judgment threshold of PS streaming
service carried on HS-DSCH. When the downlink maximum rate of PS streaming service is equal to
or larger than the threshold, the service can be carried on HS-DSCH. Otherwise, it is carried on DCH.
Downlink BE service HSDPA threshold indicates the rate judgment threshold of PS
background/interactive service carried on HS-DSCH. When the downlink maximum rate of PS
background/interactive service is larger than or equal to the threshold, the service can be carried on
HS-DSCH. Otherwise, it is carried on DCH.
The service is carried by from DCH or HSDPA to FACH through state transition.

1.DCH
The DCH bandwidth depends on the current power resource, code resource, and Iub bandwidth
resource. Typical rates include 8 kbps, 32 kbps, 64 kbps, 128 kbps, 144 kbps, and 384 kbps. The DCH
bandwidth is adjustable by algorithms like DCCC according to the current traffic and coverage
conditions, but the adjustment is limited to previous rates. In addition, the interval to trigger
adjustment is long. As a result, the adjustment is not frequent.

2.HSDPA
The network does not allocate fixed bandwidth or resources for the PS services carried by HSDPA,
but perform fast schedule every 2ms. Therefore, the throughput that a subscriber can reach depends on
abundant factors, such as:

UE category (capacity level)

Available code resource of HSDPA

Available power resource of HSDPA

Number of HSDPA subscribers

Scheduling algorithm

Radio environment

Therefore, the throughput of single PS service carried by HSDPA fluctuates more sharply than that
carried by DCH. However, HSDPA uses new technologies, such as fast schedule, HARQ, and
16QAM, so the utilization rate of resources is higher, and throughput of whole cell is higher.

3.CCH
FACH can carried PS services of low traffic, it can also bear broadcasting services like CMB.
FACH uses code resource of different SFs, so it support variable channel rate. This depends on the
need by broadcasting services like CMB.

4. Method for Modifying TCP


Receive Window
For the services (such as VOD and FTP) using TCP protocol, the TCP window size of test laptop
(client) and server have great impact on performance of service. To obtain better performance, set the
window size as large as possible, and set the window size of client and server to the same, such as
64K (65535).

1. Tool Modification
Run the DRTCP.exe attached in the appendix 8.8.1. For the running interface, see the method for
modifying MTU.
Change the TCP Receive Window, such as 65535.

2. Regedit Modification
Detailed operations are as below:
In Windows 2000,

In HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip,
add string: "TcpWindowSize"="65535"

In
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Pa
rameters, add double type value TcpWindowSize. Set it to 65535 or ffff (hex).

5.

Method for Modifying MTU

The MTU here is IP packet size. As shown in Figure 5-27, GGSN has two layer IP. The maximum IP
packet size is 1500 bytes. If a data packet at IP layer is to be transmitted, and the packet is larger than
MTU at IP layer after encapsulation, IP packet fragment is necessary. After fragment, each fragment is
smaller than the MTU at IP layer.
In terms of PS CN efficiency, avoid IP fragment and reassembly, and meanwhile use the MTU as large
as possible. The MTU is usually smaller than or equal to 1450 bytes. The data transmission rate of PS
CN is usually higher than the rate at air interface, so the MTU has little impact on the rate at air
interface. The default MTU in computers is 1500 bytes.
Modifying MTU includes modifying the MTU of server and modifying the MTU of test laptop. The
server and client will negotiate, so the actual MTU is the smaller one.
Modify MTU by using DRTCP tool or modifying Windows Register. The following sections detail the
operations.

1. Tool Modification
Run the DRTCP.exe attached in the appendix 8.8.1, with the running interface as shown in .

1. Running interface of
DRTCP

Server
Modify the MTU in Adapter Settings shown in Figure 8-6 , namely, the MTU at the network port.

Test Laptop
For test laptops, the UE is connected to it by data line and dial-up connection is set up. Data packets
are sent through USB port. As a result, modifying MTU of USB port is necessary, namely, the Dial
Up(RAS) MTU as shown in .
After modification, restart the Windows operating system.

2. Regedit Modification
Modifying MTU of server
Modify the MTU of network port on server.
In Windows 2000, in
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces\
{.........}\, add a double byte value, named mtu, with the value of 1450.

Modifying MTU of client


For activating UE and laptop, dial-up connection is used with data line. Data packets are sent through
USB port. Modify the MTU of USB on laptop as below:
In Windows 2000, in
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NdisWan\Parameters\Protocols\0
\, modify the ProtocolMTU to 1450.
After modification, restart the Windows operating system.

6. Confirming APN and Rate in


Activate PDP Context Request
Message
When the UE originates data services, the QoS is sent to the system in Activate PDP Context Request
message. The message result is as shown in 8.6.

1.

1. Traffic Classes:

Detailed resolution of
Activate PDP Context
Request message

The traffic classes in an Activate PDP Context Request message include the following:
Traffic class,
0 0 0 Subscribed traffic class
0 0 1 Conversational class
0 1 0 Streaming class
0 1 1 Interactive class
1 0 0 Background class
1 1 1 Reserved
Among them, Subscribed traffic class is not determined by the UE, but determined by the core
network according to the subscription information of the UE.

2. Maximum Bit Rates and


Guaranteed Bit Rates
max bit rate up: Maximum uplink rate. In the preceding figure, the value of this field is 64, which
corresponds to 64 kbit/s.
max bit rate down: Maximum downlink rate. In the preceding figure, the value of this field is 104,
which corresponds to 384 kbit/s.
guar bit rate up: Guaranteed uplink bit rate. In the preceding figure, the value of this field is 0, which
means that there is no requirement for the guaranteed uplink bit rate.
guar bit rate down: Guaranteed downlink bit rate. In the preceding figure, the value of this field is 0,
which means that there is no requirement for the guaranteed downlink bit rate.
Rate conversion method stipulated in protocol 24.008:
x is the required original value of a rate in a message
If 0<x<64, the actual rate is x kbit/s.
If 128>x>=64, the actual rate is 64 + (x 64) * 8 kbit/s. In the preceding figure, the value of the max
bit rate down field is 104 and the maximum downlink bit rate is 384 kbit/s calculated according to the
conversion formula 64 + (104 64) *8.
If 255>x>=128, the actual rate is 576 + (x 128) * 64 kbit/s.
If x = 255, the actual rate is 0 kbit/s.

3.APN
The APN in the message is a character string in the ASCII format and cannot be read directly, as
shown in the figure below. You can use Ultra Edit to convert the ASCII codes into a character string.
Method of converting ASCII codes into a character string: Open the UltraEdit and create a file.
Click Edit and choose Hex Edit and enter the ASCII codes. Then you can see the character string of
the APN. In the figure below, the character string of the APN starts from the fourth bytes.

1. Converting ASCII codes


into a character string by
using the UltraEdit

Converting ASCII code to string in UltraEdit proceeds as below:

Run UltraEdit

Create a File

Select Edit > Hex Edit

Type the ASCII code of APN in the messages

You can see the APN string in Figure 8-8, it start at the fourth byte.

7.

APN Effect
1. Major Effect

In GPRS/WCDMA networks, APN has the following effects:

In GRPS/WCDMA backbone networks, APN identifies GGSN.

APN defines the external PDN that GGSN can connect to, such as ISP
networks, private networks, and enterprise intranets.

2. Method for Naming APN


APN consists the following two parts:

APN network identity


It defines the external networks that subscribers can connect to by the
GGSN. This part is compulsory. It is assigned to ISP or Huawei by
network operators, the same identity as the fixed Internet domain name.
For example, to define subscribers to connect to Huawei enterprise intranet
by the GGSN, the APN network identity must be huawei.com.

APN operator identity


It defines the GPRS/WCDMA backbone network. This part is optional.
For example, in a GPRS network, it could be xxx.yyy.gprs (such as
MNC.MCC.gprs), which identifies the PLMN network of GGSN.

APN network identity is saved in HLR as a subscribed data. When a UE originate packet services, it
provides APN for SGSN. APN is used by SGSN to select the GGSN to be connected and by GGSN to
judge the external networks to be connected. In addition, HLR can save a wildcard. In this way, the
MS or SGSN can select an APN that is not saved in HLR.
Subscribers select GGSN by different APNs. Namely, subscribers can activate multiple PDP context,
and each PDP context is related to an APN. Subscribers select different APNs to connect to different
external networks through different GGSNs.

3. APN Configuration
Before configuring APN on GGSN9811, the PDN that can be visited by subscribers must be clearly
known. Set different APNs to different PDNs. For example, the GGSN9811 allows a subscriber to
visit Internet through an ISP and an enterprise intranet simultaneously, and two APNs must be set up
on GGSN9811: one for visiting Internet, and the other for visiting the enterprise intranet.

8.

PS Tools
1. TCP Receive Window and MTU
Modification Tools

Modify TCP receive window and MTU with the following tool:

For the detailed method, see the appendix 8.4 and 8.5.

2. Sniffer
Sniffer can capture, construct, and send packets. It constructs transfer data at a fixed rate, and then
obtains the rate at other NEs. This eliminates the external impact. Sniffer can send packets at UE side
or on server. It can construct data transfer at fixed rate in uplink and downlink simultaneously, or just
construct data transfer in uplink or downlink.

Verifying Bearer Capacity of System by IP Data Packet of


Fixed Rate Constructed by Sniffer
In service demonstration, if the rate declines, it is difficult to judge whether the system is faulty or the
source rate declines. By IP data packet of fixed rate constructed by sniffer, engineers can focus on
system problems without being disturbed by source rate.

How to construct IP data packet of uplink and downlink fixed rate


Execute the ping command on a computer of UE daemon to the
application server. Capture the ping packet by using capture function of
Sniffer. Send the ping packet automatically and continuously by using the
packet generator function of Sniffer, and then obtain the data flow of
uplink and downlink fixed rate (if the system is normal). Calculate the rate
according to sending interval and ping packet size. Monitor by the
monitoring software at UE daemon whether the uplink and downlink rate
are normal.
Execute the ping command on the application service to UE. Capture the
ping packet by using capture function of Sniffer. Send the ping packet
automatically and continuously by using the packet generator function of
Sniffer, and then obtain the data flow of uplink and downlink fixed rate (if
the system is normal).
How to construct IP data packet of unidirectional uplink fixed rate
Capture the ping packet by using capture function of Sniffer. Destroy the
IP packet and data related to ping by using the packet generator function of
Sniffer. The IP header remains the same. Send the IP packet automatically
and continuously. When the IP packet reaches the application server, it will

be dropped by the server because the server cannot identify the content of
IP packet. As a result, the data flow of unidirectional uplink fixed rate is
obtained (if the system is normal).
How to construct IP data packet of unidirectional downlink fixed rate
Use the same method as mentioned in how to construct IP data packet of
unidirectional uplink fixed rate. The data flow of unidirectional uplink
fixed rate is obtained (if the system is normal).

Judge by Sniffer Whether Packets are lost in Uplink and


Downlink
Use the previous method for capturing packets. Set the Sniffer to send ping packets of fixed number.
Monitor at the destination by Sniffer whether the ping packets of the same number are received. This
checks whether packets are lost during transmission.

3. Common Tool to Capture Packet:


Ethereal
Ethereal captures packets. It can parse protocols like HTTP, RTP, and FTP, even WAP, and GSM-MAP
protocols. It can also analyze the throughput of TCP flow, delay distribution, and RTP flow. It features
to resolute IP packet and time label of high precision (ms level). The latest version of Ethereal can
record the content of PPP protocol on laptop. It helps to analyze end-to-end problems and delay
conveniently.

4. HSDPA Test UE
In terms of test methods, the PS service test carried by HSDPA is the same as that carried by DCH.
Select the test UEs that support HSDPA.
Now the UEs available in HSDPA PS service test include Huawei E620 data card, Qualcomm
TM6275, and UB TM500.
Huawei E620 data card is a category 12 UE. It supports 5 HS-PDSCH codes at most. It supports
QPSK, but not 16QAM. The maximum throughput at physical layer is 1.8 Mbps. The actual
throughput at application rate is 1.4 Mbps. Huawei E620 data card supports combination of PS and
AMR services, but not VP service.
Qualcomm TM6275 is a category 11 or 12 UE. It supports 5 HS-PDSCH codes at most. It supports
QPSK, but not 16QAM. It supports streaming and VP services.
UB TM500 is an emulation test UE. It can emulate the UEs of multiple categories. It supports 15 HSPDSCH codes at most. It supports QPSK and 16QAM. It supports the combination of PS and CS
services, namely, after a subscriber starts PS service, it then start CS service.
Huawei E620 data card and Qualcomm TM6275 are for DT. TM500 is large, unfit for DT, but it can
emulate multiple UE categories. In laboratory, HSDPA performance test requires UE to support 10 or
15 codes, but no UE or data card support 10 or 15 codes. As a result, using TM500 for test is
necessary.

9.

Analysis of PDP Activation

The GRPS subscribed data can include the subscribed information of multiple packet data protocol
(PDP) address. In MS, SGSN, and GGSN, one or more PDP contexts describe each PDP address.
Each PDP context is in the following two states: inactive or active state.
In active state, PDP context is activated in MS, SGSN, and GGSN. It contains the routing and
mapping information to process PDP PDU between MS and GGSN. The PDP context activation
process contains the activation process originated by MS, the activation process originated by
network, and the second activation process. The activation process originated by MS is used upon PS
service connection.
8.9 shows the PDP context activation process originated by MS.

1.

PDP context activation


process originated by MS

The MS sends SGSN the Activate PDP Context Request (NSAPI, TI, PDP Type, PDP Address, Access
Point Name, QoS Requested). The PDP Address indicates the dynamic address or the static address. If
the PDP Address is dynamic address, set it to null.
The following aspects lead to unsuccessful PDP activation process:

Activation rejected, unspecified (#31): Huawei SGSN defines GTPU


interaction failure, expiration, operation SDB failure, activation failure due to
other abnormalities to this kind of failure.

Activation rejected by GGSN (#30): GGSN rejects or fails to decode the


corresponding activation request.

Missing or unknown APN (#27): APN is not contained in the activation


request message or cannot be extracted. Huawei SGSN takes DNS resolution
failure, DHCP or MIP GGSN address acquisition failure, APN error specified
by activation at network side, other APN error as activation failure. These are
internal causes.

Unknown PDP address or PDP type (#28): the PDP address or PDP type
cannot be identified by SGSN.

User Authentication failed (#29): user authentication fails.

Service option not supported (#32): the requested serving PLMN does not
support this. Huawei SGSN takes wildcard (*) activation rejection, service
non-supportive, IPV6 non-supportive as this type.

Requested service option not subscribed (#33): requested service is not


subscribed. Huawei SGSN takes mismatch subscribed information, VPLMN
access inhibit, and charging restricted callingVPLMN as this type.

Insufficient resources (#26): activation fails due to inadequate resource.


Huawei SGSN takes the following causes as inadequate resource.

UGBI PDP resource congestion

UGBI board congestion

RPU failure

Inadequate SDB or SM CB resource

Activation failure due to internal charging restricted calling

Operator Determined Barring (#8): operators bar PDP activation process.

Service option temporarily out of order (#34): this is a cause value which
MSC use to indicate that function are inadequate to support corresponding
requests. Huawei SGSN is seldom used, so neglect it.

NSAPI already used (#35): the requested NSAPI is already used by PDP
activated by the subscriber, but the cause value will not be sent.

Protocol error, unspecified (#111): Huawei SGSN in abnormal SDB or SM


state may confront this type of activation rejection.

2008-12-15

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