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ANALYSIS OF HORIZONTALLY CURVED DECK SLABS

USING SIMPLE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD


Rohit Rai1
A series of horizontally curved deck slabs were analyzed using simple finite-element models. The
analyses included using a uniformly distributed load and the dead load as the primary forces on deck slab. . In
each analysis, the behavior of deck slabs was investigated, and the major internal forces developed in members
were determined. Specifically, an increase in absolute stress and the existence of a torsional moment in cases
where the horizontal angle of curvature is large (about 4590) was observed. The significance of these
moments, compared with the maximum bending moment of a comparable straight bridge, was noted. Deck slab
for practical purposes was assumed of sizes 90cm width and 200cm outer curves span
ABSTRACT:

Key words: Curvature, Torsional Moment, Absolute Stress.

INTRODUCTION

Since the early 1960s, curved spans and framing

Bridge superstructure with horizontal curvature


generally has higher cost than comparable structures

systems have become standard features of highway


interchanges and urban expressways.

on straight alignment due to increased design

A curved deck may still be placed on a series of

fabrication

most

straight beams or girders if the curvature is not very

instances, however, the extra cost is nominal and

steep and the maximum slab overhang resulting

offset by the associated functional improvement. In

from this arrangement is compatible with the

the past, curved bridges had deck formed to follow

practical slab thickness. Roadway curvature with

the roadway curvature, but were supported a

small radius is common in access ramps and

straight beams and girders with changing direction

elevated roadways where the plan alignment is

to accommodate the deck alignment.

restricted by site conditions. In such cases clearance

and

construction

costs.

In

1.Research Scholar, M.M.M Engineering College,


Gorakhpur(U.P)

requirement

and

structural

optimization

may

indicate a curved framing system that limits the


cross-sectional

variation

and

may

also

be

economically competitive .The appearance of a


curved framing system is more pleasing compared
to straight girders placed on chord configuration.

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

The technique was pioneered for two dimensional

The finite element is a technique for analyzing


complicated structures by notionally cutting up the

elastic structures by Turner et al and Clough during


the1950s.

continuum of the prototype into a number of small

The whole structure is divided into component

elements which are connected at discrete joints

elements, such as straight beams, curved beams,

called nodes. For each element approximate

triangular or rectangular plate elements, which are

stiffness

joined at the nodes.

equations

are

derived

relating

displacements of the nodes to node forces between


elements and in the same way the slope deflection
equation can be solved for joints in a continuous
beam, an electronic computer is used to solve the
very large number of simultaneous equations that
relate node force and displacements. Since the basic
principle of subdivision of structure into simple
elements can be applied to structures of all forms
and complexity, there is no logical limit to the type
of structure that can be analyzed if the computer
program is written in the appropriate form.
Consequently finite elements provide the more
versatile method of analysis at present, and for
some structures only practical method .However the
quantity of computation can be enormous and

When this method is applied to a slab, the slab is


divided into triangular, rectangular or quadrilateral
elements. Thus, the corners of the elements become
nodes usually; the vertical deflections of the plate
element are expressed in a polynomial of the
coordinates of the vertices of the element. This
polynomial satisfies the conditions at the corners
but may violate the continuity condition along the
sides of the element.
LITERATURE REVIEW
During recent years, several research workers have
attempted to analyze curved bridge decks by the
finite element method.

expensive so that the cost cannot be justified for run

Jenkins and Siddall used a stiffness matrix approach

of mill structures. Furthermore, the numerous

and represented the deck slab with finite elements in

different

element

the form of annular segments, while Cheung

stiffness characteristics all require approximations

adopted the triangular elements. In addition, a

in

and

horizontal curved box-beam highway bridge was

applicability of the method .Further research and

investigated in a three dimensional sense by Aneja

development is required before the method will

and Roll.

theoretical

different

ways

formulations
affect

the

of

accuracy

have the ease of use and reliability of the simple


methods of bridge deck analysis.

METHOD OF ANALYSIS
Consider a typical element with nodal points i, j, k,
1.Displacements at each point are the lateral

displacement and rotations are perpendicular axes x

Where C is a 12 by 12 matrix simply written in

and y within the plane of the slab.

terms of the coordinates of the nodes and A is a


column matrix of the unknown constants.
The curvature and twist at a by point of the element

i.e. Ui=

can also be expressed in terms of the unknown


constants,

Displacement of the whole element is given by:-

=BA
UA=

The internal moments are related to the curvature by


matrix D.

Similarly

the

forces

in

the

direction

of

displacements are given by:

Fi=

=D

where D is given

,FA=
by

If the lateral deflection w throughout the element is


represented by a polynomial in x and y, 12 unknown
constants are involved since three degree of

By the principle of virtual work the stiffness matrix


KA of the element is expressed as

freedom exist at each node.


KA=(c-1)T [BTDB dxdy] C-1

10

11

+
+

12

Where the integration is taken over the entire area


of the element.
Once the stiffness matrix of an element is

UA=CA

determined, the nodal stiffness matrix of the whole


structure, Scan is assembled by manual calculation
or with the computer.

If N=external nodal forces,

90. A comparable straight deck (curvature angle=0)


was also considered in the analysis to provide a

U=nodal displacements

baseline for comparing the results obtained for

Then N=Su

curved decks. The actual span lengths of the bridges

After incorporating support restraint conditions, all


nodal displacements can be determined by solving
the above set of simultaneous equations or by
matrix inversion,

are slightly different from one another. For our


practical consideration we had to make a small
specimen.
However, the chord length L was set at a constant
value equal to 1.79m.It was set so because we had

i.e. u=[S]-1N

made that specimen in lab.

The finite Element Method was developed in recent

Thus the straight deck has a span of 1.80m.

years, but its application has become increasingly


popular. The standard structural procedures once
established can be used for the solution of very
complicated structures. Even a three dimensional
structure with slabs, beams and columns can be
treated together. Boundary conditions which are

As far design of curved deck slab is considered we


had used Marcus method for designing of curved
deck slab and designed curved slab accordingly and
for curved girders we had designed IS method
considering UDL.

notoriously difficult for plate method can be dealt

The deck slab of 90degree curved was designed and

with as a trivial matter of insertion.

we got following cross-section.

DESIGN

Depth

AND

GEOMETRICAL

CONFIGURATION OF DECK SLAB

of

slab=80mm,

Sizes

of

girders=150mm200mm.
VARIOUS FORCE EXISTING IN PLATE
ELEMENT

Fig 1 Deck Slab plan layout


Figure shows the curvature plan of deck slab used
in the alalysis.Thecurvature is represented by the
angle Seven different curved bridge configuration
were considered with equal to 15, 30,45,60,75 and

Qx=Shear Force in direction,

Qy=Shear Force in Y direction,

3D Model of Straight Deck Slab

Mx=Bending Moment in x direction,


My=Bending Moment in y direction,
Mxy=Twisting Moment in xy direction.
Table 1:-Table of different geometry for which the
Decks slab was investigated.
Absolute Stress diagram due to UDL.
Loading
S.n Degre
o

Taken:-Loading
Chord
Radius(

of Length( m)

curvat

taken
Arc

was

Length(m)

Table 2. Shows the values Bending Moments for


various Loading Conditions for straight Deck Slab

m)

ure
1.
0
1.80
2.
15
1.80
3.
30
1.80
4.
45
1.80
5.
60
1.80
6.
75
1.80
7.
90
1.80
0.011121N/mm2.It was

Stress generated due to UDL=3.03N/mm2.

______ ______
6.92
1.8107
3.477
1.81963
2.3523
1.84632
1.80
1.884
1.48
1.93
1.27
1.998
kept constant for all the

LOADING

MAXI-

MAXI-

MAXI-

TYPE

MUM

MUM

MUM

BENDIN

BENDI-

BENDI-

NG

NG

MOMEN

MOME-

MOME-

T(Mx)

NT(My)

NT(Mxy)

KNm/m
2.11

KNm/m
0.474

KNm/m
0.110

4.035

0.912

0.209

models.
UNIFORMANALYSIS OF DECK SLAB
1. Taking the 1st Geometry Straight deck
Span=1.80m

LY
DISTRIBUTED LOAD
COMBINED
LOADING
(Dead

Load

and UDL)

2. Taking 2nd Geometry 15 Degree Curved Deck

DISTRIBU

Slab.

TED
LOAD
COMBINE

8.30

8.13

0.494

D
LOADING
(Dead and
UDL)

3. Taking 3rd geometry Curvature is 30 Degree


Curved Deck Slab.

3D Model for 15 Degree Curved Deck Slab

3D Model of 30degree Curved Deck Slab

Absolute stress diagram due to UDL


The

value

of

Absolute

Stress

due

to

UDL=3.95N/mm2
Table 3. Shows the values Bending Moments for
various Loading Conditions.
LOADING

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIM

TYPE

UM

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDIN

MOMEN

MOMEN

MOMEN

T(Mx)
4.186

T(My)
4.11

T(Mxy)
0.242

UNIFORM
LY

Absolute stress diagram due to UDL


Absolute stress generated due to UDL=3.47N/mm2.

Table 4. Shows the values Bending Moments for


various Loading Conditions.

LOADING

MAXI

MAXIM

MAXIMUM

TYPE

MUM

UM

BENDING

BENDI

BENDIN MOMENT(

NG

MOME

MOMEN

NT(Mx)
3.66

T(My)
0.860

UNIFORM

Mxy)
Absolute Stress Diagram due to UDL
The maximum absolute stress due to

0.230

UDL=3.377N/mm2

LY
DISTRIBU

Table 5.Shows the values Bending Moments for

TED LOAD
COMBINE 7.27

various Loading Conditions for straight Deck Slab


1.70

0.47

LOADING

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

LOADING(

TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

MOMENT(

MOMEN

MOMEN

Mxy)

T(Mx)
0.92

T(My)
3.50

0.308

1.82

6.96

0.633

Dead

load

and UDL)

4. Taking 4th geometry Curvature is 45 Degree

UNIFORM

Curved Deck Slab.

LY
DISTRIBU
TED
LOAD
COMBINE
D
LOADING
(Dead
Load
UDL)

3D Model of 45 degree curved deck slab

and

5. Taking 5th geometry Curvature is 60 Degree

Table 6.Shows the values Bending Moments for

Curved Deck Slab.

various Loading Conditions


LOADIN

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

G TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

MOMENT(

MOMENT MOMENT Mxy)

3D model of 60 curved deck slab

UNIFOR

(Mx)

(My)

0.588

2.35

0.343

1.18

4.94

0.66

MLY
DISTRIB
UTED
LOAD
COMBIN
ED
LOADIN
Absolute stress diagram due to UDL

The maximum absolute stress generated due to

6. Taking 6th geometry Curvature is 75 Degree

UDL=2.33N/mm2.

Curved Deck Slab..

3D model of 75 degree curved deck slab

Absolute stress diagram due to UDL

3D model of 90degree curved deck slab

The maximum absolute stress generated due to


UDL=3.17N/mm2
Table7.Shows the values Bending Moments for
various Loading Conditions
LOADING

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

MOMENT(

MOMEN

MOMEN

Mxy)

T(Mx)
1.062

T(My)
3.17

0.500

UNIFORM
LY

Absolute Stress Diagram due to UDL.


The

maximum

absolute

stress

generated

=3.55N/mm2
Table 8.Shows the values Bending Moments for
various Loading Conditions

DISTRIBU

LOADING

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

MAXIMU

TED

TYPE

BENDIN

BENDIN

BENDING

LOAD
COMBINE

2.11

6.29

1.02

MOMENT(

MOMEN

MOMEN

Mxy)

LOADING

T(Mx)
2.71

T(My)
3.15

1.87

UNIFORM

(Dead
Load

and

UDL)

LY
DISTRIBU
TED

7. Geometry 90degree curved deck slab

LOAD

COMBINE

5.37

6.21

1.38

Moment.

D
LOADING

S.no

(Dead
Load

a) The comparison of the results of torsional

Curvature(degrees)
Moment

and

UDL)
RESULTS

Bending

AND

GRAPHICAL

INTERPRETATION
1. The comparison of the result obtained for
Maximum absolute stresses subjected to Uniformly

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0
15
30
45
60
75
90

(Mx),

(kNm/m)
0.209
0.39
0.47
0.63
0.66
1.02
1.38

Distributed Load.
S.no

Curvature(degrees)

Maximum

Graphical interpretation of results:-

absolute
stresses(N/mm2)
1
0
3.03
2
15
3.95
3
30
3.47
4
45
3.377
5
60
2.92
6
75
2.11
7
90
5.37
Graphical interpretation of result:-

2. The analysis for the change of torsional moments

CONCLUSION

in this case the loading was combined Dead Load

1. There was increase in the maximum absolute

and UDL.

stress of about 77.22% from zero degree to 90


degree curvature.

2. There was also a large increase in the torsional


moment with curvature and this has been shown
graphically.
REFERENCES
1. Albaijet, H. M. O. (1999). Behavior of
horizontally curved bridges under static load and
dynamic load from earthquakes. PhD thesis,
Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.
2. Linzell, D. G. (1999). Studies of a full-scale
horizontally curved steel I-girder bridge system
under self-weight. PhD thesis, Georgia Institute
of Technology, Atlanta.
3. Zureick, A., Naqib, R., and Yadlosky, J. M.
(1994). Curved steel bridge research project,
interim report I: Synthesis. Publication No.
FHWARD-93-129,

Federal

Highway

Administration, McLean, Va.


4. Eduardo DeSantiago, Jamshid Mohammadi, and
Hamadallah M. O. Albaijat (2005) Analysis of
Horizontally Curved Bridges Using Simple FiniteElement Models.