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# ANALYSIS OF HORIZONTALLY CURVED DECK SLABS

## USING SIMPLE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

Rohit Rai1
A series of horizontally curved deck slabs were analyzed using simple finite-element models. The
analyses included using a uniformly distributed load and the dead load as the primary forces on deck slab. . In
each analysis, the behavior of deck slabs was investigated, and the major internal forces developed in members
were determined. Specifically, an increase in absolute stress and the existence of a torsional moment in cases
where the horizontal angle of curvature is large (about 4590) was observed. The significance of these
moments, compared with the maximum bending moment of a comparable straight bridge, was noted. Deck slab
for practical purposes was assumed of sizes 90cm width and 200cm outer curves span
ABSTRACT:

INTRODUCTION

## Bridge superstructure with horizontal curvature

generally has higher cost than comparable structures

## systems have become standard features of highway

interchanges and urban expressways.

fabrication

most

and

construction

costs.

In

Gorakhpur(U.P)

requirement

and

structural

optimization

may

cross-sectional

variation

and

may

also

be

## economically competitive .The appearance of a

curved framing system is more pleasing compared
to straight girders placed on chord configuration.

## The finite element is a technique for analyzing

complicated structures by notionally cutting up the

the1950s.

stiffness

equations

are

derived

relating

## displacements of the nodes to node forces between

elements and in the same way the slope deflection
equation can be solved for joints in a continuous
beam, an electronic computer is used to solve the
very large number of simultaneous equations that
relate node force and displacements. Since the basic
principle of subdivision of structure into simple
elements can be applied to structures of all forms
and complexity, there is no logical limit to the type
of structure that can be analyzed if the computer
program is written in the appropriate form.
Consequently finite elements provide the more
versatile method of analysis at present, and for
some structures only practical method .However the
quantity of computation can be enormous and

## When this method is applied to a slab, the slab is

divided into triangular, rectangular or quadrilateral
elements. Thus, the corners of the elements become
nodes usually; the vertical deflections of the plate
element are expressed in a polynomial of the
coordinates of the vertices of the element. This
polynomial satisfies the conditions at the corners
but may violate the continuity condition along the
sides of the element.
LITERATURE REVIEW
During recent years, several research workers have
attempted to analyze curved bridge decks by the
finite element method.

different

element

in

and

and Roll.

theoretical

different

ways

formulations
affect

the

of

accuracy

## have the ease of use and reliability of the simple

methods of bridge deck analysis.

METHOD OF ANALYSIS
Consider a typical element with nodal points i, j, k,
1.Displacements at each point are the lateral

## terms of the coordinates of the nodes and A is a

column matrix of the unknown constants.
The curvature and twist at a by point of the element

i.e. Ui=

constants,

=BA
UA=

matrix D.

Similarly

the

forces

in

the

direction

of

Fi=

=D

where D is given

,FA=
by

## If the lateral deflection w throughout the element is

represented by a polynomial in x and y, 12 unknown
constants are involved since three degree of

## By the principle of virtual work the stiffness matrix

KA of the element is expressed as

## freedom exist at each node.

KA=(c-1)T [BTDB dxdy] C-1

10

11

+
+

12

## Where the integration is taken over the entire area

of the element.
Once the stiffness matrix of an element is

UA=CA

## determined, the nodal stiffness matrix of the whole

structure, Scan is assembled by manual calculation
or with the computer.

## 90. A comparable straight deck (curvature angle=0)

was also considered in the analysis to provide a

U=nodal displacements

Then N=Su

## After incorporating support restraint conditions, all

nodal displacements can be determined by solving
the above set of simultaneous equations or by
matrix inversion,

## are slightly different from one another. For our

practical consideration we had to make a small
specimen.
However, the chord length L was set at a constant
value equal to 1.79m.It was set so because we had

i.e. u=[S]-1N

## years, but its application has become increasingly

popular. The standard structural procedures once
established can be used for the solution of very
complicated structures. Even a three dimensional
structure with slabs, beams and columns can be
treated together. Boundary conditions which are

## As far design of curved deck slab is considered we

had used Marcus method for designing of curved
deck slab and designed curved slab accordingly and
for curved girders we had designed IS method
considering UDL.

DESIGN

Depth

AND

GEOMETRICAL

## CONFIGURATION OF DECK SLAB

of

slab=80mm,

Sizes

of

girders=150mm200mm.
VARIOUS FORCE EXISTING IN PLATE
ELEMENT

## Fig 1 Deck Slab plan layout

Figure shows the curvature plan of deck slab used
in the alalysis.Thecurvature is represented by the
angle Seven different curved bridge configuration
were considered with equal to 15, 30,45,60,75 and

## Mx=Bending Moment in x direction,

My=Bending Moment in y direction,
Mxy=Twisting Moment in xy direction.
Table 1:-Table of different geometry for which the
Decks slab was investigated.
Absolute Stress diagram due to UDL.
S.n Degre
o

Chord

of Length( m)

curvat

taken
Arc

was

Length(m)

## Table 2. Shows the values Bending Moments for

m)

ure
1.
0
1.80
2.
15
1.80
3.
30
1.80
4.
45
1.80
5.
60
1.80
6.
75
1.80
7.
90
1.80
0.011121N/mm2.It was

## Stress generated due to UDL=3.03N/mm2.

______ ______
6.92
1.8107
3.477
1.81963
2.3523
1.84632
1.80
1.884
1.48
1.93
1.27
1.998
kept constant for all the

MAXI-

MAXI-

MAXI-

TYPE

MUM

MUM

MUM

BENDIN

BENDI-

BENDI-

NG

NG

MOMEN

MOME-

MOME-

T(Mx)

NT(My)

NT(Mxy)

KNm/m
2.11

KNm/m
0.474

KNm/m
0.110

4.035

0.912

0.209

models.
UNIFORMANALYSIS OF DECK SLAB
1. Taking the 1st Geometry Straight deck
Span=1.80m

LY
COMBINED

and UDL)

DISTRIBU

Slab.

TED
COMBINE

8.30

8.13

0.494

D
UDL)

## 3. Taking 3rd geometry Curvature is 30 Degree

Curved Deck Slab.

## Absolute stress diagram due to UDL

The

value

of

Absolute

Stress

due

to

UDL=3.95N/mm2
Table 3. Shows the values Bending Moments for

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIM

TYPE

UM

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDIN

MOMEN

MOMEN

MOMEN

T(Mx)
4.186

T(My)
4.11

T(Mxy)
0.242

UNIFORM
LY

## Absolute stress diagram due to UDL

Absolute stress generated due to UDL=3.47N/mm2.

## Table 4. Shows the values Bending Moments for

MAXI

MAXIM

MAXIMUM

TYPE

MUM

UM

BENDING

BENDI

BENDIN MOMENT(

NG

MOME

MOMEN

NT(Mx)
3.66

T(My)
0.860

UNIFORM

Mxy)
Absolute Stress Diagram due to UDL
The maximum absolute stress due to

0.230

UDL=3.377N/mm2

LY
DISTRIBU

COMBINE 7.27

1.70

0.47

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

MOMENT(

MOMEN

MOMEN

Mxy)

T(Mx)
0.92

T(My)
3.50

0.308

1.82

6.96

0.633

and UDL)

UNIFORM

LY
DISTRIBU
TED
COMBINE
D
UDL)

and

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

G TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

MOMENT(

## 3D model of 60 curved deck slab

UNIFOR

(Mx)

(My)

0.588

2.35

0.343

1.18

4.94

0.66

MLY
DISTRIB
UTED
COMBIN
ED
Absolute stress diagram due to UDL

UDL=2.33N/mm2.

## The maximum absolute stress generated due to

UDL=3.17N/mm2
Table7.Shows the values Bending Moments for

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

MOMENT(

MOMEN

MOMEN

Mxy)

T(Mx)
1.062

T(My)
3.17

0.500

UNIFORM
LY

## Absolute Stress Diagram due to UDL.

The

maximum

absolute

stress

generated

=3.55N/mm2
Table 8.Shows the values Bending Moments for

DISTRIBU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

TED

TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

COMBINE

2.11

6.29

1.02

MOMENT(

MOMEN

MOMEN

Mxy)

T(Mx)
2.71

T(My)
3.15

1.87

UNIFORM

and

UDL)

LY
DISTRIBU
TED

COMBINE

5.37

6.21

1.38

Moment.

D

S.no

## a) The comparison of the results of torsional

Curvature(degrees)
Moment

and

UDL)
RESULTS

Bending

AND

GRAPHICAL

INTERPRETATION
1. The comparison of the result obtained for
Maximum absolute stresses subjected to Uniformly

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0
15
30
45
60
75
90

(Mx),

(kNm/m)
0.209
0.39
0.47
0.63
0.66
1.02
1.38

S.no

Curvature(degrees)

Maximum

## Graphical interpretation of results:-

absolute
stresses(N/mm2)
1
0
3.03
2
15
3.95
3
30
3.47
4
45
3.377
5
60
2.92
6
75
2.11
7
90
5.37
Graphical interpretation of result:-

CONCLUSION

and UDL.

## stress of about 77.22% from zero degree to 90

degree curvature.

## 2. There was also a large increase in the torsional

moment with curvature and this has been shown
graphically.
REFERENCES
1. Albaijet, H. M. O. (1999). Behavior of
horizontally curved bridges under static load and
dynamic load from earthquakes. PhD thesis,
Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.
2. Linzell, D. G. (1999). Studies of a full-scale
horizontally curved steel I-girder bridge system
under self-weight. PhD thesis, Georgia Institute
of Technology, Atlanta.
3. Zureick, A., Naqib, R., and Yadlosky, J. M.
(1994). Curved steel bridge research project,
interim report I: Synthesis. Publication No.
FHWARD-93-129,

Federal

Highway