Sunteți pe pagina 1din 86

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

VOLUME 2

Power nansformers
Authors A. W Goldman and C. G. Pebler

Written by
Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation
245 Summer Street
Boston. Massachusetts 02107

Electric Power Research Institute


3412 Hillview Avenue
Palo Alto. California 94 304
EPRI Project Manager

D. K. Sharma

Ordering Information
Requests for copies of this series should be directed
to Research Reports Center (RRC), P.O. Box 50490,
Palo Alto, CA 94303, (415) 965-4081.
For further information on EPRI's technical programs contact the EPRI Thchnical Information Division at (415) 855-2411, or write directly to EPRI's
Thchnical Information Center at P.O. Box 10412, Palo
Alto, CA 94303.
EL-5036, Volume 2
Project 2334
ISBN 0-8033-5001-5 volume
ISBN 0-8033-5015-5 series
Topics: Power transformers
'Ii"ansformer ratings
Taps and connections
Station auxiliary systems
Installation and maintenance
Voltage regulation

Copyright 1987 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.


All rights reserved.
Reprinted in 1998 by Energy Conversion Division,
Steam-Turbine, Generator, Balance-of-Plant Target.

Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered


service marks of Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.

Notice
This series was prepared by Stone &. Webster Engineering
Corporation as an account of work sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. (EPRI). Neither EPRI,
members of EPRI, Stone &, Webster Engineering Corporation, nor any person acting on behalf of any of them:
(a) makes any warranty, express or implied, with respect to
the use of any information, apparatus, method, or process
disclosed in this series or that such use may not infringe
privately owned rights, or (b) assumes any liabilities with
respect to the use of, or for damages resulting from the
use of, any information, apparatus, method, or process disclosed in this series.

FOREWORD

In the past, several electrical equipment manufacturers published reference books dealing with
specific technical areas. Many utilities have stated
that these reference books have been very useful
to them in dealing with plant emergencies and in
making decisions on design, system planning, and
preventive maintenance.
Unfortunately, manufacturers today seldom
publish or update reference books on electric
power apparatus, mainly because of tighter budget constraints. Until now, utilities have had no upto-date industrywide practical reference manual
covering the various electric power apparatus and
electrical phenomena commonly encountered in
power plants. The Power Plant Electrical Reference Series was planned to fill this need.
EPRI believes that the series will save utilities
time and money. It will aid plant engineers in
Prevention of forced outages through proper
installation, application, and protection of
station auxiliary equipment
Recognition of potential problems and their
prevention
Selection of appropriate methods of maintenance to ensure trouble-free equipment
operation
Reduction of equipment installation time and
expense
Proper specification of equipment being
ordered
Better coordination and integration of system
components
This volume deals with power transformers. A
power transformer connects the generator to the
high-voltage transmission system. Another power
transformer connects the generator to the plant
medium-voltage auxiliary power system. 'Iransformer impedance is the major factor in the voltage regulation of the auxiliary power system, as
well as in the short-circuit duty of the switchgear.
Selection of transformers for use in power stations
requires knowledge of the power system and various parameters.
A wealth of information about transformers is
available in the transactions of the IEEE and in the

ANSI/IEEE standards and applications guides. EPRI


has also published a great deal of information on
transformers, including studies of transformer life
characteristics (EL-2622), dielectrics, accessories, and
monitoring equipment. The purpose of this book is
to bring out the concepts that are most useful to
power plant personnel, without requiring an understanding of the rigorous engineering analysis
necessary for the basic design transformers.
D. K. Sharma
Electrical Systems Division
Electric Power Research Institute

ABSTRACT

The unit transformer in a generating station connects the electric power output of the generating
unit to the high-voltage electric transmission gridi
the unit auxiliaries transformer, station service
transformer, and secondary-unit substation transformers supply the electric auxiliaries required for
operation of the power plant. In the lower range
of sizes, power transformers may be of standard
design types, but many of the transformers used
in power plants and all of the larger ones are
custom-designed-similar, but seldom identical, to
others built previously. This volume covers the
practical aspects of the selection, specification, installation, operation, testing, and maintenance of
these power transformers.
lransformer designs of particular interest to
power plant operators include liquid-immersed,
dry-type, and vapor-cooled transformers ranging
in size from 500 kVA to 1200 MVA. The function
and application of each design are described in
detail, from load considerations to noise criteria.
Photographs show the various types of oilpreservation systems, transformer connections,
and bushings. A variety of gages, monitors, and
indicators may be provided for liquid-immersed
transformersi these accessories are also discussed.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to acknowledge the help they


received from many technical publications prepared by people in the industry. They also express
their appreciation to the following people for their
reviews, suggestions, and guidance in general.
Electric Power Research Institute

D. K. Sharma, Project Manager


R. Steiner, Associate Director, Electrical Systems
Division
J C. White, Program Manager
G. Addis, Project Manager
Stone & Webster Engineering
Corporation

G. 0. Buffington, Project Manager


P. Garfinkel
A. R. Fitzpatrick
A. P. Stakutis
EPRI Review Committee
J. R. Boyle, Thnnessee Valley Authority
L. E. Brothers, Southern Company Services

J. Erlingsson, Pacific Gas and Electric Company


R. G. Farmer, Arizona Public Service Company
R. G. Hodgson, Los Angeles Department of Water

&. Power
J. A. Maxwell, Georgia Power Company
W. L. Nail, Jr., Mississippi Power&. Light Company
D. G. Owen, Duke Power Company

B. K. Patel, Southern Company Services


R. A. Schaefer, Public Service Company of

Oklahoma
J. E. Stoner, Jr., Duke Power Company

D. M. Van Thssell, Jr., Florida Power&. Light


Company
J. E. White, Thmpa Electric Company
The authors owe special thanks to W. J. McNutt,
General Electric Company, member of the Transformers Committee of IEEE, who reviewed the final
manuscript.

CONTENTS

SECTION

PAGE

SECTION

_Figures ...................... 2-xi

Secondary Unit Substation


'Iransformers ................ 2-14
Grounding 'Iransformers ........ 2-14

Tables ....................... 2-xiii


Executive Summary .......... 2-xv

2.10

Introduction ................ . 2-1

2.11

Bushings ................... 2-15

2.12

Accessories ................. 2-18

2.2 Definition of Terms .......... 2-1


2.3 General

Liquid Level Gage ............. 2-18


Thmperature Indicators ......... 2-18
Flow Indicator ................ 2-20
Bushing Current 'Iransformers .. 2-20
Resistance Thmperature
Detectors ................... 2-20
Sudden Pressure Relay ......... 2-20
Gas Detector Relay ............ 2-21
Fault Gas Monitor ............. 2--21
Pressure Relief Device .......... 2--21
Lifting Eyes and Jack Bosses .... 2-22Lightning Arresters ............ 2-22-

............... 2-3

Liquid-immersed 'Iransformers .... 2-3


Dry-type 'Iransformers .......... 2-3

2.4 Rating Basis and


Temperature Rise ............ 2-4
2.5 Insulation Level. ............. 2-5
2.6 Cooling Methods-Single-,
Dual-, and 'D:iple-rated
'D:ansformers . ................ 25

2.13

Liquid-immersed 'Iransformers .... 2-5


Water-cooled 'Iransformers ....... 27
Dry-type 'Iransformers .......... 27

2.7

Application
Considerations ............. 2--22Maximum Sustained Load ....... 2--2-2Altitude ...................... 2-25
Ambient Thmperature .......... 2--25
Number of Windings ........... 2-2-5
Voltage Ratings and
Overexcitation ............... 2--25
'Iransient Overvoltage .......... 226
Load Current Waveform ........ 2-26
Harmonic Current Derating ..... 2-27
Impedance Voltage and
Regulation .................. 2-28
Impedance and Through-Faults .. 2-29
Phasing Out Three-Phase
Circuits .................... 2-29
Loss Evaluation ............... 2-30
Noise Criteria ................. 2-30

Losses ........................ 2-7

Evaluation method .............. 2-7


Application of Loss Values ....... 28

2.8 Oil Preservation Systems . .... 2-8


Sealed.:nmk System .............. 2-8
Inert Gas System ............... 2-9
Modified Conservator System ..... 2-9

2.9 'D:ansformer Connections ... . 2-10


U'IS ........................... 2-11
UA'IS .......................... 212
SS'IS .......................... 2-12

Taps ........................ 2-14


No-Load Thp Changers ......... 2-14
Load Thp Changers (LTCs) ....... 2-14

Acronyms &
Abbreviations ............... 2-xvii
2.1

PAGE

2.14

Shipping Considerations ... . 2-32

2-x

CONTENTS

SECTION

2.15

PAGE

Specific Applications ....... 232


UTh ......................... 232
UA'IS ........................ 245
SS'IS ......................... 246

Load Center Substation


'Transformers ................ 24 7
Auxiliary 'Transformers ......... 24 7
Grounding 'Transformers ........ 2-4 7

2.16

Transformer Testing ........ 2-48


Shop Thsting .................. 2-48
Field Thsting .................. 2-49

2.17

Foundations ............... . 251

2.18

Provision for Oil Spills ..... . 251

2.19

Fire walls and Barriers ..... 251

2.20 Water-Spray Fire


Protection .................. 2-51
2.21

Installation ................. 252


Liquid-immersed 'Transformers .. 252
Dry-type 'Transformers .........

2.22 Maintenance ............... 253


Visual Inspection .............. 253
Oil Conditioning ............... 254
Gasing ....................... 2-54
Dryout ....................... 2-54
Cleaning Bushings ............. 254

Appendix A: Loss Evaluation .. 255


References ............ ...... 259
Bibliography ............... 261
Index ...................... . 265

FIGURES

FIGURE

PAGE

2-1 - Transformer With a Sealed-Tank

FIGURE

PAGE

2-17

Reactive Capability Curves for


Steam Turbine Generator Unit .... 234

2-18

Base Case ...................... 2-35

2-19

Voltage and Power Profiles ....... 2-36

2-20

Increased Real Power ........... 237

2-21

Higher Secondary Tap ........... 2-38

2-22

100-MVAR Export at Design


Center ........................ 239

Typical Transformer Phase


Relationships ... , ............... 2-13

2-23

Oversize Transformer ........... 2-40

2-6

Power Transformer With LTC ....

2-24 High Impedance ................ 2-41

2-7

Apparatus Bushing of the PaperOil Capacitor (POC) Type ........ 217

2-25

Half-Power Operation ........... 242

2-26

. 2-8

EVH Bushing ................... 218

Simplified Equivalent Circuit and


Phasor Diagram ................ 2-44

2-9

High-Current Type-A Bushing


25-kV, Class-4500 A and Above ... 219

2-10

Temperature Indicator Relay ..... 220

2-11

Sudden Pressure (Fault Pressure)


Relay ......................... 221

2-12

Gas Detector Relay ....... : ...... 221

2-13

Fault Gas Monitor .............. 2-22

Oil Preservation System ......... 29


2-2

Transformer With Inert Gas Oil


Preservation System ............. 210

2-3

Transformer With Modified Conservator Oil Preservation System .. 2-11

2-4

2-5

Transformer Terminal Designation


in Accordance With ANSI Standard
C57.12.70-1978 ................. 212

2-14 Pressure Relief Device ........... 2-23

2-15

General Guide for Permissible


Short-Time Overexcitation of
Power Transformers (Rated Volts
per Hertz = 100% Excitation) .... 226

2-16

Bar Chart, Factory Noise Measuremerits of Large General Electric


Power Transformers (Early 1970s) .. 231

TABLES

PAGE

TABLE

21 .Forced-cooled Ratings ............. 26


ZZ Approximate Voltage Regulation .... 2-29
23 Transformer Thsts ................ 249
A-1 Transformer Loss Energy

Evaluation ...................... 2-58

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Power transformers are used in generating stations to connect the main generator to the highvoltage transmission system and to connect
sources of electric power to distribution subsystems for operation of plant auxiliary electrical
equipment at medium- and low-voltage levels. The
proper selection of transformers for each application requires a knowledge of the types available
and their range of applicability. It also requires a
knowledge of terms, conventions, tolerances, and
factory tests as established in industry standards.

Background
Power plant electrical equipment operating at ac
voltages of 120, 460, 575, 4000, 6600, or 13,200 V
receives its power from higher-voltage sources: the
main generator and the switchyard. 'fransformers,
which are located near the load (where possible),
interconnect the voltage levels. Although the
smaller sizes of power transformers may be of
standard design types, the larger ones are customdesigned and similar, but seldom identical, to
others. This book provides practical guidance in
the selection of this equipment.

Objectives
This volume will provide power station engineers
with a background of transformer knowledge that
will enable them to apply transformers correctly,
assist in understanding existing standards and the
various options required for power transformer selection, and provide guidance to power plant personnel in planning inspection and testing programs.

Approach
A national survey of utility requirements yielded
pertinent information, and a search of available
literature on power transformers identified specific information pertaining to power plant
applications. The EPRI Review Committee, with
members from 11 utilities throughout the United
States, and other industry experts reviewed the
material for accuracy and completeness. The
resulting information was the basis for this volume
of the Power Plant Electrical Reference Series.

Results
The information in this volume will help in the
selection of power transformers in sizes from
500 kVA to 1200 MVA for power plant use. Specific application information will aid the engineering and operations departments of generating
facilities in selecting new and replacement
equipment.

ACRONYMS
&

ABBREVIATIONS
AA
transformer cooling method: ventilated
ac
alternating current
ANSI American National Standards Institute
BIL
Btu

basic lightning impulse insulation level


British thermal unit(s)

CI

em

present worth of outlay in the year of first


commercial operation (Eq. A-1)
centimeter(s)

dB
dBA
de

decibe!(s)
adjusted decibel(s)
direct current

voltage (Eq. 2-1)


extra-high voltage

EHV

f
FA
FOA
FOB
FOW

annual inflation rate (decimal) (Eq. A-1)


transformer cooling method: oil immersed,
forced-air cooled
transformer cooling method: oil immersed,
forced-oil cooled with forced-air cooler
free on board
transformer cooling method: forced-water
cooled

gram(s)

hp
h
HV
HVAC

horsepower
hour(s)
high voltage
heating, ventilating, and air conditioning
hertz

Hz
I

IEEE
IROR
k

kV
kVA
kW
LTC

LV

current (Eq. 2-1)


Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers
internal rate of return
internal rate of return expressed as a
decimal rather than as a percentage (Eq. A-1)
kilovolt(s)
kilovoltampere(s)
kilowatt(s)
load tap changer
low voltage

meter(s)
m
milligram(s)
mg
MVA megavolt-ampere(s)
MVAR megavolt-ampere(s)-reactive
N
N1

newton(s)
number of years between the price year
and the year of tiTSt commercial operation
(Eq. A-1)

N2

1 greater than the number of years between


commercial operation and payment (Eq. A-1)

OA

transformer cooling method: oil immersed,


self-cooled
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health
Administration
P
PCB
PF
POC
psig

quoted or estimated price, valid in the price


year (Eq. A-1)
polychlorinated biphenyl
load power factor (Eq. 2-8)
paper-oil capacitor
pounds per square inch gage

rms

resistance
transformer regulation
radio influence voltage
root-mean-square

SCR
SST

short-circuit ratio
station service transformer

UAT
UT

unit auxiliaries transformer


unit transformer

volt(s)

transformer impedance voltage

REG
RIV

VOLUME 2

POWER TRANSFORMERS
A. W. Goldman and C. G. Pebler

2.1 INTRODUCTION
Power-transformers are used in power plants to
connect the main generator to the high-voltage
(HV) transmission system and to connect sources
of auxiliary power to distribution subsystems for
plant auxiliary electrical equipment at lower voltage levels. Since they are basically static devices,
they require less maintenance than most of the
other apparatus. It is important, however, (1) that
each transformer be selected properly for the intended application; (2) that it be protected from
voltage surges, external short circuits, and
prolonged overload; and (3) that it be inspected,
maintained, and tested on a routine basis.
The power transformers of particular interest
to the designers and operators of power plants
range in size from 500 kVA to 1200 MVA in threephase designs and from 500 kVA to 550 MVA in
single-phase designs. 'fransformers installed inside
a building may be dry-type, resin encapsulated,
or liquid immersed in high-fire point or low-heat
release insulating fluids. 'fransformers installed
outdoors are generally mineral oil immersed.
In the lower size range the transformers may
be of repetitive design, but many of the transformers used in power plants and all of the larger ones
are custom designed-similar, but seldom identical, to others built previously.
'fransformer power and energy losses, though
relatively small, are of interest to the user for two
reasons: They cause increased fuel consumption,
and they result in heat release. The fuel consumed
in generating the loss of energy is an important
item in operating cost. The heat must be removed
and dissipated by some combination of conduction, convection, and radiation. "Self-cooled" transformers do not require any power-driven cooling
auxiliaries. Forced-cooled transformers employ
forced-water or forced-air cooling and may also
use pumps to circulate the insulating fluid. The
addition of rotating machinery to an otherwise
static device reduces the physical size and initial
cost of the transformer for a specific output
rating, but it may also reduce reliability and increase maintenance cost and losses.
Oil-immersed transformers require oil preservation systems to exclude oxygen and water vapor;

this retards sludging and deterioration of dielectric properties. Gas formation under oil may indicate local hot spots or decomposition of solid
insulating materials. For this reason gas monitors
are often installed to detect and collect generated
gases for laboratory analysis. 'fransformer oil
should be sampled and tested at regular intervals.
The analysis of both the collected gas and the oil
samples provides warning of abnormal conditions.
Power transformers are factory tested to ensure
quality of design and manufacture and to demonstrate their ability to meet performance requirements. Data obtained during such tests may also
provide benchmarks for later field tests.
A large transformer may be damaged by improper handling during loading, shipment, on-site
storage, testing, or installation. These operations
warrant meticulous attention.
The application of the above material to unit
transformers (U'Th), unit auxiliaries transformers
(UA'Th), station service transformers (SS'Th), and
secondary unit substation transformers is covered
under appropriate headings in this volume.

2.2 DEFINITION OF TERMS


Basic lightning impulse insulation level (BIL) A
specific insulation level, expressed in kilovolts, of the
crest value of a standard lightning impulse.
Basic switching impulse insulation level A
specific insulation level, expressed in kilovolts, of the
crest value of a standard switching impulse.
Chopped-wave impulse A voltage impulse that is
terminated intentionally by sparkover of a gap.
Decibel (dB) See Sound pressure level.
Demand factor The ratio of the maximum demand
of a system to the total connected load of the system.
Diversity factor The ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of the various subdivisions of
a system to the maximum demand of the whole system.
Eddy-current loss Power dissipated due to eddy currents. This includes the eddy-current losses of the core,
windings, case, and associated hardware.
Front-of-wave lightning impulse test A voltage
impulse with a specified rate of rise that is terminated
intentionally by sparkover of a gap that occurs on the

2-2

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

rising front of the voltage wave with a specified time


to sparkover and a minimum crest voltage. Complete
front-of-wave tests involve application of the following
sequence of impulse waves: (1) one reduced full wave;
(2) two front of waves; (3) two chopped waves; (4) one
full wave.
Graded insulation The selective arrangement of the
insulation components of a composite insulation system
to equalize more nearly the voltage stresses throughou! the insulation system.
Harmonic factor The ratio of the root-mean-square
(rms) value of all the harmonics to the rms value of the
fundamental.
harmonic factor
(for voltage)

+
(Eq. 2-1)

harmonic factor
(for current)

-+-P"
7 _+___
I1

Hot spot temperature The highest temperature inside the transformer winding. It is greater than the average temperature (measured using the resistance change
method) of the coil conductors.
Hysteresis loss The energy loss in magnetic material
that results from an alternating magnetic field as the
elementary magnets within the material seek to align
themselves with the reversing magnetic field.
Impedance voltage The voltage required to circulate
rated current through one of two specified windings
of a transformer when the other winding is shortcircuited, with the windings connected as for rated voltage operation. It is usually expressed in per unit, or percent, of the rated voltage of the winding in which the
voltage is measured.
Insulation level An insulated strength expressed in
terms of a withstand voltage.
Insulation power factor The ratio of the power dissipated in the insulation, in watts, to the product of
effective voltage and current, in voltamperes, when
tested under a sinusoidal voltage and prescribed
conditions.
Lightning impulse insulation level An insulation
level, expressed in kilovolts, of the crest value of a lightning impulse withstand voltage.
Liquid-immersed transformer A transformer in
which the core and coils are immersed in an insulating
liquid.
Load tap changer (LTC) A selector switch device,
which may include current-interrupting contactors,
used to change transformer taps with the transformer
energized and carrying full load.
No-load tap changer A selector switch device used
to change transformer taps with the transformer
deenergized.

Oil-immersed transformer A transformer in which


the core and coils are immersed in an insulating oil.
Overload Output of current, power, or torque by a
device in excess of the rated output of the device on
a specified rating basis.
Overvoltage A voltage above the normal rated voltage or the maximum operating voltage of a device or
circuit.
Primary winding The winding on the energy input
side.
Partial discharge An electric discharge that only partially bridges the insulation between conductors and
that may or may not occur adjacent to a conductor. Partial discharges occur when the local electric field intensity exceeds the dielectric strength of the dielectric
involved, resulting in local ionization and breakdown.
Depending on intensity, partial discharges are often
accompanied by emission of light, heat, sound, and radio
influence voltage (with a wide frequency range).

Radio influence voltage A radio frequency voltage


generally produced by partial discharge and measured
at the equipment terminals for the purpose of determining the electromagnetic interference effect of the
discharges.
Secondary unit substation A unit substation in
which the low-voltage (LV) section is rated 1000 V or
below.
Secondary winding The winding on the energy
output side.
Sound level A weighted sound pressure level obtained
by the use of metering characteristics and the weightings A, B, or C specified in American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) Standard S1.4.
Sound pressure level The sound pressure level, in
decibels, is 20 times the logarithm to the base 10 of the
ratio of the pressure of the sound to the reference pressure of 2 times w-s N/m 2 (0.00002 microbar), also
written 20 N/m2 .
Station service transformer (SST) A transformer
that supplies power from a station high-voltage (HV) bus
to the station auxiliaries. It also supplies power to the
unit auxiliaries during unit startup and shutdown and/or
when the VAT is not available.
Surge arrester, lightning arrester A protective
device for limiting surge voltages on equipment by discharging or passing surge current; it prevents continued
flow of follow current to ground and is capable of
repeating these functions as specified.
Switching impulse Ideally, an aperiodic transient
voltage that rises rapidly to a maximum value and falls,
usually less rapidly, to zero.
Switching surge A transient wave at overvoltage in
an electrical circuit caused by a switching operation.
Thp changer See No-load tap changer.

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Temperature rise The difference between the temperature of the part under consideration (commonly the
"average winding rise'' or the "hottest spot winding rise'')
and the ambient temperature.
'Iransient overvoltage The peak voltage during the
transient conditions resulting from the operation of a
switching device.
Unit auxiliaries transformer (UAT) A transformer
intended primarily to supply all or a portion of the unit
auxiliaries.
Unit transformer (UT) A power system supply transformer that transforms all or a portion of the unit power
from the unit to the power system.
Withstand voltage The voltage that electrical equipment is capable of withstanding without failure or disruptive discharge when tested under specified
conditions.

2.3 GENERAL TYPES


The industry recognizes two general types of
power transformers: liquid-immersed transformers and dry-type transformers.

LIQUID-IMMERSED TRANSFORMERS
A liquid-immersed transformer consists of a magnetic core-and-coils assembly, either single-phase
or polyphase, immersed in fluid having good heat
transfer and insulating properties. The liquidimmersed transformer permits compact design,
and at this time transformers with ratings above
10,000 kVA or 34.5 kV are always liquid immersed.
Initially, the fluid was always a highly refined
mineral oil. Since such oils are flammable, liquidimmersed transformers located within buildings
were installed in fireproof vaults. Later, nonflammable fluids were developed for this application,
the most common being an askarel, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). These fluids have high
specific inductive capacitance (also called relative
dielectric constant or relative capacity) and good
heat transfer properties but are more expensive
and have lower dielectric strength than mineral
oil. The Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (1)
and the Code of Federal Regulations (2) now prohibit the manufacture of PCBs and limit the use
of PCB-bearing equipment. The federal regulation
specifies rigid rules and requirements for marking
PCB-bearing equipment in service and for disposing of PCB-bearing equipment and contaminated
materials resulting _from liquid spills (3).

2-3

More recently other fluids having high fire


points and low rates of heat release, though more
expensive than askarels, have been introduced to
replace it (for example, silicone, tetrachloroethylene, trichlorotrifluoroethane, and highly refined
paraffinic oil).
Another recent development, the vapor-cooled
transformer, is classified as liquid immersed and
is suitable for indoor installation. This design
employs a low-boiling point organic fluid for heat
transfer. The latent heat of vaporization absorbs
the heat produced by transformer losses. That
latent heat is then released in a heat exchanger
external to the transformer tank, which condenses
the vapor and returns it to the transformer tank
in liquid form. Vapor-cooled transformers may be
equipped with cooling fans to increase kilovoltampere rating up to 50%.
The application of high-fire point, low-heat
release liquid-insulated transformers versus
mineral oil-insulated transformers involves economic and fire hazard considerations. The former
are somewhat less hazardous, but they are more
expensive than the latter, with silicone liquid-filled
being the most expensive.
Provisions for containing oil spills, should the
tank rupture, are covered in this volume in Section 2.18.

DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS
Dry-type transformers are generally more expensive than oil-immersed transformers and depend
on solid insulation-film coatings, paper tape, or
a combination of the two-for most of their dielectric strength. Single-phase and polyphase drytype transformers are available in ventilated
designs, totally enclosed nonventilated designs,
sealed-tank designs, and gas-filled designs, the
ventilated type being least expensive. Their ability to withstand lightning and switching surge
impulse voltages is less than that of liquidimmersed designs. It may therefore be prudent to
protect their HV terminals with surge arresters,
even when the external leads to these terminals
are not directly exposed to lightning.
Ventilated dry-type transformers are suitable for
most applications inside buildings. In atmospheres
heavily loaded with dust or fibers, however, they
must be cleaned at regular intervals to keep their
ventilation passages clear. This type may be
equipped with fans to increase their kilovoltampere rating by 33%%. They have the lowest initial
cost of any in the family of dry-type transformers.

2-4

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

Totally enclosed, nonventilated dry-type transformers are suitable for use in moderately contaminated industrial environments. Because they
are nonventilated, they are designed to have low
heat losses-that is, very high efficiencies.
Sealed-tank transformers have the ability to
function in the severest environments. They have
their own sealed atmosphere and can function in
misty, oil-laden, dusty, highly contaminated areas.
Tnese transformers also have high efficiencies because of the necessity of having low heat losses.
Dry-type transformers are currently available in
self-cooled ratings up to 10,000 kVA and at voltages
up to 34.5 kV.
A variant of the dry-type transformer that is resin
encapsulated has been introduced recently. In one
form of this design, "cast-coil;' the coil is placed
in a mold and the resin coating is cast around it.
These transformers are available in sizes up to
5,000 kVA and voltages up to 34.5 kV. In another
form the coils are dipped in resin. The resinencapsulated design may be used in harsh environments where ventilated dry-types may not be
suitable. Although their initial cost is higher than
other dry-types, they may nevertheless be economical in high-load factor applications because of
their lower load losses (Volume 7, Au;te.iliary Electrical Equipment).
Some of the resins used in earlier resinencapsulated transformers gave off vapors at high
temperatures that were found to be flammable,
toxic, or both. In more recent designs these concerns have been resolved by tests and analysis of
the vapors showing them not to be harmful (4).
The application of a ventilated dry-type versus
a nonventilated dry-type or a sealed, gas-filled drytype transformer involves economic and environmental considerations (clean, dust-laden, wet, or
highly contaminated atmosphere). The gas-filled
transformer has the highest initial cost.
The application of a ventilated dry-type versus
a ventilated, encapsulated dry-type transformer
also involves these considerations.
Volume 7, Section 7.5 gives a comparison of the
relative equipment costs of the various dry-type
transformers.

2.4 RATING BASIS AND


TEMPERATURE RISE
Power transformers are output rated. They are rated
to deliver specified kilovoltamperes continuously

at a specified secondary voltage and frequency


under "usual" operating conditions and with a
standard temperature rise. When operated within
their ratings they have "normal" life expectancies.
They may be operated beyond their ratings under
certain conditions without loss of life expectancy
or under other conditions with a somewhat predictable sacrifice of life expectancy. 1tansformers
in power plants generally are selected to operate
within their ratings except for brief transient
periods, such as during motor starting or during
the time required for relay operations to clear
through-faults.
Usual and unusual operating conditions for
liquid-immersed transformers are defmed in ANSI
Standard C57.12.00-1980 (5); those for dry-type
transformers are defined in ANSI Standard
C57.12.01-1979 (6). Some unusual operating conditions are:
Ambient temperature above 40C or with
24-h average above 30C
Altitude above 3300 ft
Sustained operation at more than 110% (no
load) or 105% (loaded) of rated secondary
volts or volts per hertz
Load current waveform distortion (harmonic
factor greater than 0.05)
Primary phase voltage unbalance
Secondary phase current unbalance
Damaging fumes or vapors, excessive or
abrasive dust, salt spray, or excessive
moisture
Abnormal vibration, shocks, or tilting
Restricted air circulation
These or other unusual operating conditions, if ap
plicable, should be stated in purchase specifications.
Although transformers are kilovoltampere rated,
their true continuous load limits are determined
by secondary winding current ratings. Note that
the secondary may be either the HV or the LV
winding. If the secondary winding has taps, then
the permissible continuous load is determined by
the current rating of the tap in use,
though
it is called a "full-kVA" tap.
The kilovoltampere rating does limit permissible
load at secondary voltages above tap voltage rating,
but at voltages below tap voltage rating the tap current rating intervenes. At 95% secondary voltage
the maximum continuous kilovoltampere load is
95% of nameplate kilovoltamperes.
Standard temperature rise is the average winding rise (by resistance) that, in "usual" ambient

POWER TRANSFORMERS

temperature and with suitable allowance for hottest spot difference, is within the long-time withstand capability of the insulating materials. For
liquid-immersed transformers, that rise is 65C
(15C hot spot allowance). Liquid-immersed transformers are now rated for 65C rise. Many transformers having 55/65C-rise ratings, however, are
still in service. Both designs are suitable for continuous operation at their 65C-rise ratings. The
difference between them is that the performance
characteristics, full-load losses, and impedance
voltage drop for the 55/65C-rise transformer are
based on 55C-rise loading. Where a transformer
must operate in a higher-than-usual ambient temperature, it is customary to specify a reduced temperature rise. The result is a larger transformer
that under "usual operating conditions;' carries
more load. For example, if the temperature rise
of a liquid-immersed transformer is specified as
55C, the permissible load increase under 30C
conditions that permit a 65C rise will be 12%.
The average temperature winding rise for drytype transformers, depending on the insulation
system, may be 80C, l15C, or 150C (all with
30C hot spot allowance) (6).

2.5 INSULATION LEVEL

'Iransformers must be insulated to withstand the


voltages to which their windings and terminals
may be subjected in service. These include the
normal ranges of power-frequency voltages published in ANSI Standard C84.1-1982, the impulse
overvoltages that may be produced by lightning
strikes on their terminals or on connected transmission lines, and the transient overvoltages that
may be produced by operation of transmission line
circuit breakers. Mineral oil-immersed transformers can withstand very high crest voltages if the
duration of the transient is measured in
microseconds.
The basic lightning impulse insulation level (BIL)
of a transformer is the crest value of the voltage
it can withstand if the impulse voltage has the
wave shape defined as "full wave" in ANSI Standards C57.12.00 and C57.12.90. That shape, intended to be representative of a lightning impulse,
has a rise time of 1.2 J.LS and a decay time, or tail,
of 50 J.LS. Crest values for other wave shapes are
keyed to the BIL. For example, for 900-kV BIL the
associated crest values for front of wave, chopped
wave, switching surge, and low frequency are

2-5

1240, 1035, 745, and 395 kV, respectively. The


wave shapes of these other transients are also defined in the standards. The front-of-wave shape is
intended to be representative of a lightning impulse chopped before crest by a rod gap. The
chopped-wave shape is intended to be representative of a lightning impulse chopped at crest or
immediately thereafter. The switching surge waveform is intended to be representative of the transient that may be produced by operation of a
transmission line circuit breaker. The lowfrequency wave shape is sinusoidal at power frequency (or a low multiple of power frequency) to
avoid core saturation during a factory test.
The transformer transient voltage strength required in a particular application depends on the
lightning arresters that can be installed at the
transformer terminals to protect it. If the arrester
has too low a voltage rating, it may be destroyed
by follow current at power frequency following
a voltage surge. Minimum safe arrester voltage ratings must be determined by a transient network
analysis of the transmission system. The transformer transient voltage strength should then exceed the voltage rating of the arrester by an
appropriate margin-usually in the range of 15
to25%.
'fransformer price is affected by BIL. One manufacturer has published base price multipliers, showing that for 345-kV service the base price would
apply without multiplier for a BIL of 1050 kV. The
multiplier would be less than 1 for 900-kV BIL and
greater than 1 for 1175-kV BIL. This information
is not based on industry standards, but it does indicate the industry pricing practice.
BILs for dry-type transformers are given in ANSI
Standard C57.12.01-1979 (6), and the wave shapes
are defined in ANSI Standard C57.12.91-1979 (7).

2.6 COOLING METHODS-SINGLE-,


DUAL-, AND TRIPLE-RATED
TRANSFORMERS

LIQUID-IMMERSED TRANSFORMERS
Liquid-immersed transformers larger than 500 kVA
may have both a self-cooled rating and one or two
additional forced-cooled ratings. The rating increase
produced by forced cooling varies with transformer
size, as shown in 'Th.ble 2-1 (8). At 20,000 kVA and
above transformers may have a single forcedcooled rating and no self-cooled rating.

2-6

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

Table 2.1

Type of
Cooling
OA!FA

Self-cooled kVA
Single
Phase

Three
Phase

P-ercent of Self-cooled
kVA Wrth Auxiliary
Cooling
First Stage
Second Stage

501-2499
2500-9999
10,000 and up

501-2499
2500-11 ,999
12,000 and up

115
125
133%

1000 and up

133%

12,000 and up

133%

AA/FA
OA/FA/FA
- OA/FA!FOA

Forced-cooled Ratings

10,000 and up

166'%

SOURCE: This material is reproduced by permission of the National


Electrical Manufacturers Association from NEMA Standards Publication No. NEMA TR 1-1980, Transformers, Regulators, and Reactors.
1980 by NEMA.

The standard method of indicating these multiple ratings is to list the rating(s), followed by the
corresponding cooling method(s). For example:
2000/2300 kVA, OAIFA indicates a transformer with a self-cooled (OA) rating of
2000 kVA and a forced-air-cooled (FA) rating
of 2300 kVA.
12,000/16,000/20,000 kVA indicates a transformer with a self-cooled rating and two
stages of forced cooling. Such transformers
have large radiators to produce thermosiphon circulation of the oil in the self-cooled
mode. They have two banks of fans and oil
pumps. These transformers are indicated as
follows:
o OAIFAIFA indicates that both the first stage
and the second stage of forced cooling use
forced air. The first stage uses half of the
available fans (one bank); the second stage
uses all available fans (both banks).
o OAIFAJFOA indicates that the first stage of
forced cooling uses forced air and the second stage uses forced oil and forced air.
o OA!FOAJFOA indicates that both the first
stage and the second stage of forced cooling use forced oil and forced air. The first
stage uses half of the available fans and oil
pumps (one bank); the second stage uses
all available fans and pumps (both banks).
25,000 kVA, FOA indicates a transformer
with no self-cooled rating. It has compact
coolers in place of radiators and cannot remain energized, even at no load, without its
fans and pumps in operation. Nevertheless,
most UTh and many UATh are of the FOA

type. This type is used less frequently for


SS'IS, which remain energized continuously
but are heavily loaded infrequently. In this
type of service the triple-rated transformer
is advantageous, because its mechanical cooling auxiliaries are required only during the
periods of heavy load.
A UAT serving a maximum load of 20 MVA could
be either 12/16/20 MVA, OAIFX!FX, or 20 MVA, FOA.
The triple-rated transformer can carry 12 MVA
with no mechanical cooling auxiliaries in operation. In this application that capability may not be
an advantage, since half of the 20-MVA load may
be present when the machine is synchronized and
the auxiliaries load is transferred to this transformer; the 12-MVA self-cooled limit thus is exceeded before the turbine generator reaches half
load. Although the triple-rated and FOA alternatives may have identical core-and-coil assemblies,
the FOA transformer is less expensive and requires
less space in an area where space is usually limited.
On the other hand, if a generator breaker is installed between the generator and the transformers, the triple-rated UAT can operate without
mechanical cooling auxiliaries during unit shutdown. Volume 7, Auxiliary Electrical Equipment,
covers the application of generator breakers, and
Volume 8, Station Protection, covers transformer
and generator protection.
Large UTh are nearly always of FOA (or POWsee below) design. Again, this is primarily because
of space considerations. In addition it may be more
difficult to design a low-impedance transformer
of the triple-rated type, because the oil channels
through the windings must be large enough to
permit gravity circulation of oil before the oil

POWER TRANSFORMERS

pumps are brought into operation. Larger oil


channels tend to increase leakage reactance.

WATER-COOLED TRANSFORMERS
Forced-water-cooled (FOW) transformers are
often used instead of FOA types at hydroelectric
plants because of the ready availability of cooling
water. They are also often used at underground
hydro or pumped storage plants, where the transformers must be underground to be near the
equipment they serve. Large power transformers
have also been enclosed in masonry vaults for
noise control purposes. In such cases water cooling may be the only feasible method of heat dissipation. Because of concern for water leakage into
the oil, however, such transformers have specially
designed heat exchangers with double tube sheets
and concentric tubes to provide two metal barriers between the two fluids. In this design the
neutral space between the metal barriers can be
monitored and an alarm actuated if either barrier
begins to leak.

DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS
All dry-type power transformers have self-cooled
ratings. Those commonly used indoors in power
plants are ventilated (rated AA). Some are
equipped with fans to give them a dual rating
(AA!FA). A common size for LV secondary unit substation transformers is 1000/1333 kVA, AAIFA. Note
that the forced-cooled rating is one-third larger
than the self-cooled rating.

2.7 LOSSES
'Iransformers are very efficient. Large liquidimmersed transformers may have efficiencies
higher than 99%. Nevertheless, it may be worthwhile to pay an initial price premium for loss
reduction, which will result in still higher efficiency.
'Iransformer losses can be divided into three
general categories: no-load losses, load losses, and,
for forced-cooled transformers, cooling-system
losses. The no-load losses are mainly core hysteresis
and eddy-current losses, which are incurred as
long as the transformer is energized. They remain
essentially constant. The load losses are due to the
heating of winding conductors by the passage of
current and by other stray losses in conductors
and tank walls, which are load related. These losses
increase as the square of load current. The cooling

2-7

system losses are power used to drive the mechanical cooling auxiliaries-fans and oil pumpswhere these auxiliaries are present.
In medium and large power transformers the
load losses are much greater than the no-load
losses. The ratio of load losses to no-load losses
will be influenced by the loss evaluation figures
in the purchaser's bidding documents. 1b simplify
a generalization of available data, one can compare values on the basis of core-and-coils rating.
On this basis a 20-MVA FOA transformer, a
12/16-MVA OAIFA transformer, and a 12/16/2Q-MVA
OAIFOAIFOA transformer are directly comparable.
At 12 MVA such a transformer would have a
ratio of load losses to no-load losses on the order
of 3.5:1. At 16 MVA this ratio would be greater by
a factor of 1. 777; and at 20 MVA (if permissible)
the factor would be 2.779.
Very large pbwer transformers, nearly always
FOA, have loss ratios on the order of 7:1. Lower
ratios might be economical in many cases, but
such ratios may not be achievable within shipping
limitations.

EVALUATION METHOD
Loss evaluation is the process of estimating the
amount of initial outlay justified to avoid future
costs. Specifically, it answers the questions: "What
price premium are we justified in paying to reduce
transformer no-load loss by 1 kW? What premium
for 1 kW of load loss?" When the initial cost premium (a single payment amount) is compared with
the future costs avoided thereby (a nonuniform
series of annual amounts), it is convenient to use
life-cycle cost methods, which convert all cash
flows to present worth. It is, for example, not
justifiable to spend $100 today to avoid a $100 expense ten years from today; a far smaller amount
invested in some other aspect of the company's
business would grow to $100 in ten years. It is the
smaller amount that is the present value of the
future cost.
Loss evaluation seeks to determine how much
the purchaser would be justified in paying for the
transformers to reduce no-load loss by 1 kW and
how much per kilowatt for a similar reduction in
load loss. Since the premium would be a single
payment on delivery and the savings that justify
it are a nonuniform series of future costs, their
equivalence must be found by present-worth
methods. These methods, which involve the capital structure of the company, the estimated loading schedule for the transformer, and the present

2-8

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

and anticipated future cost of the fuel used for


generation, are discussed in Appendix A.

APPLICATION OF LOSS VAWES


With no guidance about how losses are to be evaluated, each transformer bidder will offer the design that meets its temperature rise guarantee at
minimum initial cost. For large power transformers that are expected to operate at high load factors, this is not the most economical choice. A
better design would have more iron, more copper,
and less cooling equipment. Although this design
would increase initial cost, it would reduce losses.
As was pointed out previously, transformer
losses are partially avoidable. Estimating loss
values and including them in the invitations for
competitive bids effectively make the supplier and
the purchaser partners in determining what fraction of the losses is economically avoidable. In the
case of smaller transformers the cost per kilovoltampere is so large that any significant fraction
added to it in order to reduce losses would outweigh the future savings attributable to the loss
reduction.

For certain large transformers, notably SSTh, the


load factor is so low that load losses have small
economic value. But SSTh are energized for essentially the entire year, and their no-load losses are
incurred at full strength all of that time. For these
transformers the no-load losses have significant
economic value. Therefore, a design in which core
flux density is reduced below conventional levels
may well justify its higher cost, because a small
reduction in flux density produces a large reduction in hysteresis loss and a larger reduction in
core eddy-current loss. This reduction in flux density also significantly reduces magnetostriction
noise. In the case of these medium power transformers the large-volume market is in substation
transformers of fairly uniform design. Not all suppliers are in a position to tailor their basic designs
closely to the special needs of every purchaser. For
that reason each manufacturer will make its own
decision on the design to be offered and the prices.
For transformers installed indoors losses have
a significant indirect cost due to the fact that the
heat released by the transformer must be removed
by the ventilating system and may represent an
appreciable portion of the load on that system. For
this reason some purchasers prefer 80C-rise drytype transformers to the less expensive, but less
efficient, 115C- and 150C-rise designs.

2.8 OIL PRESERVATION SYSTEMS


Mineral oils used in power transformers degrade
in prolonged exposure to oxygen or moisture.
Water suspended in the oil reduces its dielectric
strength and that of cellulosic insulation to which
the water may migrate. Oxidation may affect dielectric properties and may cause sludge formation. Sludge, in turn, clogs small oil passages
through the windings and impairs heat removal,
allowing hot spots to develop. Solid insulation may
be degraded rapidly in the hot spots, and such
degradation reduces insulation life expectancy. Oil
preservation systems have been developed to prevent such degradation (8).
Mineral oil has a relatively large thermal coefficient of expansion, and therefore the oil level in
a transformer tank rises and falls with ambient
temperature and with load. If the oil level becomes
too low, the bottom portions of HV bushings and
the current transformers that are often fitted
around them are left without the oil immersion
on which they may depend for voltage gradient
control and for cooling. The oil level cannot rise
above the top of the tank unless external provisions are made for expansion.
The oil preservation system must allow for the
oil expansion and contraction and must prevent
moisture and oxygen from being drawn into the
tank. Three general types of oil preservation systems are in common use: the sealed-tank system,
the inert gas system, and the modified conservator
system.
One manufacturer provides, as standard, the oil
preservation system for the following various voltages and ratings:

Operating Voltage Class


(kV)

Three-phase,
650C MVA Rating

Up to 138

161 to 230

Above 230

Up to 67.2 OA
or 112 FOA

sealed-tank

inert gas

modified
conservator

Above 67.2 OA
or 112 FOA

modified
conservator

modified
conservator

modified
conservator

SEALED-TANK SYSTEM
In the sealed-tank system the interior of the tank
is sealed from the atmosphere. The gas-plus-oil vol-

ume remains constant over the temperature

POWER TRANSFORMERS

2-9

range. The transformer tank and lead entrance


bushings are tightly sealed. Contamination of the
oil proceeds very slowly because of the careful
drying and vacuum filling done before the tank
is sealed.
This system has one limitation: With time the
pressure tends to become negative whenever oil
temperature falls below the temperature at which
the tank was filled. When this happens moisture
and a1r will be drawn into the transformer if a leak
does occur.
Maintenance of this system is minimal. The
pressure-vacuum gage can be obtained with alarm
contacts to alarm when overpressure or excessive
negative pressure occurs.
Figure 2-1 shows a transformer with a sealedtank system.

INERT GAS SYSTEM


In the inert gas system a blanket of dry nitrogen
is maintained over the oil in the transformer tank
at a pressure slightly higher than atmospheric
pressure. Thus, any leakage is outward and does
not contaminate the oil.
During cooling periods nitrogen is fed from
metal bottles near the transformer through a
regulating valve, which maintains a slight positive
gage pressure at the top of the tank. During heating periods a discharge regulator releases surplus
gas to prevent overpressure. There must be a sufficient "dead-band" between the settings of the two
regulators to allow for drift and random variation
of set points and to ensure that in-feed and discharge never occur at the same time. If that were
to occur, the entire contents of the gas bottles
could be lost.
The inert gas system requires regular maintenance: depleted gas bottles must be replaced,
nitrogen use must be recorded, and the settings
of the pressure regulators must be verified.
Another possible disadvantage of the inert gas
system involves formation of bubbles in the oil.
There is always a small but measurable quantity
of gas-nitrogen or other gases-dissolved in the
oil. During a coolin_g period and resultant depressurization some of the gas comes out of solution
in the form of bubbles. Migration of gas bubbles
into regions of high dielectric stress may cause
ionization of the voids within the bubbles because
the dielectric strength of the voids is lower than
that of the sUITOtmding oil. A chain of ionized voids
can produce dielectric failure. The seriousness of

Courtesy of McGraw-Edison Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.

Figure 21

Transformer With a Sealed-Tank Preservation System

this threat is controversial; many transformer


users continue to have satisfactory experience
with inert gas systems.
A transformer using the inert gas system is
shown in Figure 2-2. The control cabinet and nitrogen gas piping are visible.

MODIFIED CONSERVATOR SYSTEM


Because of the perceived disadvantages of the inert gas system, a competing system has been developed in which the transformer tank is kept
completely filled with oil from a conservator (tank)
above the level of the transformer tank cover. A
portion of the volume of the conservator is occupied by air, which breathes in and out as the oil
volume changes with temperature. The air is
prevented from contact with the oil by an impervious diaphragm or air cell.
This system has its own drawbacks. The conservator must be configured and located with respect
to the HV bushing terminals to maintain the required air-strike distance from terminals to
grounded metal. Given the manholes, pressure

210

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

..

.f

- - - - - .>

.......----

Courtesy of Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh,

Pa.

Figure 2-2 Transformer With Inert Gas Oil PreseNation System

relief diaphragms, lightning arresters, and, in


some cases, isolated-phase bus enclosures on and
around the top of the transfonner, the proper configuration and location of the conservator may be
difficult to achieve in some applications. In addition the diaphragm or air cell may not remain permanently impervious. The bottom of the air cell
rests on the surface of the oil. The float of the liquid level gage, also riding at the oil surface, rests
against the underside of the air cell. If the air cell
develops a leak, it will gradually fill with oil and
sink below the surface of the oil, carrying the float
downward. The liquid level gage alann will operate indicating either a damaged cell or low oil level.
Access openings are provided at both ends of the
tank for tank cleaning or air cell inspection. This
system has been widely accepted.

A transformer using the modified conservator


system is shown in Figure 2-3.

2.9 TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS


Any three-phase transfonner winding may be connected in delta, wye, or zigzag; it may even be connected in aT connection, which is sometimes used
for grounding transformers. The relative phasing
between primary and secondary may be zero or any
multiple of 30 electrical degrees. Few of the many
possible combinations are used in power plants.
A UT, also called a generator step-up or main
transformer, is a transfonner (or bank) used to
connect the generator to the HV system.

POWER TRANSFORMERS

2-11

Courtesy of General Electric Co.. Bridgeport, Conn.

Figure 2-3

Transformer With Modified ConseNator Oil PreseNation System

A VAT, also called a normal station service transformer, is one (usually fed from the main generator leads) that supplies power to the unit
auxiliaries.
An SST, also called a reserve station service
transformer or startup transformer, is one that
supplies power from a station HV bus to the plant
auxiliaries.
The phasing relationship between primary and
secondary windings of a three-phase transformer
is expressed in terms of terminal designations, for
which the standard convention is as follows: If one
is facing the LV side of the transformer, the HV
terminals are Hl, H2, and H3 from left to right and
the LV terminals are Xl, X2, and X3 from left to
right, as shown in Figure 2-4. More extensive information may be obtained from Reference 9.
'Iransformer winding phase relationships are
shown on the transformer nameplate.

The terms primary (winding) and secondary


(winding) are necessary in discussing transformer
ratings. A transformer is fully loaded when its
secondary winding is carrying full-load current.
The terms HV and LV are necessary in discussing
phasing, because ANSI standard phasing requires
the HV to lead the LV by 30 electrical degrees,
regardless of whether the HV winding is the primary or the secondary.
'IJpical phasor diagrams of connections used for
transformers in power plants are shown in Figure 2-5.
UTs

Most UTh, whether three-phase units or banks of


three single-phase units, are connected in delta on
the primary (LV) side and in grounded wye on the
secondary side. In any wye-delta, delta-wye, or

2-12

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

H1

X1

X3<J

X2

A
A

H2

H3

H1

X1

X2

X3

X1

X3<J

H2

H3

H1

H3<J

X2

H2

a
a

X1 XZ X3

XO X1 X2 X3

X1 XZ X3

Figure 2-4 Transformer Terminal Designation in Accordance With ANSI Standard C57.12.7D-1978

wye-zigzag transformer, unless otherwise specified, the secondary voltages at terminals Hl, H2,
and H3 lead the primary voltages at terminals Xl,
X2, and X3, respectively, by 30 electrical degrees
(Figure 2-5).
The grounded wye connection of the HV winding permits grading its insulation from specified
BIT. at the terminals to a lower BIT. at the grounded
neutral. The delta connection of the LV windings
provides a low-impedance path for zero-sequence
and third-harmonic currents, thereby facilitating
selective relay tripping for single phase-to-ground
faults on the HV system and improving secondary
voltage waveform. The UT primary is usually impedance grounded at the generator neutral. For
other types of transformer neutral grounding see
Volume 8, Station Protection.

UATs
UA'IS are most frequently connected in delta on
the primary side and in wye on the secondary side
but with Hl, H2, and H3 voltages lagging Xl, X2,
and X3 voltages by 30 electrical degrees. The wyeconnected LV windings permit some form of neutral grounding to facilitate selective relay tripping
for single phase-to-ground faults on the mediumvoltage auxiliary power system. The lagging phase

angle may be the simplest method of placing UAT


secondary voltages in phase with SST secondary
voltages in typical cases (Figure 2-5b).

SSTs
SS'Th are usually connected in grounded wye on
the HV side to permit the use of graded insulation. The LV windings may also be wye connected
to provide for a three-phase, four-wire system or
for neutral grounding. If the source of the SST is
the same HV bus as the one receiving the generator output, the phasing shown in Figure 2-5c may
be used. This connection results in a secondary
voltage in phase with the output of a UAT phased
as shown in Figure 2-5b.
A wye-wye transformer in this application does
not necessarily require a delta tertiary to provide
a low-impedance path for zero-sequence currents.
A three-legged core design, most frequently
offered in this size range, provides a virtual tertiary sufficiently well coupled to the other windings to present a low impedance as compared with
the neutral grounding resistor usually applied on
the secondary side.
If the HV source is different from the one to
which the UT is connected, it may be necessary
to use a delta-connected secondary for correct

POWER TRANSFORMERS

213

X1

H1
H1

H3<J
X2

Secondary

Primary

Secondary

Primary

H2

H2

H3

xo

b. Unit axiliaries transformer

a. Unit transformer

X1

H1

X1

H1

xo
X3

H2

H3

H2
Primary

Secondary

Primary

Secondary

d. Station service transformer

c. Station service transformer

X1
X1

H1

xo

Primary

X3

Primary

Secondary

H3

H2

Secondary

H2

X2

f. Secondary unit substation transformer I

e. Station service transformer Ill

X1
X1

H1

H3

H2

X2
Primary

Secondary

g. Secondary unit substation transformer II

Figure 2-5

h. T-connected grounding transformer

Typical Transformer Phase Relationships

phasing, in which case a separate grounding transformer is required to derive a neutral. Alternatively,
a zigzag-connected secondary can provide the
same phasing as a delta and would provide the neutral, but it may be the more expensive alternative

Figure 2-Sd). If the voltage of the other source is


less than 230 kv; a delta-connected HV winding
(which sacrifices the graded-insulation advantage)
with a wye-connected secondary permits the same
phasing at a lower cost than a wye-zigzag design.

2-14

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

SECONDARY UNIT SUBSTATION TRANSFORMERS


Secondary unit substation transformers are nearly
always connected in delta on the primary side, the
source voltage being low enough to remove any
advantage in grading the insulation (that is, using
a lower voltage insulation at the end of each winding). The secondary may be either delta or wye.
The wye connection is required if the LV neutral
is tQ be grounded, if a voltage regulator is to be
connected into the phase windings at the neutral
ends,
if a four-wire system for phase-to-neutral
single-phase loads is required (Figures 2-5f and
2-5g). Relative phasing of LV networks in power
stations is seldom important, because they are
seldom interconnected.

GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS
A zigzag-connected autotransformer may be used
on a three-wire system to derive a neutral for
grounding. The T connection is sometimes preferred when there are no phase-to-neutral loads,
because it permits the use of a two-legged core
with a single winding on each core leg, resulting
in a less expensive design. The neutral connection
is made to a tap on the stem of the T (Figure 2-5h).

2.10 TAPS
A power transformer may have taps in either primary or secondary windings so that its effective
turns ratio may be changed. In power plants such
changes are not usually required to establish a
new output voltage; instead they are needed to
reestablish the desired output voltage after a
departure due to a change in source voltage or
in load-related impedance voltage drop. If tap
changing must be done while the transformer is
loaded, special switching equipment is required
to transfer load current from one tap to another
without an interruption of service. This is called
tap changing under load.

tap changing-switching device is in the tank with


the core and coils in both three-phase and singlephase transformers. The no-load tap changer can
be operated only when the transformer is deenergized. Conventionally, a transformer has two fullcapacity 2%% taps above and two below rated voltage. In a step-down transformer the taps above
rated primary voltage are less likely to be used
than those below it. For that reason some purchasers prefer to specify one tap above and three
taps below rated voltage, an option available at no
change in price. The taps may also be ordered
closer together than 2%%, an option usually available without price premium. The taps can be omitted altogether with a saving in the price of the
transformer. Both of these last two options are
worth serious consideration in power plants.
The use of no-load taps in a UT (generator
step-up transformer) is a special case, because the
HV winding that nearly always contains the taps
is the secondary. This case is discussed in greater
detail in Section 2.13.

LOAD TAP CHANGERS (LTCs)


LTCs are often used in distribution substations but
are seldom used in power plants (10). In the United
States the conventional LTC has 32 taps at %% spacing, 16 above and 16 below rated voltage, to produce a voltage range of 10%. The transformer
may have reduced capacity on taps below rated
voltage. Where an LTC is used on a power plant
transformer, its purpose is not to alter the voltage supplied to utilization equipment but to restore that voltage after a change in load or in the
source voltage supplied to the transformer winding has occurred. The tap changer should be on
the transformer primary whenever possible. If it
is on the secondary, the rated kilovoltamperes may
not be available under heavy load conditions.
As an illustration of this point consider a
12-MVA, 24- to 4.16-kV transformer connected to
the leads of a 24-kV generator and fitted with a
secondary LTC. The (full-kVA) tap voltage and current ratings will be as shown in the following
abbreviated table:

NO-LOAD TAP CHANGERS


No-load tap changers employ manually operated
switching equipment that changes the turns ratio
of the three phases simultaneously and by the
same amount. In the case of single-phase transformers, each has its own manually operated noload tap changing-switching device. The no-load

Thp

Volts

Ame_eres

R16
R8
N
L8
L16

4576
4368
4160
3952
3744

1514
1586
1665
1753
1850

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Assume, for simplicity, that generator voltage


remains at 24 kV and that the set point of the
contact-making voltmeter controlling the LTC is
4.16 kV.
At no load the tap changer would remain in the
neutral position because secondary voltage would
match set point. At full load the secondary voltage
at the 4-kV bus might be reduced 5% by voltage
drops in the transformer impedance and secondary leads impedance. The LTC would compensate
by moving to Thp R8, which has a voltage rating
of 4.368 kV and a current rating of 1586 A. The
actual load current is 1665 A, a 5% overload. The
situation becomes worse if the generator is operating at 95% voltage.
This problem does not arise if the taps are on
the primary. The secondary voltage rating and the
voltmeter set point would both be 4160 V. The LTC
tap required to produce rated secondary current
(assuming power factor 0.8 or higher) must be
within the tap rating, because the transformer is
output rated.
LTCs are usually equipped with automatic control equipment to maintain a manually preset
secondary voltage. This equipment usually provides for remote control and indication of tap
position. The control typically includes an
auto/manual transfer switch, a raise/lower control
switch, a set-point adjuster, a tap position indicator,
and position limit-indicating lights. The equipment
also provides maintenance adjustments for deadband, starting time delay, and time delay between
tap changes. The dead-band and time delays reduce wear and tear from unnecessarily frequent
operation during brief voltage transients. With
usual adjustments the dead-band is on the order
of 1%; the starting time delay is about 30 s, and the
time between tap changes is 1 to 1 Yz s.
Addition of an LTC to a power transformer increases its cost by approximately 40%. The addition of electromechanical switching equipment to
an otherwise essentially static device increases
maintenance cost. In addition the moving parts
and the extra winding taps, which raise mechanical and electrical stress, may have a significant impact on reliability.
If an LTC is used on a power plant SST, the time
delays may have special significance, as discussed
in Section 2.15.
The LTC switching equipment is located in a separate oil-filled compartment connected to the
transformer main tank.
Figure 2-6 shows a power transformer with an
LTC. The latter is located in a separate compart-

2-15

ment, throat connected to the transformer tank,


below the top of the tank.

2.11 BUSHINGS
Bushings are used on liquid-immersed transformers to carry the winding terminal connections
through the grounded metal cover or sidewall of
the tank. A porcelain rain shield over the external portion is skirted to provide a long surface
creepage path from terminal to ground flange.
The internal portion below the ground flange is
generally immersed in the transformer insulating
fluid. This portion may also be encased in
porcelain.
HV bushings are of the condenser type, insulated with layers of oil-impregnated kraft paper.
Copper or aluminum foil layers of graded axial
length in the paper insulation structure distribute electrical stresses and control voltage gradients. The shell is filled with oil to keep the paper
saturated, and the outer terminal is fitted with an
oil level gage or sight glass. A cushion of dry nitrogen above the oil allows for thermal expansion and
contraction of the oil. This cushion is sealed at a
pressure above atmospheric pressure to exclude
air and moisture. Bushings of this type must be
shipped and stored in a nearly upright position
to prevent dryout of any of the layers of paper.
In bushings rated 115 kV and higher one of the
foil layers is made available as a bushing potential
tap through an insulated conductor just above the
ground flange. This tap must be impedance
grounded through an external potential device or
solidly grounded by a grounding cap whenever the
bushing is energized. Condenser-type bushings
(Figure 2-7) rated below 115 kV, down to and
including 15 kV, have a power factor tap. The
power factor tap connects to the ground layer of
the capacitor core. An aluminum cap covers the
insulated power factor tap assembly and grounds
the tap connection when it is not in use.
Bushings are of two types, depending on their
provision for connection to the transformer windings. In a fixed-conductor type the central tube or
rod conducts current from the top terminal to the
bottom terminal. The winding lead is connected
to the bottom terminal. In a draw-lead type the
winding lead is drawn upward through the central tube and connected to the top terminal. Figure 2-7 shows a bushing with a threaded copper
tube that can be used with a fixed-conductor or

2-16

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

a draw-lead type connection. Figure 2-8 is an extrahigh voltage (EHV) bushing of the draw-lead type.
HV bushings are generally selected to have the
same BIL as that of the transformer HV winding.
For situations in which the atmosphere is highly
contaminated with particulate matter or for highaltitude installations it may be desirable to use
bushings having a longer porcelain rain shield. If
this aim is achieved by using bushings with a
higher BIL than that of the winding, the lower portion of the bushing will also be longer, requiring
a taller tank, which may exceed shipping limitations. The alternative is an extra-creep design, in
which the rain shield is taller but the portion inside the tank is not extended.
Lower-voltage high-current bushings, which are
used on the primary terminals of UTh, are generally
fixed-conductor, bulk type, again with porcelain
rain shields and oil impregnated (Figure 2-9). Such
bushings are not usually equipped with oil level

gages, but oil leakage has occasionally been a problem. There could also be a heat dissipation problem
if bushings with a lower temperature rating are
connected to isolated phase bus conductors operating at 105C. 'll'ansformer specifications should
state terminal conditions.
Secondary bushings on UATh and SSTh are of the
porcelain type, at least 110 kV BIL, and are sometimes mounted in the sidewalls of the tank below
transformer oil level. Faulty seals in such bushings
have caused fires in a few cases when transformer
oil leaked through a bushing seal into a cooler control cabinet.
Bushings are manufactured in accordance with
the requirements of ANSI/IEEE Standard 24-1984
(11) and tested in accordance with requirements
and test procedures of ANSI/IEEE Standard
21-1976 (12).
See Section 2.22 for bushing maintenance.

Courtesy of McGraw-Edison Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.

Figure 2-6

Power Transformer With LTC

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Gaskets
Clear/view
oil reservoir

High compression coil springs

housing

Nameplate

Bushing
potential tap

Mounting
flange/ground
sleeve assembly

.,____ Paper-foil capacitor core

+----Lower porcelain assembly


Bottom coo
assembly*

POC design

Courtesy of Lapp Insulator Co.. LeRoy, N.Y.

Figure 2-7

Apparatus Bushing of the Paper-Oil Capacitor (POC) Type

2-17

2-18

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

2.12 ACCESSORIES
The accessories described individually in the following subsections are available for large liquidimmersed transformers. Few of them are applicable to dry-type transformers.

LIQUID LEVEL GAGE

The typical liquid level indicator is a sealed instrument body. Inside, an indicating needle sweeping
a calibrated scale is magnetically coupled to an external pivoted float arm, with the float at the top
surface of the insulating fluid. The scale is marked
to indicate high, low, and 25C levels. The indicator includes alarm switches.
For a transformer with an inert gas oil preservation system, the indicator is mounted at the top
of the transformer tank wall. For a transformer
with a conservator or constant oil pressure system, the indicator is mounted on the conservator
or oil reservoir.

TEMPERATURE INDICATORS

Courtesy of Lapp Insulator Co., LeRoy, N.Y.

Figure 2-8 EHV Bushing

1\vo similar temperature indicators are available


for liquid-immersed transformers. Basically, each
is a bourdon tube gage connected by a capillary
tube to a sensing bulb, which is enclosed in a well
located in the hottest liquid near the top of the
transformer tank. Each is equipped with electrical contacts for controlling forced-cooling equipment, for alarm, and for tripping.
One indicator (Figure 2-lOa) displays the top oil
temperature. In the other indicator, called a winding temperature or hot spot temperature indicator
(Figure 2-lOb), the well is heated electrically by
current proportional to transformer load, supplied
by a current transformer. The electric heating
simulates the winding hot spot rise over top liquid temperature. In some cases the heater leads
are extended to an external terminal box for
shunting by a calibrating resistor. The initial value
of the resistor is calculated, but it may change during the temperature rise test, if made. There have
been instances in which no temperature rise test
was made on a particular transformer and the hot
spot indicator gave false indications of overheating in service until the calibrating resistor was
replaced.

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Oil filler cap

Silver-plated blades
1...1 - - - - t o accommodate
line conductor

Porcelain-to-core
washer gasket

One piece
wet-process
porcelain shell

Clamping ring

Hex-head steel screw


and spring washer

P or celai n-t o- support


flange gasket

Porcelain-to-bottom
washer gasket

Bottom
washer-to-springgasket

Spring assembly

Blade terminal
I " " ' - - - - - t o accommodate
transformer connector

Courtesy of General Electric Co., Bridgeport, Conn.

Figure 2-9

High-Current Type-A Bushing 25-kV. Class-4500 A and Above

2-19

220

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

BUSHING CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

;1111
(!
:' l
:..

a. Top oil
Indicating
pointer

Switch-setting
tabs

A bushing current transformer consists of a short


sleeve of magnetic material with a distributed
toroidal secondary winding. It is supported below
the cover of the transformer tank at the bushing
opening so that the bushing lead, passing through
it, acts as a single-turn primary. Where required,
two or three current transformers can be installed
at each bushing. One of them is likely to be used
for transformer differential relays. Good relaying
practice prohibits putting any other burden on
such current transformers (Volume 8, Station Protection). Another might be used for other relays,
and a third might be used for metering.
Most bushing current transformers are provided
with taps for multiratio ratings.
As with other current transformers, bushing
current transformer secondary windings must be
short-circuited when no burden is connected, because their open-circuit voltages may be high
enough to be dangerous to personnel. They may
also cause insulation failure.

RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS


Indicating
unit

Capillary
tubing

Maximumreading
pointer
Credl
Reset-shaft
cap and gasket
Temperature
detector

Union connector
b. Hot-spot winding
a. Courtesy of Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa.; b. Courtesy
of General Electric Co., Bridgeport, Conn.

Figure 2-10 Temperature Indicator Relay

FLOW INDICATOR
'Ii'ansformers employing forced-oil cooling may be
equipped with a flow indicator, including alarm
switches, for each pump. 'JYpically, the indicator
is a vane-operated instrument mounted on the
pump discharge pipe. The scale is not calibrated;
it merely shows whether there is oil flow from the
pump.

Where remote indication, recording, or data logging of top oil or winding hot spot temperature
is desired, the local temperature indicators can be
supplemented or replaced by 10-0 copper resistance temperature detectors. In general it is not
feasible to embed such detectors in the transformer windings. They should be located in the
wells just below minimum oil level (13).

SUDDEN PRESSURE RELAY


A sudden pressure or fault pressure relay (Figure 2-11) responds by rapid closure of an electrical
contact to sudden pressure rise in the liquid in
which its sensing element is immersed. Designed
for mounting on the transformer tank wall near
the base or on a valve body, it senses the pressure
transient produced by an internal arc.
Because some of the early sudden pressure
relays were prone to operate erroneously under
other conditions, many users wired them for
alarm only. The modern relay has been made insensitive to mechanical shock and vibration, pump
surges, and normal pressure variations caused by
transformer temperature changes. User confidence has been restored; some users now regard
it as a sensitive and reliable primary protective
device and wire it for breaker tripping to isolate
a faulted transformer.

POWER TRANSFORMERS

2-21

failure. These monitors have operated flawlessly


to indicate sudden increases in hydrogen. As a result it was possible for the current transformers
to be removed from the circuit before failure.
Information on combustible gas analysis and interpretation is given in Kelley's article "'Transformer
Fault Diagnosis by Dissolved Gas Analysis" and in
ANSI Standard C57.104-1978 (14).
PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE

Courtesy of General Electric Co.. Bridgeport. Conn.

Figure 211

Sudden Pressure (Fault Pressure) Relay

One or more pressure relief devices (Figure 2-14)


may be installed in openings in the transformer
cbver to relieve dangerous pressure that may build
up within the tank. The device consists of a springloaded diaphragm, automatically reset, with a
mechanical semaphore to indicate that it has operated, and alarm contacts. Because these devices
are of a standard size, with limited relieving capacity, it may be advisable to install several on a
very large transformer to prevent a rupture of the
tank during a transformer fault.

GAS DETECTOR RELAY

A gas detector relay (Figure 2-12) collects bubbles


of gas generated below liquid level and closes an
electrical contact when a significant gas volume
has accumulated. Since most of the combustible
gas is generated by the decomposition of oil or of
solid insulating materials, relay operation may provide warning of incipient dielectric failure. Gas
bubbles that do not indicate decomposition may
form when there is a rapid change in temperature.
Since the gas detector relay does not discriminate
between combustible and noncombustible gas, it
might operate in either case. Determining whether
the gas evolution is a matter of concern requires
that a sample be collected for mass spectrometric
analysis in a laboratory.
FAULT GAS MONITOR

A combustible gas monitor that continually


monitors the levels of dissolved hydrogen, carbon
monoxide, acetylene, and ethylene gas in oil is
available commercially. The device mounts on the
transformer with the electrochemical sensor below
the oil level. It is provided with dual-stage alarm
circuitry for early incipient fault warning. The
monitor is shown in Figure 2-13. Sixty of these units
have been installed at a major American utility to
protect current transformers that have a history
of generating high quantities of hydrogen before

Courtesy of General Electric Co.. Bridgeport. Conn.

Figure 2-12

Gas Detector Relay

222

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE .SERIES

.....
....._

purchase the arresters with the transformer and


to require mounting brackets for them on the
transformer tank. For selection of arrester ratings
see Section 2.5.

2.13 APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS

When a source of electric power at one voltage


level is required to serve utilization equipment
designed for another (usually lower) voltage level,
a transformer is required between source and
load. Selection of the proper transformer requires
consideration of the following elements:

Courtesy of Syprotec Corp., Rouses Point. N.Y.

Figure 2-13

Fault Gas Monitor

LIFTING EYES AND JACK BOSSES


Lifting eyes and jack bosses facilitate the handling
of the transformer during manufacture, loading
for shipment, unloading at destination, and installation. In some cases jack bosses have been
mounted so low on the assembly as to require toejacks, which are less commonly available t1:J.an conventional hydraulic jacks. Large transformers can
be damaged seriously when conventional jacks are
applied under protrusions not designed for this
purpose.
'Iransformer outline drawings should be examined carefully for these features. In some cases the
manufacturer may be able to revise the design to
provide greater clearance under jack bosses if the
problem is identified before tank fabrication.

LIGHTNING ARRESTERS
Lightning arresters are most effective in protecting transformer insulation from surge voltages if
they are installed very close to the winding terminals. For this reason it is common practice to

Maximum sustained load


Altitude
Ambient temperature
Number of windings
Voltage ratings
'Iransient overvoltage
Load current waveform
Voltage regulation
Through-faults
Phasing
Loss evaluation
Noise criteria

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED LOAD


Maximum (permissible) sustained load is established in relation to resultant insulation temperature. This is because the electrical insulating
materials in a transformer are degraded over time
by chemical processes at a rate that is a function
of absolute temperature. The relationship of
time-to-end of life versus temperature is linear
when plotted on appropriate scales. This line is
called an Arrhenius curve. For a particular insulating compound or system the slope of the Arrhenius curve is determined at two or more elevated
temperatures. The temperatures are selected to
produce failure (end of life) in an acceptable time
period, but the temperatures are not so high that
they produce phase changes in the material. An
end-of-life condition is usually defined in terms of
mechanical properties of the insulation. When the
insulation becomes too brittle to remain in place
during the vibration, shock, and thermal expansion that are charactistic of a normal load cycle,
a dielectric failure is imminent (13, 15).
When transformer windings are below the temperature for which they were designed (because
of low ambient temperature or because of a prior

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Semaphore
(normal position)

223

Semaphore
(tripped position)
Protective cover

Courtesy of Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa.

Figure 2-14

Pressure Relief Device

period of light load operation), the transformer


may be loaded beyond rating for a limited period
without sacrifice of life expectancy. The permissible overload period is the length of time required
to raise the winding hot spot to the temperature
that would be produced by prolonged operation
under rated conditions.
This tolerance for temporary overload permits
a transformer to withstand the thermal effects of
through-faults and large motor-starting transients,
and it relieves concern about the effects of other
short-time overloads.
'fransformers may be overloaded for longer periods with predictable effects on life expectancy. In-

dustry consensus on transformer overload effects


is documented in ANSI Standard C57.92-1981 (16)
for oil-immersed transformers and C57.96-1959
(17) for dry-type transformers.
'fransformers in power plants are usually selected
to operate within their ratings and, in some cases,
with margin for future load growth. Loads added
to the auxiliary power system after initial construction may produce overload and other conditions
requiring analysis. Of particular concern are added
motor contributions to short-circuit current and
unfavorable effects on system voltage profiles.
The maximum sustained load is based on the
nameplate loads of all utilization equipment, present

224

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

and future, to be served by the transformer. However, it is less than the sum of the individual equipment ratings for several reasons. Motors are
available in discrete sizes. If a pump, for example,
requires 112 hp during normal operation, the driving motor is likely to have a rating of 125 hp.
However, that motor will seldom, if ever, operate
at 125 hp. In addition, many of the loads, such as
motor-operated valves, are intermittent. The
transformer may supply power to devices that will
not operate at the same time. Certain items may
be standby or spare, intended to operate only
when a similar item, possibly fed from the same
transformer, is unavailable for service. A single
transformer may also serve mutually exclusive
loads, such as an air conditioning compressor and
one or more duct heaters; when one is in operation, the other is not required.
1Wo factors often used in other contexts are relevant to this discussion. They are diversity factor
and demand factor. Diversity factor (greater than
1.0) is the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of the items served to the maximum demand (usually integrated over a 15- to
30-min period) of the whole system. Demand factor (less than 1.0) is the ratio of the maximum
demand of the whole system to the total connected
load. Connected in this sense means "served;'
whether operating or not.
Of these two the diversity factor concept is the
more useful. Note that the aggregate demand is
divided by the diversity factor to find coincident
demand. However, diversity factors applicable to
power plant auxiliary loads cannot be found in tables. Each subsystem constituting the entire load
on a single transformer secondary winding must
be analyzed separately. In nearly all cases the analysis must be based on printed data (for example,
nameplate ratings, performance curves, manufacturers' literature), since the subsystem is not available for measurements.
Short-time overloads, such as those produced by
motor starting, are common in transformer applications. The resultant voltage drops may require
analysis, but these types of overloads, unless they
repeat at brief intervals, can be ignored in selecting transformer kilovoltamperes. Motor-operated
valves are usually omitted from the demand calculation for that reason. A motor-driven air compressor with automatic start/stop or automatic
unloader control, on the other hand, should be
included, especially if the driving motor is large
in relation to the size of the transformer. Such
loads usually are included at their average demand

during any load cycle of more than a 15-min


duration. Standby and spare equipment can be
ignored unless there is likelihood that main and
standby will operate
for extended
periods.
The demand of each small load should be estimated conservatively at nameplate value. However,
larger motors justify more careful analysis to
determine their probable maximum continuous
demand and power factor.
Performance curves for a large fan, compressor,
or pump are plotted on heat-versus-flow coordinates. A system resistance curve is plotted on the
same coordinates. The interrelation of the performance curve with the system resistance curve is
the "normal" operating point. Such curve sheets
usually include a horsepower-versus-flow curve.
The ordinate of that curve at the flow corresponding to the operating point is the expected "normal"
motor output, regardless of motor nameplate
horsepower.
A prudent margin for future load growth should
be included. The size of that margin depends on
the extent to which the subsystem has been
defined at the time of transformer selection. Most
power plant 480-V and 600-V subsystems include
heating, ventilating, and air conditioning loads,
which may not be well defined until late in the
plant design. 'fransformers selected early in the
design process should therefore have generous
margins allowed for such loads. There should also
be some margin for loads added after the date of
commercial operation, because such additions are
common.
When all of the individual demands have been
defmed with reasonable accuracy and when diversity due to spare and standby equipment has been
treated appropriately, there may be additional
diversity because the motors and electric heaters
may not all present their maximum calculated
demand at the same time. That additional diversity is difficult to document and for that reason
is often ignored.
The general experience is that one or more complete LV substations will be added late in the design process and that space will have to be found
for it.
For medium-voltage (4.16, 6.9, and 13.8 kV) subsystems the major loads are usually defmed fairly
accurately early in the design process. It is good
practice, however, to base running horsepower
estimates on the performance characteristics of
the driven equipment rather than on motor
nameplate horsepower. The largest uncertainty is

POWER TRANSFORMERS

likely to be that associated with the LV unit substations fed from such medium-voltage subsystems, but the sum of such loads is generally a
small fraction of the medium-voltage load.
ALTITUDE

Any liquid-immersed transformer installed more


than 3300 ft (1000 m) above sea level must be derated oy the percentage given in Thble A2 in ANSI
Standard C57.12.00-1980 (5) for each 330ft (100m)
of altitude above 3300 ft.
Dry-type transformers installed at altitudes
greater than 3300 ft (1000 m) must be derated because of the reduced dielectric strength and the
reduced cooling ability of the ambient air. Thbles
for both types of derating are published in ANSI
Standard C57.12.011979 (6).
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE

The standard ambient temperature for power


transformers is 30C (24-h average) or 40C (maximum 1-h average). If the ambient temperature is
likely to exceed either of these limits, the transformer should be specified for a lower-thanstandard temperature rise. The kilovoltampere
rating and temperature rise shown on the
nameplate will then be proper for that application.
For example, if the 24-h average ambient temperature at the transformer location may be as
high as 45C, the transformer should be specified
for a 50C rise so that on those hot days the ambient plus the rise will be 95C, the same total as
would be obtained with a 30C ambient ("usual"
operating conditions) plus a 65C rise. The factory
test, which may be made in a 25C ambient, would
then show final average winding temperature, by
resistance, of not more than 75C, although the
insulation system is designed for a 95C average.
NUMBER OF WINDINGS

'Iransformers with more than two windings are


sometimes useful in power plant applications.
A delta tertiary may be added to a wye-wye
transformer to provide a low-impedance path for
zero-sequence currents, though it is not required
for this purpose in most cases.
AUT in a multiunit hydroelectric power plant may
have two primary windings to permit two generators to be connected to the switchyard through the
same HV or EHV line. Such applications require a
separate generator breaker for each unit.

2-25

Three-winding transformers are often used as


UATs and SSTs when the auxiliary power system
is large enough to require two or more mediumvoltage subsystems. Serving both subsystems from
a common primary winding reduces the cost of
transformers and primary connections as well as
the space required for transformers (Volume 3).
A three-winding transformer, when correctly
specified and designed, has performance characteristics very similar to those of two separate twowinding transformers. Although manufacturers
indicate a wider impedance tolerance for threewinding than for two-winding designs, most of
them accept orders with H-X and H impedance
voltage tolerances of 7%%. Thst reports show that
manufacturers stay within this tolerance. It may
be necessary, however, to allow 10% tolerance for
the X-Y impedance voltage.
Since a three-winding transformer has a separate kilovoltampere rating for each secondary
winding and an overall kilovoltampere rating,
which is usually the sum of the two secondary ratings, and since each secondary may have a selfcooled and one or more forced-cooled ratings, it
is very important that each impedance voltage,
H-X, H-Y, and X-Y, be specified, in percent, on a
clearly stated kilovoltampere base. Because some
winding configurations may not be suitable for
unbalanced loading, the specification should also
require that each secondary be capable of carrying any load from zero to full rating regardless of
the load on the other secondary.
'Iransformers have been built with four
windings-three wye-connected windings and a
load-carrying, delta-connected tertiary. Such
designs are complex and are likely to be less reliable
than simpler designs.
VOLTAGE RATINGS AND OVEREXCITATION

A transformer is overexcited when its secondary


voltage exceeds 110% of nameplate value at no
load, or 105% at full load, rated frequency, and
power factor 0.8 or higher. When frequency is
above or below rating the 110 and 105% limits apply to volts per hertz.
Excitation current of typical large power transformers at rated voltage and no load is on the
order of 0.4% of full-load current. It increases
sharply above 110% voltage and becomes a significant fraction of full-load current at voltages above
125%.
Hysteresis and eddy-current losses in the core
also increase rapidly at voltages above 110%.

2-26

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

In the case of transformers directly connected


to generators, a load rejection may produce transient overvoltages at or near a power frequency
having magnitudes as great as 135% for a few
seconds (longer if the voltage regulator is not in
automatic operation). Under these conditions stray
flux in magnetic paths outside the core may produce intense local heating, which can cause
cumulative degradation of transformer insulation.
It is for this reason that volts-per-hertz protection
is often installed for transformers exposed to such
transients.
Figure 2-15 is one major manufacturer's estimates of the overexcitation withstand capability
of a large power transformer. 1b pick a single point
on that curve for illustration, at 130% V!Hz, the
transformer could withstand this amount of excitation for about 16 s at each exposure.
A high-impedance transformer may require
more than 110% of nominal primary voltage to
produce 105% of rated secondary voltage at full
load, 0.8 power factor lag. That condition would
not qualify as overexcitation under industry standards. Nevertheless, some transformer designers
are not comfortable with that interpretation. Any
application in which this condition can be recognized as a requirement should be brought to the
attention of the transformer manufacturer. For
similar reasons transformer specifications should
not stop at identifying one winding as HV and another as LV. One of them must be designated as
the secondary.
The UT for a pumped-storage hydroelectric
power plant is a special case. Since the electric
machine requires more power when pumping
than it can deliver when generating, the transformer LV winding should be designated as the
secondary.
TRANSIENT OVERVOLTAGE

UTh and UATs, all of which, in the absence of a


generator breaker, are connected directly to a
generator, may be subjected to transient overvoltage during a load rejection. On a unit trip generator excitation is removed at the instant of trip.
Although generator air-gap flux does not decay
instantly under these conditions, the transient
overvoltage applied to the transformers is not
usually a matter of concern.
Other forms of load rejection may not cause
immediate removal of generator excitation and
may produce significant transient overvoltage. A
disturbance that separates the generator from a

140
135

iC 130

1\

5125

...

120

0
X

LlJ

115

"

l'o..

I'- r::....

r-- ....

110
105
0.1 0.2 0.4 0.71

710

20

40 70 100

Time (min)

Figure 2-15

General Guide for Permissible Short-Time Overexcitation of Power Transformers (Rated Volts
per Hertz = 100% Excitation)

major portion of the system load may not produce


a unit trip. If the generator voltage regulator is
operating in automatic mode at that time, it will
act rapidly to correct the overvoltage. If the regulator is operating in manual mode, however, transient overvoltage may reach 135% of generator
nameplate voltage, resulting in an even greater
degree of overvoltage at the transformer secondary terminals. Each incident of that kind is likely
to cause local heating in the transformer, which
will reduce insulation life expectancy.
In the case of a manual trip the control circuits
may not be designed to remove generator excitation automatically. If the voltage regulator is in
automatic mode, the initial overvoltage condition
will be corrected rapidly, but subsequent conditions could damage transformers connected to the
generator leads. As the generator speed decays,
the regulator will attempt to maintain set point
voltage at decreasing frequency. The result will
be excessive volts per hertz.
It is not economically feasible to design large
transformers for prolonged overvoltage. However,
the potential for its occurrence should be recognized in system design. If such potential is present,
some form of volts-per-hertz protection is warranted.
LOAD CURRENT WAVEFORM

When the load current of a transformer has substantial waveform distortion, the distortion components will increase transformer losses and
temperature rise.
ANSI Standard C57.12.00-1980 (5) states that, for
"usual service conditions;' load current shall be
approximately sinusoidal and the harmonic factor
shall not exceed 0.05 per unit. Harmonic factor

POWER TRANSFORMERS

is the ratio of the effective value of all the harmonics to the effective value of the fundamental. The
effective value of all the harmonics is the square
root of the sum of the squares of the effective
values of the individual harmonics.
If the load to be served by a transformer includes large rectifiers or large solid-state variablespeed drives, an analysis should be made to
determine whether the harmonic factor of load
current under transformer full-load conditions is
likely to exceed 0.05. If so, that "unusual" service
condition should be explained in the transformer
procurement specification.
HARMONIC CURRENT DERATING

Certain electrical loads, such as large rectifiers and


variable-speed drives, may draw current that
departs significantly from sinusoidal waveform
and may include a large reactive power component. The departures from sinusoidal waveform
can be described in terms of their Fourier series
equivalents-harmonics of fundamental power
frequency. The reactive power component lowers
system power factor and increases voltage regulation. The harmonic currents, if allowed to circulate beyond the drive package, produce extra
heating in the windings of transformers supplying power to such loads and may require that the
transformer be derated in order to remain within
rated temperature rise. As of September 1985 an
ANSI document on this . subject, Standard
C57.110/D7-1985 (18), was in preparation under
the sponsorship of the IEEE 'Iransformers Committee. This document presents a recommended
practice for establishing transformer capability
when applying nonsinusoidal load current.
The extra heating is caused by two effects: the
PR de loss produced by total harmonic current
and the increased stray loss due to the higher frequency of these harmonic components.
For loads that are a small fraction of the total

Example

The transformer rating is 16 MVA. Full-load secondary current is 2221 A. Of the total load loss, 25.9%
is stray losses. Stated another way, the total load loss
is 1.35 times the J2R loss [1/(1.0 - 0.259) = 1.35].
For the drive package, total fundamental (power
frequency) current is 1162 A and harmonics are
as follows: eleventh-8%; thirteenth-6.5%;
seventeenth-S%; nineteenth-4%; twenty-

2-27

load on a transformer secondary, transformer derating for harmonics will be negligible. In fossil
fuel plants, however, variable-speed drives are
sometimes used for boiler feedpumps and for
forced-draft and induced-draft fans. These are the
largest electric drives in the plant. Their harmonic
currents and reactive power requirements cannot
be safely ignored. A method of calculating derating
is explained below.
The first step in calculating the harmonic (derating) factor for current is to obtain from the supplier of the variable-speed drive package the
magnitude at full load of the fundamental and of
all harmonics of current drawn from the system
up to the twenty-fifth harmonic. The magnitude of
each harmonic is usually expressed in percent of
fundamental current. Frequently, the drive package filters out the lower harmonics, third through
ninth, so that these components do not flow
through the windings of the supply transformer.
The second step is to determine the root-meansquare (rms) value of the total load current, which
is the square root of the sum of the squares of fundamental and all harmonics, as noted in
Alternating-Current Circuits by Kerchner and Corcoran (19).
I = .../ I?j_ +

+ ... +

(Eq. 2-2)

The third step is to determine the transformer


stray-load losses at full load (sinusoidal). Stray-load
losses are the difference between load losses and
PR de loss. Load losses, in turn, are the difference between full-load loss and no-load loss. Fullload current, full-load loss, no-load loss, and R de
are all recorded in the factory test report.
The fourth step is to find the amount of sinusoidal load that can be added to the distorted waveform load without exceeding the load loss on
which transformer temperature rise is based.
An example will illustrate how such a calculation would be made.

third-2.5%; twenty-fifth-2%. Note that there are


no even harmonics and that the fifteenth and
twenty-first (multiples of 3) are absent. The J2
equivalent for the harmonics is:
(1162) 2 ((0.08) 2 + (0.065) 2 + (0.05) 2

+ (0.04) 2 + (0.025) 2

+ (0.02) 2 ] = 21,266

(Eq. 2-3)

2-28

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

That J2 equivalent will be used below in two


calculations.
The rms total current for the drive, including
fundamental and harmonics, is:

distorted-waveform load, the sinusoidal current


that can be added is found by solving the following quadratic equation:
1.35

[(1162)2 +

"" 1171 A/phase

(Eq. 2-4)

This total would be so read on a true rms


ammeter.
'fransformer P.R loss varies as the square of
rms current. 'fransformer stray losses vary as the
square of rms current and as the square of frequency. The usual technique for calculating the
heating effect of a current rich in harmonics is
to calculate how much sinusoidal current can be
added to the distorted waveform current without
exceeding the load loss produced by rated (sinusoidal) secondary current. For this calculation it is
necessary to know the proportion of stray losses
with sinusoidal loading; the de resistance of the
transformer cancels out of the quadratic equation.
The J2 equivalent of the stray losses is:
(1162) 2 [(0.08 X 11)2 + (0.065 X 13)2 + (0.05 X 17)2

+ (0.04

19)2 + (0.025

+ (0.02

25)2 ] 0.35 "" 1,592,211

23) 2
(Eq. 2-5)

This J2 value also will be used below.


Assuming that the added sinusoidal load is in
phase with the fundamental component of

IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE AND REGULATION

Impedance voltage is the voltage drop in the windings due to their ac resistance and leakage reactance when the transformer is delivering full-load
current. In the case of dual- or triple-rated transformers with forced cooling, full-load current, for
the purpose of this definition only, corresponds
to the self-cooled rating. In the case of transformers with taps on the secondary winding, full-load
current is the current rating of the tap. Note that
at secondary voltages below tap voltage rating, the
transformer is not capable of delivering rated
kilovoltamperes continuously, despite being specified as having "full-kVA" taps. Under the LV conditions the tap current rating governs.
'fransformer regulation is defined as the rise in
secondary voltage when full load is removed. It
is expressed in percent of secondary voltage rating. Regulation increases with increasirig impedance and with decreasing load power factor.

X (1

"" (2221)2

+ 1162)2 + 21,266 + 1,592,211


X

1.35

(Eq. 2-6)

Equation 2-6, in which each term, multiplied by


R, would be watts, reduces to:
I = [(2221 )2 _

21,266 + 1,592,211
1.35

_ 1162

(Eq. 2-7)

= 771 A/phase

Note that the 21,266 and 1,592,211 constants


were derived above.
The sum of the rms value of drive current,
1171 A, and the load that can be added, 771 A,
is 1942 A. In effect, then, the transformer megavoltampere capacity has been reduced to 1942/2221,
or 0.874 times its sinusoidal capacity-a 12.6%
reduction. Another way of describing the result
would be to say that a distorted waveform current
of rms value 1171 A produced as much transformer
heating as would 2221-771, or 1450 A of sinusoidal
load current, a 1.24 multiplier.
A result of this magnitude suggests that more
complete filtering in the drive package might be
economically justified.

As noted in the Standard Handbook for Electrical


Engineers (20), and ignoring percent resistance,
which has small effect:
%REG = 100 (../{[1 - (PF)2]l> + % Z/100}2

.J (PF)2

1)

(Eq. 2-8)

Where:
% REG "" transformer regulation, in percent
PF"" load power factor, per unit

% Z "" transformer impedance voltage, in percent

For transformers in power plant auxiliary power


systems, regulation is typically 0.5 times percent
impedance.
Th.ble 2-2 is derived from the above expression.
It must be recognized that voltage regulation,
as measured at switchgear buses, may be increased

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Table
Load

z.z

Approximate Voltage Regulation

Percent lmpedancea

PF

0.90
0.88
0.86
0.84
0.82
0.80

2.28
2.47
2.64
2.80
2.94
3.08

2.76
2.99
3.19
3.38
3.55
3.71

3.24
3.51
3.75
3.96
4.16
4.35

3.74
4.04
4.31
4.56
4.78
5.00

9
4.24
4.58
4.88
. 5.16
5.41
5.65

10
4.75
5.12
5.45
5.76
6.04
6.30

"The exad value is slightly affeded by percent resistance.

significantly by secondary leads impedance voltage drop and will be additive to variations in transformer primary source voltage.
Low impedance is advantageous for voltage control but cannot be specified indiscriminately without consideration of its effect on short-circuit
currents (Volume 3, All}(iliary System Planning).

IMPEDANCE AND THROUGH-FAULTS


A through-fault is a short circuit at or in electrical proximity to the terminals of one winding of
a transformer while another winding is connected
to a source of power. Such faults subject the transformer to both thermal and mechanical stresses.
Because of a series of in-service failures caused
by through-faults, the industry began reexamining the problem in the late 1960s.
ANSI Standard C57.12.00-1980 (5) requires that
a transformer be capable of withstanding a short
circuit on one winding with essentially full voltage maintained on the winding or windings
designed for connection to sources of power. The
field experience raised new questions as to the
permissible magnitude, duration, and frequency
of occurrence of such faults.
A well-conceived program to find answers to
these questions is documented in a 1976 IEEE
paper (21). The investigators found that thermal
aging and short-circuit stress have an interrelated
role in the mechanical deterioration of insulation,
which can lead ultimately to insulation failure.
As a result of this and other investigations a supplement to ANSI Standard C57.12.00-1973 covering short-circuit requirements was issued in 1978
and incorporated with minor changes in the 1980
revision of the standard (ANSI Standard
C57.12.00-1980) (5). Discussions are continuing
in the IEEE 'Iransformers Committee toward
agreement on the frequency of such faults, which
might be considered a part of "usual service
conditions?'

229

'Iransformers connected directly to generators


may be subjected to unusually severe throughfaults because of the abrupt rise in primary voltage when the generator is separated from the
power system and the slow decay of generator flux
following a protective relay operation. This set of
conditions is well described in a 1977 IEEE paper
(22).

The conclusions to be drawn from the above


material are that (1) power plant transformers require special protective relaying to protect them
from prolonged through-faults and that (2) transformers connected to generators must be specified for that service and designed with special
bracing and appropriate thermal capability. Protective relay aspects are discussed in Volume 8, Station Protection.

PHASING OUT THREE-PHASE CIRCUITS


The following material describes a test method for
verifying the relative phasing of two three-phase
power supply circuits that may, at times, be
paralleled. The secondary leads of an SST and a
UAT are an example. This method is independent
of the correctness of polarity or connections of
voltage transformers already installed on those
circuits.
If the circuit breaker is metal clad, a groundingand-test device may be used. A grounding-and-test
device is a draw-out element that may be inserted
into a metal-clad switchgear housing in place of
a circuit breaker. It provides access to the primary
circuits in order to permit temporary connection
of grounds or testing equipment to the HV circuits.
The device includes six bushings for connection
to primary circuits and a ground bar for connection to the switchgear ground bus. All circuit elements are separated by insulating barriers. The
device may also include a three-pole, two-position,
manually operated primary selector switch and
a stored-energy-operated grounding switch.
Normal safety procedures, such as using rubber
gloves, rubber blankets, or hot-line tools, as
appropriate, must be followed throughout the test.
Further, care must be taken to remove all test
connections and shutter blocks when the test is
completed.
The measuring instrument should be a 150-V
d'Arsonval or rectifier-type ac voltmeter, shunted
by an incandescent lamp to minimize capacitance
effects. Accuracy is unimportant. Digital instruments are less suitable for this purpose. If circuit
nominal voltage is higher than 120 \1, a voltage

2-30

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

transformer with two primary fuses is required.


In that case both test leads must be insulated for
circuit voltage and connected to the primary fuses,
and the transformer core and one leg of the secondary should be grounded for safety.
The tests are of the "pass/fail'' type. Recording
instrument readings is not essential. The first test
on each circuit measures phase-to-phase voltages
to verify that the circuits are energized. The second-test on each circuit measures phase-to-ground
voltages. In this test very low voltage readings on
all three phases will indicate an ungrounded neutraL In that case it will be safe and necessary to
connect a temporary jumper across one of the
main contacts. A large difference among the three
phase-to-ground readings on either source may in
dicate a fault, which must be cleared before
proceeding. Alternatively, it may indicate that the
source is a delta with a midpoint ground on one
phase winding. In that case the other source must
be similarly grounded or ungrounded, if the two
are to be interconnected.
The final test measures the voltages across the
open contacts (of the tie breaker). If these voltages
are less than 10% of the nominal phase-to-phase
voltage, the relative phasing is correct. A nonzero
voltage indicates either a small phase angle difference or a small voltage difference between
sources, which is to be expected.
1b judge the seriousness of a voltage across the
open contacts (of the tie breaker), multiply the voltmeter reading by the ratio of the voltage transformer, then by 100, and divide the product by
the nominal phase-to-neutral voltage of the system.
Divide that result by the sum of the percent
impedances of the two supply transformers. The
quotient is the decimal fraction of full-load current that would circulate between supply trans
formers (assumed to have the same megavoltampere rating) if the tie breaker were closed. For
6%-impedance transformers feeding 4.16-kV systems, a voltage difference of approximately 288 V
would cause full-load current to flow. Significant
impedance in the primary sources of the transformers or in their secondary leads would increase the voltage required to produce this result.
If the two source voltages were in phase but of
different magnitudes, the flow would be reactive
power. If they were of the same magnitude but
slightly out of phase, most of the flow would be
real power. For the example cited a phase angle
difference of about 7 electrical degrees would correspond to full load.

LOSS EVALUATION

Loss evaluation has a significant effect on the


design of aUT or a UAT. No-load loss evaluation
affects the design of an SST. It is not likely that
evaluation of either load or no-load losses will
affect the design of an LV substation transformer,
because the increased cost of a low-loss design in
this size range would not be offset by future
savings.
A procedure for loss evaluation is described in
Section 2. 7 and in Appendix A.
NOISE CRITERIA

Sound emitted by power plant apparatus can be


a matter of concern for two reasons: hearing damage risk and neighborhood annoyance.
Hearing damage risk is incurred by personnel
exposed 8 hours per day, 5 days per week over
an extended period to A-weighted noise levels exceeding 90 dBA or exposed to higher levels for
shorter periods. This requirement was promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration in Section 1910.95, Thble G-16, of
its April1, 1981, standards (23). Such extended exposure is only likely in the case of transformers
installed inside the power plant. Those commonly
installed in open areas inside the plant are too
small to make a significant addition to the aggregate noise of other power plant apparatus.
Those installed in separately enclosed switchgear
rooms may be the dominant noise sources in a
highly reverberant occupancy; however, a switchgear room is not an area where ali-day exposure
over extended periods is likely. For these reasons
hearing damage risk is rarely a consideration in
the selection of a power plant transformer.
Large transformers installed outdoors may in
certain cases make a significant contribution to the
overall noise level at property boundaries. At these
boundaries the aggregate noise and its frequency
distribution must be analyzed from the standpoint
of neighborhood annoyance and for compliance
with local noise ordinances. In this analysis the UT
is the only plant transformer likely to be significant.
A complete discussion of noise control is outside
the scope of this volume. It is a complex subject
that has been under study by the Audible Sound
and Vibration Subcommittee of the IEEE
formers Committee for more than 12 years. Nevertheless, some useful information is presented
below.

POWER TRANSFORMERS

The dominant component of the sound emitted


by a UT is core noise due to magnetostriction. That
noise appears at discrete frequencies: a fundamental at twice power frequency and harmonics of the
fundamental frequency. Other sound emitted includes fan noise from the forced-cooling system.
Figure 2-16 is a plot of data derived from factory noise measurements made on large power
transformers by General Electric Company during the early 1970s. The plot shows that the 120-Hz
tone is most prominent. However, with the "N'
weighting usually applied in assessing the audible
effects of these tones, the 240- and 360-Hz tones
become of greatest importance, with the fundamental and other tones progressively less
important.
The factory measurements, like most such measurements, were made at rated voltage and no
load. However, in the case of U1S, especially those
with high impedance, the flux density on which
magnetostriction is dependent must be increased
with load in order to maintain constant secondary
voltage. This increase is produced automatically
by the generator voltage regulator. This device
raises generator voltage with load in order to
maintain constant secondary voltage in the face
of increasing impedance voltage drop in the transformer. The result is that a UT at full load may
produce sound levels 10 or 15 dB higher than
those measured at rated voltage in the factory. For
. this reason some purchasers require that sound
measurements be made at both 100 and 110% of
rated voltage.

15

-.

10

Cl

31:

c:

"ii

-5

.s::

:I

,; -10

-g:I

+3o-

-15

Median

-20
;:;
It:

-3o-

-25
-30

L---..1...--..l--...l--...l--....L...-....L...--

120

240 360 480 600 720


Discrete frequency CHzl

Figure 2-16

Bar Chart Factory Noise Measurements


of Large General Electric Power
Transformers (Early 1970s}

231

Despite this effect UT sound has become a


relatively unimportant consideration in recent
years. There are two reasons for this. One is that
modern power plants usually are built on very
large sites. Thus, the UT is often remote from plant
boundaries. The other reason is that the high valuation placed on transformer no-load losses by most
purchasers encourages designers to reduce core
flux density.
In critical cases transformer sound can be
reduced in several stages. For reductions up to 12
or 15 dB from the "average" sound level published
by the manufacturers, the purchaser may specify
a lower level, which will increase transformer
price by approximately 2%/d.B of reduction. For
still greater reduction double-wall tanks can be
furnished, but the cost may be greater than that
of other measures.
The UT, which is the largest source of magnetostriction noise, is often installed near a turbine
room outside wall. That wall may be an effective
reflector of sound. It can be made less reflective
by using an outside course of specially slotted concrete blocks in which the slots and cavities are
tuned to make them Helmholz resonators, effective absorbers of the major harmonic components
of magnetostriction noise. The patent for this slotted design is privately owned, but any local concrete block fabricator can make these special
blocks under license from the patent owner.
A barrier wall may be erected between the
transformer and the property boundaries. Such
a barrier, usually of masonry construction, should
be higher than the transformer tank and as close
to the transformer as possible, consistent with inspection and maintenance requirements, electrical clearances, and allowance for circulation of
cooling air. In general the distance from the wall
to the nearest major surface of the transformer
assembly should be at least 8 ft. The wall surface
facing the transformer should be treated acoustically to reduce reflection.
In a few very critical applications transformers
have been completely enclosed, except for their
HV bushings, in masonry vaults. Such designs have
required special provisions for cooling (either
water cooling or detached FOA coolers outside the
vault), for oil spills, for fire protection, and for
bringing the HV bushings through noise seals in
the vault roof. Noise reductions of as much as 25 dB
can be achieved in this manner.
In the past, several experiments have been done
with noise cancellation techniques. This approach

2-32

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

showed considerable promise under closely controlled conditions but has not proved practical.

transformer during its entire travel, from the factory to the job site, in order to be able to report
on any incidents of rail humping.

2.14 SHIPPING CONSIDERATIONS


2.15 SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS
Shipping considerations may affect the design of
large power transformers. If the transformer can
be purchased free on board (FOB) destination, the
manufacturer will investigate the entire shipping
route, including roads, rails, bridges, and tunnels,
to determine.dimension and weight limitations before undertaking the detailed design. If the transformer is purchased FOB factory, the purchaser
may have to establish the shipping limitations. In
some cases barge shipment over a portion of the
route may relieve certain limitations. Overhead
clearances may dictate a five-legged core rather
than a three-legged core or removable side pockets for EHV bushings, or they may require that
the tank be "made in two sections, the top section
to be replaced by a temporary flat cover for
shipment.
Even transformers of moderate size may require
partial disassembly for shipment. Removal of HV
bushings, oil, and radiators is common practice
and presents no special problems. If cooler control cabinets or other appurtenances must be removed, however, the design must provide for their
removal after factory test and their reinstallation
at the job site.
Large liquid-immersed transformers are usually
drained before shipment to reduce their weight.
They are then filled with either dry nitrogen or
dry air and sealed at a low positive internal pressure, monitored by an external gage. The liquid
is shipped from the supplier directly to the job site
in tank trucks or tank cars.
Personnel must work inside the transformer
tank during installation, in some cases to remove
temporary bracing but in most cases to connect
leads when the bushings are installed. For that reason the nitrogen, if used, must be purged before
the tank is entered. Some purchasers prefer dry
air to dry nitrogen.
Impact recorders are frequently mounted on
railroad cars carrying large transformers to provide evidence of rough handling if the transformers appear to have been damaged in shipment. If a rider is hired to escort a transformer
during rail shipment, he should be given explicit
instructions that his function is to accompany the

UTs
The UT is the largest transformer in the plant. It
is generally located outdoors and is mineral oil immersed. In the United States such transformers
rarely have LTCs. Because they have to be kept
small enough to be shipped by rail, most UTh are
class FOA or class FOW. (Class FOW transformers
are commonly used at hydroelectric plants.) The
fact that a transformer of either design has no selfcooled rating usually is not a disadvantage, because in this application it will usually operate well
loaded whenever it is energized. It is important,
however, that the mechanical cooling auxiliaries
be placed in operation whenever the transformer
is energized. As compared with a triple-rated design (class OAIFA/FOA or class OA/FOAIFOA), FOA
or FOW transformers cost slightly less and require
less space.
The triple-rated design may be preferred, however, if switching equipment is added in the generator leads to the UT. That addition permits the
carrying of auxiliary power load by backfeeding
from the switchyard through the UT and the UATh
while the unit is shut down. The triple-rated transformer can operate in this mode without forced
cooling.
The UT differs from most other transformers
on the system. in that its HV winding is the secondary. Its LV winding most often is connected to
the generator through the isolated-phase bus. The
tank cover must be fitted with nonmagnetic
flanges around each LV bushing to support the individual phase enclosures for that bus. If the LV
bushings are cover mounted, as is frequently the
case, the strike distance from HV bushing terminals to bus enclosures must be adequate for the
voltage class. And, since large stray currents may
be present near the isolated-phase bus, the bus
enclosures must be insulated from the tank cover.
The arrangement of grounding conductors for the
bus enclosures and the transformer tank requires
special consideration. It is also necessary to ensure that the transformer LV bushings have temperature ratings suitable for connection to the bus

POWER TRANSFORMERS

conductors, which may operate at 105C. Since


the transformer will be located near the generator
to minimize the length of the costly leads, oil spills
and fire protection warrant special consideration.
The UT may be a single three-phase unit, two
"half-size" three-phase units, or three single-phase
units. Selection among these alternatives is generally based on consideration of some torm of spare.
Except for connection to 765-kV or higher voltage
systems, three-phase units are available.
Selection of Size, Impedance, and Voltage
Ratings The selection of size, impedance, and

voltage ratings for the UT is different from similar procedures for a substation transformer. These
characteristics must be selected with care to ensure that the full capability of the turbine generator will be available to the power system. Being
. far less expensive in dollars per kilovoltampere
than the generator, the transformer must not be
the bottleneck under any possible operating condition. The trade-offs must be explained to all interested parties-the power station engineers, the
operating personnel, the system planning engi
neers, and the substation and transmission
engineers-to arrive at prudent decisions. To this
end it may be necessary to analyze several alternatives and to prepare graphic presentations of
performance limitations, as demonstrated below.
TUrbine Generator The UT is the link between

the turbine generator and the power system that


it serves. As such it must not limit the output of
the turbine generator in any of its permissible
operating conditions.
The permissible operating conditions are
bounded by the generator reactive capability
curve furnished by the manufacturer. That curve
is a plot of maximum reactive power, both lagging
and leading, versus real power. By convention lagging power factor (generator overexcited) is shown
above the power axis and leading power factor
(generator underexcited) is shown below it.
Such a curve is shown in Figure 2-17. Unless
otherwise indicated the curve applies to operation
at rated voltage. Curves for 95 and 105% voltage
may differ slightly from the rated voltage curve,
except at rated power factor. The differences are
noticeable at a zero power factor, leading, but are
not usually significant in the selection of UT
ratings.
The product of rated megavolt-amperes and rated
power factor is a megawatt value, reasonably well

2-33

matched to the turbine generator real power output with turbine inlet valves wide open and some
set of steam (or hydraulic) conditions for which
performance is guaranteed. That megawatt value
is not necessarily equal to the maximum continuous
real power output under winter (or maximum
head) conditions. Greater power than the above
megawatt value will reduce the allowable reactive
power flow to the system but will increase the UT
loading, as will be shown. Where a heat balance
(or hydraulic study) has demonstrated a greater
power output, it may be prudent to use that value
and the intersections of the corresponding vertical
locus line with the reactive capability curve as inputs to the transformer calculations.
Figure 2-17 is marked to indicate the generator
reactive capability limits, lag and lead, at the real
power output corresponding to generator
megavolt-amperes and rated power factor. These
values, 854.9 MW, 530 MVAR, and -346 MVAR,
are used in the transformer calculations for the
base case.
It is not possible to make the entire range of
generator full-power reactive capability available
to the power system under all system voltage conditions. 'll'ansformer real and reactive power
losses will absorb part of the generator output
under most conditions. Certain system voltage conditions may cause the generator to operate outside its allowable voltage range. These conditions,
in turn, may cause the transformer to operate outside its allowable range of voltage or current.
'll'ade-offs must be made when transformer
parameters are selected to ensure that the portions of the megavolt-ampere-reactive range that
are sacrificed under LV or HV conditions are those
least needed. Also, the transformer should not be
made unreasonably large; cost and space must be
considered.
Unit Auxiliary Load In the usual power plant
design one or more UATh will be connected to the
generator leads to provide a normal source for the
unit auxiliaries power system. When these transformers are in use, the unit auxiliaries load, as
seen from the primary terminals of the UAT,
drains off a portion of generator output before it
reaches the primary terminals of the UT. Since this
drain is a normal condition, the usual practice is
to recognize it and select the UT for net output.
In certain cases, however, transformers are sized
to accept the gross output of the generator in order to allow full-load operation of the unit while

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

2-34

4 pole, 1,005,800 kVA, 1800 rpm, 24,000 V


0.85 PF, 0.58 SCR, 60 psig hydrogen pressure, 500 V excitation
1000

---

800

vvv v
0.60 PF

0.70 PF

0.80 PF

600

Overexcited
limit 530 MV AR

""'

...J

vv vv

0::

200

>

V"

::E

r---. r--

'\

400

"" ""' '

!'\.

200

I
400

0.95 PF

I
-

0.98 PF

r- r-.

r-. 0.95

r--....

PF

'to.....
0.90 PF

0.70 PF

I
0

r-....

---1--

.......

0.60 PF

600

854.9 MW

limit 346 MVAR

0.90 PF

r:
-- r-'

"0

".,
...J

r-

F::::::::
. ' I".."

v
vv
v

200

0.85 PF

vv
vv v
/

400

<(

0.80 PF

I
600

800

1000

1200

MW

Figure 2-17

Reactive Capability Curves for Steam Turbine Generator Unit

the auxiliaries load is supplied from another


source. This selection increases transformer
cost.
Half-Size un Failure of the UT will cause a
prolonged outage of the entire unit unless there
is an available spare transformer, preferably on
site. 1Wo half-size transformers may be selected
in place of a single full-size transformer in order

to reduce the cost of the spare or, in some cases,


to remain within shipping limitations. When this
is done, each transformer may be sized to carry
more than half the generator output, permitting
useful operation of the unit while one transformer
is being tested, maintained, repaired, or replaced.
In such cases both the single-transformer and twotransformer conditions should be investigated in
the initial selection process.

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Graphic Presentations of Performance Graphic


presentations of performance, such as are shown
in Figures 2-18 through 2-25, are useful in evaluating initial selections of UT ratings. They are also
helpful in soliciting the comments of operating and
system planning personnel on the effects of the
initial selections.
Several variables are involved in the relationship
of a turbine generator, a UT, and a power system.
Some of these are generator megawatts, generator megavolt-amperes-reactive, generator hydrogen pressure, generator voltage, transformer
output megawatts, transformer output megavars,
and transformer output voltage. Four transformer
parameters have to be determined in the transformer selection process:

Megavolt-ampere rating
Impedance voltage
Secondary voltage rating
Primary voltage rating

The ratings selected will determine the relationships among these variables. There is some latitude in the selection of each rating. For that reason
it is useful to present the results of a set of selections in graphic form.
The generator reactive capability curve is a plot
of generator megavolt-amperes-reactive versus
generator megawatts, often in a family of curves,
one curve for each cardinal value of generator
hydrogen pressure. Separate curve sheets may be
presented, one for each value of generator voltage.

94 7 MVA transformer 23.131-345.000 kV


9.17" impedance with 1005.8 MVA,
854.9 MW generator
52.37 MVA unit auxiliaries load
Top

System
-Generator voltage 105.0x

600

E
Q)

.,

.,>-

0
1-

500

Transformer ii mit

400

Generator overexcited limit

300
200
Generator voltage 102.5X

100

-100

Generator unity power factor


Generator voltage 100.0x

-200
-300

-.,
E
Q)

.,

-400

>-

.E
0

u...

2-35

Transformer limit

-600
-700

Generator voltage 9S.Ox

-800
-900
-1000
330

362
Bus CkVl

Figure 2-18

Base Case

2-36

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

Generator
24.9 kV

Rating

zr

UAT

24 kV
Auxiliary
bus
,.
1

Bose 24 kV
1107.65>: VI
103.75>:

I ..

I
I

VI

98.34>:

854.9
UA T load

Load losses

812.48 MW
499.29 MVAR

418.71 MVAR

Figure 2-19

Voltage and Power Profiles

In the selection of transformer ratings it is only


the limiting values of generator megawatts, generator megavolt-amperes-reactive, and generator
hydrogen pressure that are of interest, not their
interrelationships in other portions of their
ranges.
Rating selections have little effect on transformer output megawatts. "fransformer real power
output is very nearly equal to the real power input in all cases, although the power losses, which
make up the difference, have important economic
value. The rating selection has significant effect
on the relationship between output megavoltamperes-reactive and voltage and on the limits of
output megavars, which limits may be determined
by the capabilities of the generator, the transformer, or the HV circuit breakers (voltage limit).
Attempts have been made to display the effects
of transformer selection as additional lines on the
generator reactive capability curve sheet. These
attempts fail because there is no voltage scale and
because they conceal the reactive power losses in
the transformer, which are significant.
More information can be presented by plotting
values on the secondary (system) side of the transformer on a different set of axes.
When the generator is at maximum power, the
reactive power transfer to the system (dependent
variable) is determined by rating selections and by
the variables' generator voltage and switchyard

voltage, either of which could be selected as the


independent variable for a family of performance
curves. When generator voltage is selected as the
independent variable, a separate curve can be
drawn for each cardinal value of switchyard voltage. When switchyard voltage is selected as the
independent variable, a separate curve can be
drawn for each cardinal value of generator
voltage.
Separate curves for each generator voltage are
clearer. This type is therefore used in Figures 2-18
through 2-25. It will be useful to examine these
eight figures before considering the selection
method.
Figures 218 through 2-25 show the performance
of a 1005.8-MVA, 0.85-power factor generator, with
52.37-MVA, 0.81-power factor auxiliaries load, connected to a 345-kV transmission system through
six slightly different UTs. The differences in performance illustrate the effects of changes in four
transformer parameters: megavolt-ampere rating,
impedance, secondary voltage rating, and primary
voltage rating. Most of these figures represent the
unit operating at 854.9 MW. Figures 2-20 and 2-25
are included to show the effects of changes in real
power output. The graphs were developed with
the aid of a computer program, but the information they present can be derived with the data
from load-flow studies for the transmission
system.
The terms design center and system voltage refer
to a set of system conditions around which most
of the hours of unit operation are expected to be
clustered. The fact that the unit will not be at full
power during all of this time is of small importance
in this analysis. At reduced power the generator
can deliver more reactive power, but the transformer load will be reduced. The design center
is identified in each figure by a small circle.
System voltage will generally be held far enough
below the circuit breaker maximum voltage rating
to allow for random excursions, but it is not likely
to be set deliberately in the lower portion of the
range, there being no economic incentive for exporting power at low voltage.
Abnormal system conditions may result in low
bus voltage, but it is reasonable to assume that this
unit will be called on at such times for maximum
reactive power support and that the support will
raise voltage.
For all eight figures it was arbitrarily assumed
that a system voltage of 356 kV at the switchyard
bus would be the design center value. The primary
(LV) winding voltage rating of each transformer

POWER TRANSFORMERS

2-37

955 MVA transformer 23.123-345.000 kV


9.17" impedance with 1005.8 MVA,
897.7 MW generator
52,37 MVA unit auxiliaries load
Tap

System

600

500

E
CP

( /)

400

>.

(/)

.....
200
Generator voltage 102.5"

100
a::

<(

>

::l:

-100
Generator voltage 100.0"

-200
-300

E
II)

.,

-400

>.

(/)

...0

-600

LL.

-700
Generator voltage 95.0"

-800
-900
-1000
330

362
Bus (kVl

Figure 2-20

Increased Real Power

was therefore selected to place generator voltage


at nameplate value, 100%, when bus voltage was
356 kV and reactive power flow from the UT to
the switchyard bus was either zero or some other
preselected value. Note that the zero reactive
power flow condition is different from unity
power factor at the generator terminals.
It was also assumed that the UT must not limit
generator output within its reactive capability
limits, overexcited, but that generator thermal
capability in the underexcited region, often partially denied to the system by automatic control
devices because of stability considerations, need
not be fully accommodated.
In each figure generator-plus-transformer performance is presented graphically in terms of system quantities: reactive power flow to or from the

switchyard bus versus bus voltage. Since system


quantities, in this context, are also UT secondary
quantities, the transformer limits may be shown
directly. Also, with transformer secondary quantities known at every point on the chart, transformer input quantities can be derived for every
point, and generator limits can be shown.
None of these figures shows bus voltages below
330 kV. Although bus voltage, under abnormal
conditions, could drop to 328 kV (5% undervoltage), it is not likely to remain below 330 kV when
this unit is delivering 300 or 400 MVAR to the bus.
Base Case Figure 2-18 may be.considered the
base case. It depicts performance of a 947-MVA,
9.17% impedance transformer, the smallest transformer of that impedance that will meet the

2-38

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

969 MVA transformer 23.703-.353.600 kV


9.17" impedance with 1005.8 MVA,
854.9 MW generator
52.37 MVA unit auxiliaries load
Top
700

System

600

..

500

...,

"'>.
"'0

300

1-

200
100

Generator voltage 102.5"

-200

Generator voltage 100.0"

et::

<

>

::::<

-300

..

-400

"'>.
"'E

-500

...,

.....

u..

-600
-700
Generator voltage 95.0"
-800
-900
-1000
330

362
Bus (kVl

Figure 2-21

Higher Secondary Tap

desired criteria. The secondary (HV) winding has the


lowest voltage rating, 345 kV, that will permit operation under load at a maximum sustained bus voltage
of 362 kV, which is the circuit breaker (maximum)
voltage rating. It is also the upper limit for this voltage level in ANSI Standard C84.H982. ANSI Standard C57.12.00-1980 (5) requires that a transformer
be capable of delivering full kilovoltampere output
continuously at 105% of rated secondary voltage and
rated frequency. At 362 kV on the 345-kV tap, secondary voltage is slightly less than 105%.
The voltage profile in Figure 2-19 is for the base
case transformer with the generator at full power,
at its overexcitation limit, and with 356 kV at the
'switchyard bus. This operation point, though not
marked, can be located in Figure 2-18. The voltage
profile is drawn on a changing voltage base to

show the relationships of actual primary and


secondary voltages to the voltage ratings of the
connected apparatus. It shows that the impedance
voltage drop has been offset by selecting a primary
voltage rating lower than the generator nameplate
voltage. The result, under these conditions, is that
transformer primary voltage is 107.65% of the
winding voltage rating. However, this condition is
of no concern. 'Transformer overexcitation is defined in terms of conditions at the secondary terminals, in this case, the HV terminals. The voltage
there is 103.19% of tap rating, well within the
range permissible at full load. Figure 2-19 also
shows real power and reactive power profiles from
to switchyard.
The transformer limit lines in Figure 2-18 show
that transformer capability droops at bus voltages

POWER TRANSFORMERS

2-39

947 MVA transformer 22.925-345.000 kV


9.17X impedance with 1005.8 MVA,
854.9 MW generator
52.37 MVA unit auxiliaries load
Top
System

600
500

....rn
Q)

>.

rn

300

0
f-

Generator voltage 102.5X

200
100
0::

<
>

::::0

-200
-300

...."'

Generator voltage 97.5x

-400

Ill

>.
Ill

...0

-600

u..

Generator voltage 95.0X


-700
-800
-900
-1000
330

362
Bus (kVl

Figure 2-22

JOQ-MVAR Export at Design Center

below 345 kV, despite the fact that this is a "fullkVN tap. ANSI Standard C57.12.00-1980 (5) requires that tap to deliver rated kilovoltamperes at
rated tap voltage but not at lower voltages, where
the tap current rating intervenes.
At 330 kV, the generator and the transformer
both reach their thermal limits at a reactive power
flow to the system of approximately 410 MVAR,
with generator voltage at approximately 97% of
nameplate value. A higher generator voltage
would produce output beyond the thermal limits
unless it also produced an increase in switchyard
bus voltage.
The generator cannot quite reach its capability
limit, overexcited, when bus voltage is 362 kV. That
comer of the chart would require generator voltage greater than 105%. Similarly, the generator

cannot reach its reactive capability limit, underexcited, when bus voltage is less than 354 kV, because that condition would require generator
voltage below 95%. It is highly unlikely that operation in either of these portions of the domain
would ever be desired. However, in the vicinity of
system voltage-in this case 356 kV-the full range
of generator reactive capability can be used to
maintain the desired bus voltage without violating generator full-power voltage limits. The ex-
pected result is that generator voltage will remain
close to 100% most of the time.
Changes described below for succeeding figures
are from the base case; they are not cumulative.
Greater Real Power Output For Figure 2-20
generator maximum real power output was

2-40

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

975 MVA transformer 23.136-345.000 kV


9.17" impedance with 1005.8 MVA,
854.9 MW generator
52.37 MVA unit auxiliaries load
Top
System

600
500

...

....CD

>.

300

t-

200
100

Generator voltage 102.5,;

-200

Generator voltage 100.0lll

0::

<

>

::::0

-300

....
.,>.
E

...0

u..

-400

-600
-700
Generator voltage 95.0lll

-800
-900
-1000
330

362
Bus lkVl

Figure 223

assumed to be 5% greater than the product of


rated megavolt-amperes and power factor:. For this
condition the generator maximum reactive power
limits are reduced to 453.7 and -340 MVAR. As
can be seen, this case requires a larger transformer
than does the base case so that further limiting
of reactive power delivery is avoided.
Higher Secondary Tap Figure 2-21 shows the
effect of selecting a 353.6-kV secondary tap. If the
same range of operating conditions are to be
covered as in the first example at switchyard voltages below tap voltage rating, the transformer size
must be increased from 947 to 969 MVA, an increase of 22 MVA. The primary voltage rating has
been increased from 23.131 to 23.703 k\1, making
the turns ratio very nearly the same as before.

Oversize Transformer

Operating characteristics of the larger (and more


expensive) transformer are essentially the same
as those of the base case tranformer.
Reactive Power Export at Design Center The
transformer for Figure 2-22 is the same as in the
base case, except that the primary voltage rating
has been reduced from 23.131 to 22.925 kV to restore generator voltage to 100% at an assumed design center condition of 100-MVAR delivery at full
power and 356 kV.
Oversize 'D'ansformer Figure 2-23 shows a
larger transformer (by 28 MVA) than that considered for the base case, used on its 345kV tap. A
common reason for adding megavolt-ampere margin is to provide for a condition in which part or

POWER TRANSFORMERS

2-41

921 MVA transformer 22.993-345.000 kV


16,; impedance with 1005.8 MYA,
854.9 MW generator
52.37 MVA unit auxiliaries load
Top
System

600
500

...
Q)

>.
"'
"'0

300

1-

Generator voltage 105.0::.:

200
100

Generator voltage 102.5,.

0:::

<

>
::::;:
-100
-200
Generator voltage 97 .5x

-300

voltage 95.0,;

-400

"'

-500

...
Q)

E
u...

L------+----"t---r--- Generator underexcited limit

-600
-700
-800
-900
-1000
330

362
Bus (kY)

Figure 2-24

all of the auxiliaries load is transferred to another


source, releasing that increment of generator real
and reactive power output to flow through the UT
to the switchyard. This figure, however, is drawn
for the normal condition. 'D:'ansformer impedance,
still 9.17% but on a larger base, translates to a
slightly lower ohmic impedance than that of the
base case, thereby requiring a very slight increase,
from 23.131 to 23.136 kV, in primary winding voltage rating to restore generator voltage to 100% at
design center. The lower ohmic impedance causes
a barely perceptible increase in the slopes of the
generator voltage lines and in their separation.

Increased Impedance For Figure 2-24 the transformer impedance was increased from 9.17 to
16%. The higher impedance may be required to

High Impedance

reduce circuit breaker interrupting duty, but it


will also reduce generator stability. The impedance
change necessitates significant changes in other
transformer parameters. The required megavolt
ampere rating is reduced from 947 to 921, because
a smaller proportion of generator reactive power
output reaches the secondary terminals (trans
formers are output rated), the remainder being
absorbed by reactive power loss in the transformer.
The primary winding voltage rating is reduced
from 23.131 to 22.993 kV to offset the increased
impedance voltage drop. The performance is
affected in that the slopes and spacing of the
generator voltage lines are greatly reduced, leaving larger portions of the generator reactive
capability outside the limits of 95 to 105% generator voltage. Those portions may not be of great

2-42

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

947 MVA transformer 23.131-345.000 kV


9.17X impedance with 1005.8 MVA,
427 MW generator
52.37 MVA un"1t auxiliaries load
Top
system

1200
1000

E
Q)

+'

"'"'"'

0
I-

Generator voltage 105.0x

400
200

Generator voltage 102.5"

Generator unity power factor


Generator voltage 100.0X

-200

,.,.a---t---Generator voltage 97.5X

-400

underexcited limit

-600
Generator voltage 95.0x

E
Q)

+'

"'"'"'

E
....0

-1000
-1200

LL.

-1400
-1600
-1800
-2000
330

362
Bus (kVl

Figure 2-25 Half-Power Operation

importance, but two other effects of the increased


impedance are undesirable: (1) the maximum reactive power support for low system voltage is
reduced by approximately 60 MVAR and (2) the
generator voltage must swing over a wider range
to meet varying system requirements. It is reasonable to assume that, in most cases, the lost reactive power capability will have to be replaced by
some other source on the system. The wider
swings will have unfavorable effects on the generator and will magnify the effect of voltage regulation problems on the auxiliary power system.
Reduced Power Operation Figure 2-25 shows
the performance of the transformer selected in
the base case when operated with the turbine
generator at half power. This mode of operation

may be desirable during periods when power is


imported from remote sources because of temporary steam supply system limitations, clean air
restrictions on local fuel burning, or lower fuel
costs at the remote source. Under such conditions
it is essential that a strong local source of reactive power be maintained.
The reactive capability curve indicates that at
427 MW this generator has limits of 715 and -430
MVAR. The MVAR scale has been changed on the
performance chart to display this wider range. As
can been seen, the transformer limits are now well
removed from the permissible operating domain,
but the transformer parameters selected for the
full-power mode are still suitable. At system voltage the full range of generator reactive capability
is accommodated within the allowable range of

POWER TRANSFORMERS

generator voltages and no tap changing is required


to achieve this result.
Sequence of Selections Except for the transformer primary winding voltage rating, which can
be selected last without the other ratings being
affected, each selection affects the others. The
approximate megavolt-ampere rating and percent
impedance usually are selected first on the basis
of generator size and circuit breaker interrupting
capability. The price adder, which is occasionally
invoked to justify selecting an impedance below
the manufacturer's "standard" impedance range,
will usually be negligible In comparison with the
benefits associated with low impedance. The
secondary winding voltage rating is usually selected to match the nominal voltage of the transmission system. With this selection the maximum
switchyard voltage will be very close to 105% of
that voltage rating, a permissible full-load continuous operating condition. (An exception to this is
a 500-kV system operated up to the 550-kV circuit
breaker voltage limit.) Selection of a higher voltage rating for the secondary winding would require an increase in megavolt-ampere rating to
compensate for the current limitation at switchyard voltages below that voltage rating, as has
been shown. Omission of other HV winding taps
would simplify construction and thereby improve
transformer reliability. The omission would also
reduce transformer cost. If additional taps are
specified, consideration should be given to placing them closer together than the conventional
2.5% spacing.
The exact megavolt-ampere rating required can
be determined by iterative calculation of transformer output at minimum sustained switchyard
voltage, full power, and maximum reactive power
output from the generator. For the method of calculating the real power component of transformer
output, see "Performance Calculations; below. At
each iteration the transformer current is adjusted
to correct for error in the generator output, and
the transformer megavolt-ampere rating is adjusted to match the calculated transformer current output, not overlooking the mismatch
between bus voltage and transformer secondary .
voltage rating. The megavolt-ampere rating thus
found is the minimum value. Margin may be added
where appropriate.
As an aid in the presentation of these calculations, a simplified equivalent circuit and a .phasor
diagram are shown in Figure 2-26. The exciting
current branch has been moved to the input terminals for convenience in calculation.

2-43

This simplification makes little difference; in


fact, complete omission of this branch would have
no significant effect on the results.
Symbols in the equivalent circuit, Figure 2-26a,
represent the following:
IuAT is current per phase flowing from the gen-

erator leads to the UAT primary terminals.


Ic is generator total stator current per phase.
11 is current per phase flowing from the gen-

erator leads to the UT primary terminals.


10

is UT exciting current per phase.

lc is the core loss component of exciting

current.
Ie is the magnetizing component of exciting

current.
N IL is the load current per phase in the primary

winding of the UT.


V'/N is the UT primary voltage, phase-to-neutral
(same as generator voltage, Vc).
N is the ratio of UT rated secondary (tap) voltage to rated primary voltage.
V' is induced voltage, phase-to-neutral, in the

secondary winding.
R is equivalent resistance per phase of trans-

former windings, including the effect of stray


losses, referred to the secondary terminals.
X is equivalent leakage reactance per phase of

transformer windings, referred to the secondary terminals.


V2 is voltage, phase-to-neutral, at the secondary
terminals.

With the megavolt-ampere rating established,


the ohmic equivalent of the previously selected
percent impedance is defined. Next, a preliminary
voltage rating is assigned to the primary winding.
A value of approximately 97% of generator
nameplate voltage is a good starting point. Note
that over the wide range of design criteria covered
by Figures 2-18 through 2-25, transformer primary
voltage rating varied from 95.5 to 98.8% of generator nameplate voltage. The low value is associated with 100 MVAR reactive power export at
design center, the high value with a higher-thannecessary secondary tap.
The preliminary value of primary voltage rating
is used in working back from design center conditions on the secondary side to fmd a corresponding value of generator voltage. That value, in per
unit of generator nameplate voltage, is used as a

2-44

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

1:N

I,

I UAT

N. IL

Io

IG

I.
Station
service
load

V'/N

Generator

I
T

V2

V'

System
load

Top

D
a. Equivalent circuit

v '1

b. Phosor diagram

Figure 2-26 Simplified Equivalent Circuit and Phasor Diagram

divisor to correct the preliminary assigned primary voltage rating. Although this is not a precise
correction, it will be accurate enough for practical purposes. In case of doubt the corrected rating
can be put through a second iteration. Selection
of the primary voltage rating does not affect the
other ratings selected previously.
Performance Calculations Performance calculations are done by an iterative process to derive
initially unknown transformer output, which cor
responds to a selected point within the generator
reactive capability curve and a selected secondary

voltage. We subtract transformer excitation losses


(accuracy of which is relatively unimportant) and
UAT load megawatts, and megavolt-amperesreactive are subtracted from the generator output to give unit transformer megawatts and
megavolt-amperes-reactive input.
As a start, transformer output megawatts and
megavolt-amperes-reactive are assumed equal to
the known input quantities. The assumption is incorrect because it ignores real power and reactive power losses. It does, however, provide a
reasonable starting point. These assumed outputs
are then converted to a per unit secondary current,

POWER TRANSFORMERS

from which transformer real and reactive power


losses can be calculated. Note that this loss calculation is independent of output power factor. The
calculated losses are then added to the assumed
outputs to produce a second set of transformer
inputs, which will be larger than the known inputs. The ratio of the known input megavoltamperes to the megavolt-amperes corresponding
to the second set of megawatts and megavoltamperes-reactive is used to correct per unit current. 'Iransformer losses are then recalculated,
and the process is repeated until the correction
factor is acceptably close to 1.0. For the charts
presented earlier the limits were set at 1.002 and
0.9998, requiring as many as eight iterations in a
few cases.
The results of these calculations are more
accurate than is warranted by the accuracy of the
input data. Results obtained prior to transformer
manufacture will be affected to some extent by
standard manufacturing tolerances, in particular,
those applying to impedance and ratio. For example, although transformers of this size are generally designed in close correspondence with the
specified parameters, a ratio error within the minimum enforceable tolerance of 0.5% might displace
each generator voltage line on the chart one-fifth
of the distance to the adjacent line. A transformer
delivered with this small ratio error will not present a serious problem. The operator will set the
voltage adjuster for the generator voltage regulator to produce either the desired switchyard voltage or the desired reactive power flow. Generator
voltage for that condition will be slightly different from the calculated value.
At a fixed switchyard voltage, as represented by
any vertical line on the chart, the change in
megavolt-amperes-reactive flow to the system is
linear with change in generator voltage. For example, in Figure 2-18, with the system voltage at
356 kV, a flow of 400 MVAR to the system requires
a generator voltage of approximately 103.64%, and
a flow of 400 MVAR from the system corresponds
to a generator voltage of about 96.36%. Thus, each
1% change produces a change in reactive power
flow of 110 MVAR. Ut should not be inferred, however, that the fmding of linearity was based on the
calculation of two points on the line.) From that
simple relationship the megavolt-amperes-reactive
flows corresponding to 95, 97.5, 100, 102.5, and
105% generator voltage are found to be -550,
-275, 0, 275, and 550, respectively. At 345 kV each
1% produces a change of about 106 MVAR. And
at 362 kV the ratio is about 112.5 MVAR per

2-45

1% change in generator voltage. These ratios apply


only to this case.
The sloping generator voltage curves, which are
drawn through corresponding points on the several switchyard voltage lines, are not quite linear.
Their (negative) slopes increase slightly at higher
switchyard voltages.
There is no simple way of calculating these
curves starting from points within the generator
reactive capability curve, although a load-flow
computer program can derive them point by point.
When they are derived by an iterative and interpolative process, however, a point on the chart can
be traced back to a point within the reactive capability curve by conventional manual calculations.

UATs
In most large generating units the normal source
of power for the unit auxiliaries is the main generator leads, to which one or more UATh are connected
directly. This configuration has several advantages
over a transmission system source. Feeding power
for local use from that point reduces the power
flow through the UT and thereby reduces the load
losses in that transformer. It also reduces the magnitude of the voltage dips on the auxiliary power
system during close-in faults on the transmission
system, because the generator voltage is less affected by such faults than is switchyard bus voltage, being cushioned by the intervening
impedance of the UT. The available short-circuit
megavolt-amperage of this source, however, is often
greater than that of the switchyard bus, subjecting
the UAT to very large and often prolonged stresses
in the event of a fault on its secondary circuit. The
stresses will be prolonged if the fault is at the secondary terminals or at any point on the secondary
leads up to the secondary breaker. This occurs because, although the unit must be tripped rapidly
by protective relays (there being no other way to
isolate the fault), the generator will continue to
feed the fault during the period of generator airgap flux decay.
Because of the potential for large, prolonged
through-faults, potential transient overvoltages
(Section 2.13), and the usual requirement that the
primary terminals be configured to accept isolated
phase bus connections, transformers designed for
this service command a premium price.
Rating basis and temperature rise are explained
in Section 2.4.
For those users who prefer not to use forcedoil cooling systems the OAIFAIFA option is available

2-46

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

from some manufacturers. Cooling options for


these transformers are discussed in Section 2.6.
Commonly used connections for transformers
are discussed in Section 2.9.
Impedance considerations are discussed in Section 2.13.
Insulation levels are discussed generically in Section 2.5. UATh do not warrant any special consideration in this respect, because the generator stator
winding, with exposure to the same impulse voltages as the primary of the VAT, has an effective
BIL approximately equal to only twice the crest
value of the generator nameplate voltage. Thus,
for a 24-kV. generator the stator BIL would be
approximately 67 kV, whereas a liquid-immersed
transformer winding for that voltage level would
usually have a BIL of 150 kV.
Split secondary windings or true three-winding
transformers are used frequently in this application. System design considerations are discussed
in Volume 3, Auxiliary System Planning.
'IWo aspects of the selection process for a VAT
differ from the selection process for an SST. The
first is that, unless there is a generator breaker
on the primary side of the UT, the VAT is never
likely to carry less than half load. The reason for
this is that auxiliary power system load is not
transferred to the VAT until the generator is at
full speed and connected to the transmission system. By that time enough of the unit auxiliaries
are in operation to represent a substantial kilovoltampere load, even though the kilowatt load may
be less substantial. The effect is to produce a significant drop in UAT secondary voltage at the time
when that voltage is first impressed on utilization
equipment. Therefore, the VAT no-load secondary
voltage can safely be more than 110% of the
nameplate voltage of large motors. That, in turn,
permits use of a lower tap on the primary of the
VAT than would otherwise be permissible and
allows for more impedance in the VAT, if required
by short-circuit considerations. In contrast the SST
may carry very light load when the corresponding unit is shut down for maintenance. It must not
produce high secondary voltage under those
conditions.
The other aspect of the selection process that
may differ concerns reliability. Failure of a UAT
in service will cause a unit trip because there is
no other way to isolate the fault. The faulted transformer must be disconnected from the generator
leads. However, if there is a dedicated SST (not
shared with another unit), it will be possible to

return the unit to full-load operation, using the


SST. Since this form of backup makes reliability
of the VAT less important, transformer design features such as three-windings and LTCs, which are
considered risky by some users, may be adopted
with less risk in this application.
SSTs
The SST feeds the unit auxiliary power system
during startup or shutdown or when the VAT is
unavailable. It receives input from the HV or EHV
switchyard or from a remote HV source. The application is similar to that of a substation transformer,
except that, because it is used intermittently, its
load factor is very low. However, its availability is
critically important, and it remains energized at
all possible times. It is also important that its impedance, voltage ratings, and winding connections
(phasing) be carefully coordinated with the plant
auxiliary power system design (Volume 3).
Forced cooling is the economical Ichoice, but the
transformer should have a self-cooled rating so
that its mechanical cooling auxiliaries do not have
to operate during the long periods of no-load
operation. For these reasons an OA/FA/FA or
OAIFAIFOA design is often selected (Section 2.6).
The cost of no-load losses is high because the
SST normally remains energized at all times. Load
losses, however, have negligible value due to the
low load factor.
Because of the importance of availability, it is
prudent to have a spare transformer, preferably
on site. That consideration weighs against selection of two different SSTs for the same unit.
For very large auxiliary power systems employing two medium voltage levels (13.8 or 6.9 kV and
4.16 kV) it may be advisable to use two half-size,
three-winding transformers, with a spare capable
of replacing either one. Despite rules governing
impedance relationships published by some
manufacturers, it is possible to purchase transformers with the desired H-X and H.:Y impedances
and with an X-Y impedance very nearly equal to
the sum of the other two. Such a transformer
would have performance characteristics similar to
those of two separate two-winding transformers.
As indicated in Section 2.13, each impedance must
be expressed in percent on a clearly stated kilovoltampere base.
The secondary voltage of an SST may vary over
a fairly wide range because of variations in source
voltage and variations in load. Under normal conditions bus voltage in the plant switchyard may

POWER TRANSFORMERS

be above the nominal level. Thus, a 345-kV bus at


a power plant may operate normally between 350
and 362 kV, and, under normal plant conditions,
the SST may carry no load. With high primary
voltage and no load the secondary voltage may
approach 110% of rated voltage.
When a generating unit at high load experiences
an unplanned trip, the switchyard bus voltage may
decrease abruptly because of the sudden loss of
that uirit's reactive power support. At the same time
essentially all of the auxiliary power load of the
tripped unit will be transferred automatically to the
SST, producing an impedance voltage drop in that
transformer and its secondary leads. Under these
new conditions transformer secondary voltage may
be below 95% of rating. Volume 3 contains more
information on voltage profile coordination.
The SST's secondary voltage can be controlled
within a much narrower range if the transformer
is equipped with an LTC having automatic control
(Section 2.10). Limitations of that scheme should
be recognized, however.
With an LTC restoration of normal voltage following a sudden change of the type described
above may take more than 60 s. Any emergency
equipment served by the unit auxiliary power system that is required to start during the first part
of that interval may be served with inadequate
starting voltage. Addition of an LTC may also reduce transformer reliability. A preferable solution
is to reduce transformer impedance to a minimum
value consistent with short-circuit limitations, despite whatever effect that reduction may have on
transformer cost.

LOAD CENTER SUBSTATION TRANSFORMERS


A load center substation of conventional configuration includes an assembly of LV metal-enclosed
switchgear, fed by a transformer that is connected
to it both mechanically and electrically, and an incoming line section (Volume 7, Au}(iliary Electrical
Equipment). For indoor substations mineral oilimmersed transformers, which would be least expensive, are not used because of the fire hazard.
The choices, in order of increasing cost, are ventilated dry-type transformers, liquid-immersed
transformers with high-fire point fluid, and resinencapsulated transformers.
Since dry-type transformers have lower Bll.. than
other types, it may be prudent, in some applications,
to install surge arresters at their HV terminals.
All of these types have self-cooled ratings. Fans
may be added to provide a substantial (usually one-

Z-47

increase in kilovoltampere rating, but voltage


regulation at the forced-cooled rating may be unsatisfactory. For transformers 750 kVA and below,
the forced cooling offers no advantage over using
the next larger transformer at its self-cooled rating.
Sizes most commonly used to feed LV unit substations are 500, 750, and 1000 kVA. In this size
range the repetitive design transformers usually
have an impedance voltage of 5. 75%, although 8%
is also common at 1000 kVA. Either of these values
would result in secondary system fault currents
within the ratings of the metal-enclosed circuit
breakers in the substation and, in most cases,
within the ratings of the molded-case breakers in
combination starters fed from the branch circuits.
However, the 9% impedance voltage, together with
variations in the transformer's primary voltage,
may leave only a very small margin for voltage
drops in the LV cable circuits.
TI-ansformers larger than 1000 kVA may be used
in certain applications, such as for groups of large
cooling-tower fans. If combination starters are used
on the transformer secondary circuits, however, the
molded-case circuit breakers in those starters must
be suitable for the available fault current.
For mechanical draft cooling towers and other
applications outside the plant building it may be
feasible to depart from the secondary unit substation concept and use an outdoor, mineral oilimmersed transformer, cable connected to indoor
switchgear or motor control equipment.

third)

AUXILIARY TRANSFORMERS
The term au}(iliary transformer is used here to denote a transformer feeding a 4.16-kV subsystem
from a 6.9- or 13.8-kV auxiliary bus. Since cable
voltage drops are far less important on a 4.16-kV
system than on an LV system, it is often feasible
to install the transformer outside the plant building and to use a mineral oil-filled design. Since
most such transformers have kilovoltampere
ratings of 10,000 or less, low impedance will not
lead to secondary fault current beyond the ratings
of the switchgear. In addition impedance voltages
on the order of 6% or less will be advantageous
in improving voltage regtilation.

GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS
It occasionally becomes necessary to derive a

neutral for grounding purposes for a system that


is supplied from a delta-connected source. If the
neutral is to be grounded through a resistance or

2-48

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

other impedance, as is the usual case for power


plant auxiliary power systems, the maximum current to be carried by the grounding transformer
will be the quotient of the phase-to-neutral voltage and the grounding impedance. The zerosequence impedance of the transformer itself will
generally be much smaller than the impedance
through which its neutral is grounded and can
usually be neglected in this calculation.
Selection of a grounding transformer is illustrated
by the following example. If a 2.4-0 resistor, a common choice, is used to ground the neutral of a
4.16-kV subsystem, the maximum ground fault
current will be 1000 A, and the corresponding
transformer kilovoltampere rating for continuous
duty at that load will be 7200 A. This "lowresistance" neutral grounding requires rapid fault
clearing by both primary and backup relaying to
prevent serious damage at the point of fault. For
that reason 7200 kVA can be a short-time rating
of the transformer rather than a continuous
rating. The remainder of this analysis applies to
low-resistance neutral grounding. It would not be
applicable to a neutral for a three-phase, four-wire
system, and it might not be applicable to a solidly
grounded neutral.
ANSI Standard C57.92-1981 (16) indicates that a
65C-rise liquid-immersed transformer has a hot
spot temperature rise of 80C, a time constant for
that rise of 0.08 h (288 s), a winding exponent of
0.8, and a ratio of load to no-load losses of 3.2:1.
On the basis of those figures and an assumed fullload efficiency of 97%, such a transformer, following a long period at full voltage, no load, can carry
more than nine times full-load current for 10 s
without sacrifice of life expectancy. Since ground
fault backup relays will generally operate in less
than 1 s, the 10-s rating would provide a generous margin. Therefore, the grounding transformer
for the application described above could have a
continuous-load kilovoltampere rating as low as
800 kVA.
The grounding transformer requires only a
single three-phase winding, which may be either
T connected or zigzag connected; as indicated in
Section 2.9.

2.16 TRANSFORMER TESTING


ANSI Standards C57.12.00-1980 (5) and
C57.12.01-1979 (7) tabulate tests for liquidimmersed and dry-type transformers, respectively.

They classify each test as "routine;' "design;' or


"other:' Thble 2-3 summarizes this information.
Routine tests are made in the factory on all transformers; design tests are made on the first of a
particular design; and other are made only when
required by the purchaser.
The tests are defined in ANSI Standard
C57.12.80-1978 (24), and the manner of making
each test is described in ANSI Standards
C57.12.90-1980 (25) and C57.12.91-1979 (7) for
liquid-immersed and dry-type transformers,
respectively.

SHOP TESTING
All of the tests except the short-circuit capability
test on a large transformer can be made in the
factory or in a well-equipped transformer repair
facility. Those marked "(F)" can also be made in
the field without unreasonable difficulty. Because
of the magnitude of short-circuit current required,
it is impractical to make through-fault tests on
transformers larger than 20,000 kVA.
The purpose of the tests is to demonstrate the
quality of the design and workmanship and to verify that performance guarantees have been met.
In certain cases the test results provide benchmarks with which future field tests results can be
compared. One test, winding resistance, calibrates
the windings at a known temperature to serve as
resistance temperature detectors during temperature rise tests.
Certain design tests may be specified by the purchaser for quality assurance purposes, even
though similar test results may be available for an
essentially duplicate transformer. In general the
tests in the category other will affect price.
Switching surge tests are only made, when
specified, on windings of 450-kV BIL and higher,
because, for windings of lower BIL, switching
surges in service are not expected to produce significant transient overvoltages.
Front-of-wave impulse tests are specified by certain purchasers who install rod gaps for bushing
protection.
Radio influence voltage tests were initially developed as a result of utility customer complaints
of interference with radio reception. Experience
convinced both manufacturers and purchasers
that these tests were sensitive indicators of insulation quality and that high levels of radio noise
often indicated a defect in design or factory workmanship likely to lead to premature failure. The
magnitude of the radio noise signal measured at

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Table 2.3

2-49

Transformer Tests
Routine

Design

Other

Resistance measurements-all windings


Ratio

Notes3
D, F
D. F
D, F
D

Polarity and phasing


No-load losses and excitation current
Impedance voltage and load loss
Zero-sequence impedance voltage

Temperature rise
Applied voltage
Induced voltage

Lightning impulse
Front-of-wave impulse
Switching impulse

D
D
D
D

Radio influence voltage


Insulation power factor

D, F

Insulation resistance
Audible sound level
Short-circuit capability

D. F
D
D

Mechanical lifting and moving devices


Pressure

Leak
Oil analysis

3D

Applicable to both liquid-immersed and dry-type transformers


F Field test feasible

the bushing tap has been found to decrease considerably when the initiating partial discharge is
electrically remote from the bushing. Because of
that and also because of European practices other
methods of measurement are under study in the
industry. The two promising alternatives are wideband partial discharge (picocoulomb) measurements and ultrasonic measurements at the outside
surface of the transformer tank This second type
of measurement may be feasible in the field and
with the transformer in service. Neither method
is likely to be recognized in the standards until a
substantial data base has been established to replace the existing radio noise (microvolt) data base
(26).

The purpose of the dielectric tests is to demonstrate the capability of the transformer insulation
to withstand the test levels defined in ANSI standards. There are three dielectric withstand tests
that can be performed on a transformer: the
applied-potential test, the induced-potential test,
and the impulse test.
The applied-potential (low-frequency) test is
made to check the adequacy of the phase-to-phase
and phase-to-ground insulation and the insulation
between primary and secondary windings. In the
case of wye-connected windings with graded insulation the applied-potential test voltage must be
limited to the value appropriate for the BIL level

of the neutral end of each winding. However, for


delta-connected windings the applied-potential test
may search out weaknesses in the phase-to-ground
insulation.
The induced-potential test is made to check the
turn-to-turn, and section-to-section
insulation.
Impulse tests are made to check the ability of
the insulation to withstand impulses caused by
lightning arrester or gap operation, lightning
strokes, and switching disturbances.
The magnitude, duration, and wave shape of the
dielectric tests, as they apply to each individual
test, are described in ANSI Standards
C57.12.00-1980 (5) and C57.12.01-1979 (6) for
liquid-immersed and dry-type transformers,
respectively. The test procedures and setups are
described in ANSI Standards C57.12.90-1980 (25)
and C57.12.91-1979 (7) for liquid-immersed and
dry-type transformers, respectively.

FIELD TESTING
Field testing is desirable when there is visible evidence of damage in shipment or following significant system disturbances, indications of excessive
temperature rise, or operation of a gas detector relay. Some tests are desirable on a routine basis. The
aim is to check the condition of the transformer

2-50

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

and detect any early failure warnings in order to


prevent a failure in service.
In the case of liquid-immersed tranformers
many incipient failures can be detected by examining and testing samples of the insulating fluid. A
dark color may indicate contamination. The presence of metallic particles may indicate incipient
failure of oil pump bearings. The simplest test, a
voltage breakdown test, can be made in accordance with ASTM D877 or D1816, as appropriate.
The first of these, which is suitable for new oil,
. requires a test cell with 1-in.-diameter circular, flat
electrodes spaced 0.1 in. apart. The second is
recommended for testing filtered, degassed, and
dehydrated oil prior to and during the filling of
power apparatus rated above 230 kV or for testing samples of such oil from apparatus after filling. This method employs a special test cell with
spherical electrodes. A power factor test using a
third form of test cell is considered sensitive to
water or carbon contamination, and a gas-in-oil
analysis, requiring sophisticated laboratory equipment, is most informative. This last form of testing
is described in ANSI Standard C57.104-1978 (14).
External short circuits may distort windings or
produce tum-to-turn faults. Significant permanent
distortion of windings can be detected by measurement of transformer impedance and comparison with factory test results. Thrn-to-turn faults
may be detected by measurement of excitation
current at full voltage, rated frequency (difficult
in the field), and comparison with factory test
results; or they may be detected by precise turnsratio testing at low voltage. Commercial test equipment is available for this last test. It may be prudent to make such tests after the occurrence of
a major through-fault.
Bushing deterioration can be detected by power
factor testing at reduced voltage. Power factor testing of complete Windings may indicate the presence of moisture in solid insulation. Commercial
test equipment is available for this type of testing.
Thrns-ratio tests are made at no load by applying
low ac voltage to one winding and reading the voltage at the terminals of the other winding or windings of the same phase. This test should be made
on all taps. Voltage ratios so found should agree
with the ratios of rated voltages, as shown on the
nameplate, within 0.5%. A reading outside this
tolerance may indicate a turn-to-turn insulation
failure. Thst devices for this purpose are available
commercially.
Megger tests and insulation power factor tests
are most useful in detecting moisture in coil insulation. Since the Megger test applies de voltage

from one winding to all other windings and


ground, it is important for safety reasons to
ground all tested terminals for several minutes
after each test in order to remove the stored
charge. Insulation resistance should be on the
order of 2MQ/1000 V of nameplate rating. A common practice is to take two readings, one after
1 min of voltage application and the other after
10 min. The ratio of the second reading to the first
is the polarization index and should be above 1.5
if the insulation is dry.
Insulation power factor is usually measured by
bridge methods in the factory and by a Doble test
set in the field. The Doble test is made by applying 10,000 Vac from one winding to other windings and ground, but it should not be made at a
voltage higher than winding nameplate rating. The
measured power factor should be on the order of
0.5 to 1.0%. For liquid-immersed transformers
Doble data may provide more precise guidance.
Oil samples may be analyzed in a number of
ways, some of which require sophisticated laboratory equipment. It is important that oil samples
be taken carefully in clean containers for any type
of analysis. Initial samples should be discarded;
they are likely to contain water and may become
contaminated by their passage through sampling
valves, the external portions of which may not be
clean.
The simplest tests are visual inspection and voltage breakdown tests. If water can be seen clearly
separated from the oil, the sample should be discarded. A dark color indicates sludging or other
forms of contamination and justifies more careful testing. Metal particles suspended in the oil
may indicate bearing failure in an oil pump (27).
The oil sample should withstand at least 26 kV
for 1 min in a standard test cell with 1-in.-diameter
circular, flat electrodes spaced 0.1 in. apart.
Oil samples can be given an acid neutralization
test. Values of acidity over about 0.15 mg potassium hydroxide per gram indicate a condition
favorable to the formation of sludge; values higher
than 0.5 mg indicate a need for reconditioning.
An interfacial tension test, made by pulling a
platinum ring through a water-oil interface in a
laboratory vessel, will also reveal unsafe amounts
of sludge. An interfacial tension lower than
22 dynes/em generally indicates that the oil requires reconditioning.
Gas analysis, which can be done for transformers with inert gas oil preservation systems, and
gas-in-oil analysis, which can be done for all liquidimmersed transformers, are not usually performed
on a routine basis. They require very careful

POWER TRANSFORMERS

sampling procedures and prompt access to a gas


chromatograph. The presence of combustible
gases may indicate an impending insulation failure, and untanking the transformer may be advisable before it fails in service.

2.17 FOUNDATIONS
Single-block foundations for large power transformers have been found less expensive than multiple piers. The block should extend at least 6 in.
beyond the transformer base and should, where
possible, include the jacking pads. Where the foundation is soil bearing and more area is required
than that of the block as determined by transformer base dimensions, the block may be placed
on a mat of suitable size.

The access of grounding cables and conduits


serving power transformers should be designed
to permit transformer installation and removal
without damage to the cables or conduits.

2-51

a plant wall, it is good practice to ensure that the


wall has at least a 2-h fire rating and that there
are no unprotected openings within 50 ft of the
transformer. Similarly, fire-restrictive barriers
between oil-immersed transformers are advisable
when the clearance between them is less than
25 ft. Such barriers should extend at least 1 ft
above the top of the tank and 3 ft beyond the
transformer at each end.
The foregoing material is for guidance only. If
the installation is to be covered by fire insurance,
more definitive information may be available from
the insurance carrier.
Walls and barriers must be far enough from the
taut-string perimeter of the transformer to permit removal of coolers or radiatiors and to allow
air circulation for cooling. The taut-string perimeter is the path defined by a string drawn around
the completely assembled transformer between
protrusions farthest from the vertical centerline.

2.20 WATER-SPRAY FIRE PROTECTION

2.18 PROVISION FOR OIL SPILLS


Since an internal fault in an oil-immersed transformer can rupture the tank, provision may be
made for confining and cooling flaming oil that
could be released. An effective method of making this provision is to remove some of the soil surrounding the transformer foundation and replace
it with a bed of crushed stone. The volume of such
a bed should be at least 0.4 ft 3/gal of oil in the
tank. Because rain-washed silt may fill the interstices in the stone bed over a period of time, it may
be advisable to remove the stone and screen out
the silt at intervals of a few years.
Where there is insufficient space for an adequate stone bed, it may be feasible to provide a
concrete basin around the transformer with
drains to a nearby buried tank of suitable capacity. Such a tank must have an aboveground vent
for displaced air, a liquid level indicator, and a
provision for pumping out any oil or water that
is collected.

2.19 FIRE WALLS AND BARRIERS


In situations in which a mineral oil-immersed
transformer is installed outdoors within 50 ft of

Savings in fire insurance premiums may justify


water-spray fire protection for mineral oilimmersed transformers. In the usual form this is
a dry-pipe system fed from an electrically operated deluge valve. Rate-of-rise heat detectors, possibly armed by transformer fault-detecting relays,
control the deluge valve. Spray nozzles should be
directed at the cover and sides of the tank and not
toward bushings or lightning arresters. Heat detectors should be located away from oil coolerair discharges.
Contaminated water can cause bushing flashover during a test or during erroneous operation
of the spray system. If the probability of such
flashover is to be minimized, the water supplied
to the spray system should have conductivity less
than 1400 JlQ/cm. 1b reduce the likelihood of
bushing flashover, some users provide an interlock
to inhibit operation of the spray system until the
transformer is deenergized. Some users use stainless steel piping, because carbon steel piping in
a spray system may accumulate corrosion
products during long idle periods, the products
of which would contaminate the first water
discharge.
Clearance between live parts and spray nozzles
or piping should be at least as great as the live
parts-to-ground clearances specified in National
Electrical Manufacturers Association Standard TR
1-1980 (8).

2-52

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

2.21 INSTALLATION
The installation procedure begins when the transformer arrives on site. Before it is removed from
the rail car or other vehicle that carries it, it should
be examined for visible damage to the main
assembly, to any of the component parts that were
removed, or to any bracing added for shipment.
The carrier should be advised immediately of any
visible damage and should be given the opportu
nity to have a representative view the evidence.
Color photographs should be taken if appropriate.
If the car or vehicle is fitted with an impact
recorder, the chart should be examined by the
party who might make a claim against the carrier:
the shipper, in the case of sale FOB job site, or the
purchaser, in the case of sale FOB factory, whether
or not it was "freight allowed" or prepaid.

LIQUID-IMMERSED TRANSFORMERS
Any transformer with a sealed tank, shipped with
oil or gas, will have been shipped under positive
pressure, in most cases monitored by a pressure
gage. The reading on that gage and the corresponding tank temperature should be recorded.
An apparent loss of pressure may not be significant if the temperature at destination is far below
25C (77F). For example, a tank pressurized to
10 psig at 25C would show 6.45 psig if it had
cooled to 0F (-17.78C), even though there had
been no leakage. Alternatively, the transformer
may have been shipped with gas bottles and pressure regulator connected. In that case the bottle
pressures should be noted.
Detached components should be protected in
storage pending final assembly. They should be
inventoried to ensure that missing parts will not
interrupt assembly. Oil-f"illed bushings should be
stored in a nearly upright position, which may require building special racks.
A large transformer should be moved by an experienced rigger. Where a crane lift is feasible,
attachment should be made only to the lifting eyes,
with appropriate slings and spreaders. Where a
crane lift is not feasible, jacks may be applied (only
under the jack bosses) to permit placement of
rollers or greased timbers under the base. Timber cribbing or ramps may be required alongside
the carrying vehicle to facilitate sliding or rolling
the transformer to ground level.
An interior inspection should be made of any
sealed transformer as soon as weather permits

removal of manhole covers. If the tank has been


drained and filled with dry nitrogen, it must be
purged with dry air to prevent any chance of
suffocating personnel entering the tank. The tank
should be opened only when the metal tempera
ture is above the dew point of the surrounding
air in order to prevent condensation.
Clean protective clothing should be worn by anyone entering the tank, pockets should be emptied,
and tools, flashlights, or other material carried into
the tank should be tethered to reduce the probability of their being left inside.
During the inspection any blocking or bracing
installed for protection during shipment should
be identified (for removal). Any distortion or displacement of components of the assembly should
also be searched out.
When the transformer has been placed on its
foundation, assembly should be undertaken
promptly, if possible, even though the transformer
may not be required in service for several months.
If inclement weather is likely during assembly, it
may be advisable to erect a temporary enclosure,
possibly with provision for heating.
Some very large transformers have split tanks,
with the top portion replaced for shipment by a
temporary flat cover. For such transformers tank
reassembly will be the first step in "dressing out"
the transformer. The next step will be the mounting of coolers or radiators and other components
of the fluid system. Care should be taken to ensure the interior cleanliness of such components,
because magnetic particles, chips, or shavings
picked up in the fluid stream become "steel termites" prone to drill through coil insulation under ac magnetization of the core.
Since leaks are difficult to repair after the tank
has been filled with fluid, it is prudent to replace
manhole covers and perform a leak test by repressurizing the tank with dry nitrogen and monitoring the decay of pressure (temperature corrected)
over a period of several days. Gas leaks can be
located by brushing seams, seals, and gasketed
joints with a mild soap solution and looking for
bubbles.
As soon as possible the tank should be filled
under vacuum with clean, tested fluid up to the
level of the top of the core-and-coils assembly.
Most transformer tanks are braced for full vacuum. In a few cases external stiffeners may be furnished for temporary use during vacuum fill. In
any case the tank pressure limits should be shown
on the transformer nameplate. Blue chalk, dusted
along welds and gasketed joints below fluid level,

POWER TRANSFORMERS

is a sensitive indicator of fluid leaks, because it


darkens when wetted.
The bushings must be inspected, tested, and installed. The transformer oil should be tested (see
Section 2.22) before the tank is completely filled.
The remainder of the tank fill should again be
done under vacuum to eliminate bubbles and gas
pockets. If the transformer is designed for inert
gas oil preservation, the gas bottles should be connected as soon as tank filling is completed. The
gas valve should then be opened to break the vacuum and to establish the gas cushion over the oil.
Records of gas usage should be started at this time.
Other tests should be performed to ensure that
the transformer was not damaged in shipment
(Section 2.16).
In situations in which it is feasible a large HV
transformer should be energized at reduced voltage, rated frequency for a brief period before full
voltage is applied. During this period transformer
performance should be monitored to the extent
permitted by available indicators and transducers.

DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS
Installation of dry-type transformers does not in
general require special procedures beyond those
appropriate to the installation of other electrical
apparatus. Prior to placement in service, however,
special care should be taken to keep the transformer dry. Thmporary space heaters may be
required. The transformer should not be energized at full voltage until insulation resistance or
power factor tests have confirmed that the insulation is dry. Thereafter, the no-load losses will
maintain core-and-coil temperatures above the
dew point.

2.22 MAINTENANCE
A correctly installed transformer operated within
its ratings and properly maintained should have
a life expectancy of 20 to 40 years. Maintenance,
in most cases, is neither costly nor time consuming. Some of it can be done while the transformer
is in service. It should, however, be done on a regular schedule, and careful records should be kept.
The first step in any maintenance program
should be to read the manufacturer's maintenance
instructions. These may differ from those of other
manufacturers or even from previous instructions
from the same manufacturer.

2-53

Nearly all transformer failures are dielectric


failures, but the root cause usually lies elsewhere.
Successful maintenance programs discover and
eliminate root causes before they cause damage.

VISUAL INSPECTION
Every transformer should be inspected visually at
regular intervals. The length of those intervals
varies from company to company, depending on
prior experience, severity of service, and harshness of environment.
On most dry-type transformers there is little to
inspect, but on ventilated dry-types the grounding, terminal, and tap connections are visible, and
any buildup of lint or dust that might impede the
flow of cooling air can be seen. However, even on.
dry-types, abnormal ambient temperature or noise
may not be detected during visual inspection.
The gages of liquid-immersed transformers
should be read and their readings recorded. Following is a list of suggested observations and readings for a large, forced-cooled, liquid-immersed
transformer:
Observations

Oil leaks (tanks, coolers, piping, bushings)


Loose terminal connections
Loose grounding connections
Water leaks (water-cooled transformers)
Fans in inoperative condition
Paint deterioration
Pressure relief semaphore raised
Bushing-oil level low in sight glasses
Chipped or soiled bushings or lightning
arresters
Abnormal conditions in cooler control
cabinet
Audible corona discharge
High sound level
Indicators

Th.nk pressure
Th.nk liquid level
Thp liquid temperature
Winding (hot spot) temperature
liquid flow at each pump
lightning arrester discharge counters
Nitrogen bottle pressures (inert gas system)
Fault gas monitors

In addition to the visual inspections some transformer testing can be done in the field (Section 2.16).

254

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

'Iransformers with LTCs require additional maintenance of this electromechanical equipment,


which can be done only with the transformer out
of service. One manufacturer recommends that
the first detailed inspection be done after the first
year of operation. 'Iransformers with LTCs also
have insulating fluid systems for the LTC that are
separate from those for the core and coils and that
can be sampled while the transformer is in service. In general annual inspection may suffice unless the application requires very frequent tap
changes. Owners of LTC transformers would be
well advised to plan their maintenance schedules
on the basis of frequency of tap-changing operations and to perform maintenance in accordance
with the relevant maintenance instructions.
OIL CONDITIONING

Periodically taken oil samples are expected to withstand approximately 30 kV in the standard test
cup. Breakdown below 26 kV is generally regarded
as unsatisfactory. Water, sludge, and other forms
of contamination can often be removed, even with
the transformer in service, by circulating heated
oil through a transportable oil-conditioning system
while testing repeatedly to monitor the improvement. Such a system may include heaters, Fuller's
earth beds, and a vacuum dehydrator.

through the windings at low voltage. This procedure must be carried out with care to avoid the
formation of hot spots that may degrade the insulation. The heating must be combined with vacuum
or other methods to remove the moist vapor. Each
manufacturer can furnish detailed procedures for
such operations.
CLEANING BUSHINGS

Outdoor apparatus bushings have skirted, glazedporcelain rain shields to provide a long surfaceleakage path from terminal to flange. In areas
where the air is contaminated with particulate matter, the porcelain may collect a heavy coating of
dust, which will become conductive when wet and
can lead to bushing flashover. The porcelain should
be cleaned as often as necessary with a nontoxic
solvent. Some users have found that a coating of
silicone grease will break up the conductive leakage path and thus prolong the interval between
washings.

GASING

Significant evolution of bubbles or concentration


of gases dissolved in oil requires close monitoring
and may dictate taking the transformer out of service for further investigation (14). The gas may be
produced by decomposition of oil or of cellulosic
insulating materials due to local heating. If the
problem cannot be localized by tests in the field
(Section 2.16), it may be necessary to remove the
transformer to a service shop, where more
sophisticated diagnostic procedures and, ultimately, untanking may be feasible.
DRYOUT

If the kraft paper insulation of any transformer has

absorbed a significant amount of water (a condition that may be diagnosed by insulation power factor or even Megger testing), it may be necessary
to employ a combination of methods, including
heating, to dry it out. In general dryout can be accomplished without untanking. The most common
method of heating is circulating alternating current

APPENDIX A
LOSS EVALUATION

In both indoor and outdoor applications transformer losses incur significant future cost beyond
that attributable to heat removal. That cost has two
components: a demand cost and an energy cost.
The demand cost is based on the amount of
capacity that the losses make ungross
available to the power system for meeting its peak
customer demand. The aggregate level of such
power losses will ultimately require that a new
generating unit be added to the system one year
earlier than would otherwise be necessary. Thus,
the demand penalty to be invoked for losses is
based on their magnitude under peak system load
conditions and on the dollars-per-kilowatt cost of
new generating capacity.
The energy cost of losses is based on the delivered cost of extra fuel burned to generate the loss
energy. All other components of generating cost,
such as fixed charges, maintenance, and operating costs other than fuel, are essentially unaffected
by the incremental kilowatthour production.
Fuel use on the system is not directly proportional to electrical load. Each generating unit is
more efficient near full load than at light load. At
no load a turbine requires input energy to overcome losses from several sources: friction and
windage losses incurred in running the turbine
generator and many of its auxiliaries at full speed;
throttling losses in partially open inlet steam
valves; pump and piping losses in the circulatingwater system incurred in maintaining condenser
and heat losses incurred in maintaining
masses of metal at high operating temperatures.
The result is that lightly loaded generating units
are inefficient. Their average fuel cost in cents per
kilowatthour is high. Near full load inlet steam
throttling losses are reduced because the valves
are nearly wide open. On some turbines, however,
a new form of loss appears near full load: a discharge loss caused by "choking" in the exhaust
annulus at high steam fiow. Nevertheless, the aggregate of all losses at full load becomes a small
fraction of the total input, most of which then
produces useful output. The result is that heavily
loaded generating units are more efficient than
lightly loaded units. Their average fuel cost in
cents per kilowatthour is lower.

Incrementally, fuel cost is different. When a unit


moves away from the no-load condition, fuel use
increases slowly in essentially direct proportion
to load added. This rate, also measured in cents
per kilowatthour, remains nearly constant up to
the point at which choking begins. Somewhere
near full load average fuel cost, which has been
decreasing, and incremental fuel cost, which has
started to rise, become equal.
It is not feasible to operate all generating units
near their full-load point at all times. Inevitably,
some units will be lightly loaded. They must be
on the line, however, to provide "spinning reserve"
to meet rapid increases in customer demand or
to replace a unit that trips off the line because of
a malfunction.
At any given time the system load dispatcher
arranges to have enough generating capacity online to satisfy the customer demand expected during the next few hours, to supply the system losses
associated with that load flow, and to provide
appropriate spinning reserve. The system load dispatcher must then apportion the load among the
operating units in such a way as to achieve minimum production cost. The manner in which that
load dispatching is done is germane to the subject of loss evaluation.
Load dispatching is a computer-aided process in
which each kilowatt of new load is assigned by
automatic load-frequency control equipment to
the generating unit that can supply it at lowest incremental cost. Similarly, any load reduction,
including a reduction in system losses, reduces
production cost at the incremental rate. The result is that all generating units adjust, within their
stable operating limits, to the incremental fuel
cost, which is then the system incremental cost
for that load condition. The system incremental
fuel cost for a given combination of operating units
always increases with system load.
'li'ansformer losses are a partially avoidable
increment of load on the system. A reduction of
those losses reduces system fuel cost at the incremental rate. If average fuel costs were used in
loss evaluation, it would lead to a larger initial outlay for loss reduction than can be justified by the
future fuel savings that are likely to result.

256

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

As previously explained, transformer load losses


vary as the square of transformer load current.
When the energy value of the losses is determined,
it is not necessary to establish the time of day
when they reach a particular level as long as there
is a fairly well defined relationship between transformer loss magnitude and system load, which
provides a key to incremental fuel cost.
1ransformer no-load losses remain essentially
constant during all of the hours the transformer
is energized. Their energy value is therefore related to the annual average system incremental
fuel cost.
When loss values for a transformer at a nuclear
power plant are established, it is not appropriate
to use the incremental fuel cost at that plant, because the nuclear units are base loaded whenever
possible. The loss energy, in effect, is produced
elsewhere by generating units having higher incremental fuel cost.
1b justify consideration of these complexities,
one need only recognize that the present worth
of losses over the life of a large UT is generally
greater than the initial cost of the transformer.

The present worth of a future cost depends on


(1) the magnitude of that cost at current cost
els; (2) the year in which the cost will be incurred;
(3) the anticipated rate of inflation; and (4) the
owning company's internal rate of return (IROR).
(Eq. Al)

Where:
CI = present worth of the outlay in the year of

first commercial operation

= annual inflation rate (decimal)

= quoted or estimated price, valid in the "price


year"

= number of years between the price year and


the year of first commercial operation

N2

= 1 greater than the number of years between


commercial operation and payment (It is 1
greater to reflect the convention of
beginning-of-year measurement of end-of-year
cash flow.)

Price Year Future costs may be estimated at the


levels prevailing on the day of the estimate or on
historical record. The price year is that year in
which the estimate was valid.

IROR IROR, expressed as a percentage, is a function of capitalization structure, cost of money, and
statutory tax rate. The proper worth to use in loss
evaluation should be obtained from a financial
officer of the company owning the plant. IROR
cannot be calculated from fixed charge rate.
Fuel Cost Attributable to Transformer Loss
Energy It is customary to predict the future

loading of a new generating unit by constructing


a table of the kind shown below:

Percentage of Time at Each Load

PRESENT WORTH OF FUTURE COSTS

Cl = (1 + jJM X P(1 + jJ/(1 + k)JM

the future, because the components of present


worth may not be affected equally by inflation. A
$100,000 loan at 8% interest will cost $8000 per
year, regardless of inflation. But 100 t of coal,
which might cost $6000 this year, are likely to cost
more in each future year.

= IROR expressed as a decimal rather than as a


percentage

Inflation Inflation must be considered in evalu-

ating any series of costs extending some years into

Period in
Years

1
2-5
6-10
11-15
16-30

100%

75%

50%

250Al

Load
-30

Load

Load

40
10
20
25
6

10
15
15
20
20

-Load
0

60
50
40
20

0
0
0
22

0%
Load

20
15
15
15
32

It is necessary to combine all the numbers in


this table into a single number that will represent
the present worth of future energy cost per kilowatt of no-load loss and to combine them in a
slightly different manner for each kilowatt of (fullload) loss.
For no-load loss the kilowatthours for each year
are found by adding together the operating hours
for that year. Thus, for the thirtieth year the unit
will be in operation 68% of the time. Each kilowatt
of no-load loss will be present 0.68 times 8760, or
5957 h. It will therefore consume 5957 kWh of
electrical energy in that year. If the system annual
average incremental fuel cost is $0.027 (price year
cost) per kilowatthour, the cost of fuel will be 5957
times 0.027, or $160.83 for each kilowatt of loss.
For transformer load loss the calculation becomes more complex, because load loss, which includes P.R loss and stray losses, varies as the
square of load, becoming equal to the measured
value only at rated load, and because each quantity
of loss will occur at a different system incremental

POWER TRANSFORMERS

fuel cost. Thus, the hours at 25% load will be multiplied by 0.0625, those at 50% by 0.25, and those at
75% by 0.5625 to find the kilowatthours for that year.
Each product must then be multiplied by the
applicable incremental fuel cost. Except for
hydroelectric plants and nuclear plants, it is
assumed that a generating unit will operate at 50%
load when its incremental fuel cost at that load
matches the system incremental fuel cost for that
system load condition. The incremental fuel cost
for the unit can be calculated from the net station incremental heat rate at that load and the
applicable fuel cost per British thermal unit.
For example, assume that the incremental heat
rates for the unit at 100, 75, 50, and 25% load are
12,000, 10,000, 9180, and 8770 Btu/kWh, respectively, and the fuel cost is $2.50 (price year per
million Btu). Then, if the unit (and its UT) are at
50% load, it is because the system incremental fuel
cost is $2.50 times 0.00918, or $0.0295/kWh. The
extra fuel cost incurred in the thirtieth year by
1 kW of (full-load) loss during the 20% of time in
which the unit is at 50% load will be:
0.20

8760

0.25

0.0295 = $10.05

Adding costs similarly calculated for other loads


during that year brings the total to $72.64/kW of
(full-load) load loss. The totals for each of the
earlier 29 years can be calculated in a similar manner. When these annual totals are summed, however, each must be increased to account for
escalation and discounted at the IROR rate.
Combining Future Costs The present worth is

expressed in Equation A-1.


An example will illustrate the use of this expression in finding the present worth of fuel cost increment attributable to 1 kW of (full-load) transformer load loss in the thirtieth year. Assume that
the plant will go into operation in 1990 and that
fuel costs are based on 1984 prices. Then N1
= 6. For the year 2020 N2 = 30. Assume fuel cost
escalation rate is 6% and IROR is 12.5%.
CI = (1 + 0.06) 6

72.64 ((1 + 0.06)/(1 + 0.125)] 30

= 1.4185 X 72.64 X 0.1677 = $17.28

When the fuel cost increments for all earlier


years have been adjusted similarly, they can be
summed to fmd the total present worth of fuel cost
attributable to 1 kW of transformer (full-load) load
loss.
Thble A-1 shows a sample calculation for the
30-year period. It may be noted that, for the first

2-57

5 years, the present worth is greater than the


"cost:' These higher present worths occur because
the cost shown here is based on 1984 fuel cost.
The present-worth column shows these values increased by inflation and discounted at the IROR
rate. The combined effect of these two multipliers, starting from the first year of commercial
operation, is to overtake in the sixth year the
escalation that occurred between the price year
and the operating date.
The totals at the bottom of the present-worth
columns must be added to the demand cost to obtain the total present worth per kilowatt of each
type of loss.

2-58

POWER PLANT ELECTRICAL REFERENCE SERIES

Table A-1
Year of commercial operation
Fuel cost, cents per million Btu
Fuel price year
Fuel cost escalation rate, percentage
System average incremental fuel cost.
cents per kilowatthour
Internal rate of return, percentage

1990
250
1984
6.00
2.70
12.50

Transformer Loss Energy Evaluation

Incremental net station heat rate,


cents per million Btu
12,000 at 100% load
10,000 at 75% load
9,180 at 50% load
8,170 at 25% load

Projected Unit-loading Schedule

Year
1
2
3
4
5
6

Percentage of Time at Each Load


100%
75%
50%
Load
Load
Load
30

25%
Load

Copper

0%
Load

Calculated Results
per kilowatt of Full-Load Loss
Iron
Present
Cost
Value

Cost

Present
Value

60
60
60
50

40
10
10
10
10
20

10
15
15
15
15
15

0
0
0
0
0
0

20
15
15
15
15
15

189.22
201.04
201.04
201.04
201.04
201.04

252.90
253.18
238.55
224.77
211.78
199.55

133.14
177.54
177.54
177.54
177.54
163.58

177.95
223.58
210.66
198.49
187.02
162.36

7
8
9
10
11
12

50
50
50
50
40
40

20
20
20
20
25
25

15
.15
15
15
20
20

0
0
0
0
0
0

15
15
15
15
15
15

201.04
201.04
201.04
201.04
201.04
201.04

188.02
177.15
166.92
157.27
148.19
139.62

163.58
163.59
163.58
163.58
145.97
145.97

152.98
144.14
135.81
127.96
107.59
101.38

13
14
15
16
17
18

40
40
40
20
20
20

25
25
25
6
6
6

20
20
20
20
20
20

0
0
0
22
22
22

15
15
15
32
32
32

201.04
201.04
201.04
160.83
160.83
160.83

131.56
123.96
116.79
88.04
82.95
78.16

145.97
145.97
145.97
72.64
72.64
72.64

95.52
90.00
84.80
39.76
37.47
35.30

19
20
21
22
23
24

20
20
20
20
20
20

6
6
6
6
6
6

20
20
20
20
20
20

22
22
22
22
22
22

32
32
32
32
32
32

160.83
160.83
160.83
160.83
160.83
160.83

73.64
69.39
65.38
61.60
58.04
54.69

72.64
72.64
72.64
72.64
72.64
72.64

33.26
31.34
29.53
27.82
26.22
24.70

25
26
27
28
29
30

20
20
20
20
20
20

6
6
6
6
6
6

20
20
20
20
20
20

22
22
22
22
22
22

32
32
32
32
32
32

160.83
160.83
160.83
160.83
160.83
160.83

51.53
48.55
45.75
43.10
40.61
38.27

72.64
72.64
72.64
72.64
72.64
72.64

23.27
21.93
20.66
19.47
18.34
17.28

60

REFERENCES

1. U.S. Congress. Th;dc Substances Control Act.


Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, Octeber 12, 1976. 15 USC 2601, et seq., PL 94-469.
2. Code of Federal Regulations. "Protection of Environment: Polychlorinated Biphenols (PCBs) Manufacturing, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce, and
Use Prohibitions:' Washington, D.C.: Government
Printing Office, June 7, 1978. 40CFR761.
3. Field Determination of PCB in Tl"a.nsformer Oil. Vols.
1 and 2. Final Report. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power
Research Institute, October 1984. EL-3766.
4. "The Products of Combustion of Cast Biphenol-A
Epoxy 'Iransformer Coils:' Palatine, ill.: SquareD Co.,
July 1983. File 730, Product Data Bulletin No. EIP 19.
5. General Requirements for Liquid-Immersed Distribution, Power and Regulating Tl"a.nsformers. New York:
American National Standards Institute, 1980. ANSI
Std. C57.12.00-1980.
6. General Requirements for Dry-7}pe Distribution and

Power Tl"ansformers. New York: American National


Standards Institute, 1979. ANSI Std. C57.12.01-1979.
7. Test Code for Dry-7jpe Distribution and Power Tl"ans-

Electric Power Research Institute, June 1982.


EL-2443.
14. Guide for the Detection and Determination of Generated Gases in Oil-Immersed Tl"ansformers and Their
Relation to the Serviceability of the Equipment. New
York: American National Standards Institute, 1978.
ANSI Std. C57.104-1978.
15. Basic Research on Transformer Life Characteristics.
Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute,
September 1982. EL-2622.
16. Guide for Loading Mineral Oil-Immersed Tl"ansformers Up to and Including 100 MVA With 55C or 65C
Winding Rise. New York: American National Standards Institute, 1981. ANSI Std. C57.92-1981.
17. Guide for Loading Dry-7}pe Distribution and Power
Tl"ansformers. New York: American National Standards Institute, 1959. ANSI Std. C57.96-1959.
18. Recommended Practice for Establishing Tl"ansformer
Capability When Supplying Nonsinusoidal Load Currents. New York: American National Standards Institute, 1985. ANSI Std. C57.110/D7-1985.

formers. New York: American National Standards


Institute, 1979. ANSI Std. C57.12.91-1979.

19. R. M. Kerchner and G. F. Corcoran. AlternatingCurrent Circuits. New York: John Wiley and Sons,
1960.

8. Tl"ansformers, Regulators, and Reactors. Washington,


D.C.: National Electrical Manufacturers Association,
1980. NEMA Std. TR 1-1980.

20. D. G. Fink and H. W. Beaty, eds. Standard Handbook


for Electrical Engineers, 11th ed. New York: McGrawHill Book Co., 1978.

9. Terminal Markings and Connections for Distribution

21. W. J. McNutt and M. R. Patel. "The Combined Effects of Thermal Aging and Short-Circuit Stress on
'Iransformer Life:' In IEEE Tl"ansactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, val. PAS-95, no. 4, July/August
1976, pp. 1275-83.

and Power Tl"ansformers. New York: American National Standards Institute, 1978. ANSI Std.
C57.12.70-1978.
10. Requirements for Load-Tap-Changing Tl"a.nsformers
:?-30,000 Volts and Below, 3750/4687 Through
60,000180,0001100,000 kVA Three-Phase. New York:
American National Standards Institute, 1977. ANSI
Std. C57.12.30-1977.
11. Standard Electrical, Dimensional and Related Requirements for Outdoor Apparatus Bushings. New York:
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
1984. IEEE Std. 24-1984.
12. General Requirements and Test Procedures for Outdoor Apparatus Bushings. New York: American National Standards Institute and Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers, 1976. ANSI/IEEE Std.
21-1976.
13. Basic Tl"ansformer Life Characteristics. Vol. 2, Evaluation of a Fluoroptic Thermometer as a Hot Spot
Sensor for Power Transformers. Palo Alto, Calif.:

22. T. M. McCauley. "Through-Fault Capability for Unit


Auxiliary 'fransformers:' In IEEE Tl"ansactions on
Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-96, no. 5, September/October 1977, pp. 1639-47.
23. U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Safety and
Health Administration. "Title 29-Labor:' Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards.
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, April
1, 1981. 29CFR1910.
24. Terminology for Power and Distribution Transformers. New York: American National Standards Institute, 1978. ANSI Std. C57.12.80-1978.
25. Thst Code for Liquid-Immersed Distribution, Power,
and Regulating Transformers. New York: American
National Standards Institute, 1980. ANSI Std.
C57.12.90-1980.

2-60

REFERENCES

26. Acoustic Emission Detection of Pa.nial Discharges in


Power Transformers. Final Report. Palo Alto, Calif.:
Electric Power Research Institute, August 1985.
EL-4009.
27. Improved Transformer Oil Pump. Palo Alto, Calif.:
Electric Power Research Institute, September 1982.
EL-2619.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Acker, C. R. "ll:ansformer Insulation Deterioration and


'fransformer Life Expectancy-A More Comprehensive
Concept:' Abstract. In IEEE 'Ihmsactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-95, no. 3, May/June 1976,
p. 756.
Alexander, G. W., et al. "Influence of Design and Operating Practices on Excitation of Generator Step-Up
'fransformers:' In IEEE 'llansactions on lbwer Apparatus
and Systems, vol. PAS-85, no. 8, August 1966, pp. 901-9.

Distribution 11-a.nsformer Tank Pressure Study. Appendix.


Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute,
February 1976. Report 325A.
Electric Power Systems and Equipment-Voltage Ratings
(60Hz). New York: American National Standards Institute, 1982. ANSI Std. C84.1-1982.
Electrical11-a.nsmission and Distribution Reference Book.
4th ed. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Westinghouse Electric Corp.,
1964, pp. 96-144.

Amine-enhanced Photodegradation of Polychlorinated


Biphenyls. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research In
stitute, July 1982. CS-2513.

El-Hawary, M. E. Electric lbwer Systems Design and Analysis. Reston, Va.: Reston Publishing Co., 1983, sect. 3.8,
fig. 3-24.

Basic 11-a.nsformer Life Characteristics, Vol. 1, Overload


Characteristics and Life-'Iest Evaluation. Palo Alto, Calif.:
Electric Power Research Institute, June 1982. EL-2443.

Evaluation of Alternative Insulating Oils for Use in 11-a.nsformers and Other Electrical Apparatus. Palo Alto, Calif.:
Electric Power Research Institute, February 1980.
EL-809-SY.

Bean, R. L. 11-a.nsformers for the Electric lbwer Industry.


Pittsburgh, Pa.: Westinghouse Electric Corp., 1959.
Blume, L. F. Transformer Engineering. New York: John
Wiley and Sons, 1951.
Chen, K. "Evaluation of the Sunhio PCBX Process for
Reclamation of ll:ansformer Oils Containing PCBs:' In
IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems,
vol. PAS-102, no. 12, December 1983, pp. 3893-98.
Conformance Standard for Liquid-Filled 11-a.nsformers
Used in Unit Installations Including Unit Substations, Ex
eluding Pad-Mounted Compartmentals!JJ'pe 'llansformers.
New York: American National Standards Institute,
1982. ANSI Std. C57.12.13-1982.
The Cost of Energy From Utility-owned Solar Electric Systems. Pasadena, Calif.: California Institute of Thchnology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1976.

Degeneff, R. C., et al. "'fransformer Response to System


Switching Voltages:' In IEEE 11-a.nsactions on lbwer Ap
paratus and Systems, vol. PAS-101, no. 6, June 1982,
pp. 1457-70.
Development of a Portable Field Monitor for PCBs. Palo
Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute, January 1983. CS-2828.
Disposal of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and PCBContaminated Materials. Vol. 2, Suggested Procedure for
Development of PCB Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plans. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute, October 1979. FP-1207.
Distribution 11-a.nsformer Tank Pressure Study. Palo Alto,
Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute, February
1976. Report 325.

Fire Codes. Vol. 15, chaps. 7 and 8. Quincy, Mass.: National Fire Protection Association, 1983.

Frantz, T. P., and D. M. Korinek. "Low-Impedance Generator Step-Up ll:ansforrners: Improvements in System
Performance:' The Line, Summer 1975.
GasNapor- and Fire-Resistant Transformers. Palo Alto,
Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute, June 1980.
EL-1430.

General Electric Co. 1tansformer Connections. Schenectady, N.Y.: General Electric Co., June 1960. GET-2G.
Goldman, A. W. "Selection of Generator Step-Up ll:ansformer Ratings:' In IEEE 'llansactions on lbwer Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-100, no. 7, July 1981,
pp. 3425-31.
Guide for Application of 1tansformer Connections in
Three-Phase Distribution Systems. New York: American National Standards Institute, 1978. ANSI Std.
C57.105-1978.

Guide for Installation of Oil-Immersed EHV 1tansformers


345 kV and Above. New York: American National Standards Institute, 1980. ANSI Std. C57.12.12-1980.
Guide for Installation of Oil-Immersed 1tansformers
(10 MVA and LargeTj and 69 kV to 287 kV Ratings). New
York: American National Standards Institute, 1980.
ANSI Std. C57.12.111978.
Guide for 11-a.nsformer Impulse 'Jests. New York: American National Standards Institute, 1968. ANSI Std.
C57.98-1968.

Hall, J., and T. Orbeck. "Evaluation of New Protective


Coating for Porcelain Insulators:' In IEEE Transactions

2-62

BIBLIOGRAPHY

on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-101, no. 12,


December 1982, pp. 4689-96.

Heinrichs, F. W., Jr. "Theoretical and Statistical Dependence of the 'Iransformer Thst Regime on the StressLife Characteristics of Insulation Systems: In IEEE
'Iransactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.
PAS-95, no. 4, July 1976, pp. 1159-64.
High-Ampacity Potheads. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power
Research Institute, October 1975. Report EL-7817.

Horne, I. J. "Writing Specifications for Generator StepUp 'Iransformers:' The Line, Winter 1977.
Ignitability of High-Fire Point Liquid Spills. Palo Alto, Calif.:
Electric Power Research Institute, March 1981. NP-1731.
Installation, Application, Operation, and Maintenance of
Dry-'J}pe General-Purpose Power and Distribution 'Iransformers. New York: American National Standards Institute, 1982. ANSI Std. C57.94-1982.

Janis, W. J., et al. "Dechlorination and Reclamation of


PeE-Contaminated Insulating Fluids: In IEEE 'Iransactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-102,
no. 12, December 1983, pp. 3928-32.
Kelly, J. J. "'Iransformer Fault Diagnosis by Dissolved Gas
Analysis:' In IEEE 'Iransactions on Industry Applications,
vol. IA-16, no. 6, November/December 1980.
McNutt, W. J., et al. "Short-Time Failure Mode Considerations Associated with Power 'Iransformer Overloading: In IEEE 'Iransactions on Power Apparatus and
Systems, vol. PAS-99, no. 3, May/June 1980, pp.
1186-97.
- - . "'Iransformer Short-Circuit Strength and
Standards-A State-of-the-Art Paper:' In IEEE 'Iransactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-94, no.
2, March!April1975, pp. 432-43.
Miners, K. "Particles and Moisture Effect on Dielectric
Strength of 'Iransformer Oil Using VDE Electrodes:'
In IEEE 'Iransactions on Power Apparatus and Systems,
vol. PAS-101, no. 3, March 1982, pp. 751-56.
Moore, C. L., and G. F. Mitchell, Jr. "Design and Performance Characteristics of Gas/Vapor 'Iransformers: In
IEEE 'Iransactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol.
PAS-101, no. 7, July 1982, pp. 2169-70.
Nelson, P.. Q., and I. S. Benko. "Determination of 'Iransient Inrush Currents in Power 'Iransformers Due to
Out-of-Phase Switching Occurrences:' In IEEE 'Iransactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-90,
no. 4, July/August 1971, pp. 1511-21.

Oommen, T. V. "Adjustments to Gas-in-Oil Analysis Data


Due to Gas Distribution Possibilities in Power 'Iransformers:' In IEEE 'Iransactions on Power Apparatus and
Systems, vol PAS-101, no. 6, June 1982, pp. 1716-22.
Oommen, T. V., H. R. Moore, and L. E. Luke. "Experience
with Gas-in-Oil Analysis Made During Factory Thsts
on Large Power 'Iransformers:' In IEEE 'Iransactions
on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-101, no. 5,
May 1982, pp. 1048-52.
Oommen, T. V., and E. M. Petrie. "Particle Contamination Levels in Oil-Filled Large Power 'Iransformers:'
In IEEE 'Iransactions on Power Apparatus and Systems,
vol. PAS-102, no. 5, May 1983, pp. 1459-65.
PCB Removal From 'Iransformers. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute, May 1984. EL-3345.
Performance Characteristics and Dimensions for Outdoor
Apparatus Bushings. New York: American National
Standards Institute and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1982. ANSI/IEEE Std. 24-1982.
Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination
of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems. New York:
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1975.
IEEE Std. 242-1975.
Requirements for Sealed Dry-'J}pe Power 'Iransformers,
501 kVA and I.a.rger, Three-Phase With High-Voltage 601
to 34,500 Volts, Low-Voltage 208YI120 to 4160 Volts. New
York: American National Standards Institute, 1981.
ANSI Std. C57.12.52-1981.
Requirements for 7i"ansformers 230,000 Volts and Below,
833/958 Through 10,417 kVA Single-Phase and 7501862
Through 60,000180,0001100,000 kVA Three-Phase. New
York: American National Standards Institute, 1978.
ANSI Std. C57.12.10-1977.
Requirements for 'Iransformers 230,000 Volts and Below,
8331958 Through 8333/10,417 kVA Single-Phase and
7501862 Through 60,000180,000/100,000 kVA ThreePhase. New York: American National Standards Institute, 1978. ANSI Std. C57.12.10a-1978.
Requirements for Ventilated Dry-7ype Power 'Iransformers 501 kVA and Larger, Three-Phase, with High-Voltage
601 to 34,500 Volts, Low-Voltage 208YI120 to 4160 Volts.
New York: American National Standards Institute,
1981. ANSI Std. C57.12.51-1981.

"Oil Spills From Substation Electrical Equipment:' Thsk


Force Report. In IEEE 'Iransactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-99, no. 3, May/June 1980, pp.
925-27.

Rickley, A. L., et al. "Field Measurements of 'Iransformer


Excitation Current as a Diagnostic 'Ibol:' In IEEE 7ransactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-100,
no. 4, April 1981, pp. 1985-88.
Seidman, A. H., eta!. Handbook of Electrical Calcula.tions.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1984.
Standard Specification for Mineral Insulating Oil Used in
Electrical Apparatus. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Society of Testing Materials, 1982. ASTM Std.
D3487-1982.

Oil 'Jests in Thp Changers. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power


Research Institute, December 1979. EL-1302.

Standard 'lest for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insula.ting Liquids Using Disk Electrodes. Philadelphia, Pa.:

Norton, E. T. "Specifying Tertiary Windings:' Allis


Chalmers Electrical Review, fourth quarter, 1962.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

American Society of Thsting Materials, 1984. ASTM


Std. 0877-1984.

State-ofthe-Art Review: PCDDs and PCDFs in Utility FCB


Fluid. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute, November 1983. CS-3308.
Su, A. "The Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Biphenyfs
by Sodium Hydride and Alkylamine, W-F:' In IEEE

Tl"ansactions on Power Apparatus and Systems,


vol. PAS-103, no. 1, January 1984, pp. 140-42.

Surge -Characteristics and Protection of Distribution Tl"ans


formers. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute, January 1984. EL-3385.

'Iechnical Assistance Guide. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electtic Power


Research Institute, August 1977.

'lest for Corrosive Sulfur in Electrical Insulating Oils.


Philadelphia, Pa.: American Society of Thsting Materi
als, 1967. ASTM Std. 01275-1967.

'lest for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Oils


of Petroleum Origin Uncler Impulse Conditions. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Society of Thsting Materials, 1985.
ASTM Std. 03300-1985.

'lest for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Oils


of Petroleum Origin Using VDE Electrodes. Philadelphia,
Pa.: American Society of Thsting Materials, 1984. ASTM
Std. 01816-1984.

'lest for Gassing of Insulating Oils Uncler Electrical Stress


and Ionization. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Society of
Thsting Materials, 1985. ASTM Std. 02300-1985.

'lest for Power Factor and Dielectric Constant of Electrical Insulating Liquids. Philadelphia, Pa.: American Society of Thsting Materials, 1982. ASTM Std. 0924-1982.

'lest for Water in Insulating Liquids. Philadelphia, Pa.:


American Society of Thsting Materials, 1983. ASTM
Std. 015331983.

Tl"a.nsformer Hot Spot Detector. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric


Power Research Institute, October 1977. EL-573.

Tl"a.nsformer Noise Abatement Using 'II.med Sound Enclosures. Palo Alto, Calif.: Electric Power Research Institute, October 1977. EL-529.

The Use of'IWo-Phase Heat Tl"a.nsfer for Improved Tl"ans


former Cooling. Palo Alto, Calif;: Electric Power Research Institute, November 1977. EL-588.
Ver, Istvan L., et al. "Field Study of Sound Radiation by
Power 'Iransformers:' In IEEE Tl"a.nsactions on Power
Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-100, no. 7, July 1981,
pp. 3513-24.

2-63

INDEX

AA!FA, 27
Abnormal conditions, 2-1, 2-53
Alarm switches, 2-18, 2-20
Altitudes, 2-4, 222, 225
Ambient temperature, 23, 2-4,
25, 2-8, 222, 2-25, 2-53
Arrester ratings, 2-22
Arrester voltage ratings, 2-5
Arrhenius curve, 2-22
Askarel, 2-3
Autotransformer, 2-14

Double-wall tanks, 2-31


Dressing out the transformer, 2-52
Dry nitrogen, 2-9, 2-15, 2-32, 2-52
Dry-type transformers, 2-1, 2-3,
2-4, 2-5, 2-7, 28, 218, 2-23,
2-25, 247, 2-48, 2-49, 2-53

Barrier wall, 231


Basic impulse insulation level
(BIL), 2-1, 2-5, 2-12, 2-16, 2-46,
2-47, 2-48, 2-49
Bushing current transformers,
2-20
Bushing deterioration, 250
Bushing flashover, 2-51, 2-54
Bushing maintenance, 2-17
Bushing potential tap, 2-15
Bushings, 2-8, 29, 215, 2-16, 2-20,
229, 231, 2-32, 2-48, 2-49,
2-51, 2-52, 2-53, 254

Factory test report, 2-25, 2-27


Fans, 2-3, 2-6, 2-7, 2-24, 2-31, 2-47,
2-53
Fault pressure relay, 2-20
Field testing, 2-49
Fire hazard considerations, 2-3
Fireproof vaults, 23
Fire protection, 231, 2-33, 251
Forced-air (FOA), 2-6, 2-7, 2-31,
232, 2-46
Forced-air cooling, 2-1
Forced-cooled transformers, 21,
2-7, 2-53
Forced-water (FOW), 21, 26, 2-7,
2-32
Forced-water cooling, 21
Foundations, 2-51
Four windings, 2-25
Fuller's earth beds, 2-54
Full-load losses, 2-5, 2-27

Cast-coil, 2-4
Combustible gas monitor, 2-21
Condenser-type bushings, 2-15
Connections for transformers,
2-46
Conservator, 2-8, 2-9, 2-10, 2-18
Conservator system, 2-8, 2-9, 2-10
Cooling auxiliaries, 2-1, 2-6, 2-7,
232, 2-46
Cooling fans, 23
Creepage path, 2-15
Current transformers, 218, 2-20,
221
Delta connection, 2-12
Demand factor, 2-1
Design center, 2-36, 2-40, 2-41,
2-43
Design tests, 2-48
Dielectric constant, 2-3
Dielectric strength, 22, 2-3, 2-8,
29, 2-25
Dielectric stress, 2-9
Dielectric tests, 2-49
Diversity factor, 2-1
Doble test, 2-50

Eddy-current loss, 2-1, 2-7, 2-8,


225
Efficiencies, 2-4, 2-7
Energy losses, 2-1, 2-2
Excitation current, 2-25, 2-50

Gas analysis, 221, 2-50.


Gas detector, 2-21, 2-49
Gas-filled designs, 2-3
Gas formation, 2-1
Gas monitors, 21, 221, 2-53
Generator breaker, 2-6, 225, 226,
2-46
Graded insulation, 2-2, 2-12, 213,
2-49
Grounded wye, 2-11, 2-12
Grounding cap, 2-15
Grounding transformers, 2-10,
2-13, 214, 2-47, 2-48
Half-size three-phase units, 2-33
Harmonic current, 2-27
Harmonic factor, 2-2, 2-4, 2-27
Harsh environments, 2-4
Heat detectors, 251

Heat exchangers, 2-3, 2-7


Heat transfer, 2-3
Helmholz resonators, 2-31
High-current bushings, 2-16
High-impedance transformer, 2-26
Hydroelectric power plant, 2-7,
225, 2-26, 257
Hysteresis loss, 2-2, 2-7, 2-8, 2-25
Impact recorders, 2-32, 2-52
Impedance, 22, 2-5, 212, 214,
2-15, 2-25, 2-28, 229, 2-30,
231, 2-33, 2-35, 236, 2-37,
2-38, 2-41, 2-42, 2-43, 2-45,
2-46, 2-47, 2-48, 2-50
Impedance relationships, 2-46
Impedance tolerance, 2-25
Impedance voltage, 22, 2-5, 2-14,
2-25, 2-28, 238, 2-41, 2-47
Impulse tests, 2-1, 2-48, 2-49
Impulse voltage, 2-3, 2-5, 2-31,
2-35, 2-46
Incipient failures, 2-50
Inert gas system, 2-8, 29, 253
Insulating fluids, 2-1, 2-15, 218,
2-50, 254
Insulation temperature, 2-22
Internal arc, 220
Jack bosses, 2-22, 2-52
Kraft paper insulation, 2-15, 2-54
Leakage path, 254
Leakage reactance, 2-28, 2-43
Life-cycle cost, 27
Life expectancies, 2-4, 28, 223,
2-26, 2-48, 253
Lifting eyes, 2-22, 2-52
Lightning, 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 25, 2-10,
2-22, 2-49, 2-51, 2-53
Lightning and switching surge
impulse voltages, 2-3
Lightning arresters, 22, 2-5, 2-10,
222, 2-49, 2-51, 253
Lightning strikes, 2-5
Liquid-immersed transformers,
21, 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 25, 27, 215,
2-18, 2-25, 2-32, 2-46, 2-47,
2-48, 2-49, 250, 252, 2-53
Liquid level gage, 2-10, 2-18
Load center substation, 2-47
Load growth, 2-23, 2-24

2-66

INDEX

Load limits, 2-4


Load losses, 2-4, 2-7, 2-8, 2-27,
2-28, 2-30, 2-45, 2-46, 2-48,
2-56
Load rejection, 2-26
Local hot spots, 2-1
Loss evaluation, 2-7, 2-22, 2-30,
2-55, 2-56
Loss of life, 2-4
Loss reduction, 2-7, 2-8, 2-55
Low impedance, 2-6, 2-12, 2-25,
2-29, 2-43, 2-47
Low-impedance transformer, 2-6
Magnetostriction, 2-8, 2-31
Main transformer, 2-10
Manufacturing tolerances, 2-45
Masonry vaults, 2-7, 2-31
Megavars, 2-35, 2-36
Megger tests, 2-50, 2-54
Mineral oil immersed, 2-1, 2-5,
2-32, 2-47, 2-51
Multiratio ratings, 2-20
Nameplate, 2-4, 2-11, 2-24, 2-25,
2-26, 2-37, 2-38, 2-43, 2-46,
2-50, 2-52
Nameplate kilovoltamperes, 2-4
Nameplate loads, 2-23
Nitrogen, 2-9, 2-32, 2-52, 2-53
Noise control, 2-7, 2-30
Noise criteria, 2-22, 2-30
Noise measurements, 2-31
Noise ordinances, 2-30
Noise sources, 2-30
No-load losses, 2-7, 2-8, 2-27, 2-30,
2-31, 2-46, 2-48, 2-53, 2-56
No-load tap changers, 2-2, 2-14
Nonflammable fluids, 2-3
Normal station service
transformer, 2-11
Oil level gages, 2-15, 2-16
Oilpreservation systems, 2-1, 2-8,
2-18, 2-50
Oil pumps, 2-6, 2-7, 2-50
Oil reservoir, 2-18
Oil samples, 2-1, 2-50, 2-54
Oil spills, 2-3, 2-31, 2-33, 2-51
Operating conditions, 2-4, 2-5,
2-25, 2-33, 2-43
Output megawatts, 2-35, 2-35, 2-36
Overexcitation, 2-25, 2-26, 2-38
Overload effects, 2-23
Overpressure, 2-9
Oversize transformer, 2-40
Performance calculations, 2-43,
2-44
Performance graphic, 2-35

Phase angle, 2-30


Phase angle difference, 2-30
Phasing, 2-10, 2-11, 2-13, 2-22,
2-29, 2-46
Phasing out three-phase circuits,
2-29
Phasing relationshp, 2-11
Phasor diagrams, 2-11, 2-43
Polarity or connections, 2-29
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), 2-3
Polyphase, 2-3
Porcelain rain shield, 2-15, 2-16,
2-54
Power factor tap, 2-15
Power factor test, 2-50, 2-53
Power-frequency voltages, 2-5
Pressure relief devices, 2-10, 2-21
Primary voltage rating, 2-35, 2-36,
2-38, 2-40, 2-43, 2-44
Radiators, 2-6, 2-32, 2-51, 2-52
Radio influence voltage tests, 2-2,
2-48
Rating basis, 2-2, 2-4, 2-45
Rating selections, 2-36
Ratio error, 2-45
Reactive power, 2-27, 2-30, 2-33,
2-36, 2-37, 2-38, 2-39, 2-40,
2-41, 2-42, 2-43, 2-44, 2-45,
2-47
Real and reactive power losses,
2-33, 2-41, 2-45
Real power output, 2-33, 2-36,
2-39
Rectifiers, 2-27
Regulation, 2-28
Reliability, 2-1, 2-15, 2-43, 2-46,
2-47
Remote indication, 2-20
Reserve station service
transformer, 2-11
Resin-encapsulated design, 2-4
Resin-encapsulated transformers,
2-1, 2-47
Routine tests, 2-48
Sealed-tank designs, 2-3
Secondary leads impedance, 2-15,
2-29
Secondary unit substation
transformers, 2-1, 2-7, 2-14
Secondary voltage, 2-4, 2-12, 2-15,
2-25, 2-26, 2-28, 2-31, 2-35,
2-36, 2-38, 2-43, 2-44, 2-46,
2-47
Selection of size, 2-33
Selection of transformer ratings,
2-36
Self-cooled transformers, 2-1

Shipping considerations, 2-32


Shipping limitations, 2-7, 2-16,
2-32, 2-34
Shop testing, 2-48
Short circuit, 2-1, 2-29, 2-50
Short-circuit current, 2-23, 2-29,
2-48
Short-circuit limitations, 2-47
Short-circuit requirements, 2-29
Short-time overloads, 2-23, 2-24
Single-phase designs, 2-1
Single-phase units, 2-11, 2-33
Sinusoidal capacity, 2-28
Sinusoidal waveform, 2-27
Specifications, 2-4, 2-16, 2-25, 2-26,
2-27
Startup transformer, 2-11
Station service transformer (SST),
2-1, 2-2, 2-6, 2-8, 2-11, 2-12,
2-15, 2-16, 2-25, 2-29, 2-30,
2-46, 2-47
Stray currents, 2-32
Stray loss, 2-7, 2-27, 2-28, 2-43, 2-56
Substation transformers, 2-8, 2-30,
2-33, 2-46
Sudden pressure, 2-20
Surge arresters, 2-2, 2-3, 2-47
Surge voltages, 2-2, 2-22
Switching surge tests, 2-48
System voltage, 2-23, 2-33, 2-36,
2-39, 2-42, 2-45
lank rupture, 2-3
lap changing, 2-14, 2-43, 2-54
lap position, 2-15
laps, 2-4, 2-14, 2-15, 2-20, 2-28,
2-39, 2-40, 2-43, 2-46, 2-54
laut-string perimeter, 2-51
T connection, 2-10, 2-14
Thmperature indicators, 2-18, 2-2{)
Thmperature rise, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5,
2-8, 2-18, 2-25, 2-26, 2-27,
2-45, 2-48, 2-49
Thrtiary, 2-12, 2-25
Thsts, 2-1, 2-4, 2-25, 2-29, 2-30,
2-48, 2-49, 2-53
Thermal aging, 2-29
Thermal expansion, 2-15, 2-22
Third-harmonic currents, 2-12
Three-phase designs, 2-1
Three-phase units, 2-11, 2-33
Three-winding transformers, 2-25,
2-46
Through-faults, 2-4, 2-22, 2-23,
2-29, 2-45, 2-48, 2-50
1bp oil temperature, 2-18, 2-20
1btally enclosed, 2-3, 2-4
1btally enclosed nonventilated
designs, 2-3

INDEX

'Iransformer oil, 2-1, 2-16, 2-53


'Iransformer parameters, 2-33,
2-35, 2-36, 2-41, 2-42
'Iransformer regulation, 2-28
'Iransformer selection, 2-24, 2-35,
2-36
'Iransient overvoltages, 2-3, 2-5,
2-22, 2-26, 2-45, 2-48
'Iriple-rated transformer, 2-5, 2-6,
2-28, 2-32
1\Jrns-ratio testing, 2-50
'fum-to-turn faults, 2-50
1\vo-winding designs, 2-25
Unit auxiliaries transformer (UAT),
2-1, 2-3, 2-6, 2-11, 2-12, 2-16,
2-25, 2-26, 2-29, 2,30, 2-32,
2-33, 2-43, 2-44, 2-45, 2-46
Unit transformer (UT), 2-1, 2-3,
2-6, 2-10, 2-11, 2-12, 2-14, 2-16,
2-25, 2-26, 2-30, 2-31, 2-32,
2-33, 2-34, 2-35, 2-36, 2-37,
2-41, 2-43, 2-44, 2-45, 2-46,
2-56
Untanking, 2-51, 2-54
Vacuum dehydrator, 2-54
Vapor-cooled transformer, 2-3
Variable-speed drives, 2-26
Vaults, 2-31
Ventilated designs, 2-3
Ventilated dry-type transformers,
2-3, 2-4, 2-47, 2-53
Vibration, 2-4, 2-20, 2-22, 2-30
Voltage breakdown test, 2-50
Voltage gradients, 2-8, 2-15
Voltage profiles, 2-38, 2-47
Voltage regulation, 2-22, 2-27,
2-28, 2-42, 2-47
Voltage regulator, 2-14, 2-26, 2-31,
2-45
Volts-per-hertz protection, 2-26
Water leakage into the oil, 2-7
Water-spray fire protection, 2-51
Waveform distortion, 2-4, 2-26
Winding configurations, 2-25
Winding temperature, 2-18, 2-25
Withstand capability, 2-5, 2-26
Wye connection, 2-14
Wye-wye transformer, 2-12, 2-25
Wye-zigzag design, 2-13
Zero-sequence, 2-12, 2-25, 2-48
Zig-zag connected secondary, 2-13

Z-67