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Rohit Rai1

A series of horizontally curved deck slabs were analyzed using simple finite-element models. The

analyses included using a uniformly distributed load and the dead load as the primary forces on deck slab. . In

each analysis, the behavior of deck slabs was investigated, and the major internal forces developed in members

were determined. Specifically, an increase in absolute stress and the existence of a torsional moment in cases

where the horizontal angle of curvature is large (about 4590) was observed. The significance of these

moments, compared with the maximum bending moment of a comparable straight bridge, was noted. Deck slab

for practical purposes was assumed of sizes 90cm width and 200cm outer curves span

ABSTRACT:

INTRODUCTION

generally has higher cost than comparable structures

interchanges and urban expressways.

fabrication

most

and

construction

costs.

In

Gorakhpur(U.P)

requirement

and

structural

optimization

may

cross-sectional

variation

and

may

also

be

curved framing system is more pleasing compared

to straight girders placed on chord configuration.

complicated structures by notionally cutting up the

the1950s.

stiffness

equations

are

derived

relating

elements and in the same way the slope deflection

equation can be solved for joints in a continuous

beam, an electronic computer is used to solve the

very large number of simultaneous equations that

relate node force and displacements. Since the basic

principle of subdivision of structure into simple

elements can be applied to structures of all forms

and complexity, there is no logical limit to the type

of structure that can be analyzed if the computer

program is written in the appropriate form.

Consequently finite elements provide the more

versatile method of analysis at present, and for

some structures only practical method .However the

quantity of computation can be enormous and

divided into triangular, rectangular or quadrilateral

elements. Thus, the corners of the elements become

nodes usually; the vertical deflections of the plate

element are expressed in a polynomial of the

coordinates of the vertices of the element. This

polynomial satisfies the conditions at the corners

but may violate the continuity condition along the

sides of the element.

LITERATURE REVIEW

During recent years, several research workers have

attempted to analyze curved bridge decks by the

finite element method.

different

element

in

and

and Roll.

theoretical

different

ways

formulations

affect

the

of

accuracy

methods of bridge deck analysis.

METHOD OF ANALYSIS

Consider a typical element with nodal points i, j, k,

1.Displacements at each point are the lateral

column matrix of the unknown constants.

The curvature and twist at a by point of the element

i.e. Ui=

constants,

=BA

UA=

matrix D.

Similarly

the

forces

in

the

direction

of

Fi=

=D

where D is given

,FA=

by

represented by a polynomial in x and y, 12 unknown

constants are involved since three degree of

KA of the element is expressed as

KA=(c-1)T [BTDB dxdy] C-1

10

11

+

+

12

of the element.

Once the stiffness matrix of an element is

UA=CA

structure, Scan is assembled by manual calculation

or with the computer.

was also considered in the analysis to provide a

U=nodal displacements

Then N=Su

nodal displacements can be determined by solving

the above set of simultaneous equations or by

matrix inversion,

practical consideration we had to make a small

specimen.

However, the chord length L was set at a constant

value equal to 1.79m.It was set so because we had

i.e. u=[S]-1N

popular. The standard structural procedures once

established can be used for the solution of very

complicated structures. Even a three dimensional

structure with slabs, beams and columns can be

treated together. Boundary conditions which are

had used Marcus method for designing of curved

deck slab and designed curved slab accordingly and

for curved girders we had designed IS method

considering UDL.

DESIGN

Depth

AND

GEOMETRICAL

of

slab=80mm,

Sizes

of

girders=150mm200mm.

VARIOUS FORCE EXISTING IN PLATE

ELEMENT

Figure shows the curvature plan of deck slab used

in the alalysis.Thecurvature is represented by the

angle Seven different curved bridge configuration

were considered with equal to 15, 30,45,60,75 and

My=Bending Moment in y direction,

Mxy=Twisting Moment in xy direction.

Table 1:-Table of different geometry for which the

Decks slab was investigated.

Absolute Stress diagram due to UDL.

Loading

S.n Degre

o

Taken:-Loading

Chord

Radius(

of Length( m)

curvat

taken

Arc

was

Length(m)

various Loading Conditions for straight Deck Slab

m)

ure

1.

0

1.80

2.

15

1.80

3.

30

1.80

4.

45

1.80

5.

60

1.80

6.

75

1.80

7.

90

1.80

0.011121N/mm2.It was

______ ______

6.92

1.8107

3.477

1.81963

2.3523

1.84632

1.80

1.884

1.48

1.93

1.27

1.998

kept constant for all the

LOADING

MAXI-

MAXI-

MAXI-

TYPE

MUM

MUM

MUM

BENDIN

BENDI-

BENDI-

NG

NG

MOMEN

MOME-

MOME-

T(Mx)

NT(My)

NT(Mxy)

KNm/m

2.11

KNm/m

0.474

KNm/m

0.110

4.035

0.912

0.209

models.

UNIFORMANALYSIS OF DECK SLAB

1. Taking the 1st Geometry Straight deck

Span=1.80m

LY

DISTRIBUTED LOAD

COMBINED

LOADING

(Dead

Load

and UDL)

DISTRIBU

Slab.

TED

LOAD

COMBINE

8.30

8.13

0.494

D

LOADING

(Dead and

UDL)

Curved Deck Slab.

The

value

of

Absolute

Stress

due

to

UDL=3.95N/mm2

Table 3. Shows the values Bending Moments for

various Loading Conditions.

LOADING

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIM

TYPE

UM

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDIN

MOMEN

MOMEN

MOMEN

T(Mx)

4.186

T(My)

4.11

T(Mxy)

0.242

UNIFORM

LY

Absolute stress generated due to UDL=3.47N/mm2.

various Loading Conditions.

LOADING

MAXI

MAXIM

MAXIMUM

TYPE

MUM

UM

BENDING

BENDI

BENDIN MOMENT(

NG

MOME

MOMEN

NT(Mx)

3.66

T(My)

0.860

UNIFORM

Mxy)

Absolute Stress Diagram due to UDL

The maximum absolute stress due to

0.230

UDL=3.377N/mm2

LY

DISTRIBU

TED LOAD

COMBINE 7.27

1.70

0.47

LOADING

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

LOADING(

TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

MOMENT(

MOMEN

MOMEN

Mxy)

T(Mx)

0.92

T(My)

3.50

0.308

1.82

6.96

0.633

Dead

load

and UDL)

UNIFORM

LY

DISTRIBU

TED

LOAD

COMBINE

D

LOADING

(Dead

Load

UDL)

and

LOADIN

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

G TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

MOMENT(

UNIFOR

(Mx)

(My)

0.588

2.35

0.343

1.18

4.94

0.66

MLY

DISTRIB

UTED

LOAD

COMBIN

ED

LOADIN

Absolute stress diagram due to UDL

UDL=2.33N/mm2.

UDL=3.17N/mm2

Table7.Shows the values Bending Moments for

various Loading Conditions

LOADING

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

MOMENT(

MOMEN

MOMEN

Mxy)

T(Mx)

1.062

T(My)

3.17

0.500

UNIFORM

LY

The

maximum

absolute

stress

generated

=3.55N/mm2

Table 8.Shows the values Bending Moments for

various Loading Conditions

DISTRIBU

LOADING

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

TED

TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

LOAD

COMBINE

2.11

6.29

1.02

MOMENT(

MOMEN

MOMEN

Mxy)

LOADING

T(Mx)

2.71

T(My)

3.15

1.87

UNIFORM

(Dead

Load

and

UDL)

LY

DISTRIBU

TED

LOAD

COMBINE

5.37

6.21

1.38

Moment.

D

LOADING

S.no

(Dead

Load

Curvature(degrees)

Moment

and

UDL)

RESULTS

Bending

AND

GRAPHICAL

INTERPRETATION

1. The comparison of the result obtained for

Maximum absolute stresses subjected to Uniformly

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

(Mx),

(kNm/m)

0.209

0.39

0.47

0.63

0.66

1.02

1.38

Distributed Load.

S.no

Curvature(degrees)

Maximum

absolute

stresses(N/mm2)

1

0

3.03

2

15

3.95

3

30

3.47

4

45

3.377

5

60

2.92

6

75

2.11

7

90

5.37

Graphical interpretation of result:-

CONCLUSION

and UDL.

degree curvature.

moment with curvature and this has been shown

graphically.

REFERENCES

1. Albaijet, H. M. O. (1999). Behavior of

horizontally curved bridges under static load and

dynamic load from earthquakes. PhD thesis,

Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.

2. Linzell, D. G. (1999). Studies of a full-scale

horizontally curved steel I-girder bridge system

under self-weight. PhD thesis, Georgia Institute

of Technology, Atlanta.

3. Zureick, A., Naqib, R., and Yadlosky, J. M.

(1994). Curved steel bridge research project,

interim report I: Synthesis. Publication No.

FHWARD-93-129,

Federal

Highway

4. Eduardo DeSantiago, Jamshid Mohammadi, and

Hamadallah M. O. Albaijat (2005) Analysis of

Horizontally Curved Bridges Using Simple FiniteElement Models.

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