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Content management system

A content management system (CMS) is a computer software system used to assist its
users in the process of content management. A CMS facilitates the organization, control,
and publication of a large body of documents and other content, such as images and
multimedia resources. A CMS often facilitates the collaborative creation of documents. A
web content management system is a content management system with additional
features to ease the tasks required to publish web content to Web sites.

Web Content management systems are often used for storing, controlling, versioning, and
publishing industry-specific documentation such as news articles, operators' manuals,
technical manuals, sales guides, and marketing brochures. A content management system
may support the following features:

• Import and creation of documents and multimedia material

• Identification of all key users and their content management roles
• The ability to assign roles and responsibilities to different content categories or
• Definition of the content workflow tasks, often coupled with event messaging so
that content managers are alerted to changes in content.
• The ability to track and manage multiple versions of a single instance of content.
• The ability to publish the content to a repository to support access to the content.
Increasingly, the repository is an inherent part of the system, and incorporates
enterprise search and retrieval.
• Some content management systems allow the textual aspect of content to be
separated to some extent from formatting. For example the CMS may
automatically set default colour, fonts, or layout.


• 1 Web Content Management Systems

• 2 History
• 3 Operation
• 4 Terminology Meaning
• 5 Types of CMS
• 6 References
• 7 See also

8 External links

Web Content Management Systems

Main article: Web Content Management System

A web content management system is a computer system used to manage and control a
large, dynamic collection of web material (HTML documents and their associated
images). A CMS facilitates document control, auditing, editing, and timeline
management. A Web CMS provides the following key features:

• Automated Templating: Create standard visual templates that can be

automatically applied to new and existing content, creating one central place to
change that look across all content on a site.
• Easily Editable Content: Once your content is separate from the visual
presentation of your site, it usually becomes much easier and quicker to edit and
manipulate. Most CMS software include WYSIWYG editing tools allowing non-
technical individuals to create and edit content.
• Scalable Feature Sets: Most CMS have plug-ins or modules that can be easily
installed to extend an existing site's functionality.
• Web Standards Upgrades: Active CMS solutions usually receive regular
updates that include new feature sets and keep the system up to current web
• Workflow management: Workflow is the process of creating cycles of sequential
and parallel tasks that must be accomplished in the CMS. For example, a content
creator submits a story but it's not published on the website until the copy editor
cleans it up, and the editor-in-chief approves it.
• Document Management: CMS solutions always provide a means of managing
the life cycle of a document from initial creation time, through revisions,
publication, archive, and document destruction.


The term Content Management System was originally used for website publishing and
management systems. Early content management systems were developed internally at
organizations which were doing a lot of web publishing, such as on-line magazines,
newspapers, and corporate newsletters. In 1995, CNET spun out its internal web
document management and publication system into a separate company called Vignette,
which opened up the market for commercial content management systems.

As markets evolved, the scope of products promoted as content management systems

greatly broadened, fragmenting the meaning of the term. Wiki systems and web-based
groupware are often described as content management systems, in contrast to the original
website publishing management system definition.


A web site content management system often runs on the website's server. Most systems
provide controlled access for various ranks of users such as administrators, copy editors,
senior editors, and content creators. Access is usually via a web browser program,
possibly combined with some use of FTP for uploading content.

Content creators submit their documents to the system. Copy Editors comment on,
accept, or reject documents. Layout editors layout the site. The editor in chief is then
responsible for publishing the work to the live site. The content management system
controls and helps manage each step of this workflow, including the technical task of
publishing the documents to one or more live web servers.

The content and all other information related to the site is usually stored in a server-based
relational database system. The content management system typically keeps a record of
previous website editions and in-progress editions.

The pages controlled and published through the content management system can then be
seen by the visitors to the website.

In larger organizations these server based documents need to communicate with desktop
applications and Open Document Management APIs perform the necessary
"translations". They have made substantial cost and time savings to document
management overall, and assist in smooth flow of documents through enterprises,
applications and processes.[1]

Terminology Meaning

The following terms are often used in relation to web content management systems but
they may be neither standard nor universal:

• Block - A block is a link to a section of the web site. Blocks can usually be
specified to appear on all pages of the site (for example in a lefthand navigation
panel) or only on the home page.

• Module - A content module is a section of the web site, for example a collection
of news articles, an FAQ section, etc. Some content management systems may
also have other special types of modules, for example administration and system

• Theme - A theme specifies the cosmetic appearance of every page of the web site,
controlling properties such as the colours and the fonts.

Types of CMS

• Module-based CMS. Most tasks in a document's life-cycle are served by CMS

modules. Common modules are document creation/editing, transforming and

• Document transformation language-based CMS. Another approach to CMS

building with use of open standards. XSLT-based CMS compile ready documents
from XML data and XSLT-template. XML Sapiens-based CMS compile a

document from the stream of ‘pure’ data, design template and functionality

• Web-based CMS. Another approach to CMS building uses databases such as

postgresql, mysql or mssql and scripting languages or tools such as coldfusion,
php, jsp or asp to interact with the data to parse them into visual content. Data
stored in a database is queried and compiled into html pages or other documents
and transformed using cascading style sheets. These systems can include a
number of other functions, such as discussion boards, bloggs, or email


1. ^ ODMA advantages

See also

• Comparison of content management systems

• Digital asset management

External links

• Open Source CMS Report Open Source Content Management Systems: An

Argumentative Approach.
• What Is CMS
• Content management at the Open Directory Project

Directories of available systems

• Open Source CMS Demo showcase for many content management systems.
• CMS Matrix Overview of (web) content management systems.
• CMS Watch Annotated lists of major enterprise and web content management
• Contentmanager Detailed list of content management systems (attention, paying
entries are featured, they're not featured because they are better!)
• Open Source Scripts Open Source Content Management Systems.
• PHPXref CMS page Library of cross referenced Open Source Content
Management Systems written in PHP.

Open Document Management Application Program Interface

Definition: The Open Document Management Application Program Interface (ODMA)

is an industry standard interface for document management that standardises

communications between desktop applications and server-based document management

In modern day business there are very few processes that do not involve the transfer of
data from one point to another, whether it is vital information such as a customer order or
something as simple as a memo. If this data cannot be reach its destination the process
cannot be successful.

The problem, however, lies in the fact that even

the smallest enterprises make use of several
different applications, none of which speak quite
the same language. Imagine an office staffed by
exclusively English, French, Urdu and Japanese
speaking staff and you’ll have some idea of the
document management problems you can find
within a typical enterprise.

To ensure that vital business information can pass

between applications, it is vital that there be some sort of common interface – a
translation device that can allow applications to understand each other’s data formats and
successfully access their documents. The Open Document Management API is such an

History of ODMA

Before ODMA was accepted as an industry standard there were enormous difficulties
associated with the integration of applications and document management systems.
Without a standard API, DMS vendors were required to write separate integration code
for each of the client applications they supported.

Conversely, applications that were not supported by DMS systems had to write their own
integration code for each DMS. This mass of integration codes each came with their own
bugs and reliability issues, limiting the flow of information within enterprises and
causing a massive headache for software developers.

To solve these problems, a group of vendors formed the

ODMA Consortium in an effort to create a high-level
industry wide standard that provided vendor-independent
integration between the majority of desktop applications and
DMS systems. The objectives of the ODMA were as

To integrate DMS systems and desktop applications

seamlessly so that DMS services appeared to users as if they
were part of the application.

To reduce the burden on application vendors to provide support for multiple DMS

To reduce the burden on DMS vendors to provide support for applications.

To the reduce the complexity and effort required to install and manage DMS systems.

Applications of ODMA

Use of ODMA in DMS systems and desktop applications has led to an ease of use in
document management the never before existed.

* Application Integration

The largest benefit of ODMA is the increased flexibility of enterprise document

management. Before a common standard existed, applications were required to be hard-
coded into the DMS system, making system set-up a time consuming and costly process.

The ODMA standard allowed enterprises to quickly connect many different applications
into a DMS system with little hassle. This offered both the flexibility to rapidly upgrade
and modify IT infrastructure and the ability to quickly transfer data between disparate

* Platform Independent Display

In addition to this, the ODMA standard allows integration within the documents
themselves. ODMA enables DMS systems and applications can easily manage a
document written in Microsoft Word that contains an Excel spreadsheet and a number of
images within a single document. Before ODMA this capability would have required
hard coding for MS Word, Excel and an image display application, which would have
made the management of the document far too complex to be worthwhile.

* Platform Independent Editing

Even more impressive is the fact that ODMA-enabled applications can not only access
documents created in third party applications, but they can also modify them. For
example, Microsoft Word can access and modify documents saved in MS-DOS text, Rich
Text, Unicode, WordPerfect and HTML, among others. Once the editing is complete it is
possible to save the document in either its original format or in any other supported

In a Nutshell

The ODMA standard interface offers benefits on two fronts. Initially, the interface allows
enterprises to create and manage document management systems and the IT infrastructure

in general at lower costs and using fewer man-hours.

Additionally, the interface continues to save time and money by smoothing the flow of
documents throughout the enterprise, allowing users to access data without the need to
switch between applications.

ODMA was among the first attempts to integrate applications, and it paved the way for a
number of other open standards that have further revolutionised document management,
such as WebDAV.

List of content management systems

This is a list of notable content management systems that are used to organize and
facilitate collaborative content creation. Many of them are built on top of separate content
management frameworks.


• 1 Free and open source software

• 2 Commercial Low Cost (< $5,000)
• 3 Commercial Medium ($5,000 - $15,000)
• 4 Commercial Expensive (> $15,000)
• 5 See also

6 External links

Free and open source software

Name Platform Supported databases stable
Aegir Midgard add-on 1.0.3
Alfresco Java MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server, PostgreSQL 1.4
Java, XML, Apache
Apache Lenya 1.2.4
Ariadne Oracle, PostgreSQL
b2evolution PHP MySQL 1.8.2
BBlog PHP + Smarty MySQL 0.7.6
Blockstar Java
blosxom Perl 2.0
Caravel CMS PHP OpenLDAP and PostgreSQL
Chlorine Boards PHP MySQL/MSSQL/Postgresql/DB2/Microsoft 0.6.5

CivicSpace PHP MySQL 0.8.3
CMScout PHP MySQL 1.23
CMSimple PHP
CMS Made
PHP MySQL/Postgresql 1.0.3
ASP.NET SQL Server 2.1 SP1
Java, XML, Apache
Daisy MySQL 1.5
Dokuwiki PHP Flat-file database
DotNetNuke VB.NET Microsoft SQL Server 4.4.0
Dragonfly CMS PHP MySQL 9.6.1
Drupal PHP MySQL/PostgreSQL 5.0
e107 PHP MySQL 0.7.7
eGroupWare PHP ADOdb
Epiware PHP MySQL 4.5
ExpressionEngine PHP MySQL 1.5.2
eZ publish PHP MySQL/Postgresql/Oracle 3.8.0
Fedora Java MySQL or Oracle
FlexCMS ASP.NET SQL Server 1.0
Geeklog PHP MySQL 1.4.0
Hello! CMS PHP Flat-file database 0.0.7
Jahia Java SQL/MySQL/PostgreSQL/Oracle/SQL 5.0
jAPS - java Agile Java, XML on
HyperSonic SQL, PostgreSQL
Portal System Windows or Linux
Joomla! PHP MySQL 1.0.12
PHP MySQL 3.3.1
Krang CMS Perl on mod_perl MySQL 2.008
Lyceum PHP MySQL
Magnolia Java Content repository API for Java (JSR-170) 3.0
Mambo PHP MySQL 4.6.1
MediaWiki PHP MySQL 1.8.2
PHP (Midgard
Midgard CMS MySQL
MKPortal PHP MySQL 1.1

MMBase Java
MODx PHP MySQL 0.9.5
NitroTech PHP MySQL 0.0.1
Nucleus CMS PHP MySQL 3.23
Nuke-Evolution PHP MySQL 2.0.2
Nuxeo CPS Zope ZODB 3.4.3
OpenACS TCL AOLserver PostgreSQL/Oracle 5.1.5
OpenCms Java MySQL, Oracle 6.2.1
OpenPHPNuke PHP MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite 2.4.3
phpCMS PHP Flat-file database 1.2.1pl2
PHP-Fusion PHP MySQL 6.01.3
1.0 Beta
phpns PHP MySQL

PHP-Nuke PHP MySQL 8.0

phpWebSite PHP MySQL or PostgreSQL
PhpWiki PHP Flat-file database/MySQL/PostgreSQL etc.
Pivot PHP Flat-file database 1.30
Plone Zope, PythonZODB, MySQL & PostgreSQL via Zope 2.5.1
PmWiki PHP Flat-file database
PostNuke PHP MySQL .764
PuzzleApps PHP, XML, XSLT
MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, MSSQL 2.2
Scoop Perl on mod_perl
MySQL 1.1.8
Slash Perl on mod_perl
SpotlightPHP PHP Flat-file database 1.0
Textpattern PHP MySQL 4.0.3
TikiWiki PHP ADOdb
TWiki Perl Perl DBI compatible 4.0.4
Typo Ruby on Rails
MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite
TYPO3 PHP MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle 4.0.4
MySQL, DB2, PostgreSQL, MSSQL,
WebGUI Perl on mod_perl MySQL
WordPress PHP MySQL 2.0.6
MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite using
PHP with
Xaraya ADOdb and Microsoft SQL Server with 1.1.2
Zentri PHP MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, MSSQL 2.1.0

Commercial Low Cost (< $5,000)
Supported Price in Online
Name Platform stable
databases USD Demo
Accrisoft $50 /
PHP MySQL 5.7 Yes
Freedom month
$45 /
Changer Perl / AJAX MySQL 4.0 Yes
ASP.NET MS SQL2000 1.7 $4,500 Yes
ASP.NET MS SQL 3.9 $199 Download
Ekklesia 360 PHP MySQL 1.43 $1,000 Yes
eRedaktør ASP.NET MS SQL2000 1.7 $1,600 No
Lisk CMS PHP SQL server or 4.4 $500 Yes
XML, XML Sapiens, MySQL, Oracle,
Site Sapiens PHP/AOP, SOA/SOAP, MS-SQL, 3.0.129 Yes

Commercial Medium ($5,000 - $15,000)

Supported Online
Name Platform stable Price in USD
databases Demo
Colony SQL2K 3.0
G3 cms Coldfusion SQL2K 1.5
Jalios JCMS Starter
Java 5.6
content repository 10k USD/yr and
API for Java server (includes
(JSR-170), DB2, unlimited operating
Magnolia Java Oracle, MySQL, 3.0 support and Yes
BerkleyDB, updates) 50%
Derby, MSSQL, academic discount
PostgreSQL etc. available.
ocPortal PHP MySQL
Quantum Art ASP.NET, Yes
Simplicis JSP Any SQL-92 3.0.2 $5,999/year Yes
Subdreamer PHP MySQL v2.4 $49.95/$99.95 Yes

MacOS and
WebImpetus 4th Dimension
WORKSsitebuilder PHP PostgreSQL, 3.2.2
Oracle, MSSQL

Commercial Expensive (> $15,000)

Supported Price in Online
Name Platform stable
databases USD Demo
Oracle, IBM
CoreMedia CMS Java DB2, Microsoft
CMS 2006
SQL Server
Oracle, Microsoft
SQL Server, IBM Content
FatWire Java No
DB2, Sybase, Server 6.3
I-ON Content Server4 Java/J2EE Oracle, MS-SQL ICS4
Jadu PHP SQL 2.0x
Jalios JCMS Java/J2EE 5.6
Oracle Database price per
Livelink ECM J2EE or MS SQL 9.7 named Yes
Server users
price per
JavaScript, Oracle Database
CPU or
Obtree WCM Solaris, Linux or MS SQL 9.7 Yes
per named
or Windows Server
RedDot CMS Windows 7.1 Yes
Oracle database
Rhythmyx XML, J2EE or MS SQL 6.0 No
Microsoft Sharepoint
.NET SQL Server
Portal Server
Oracle, SQL
Stellent IDocScript, 7.5
Server, other
Traction TeamPage Java Built-in 3.7
and up
Oracle Database
Vignette Content
Java or MS SQL 7.3.1
VYRE J2EE All supported by 4.2.1

Oracle, SQL
WORKSsitebuilder .NET 1.5.6
Server, other

See also

• List of web application frameworks

• Wikis and content management systems
• OSCOM, the central organization for open source content management, provides
many resources on open source CMSes
• Internet forum

External links

• CMS Matrix - Detailed CMS feature information and customizable head-to-head

CMS comparisons
• CMS Watch Vendor Analysis - Detailed critiques of individual content
management products
• Elliot Smith, "A review of open source content management systems,"
OpenAdvantage, May 2005.
• Barry Parr, "Top 10 Free and Cheap Content Management Systems," MediaSavvy,
May 29, 2004.
• — Website that hosts demo versions of open source
content management systems programmed in PHP and using MySQL as database.

Digital asset management

Digital Asset Management (DAM) is a form of enterprise content management that
consists of management tasks and decisions directed as successfully meeting
opportunities and threats in the dynamic business environments by effectively ingesting,
annotating, cataloguing, storing, retrieving as well as the distribution of the company’s
digital assets in such a way that the overall objectives of the company, its clients and
society will be achieved (van Niekerk, A.J. 2006. Allied Academies, New Orleans

The term "digital asset management" (DAM) also refers to the protocol for downloading,
renaming, backing up, rating, grouping, archiving, optimizing, maintaining, thinning, and
exporting files. "There are two primary types of DAM software: browsers and cataloging
software. A browser reads information from a file but does not store it separately.
Cataloging software stores information in its own separate file, however, the software and
the catalog document it makes are distinct from the photos themselves."


• 1 Uses
• 2 Types of Digital Asset Management systems
• 3 DAM Market
• 4 Challenges of Implementation
• 5 The Spectrum of Digital Asset Management (DAM) Applications
• 6 Media Catalogs v. Asset Repositories
• 7 Off-the-shelf or Custom?
• 8 Planning For Electronic Archiving
• 9 Digitizing Traditional Image and Fabrics
• 10 Budget Considerations
• 11 Digital photo management
• 12 External links

13 Notes


Many businesses and organizations are adopting Digital Asset Management as a business
strategy because managing image, video and other media assets present unique
challenges and require solutions designed specifically to streamline the acquisition,
storage and retrieval of digital media. So we need a system that can reduce the time and
cost of content production, maximize the return on investment (ROI) from media assets,
bring new products and services to market faster and streamline compliance. This system
should be designed in such a way that enables to cost-effectively optimize media asset
management across the companies.

Types of Digital Asset Management systems

The following broad categories of digital asset management systems may be

distinguished: • Brand asset management systems, with a focus on facilitation of content
re-use within large organizations. • Library asset management systems, with a focus on
storage and retrieval of large amounts of infrequently changing media assets, for example
in video or photo archiving. • Production asset management systems, with a focus on
storage, organization and revision control of frequently changing digital assets, for
example in digital media production.

DAM Market

As the industry evolves into technology driven businesses, an increasing number of

companies are reaching a critical threshold in needing to control and manage their vast
amounts of digital media assets. Technically speaking, a digital asset is any form of
media that has been turned into a binary source. Digital assets, which for textile mills
include everything from image, logos and photos to PowerPoint presentations, text

documents and even e-mail, are proving to be valuable assets in terms of both
productivity and company valuation. However, an asset is only an asset when you can
find it, or you know that you have it in the first place. The statistics tell a convincing
story. According to GISTICS research, an average of $8,200 per person per year is spent
on file management activities which include searching, verification, organization, back-
up and security[1]. Creative professionals spend an average of 1 out of every 10 hours of
their time on file management. Searches alone account for a full third of that time!
According to Canto Software, developers of asset management software with more than
120,000 licensed seats worldwide, the average media user manages over 7,000 files
distributed over a variety of storage mediums. The average creative person looks for a
media file 83 times a week and fails to find it 35% of the time. Their research shows that
digital asset management solutions will drop that figure to 5%.

Digital asset management (DAM) saves not just time, but money. Research indicates that
the ROI on DAM is between 8:1 to 14:1. Where do the savings come from? Labor
reduction is a primary contribution, allowing employees to spend less time locating assets
and more time working on current projects. Re-purposing is another key benefit. The
ability to find and research existing work facilitates the reuse of valuable creative assets
from previous projects. A by-product of this benefit is faster development. The ability to
take advantage of work performed on prior projects will reduce turnaround time. And
last, but not least, workflow efficiency — DAM enforces a consistent workflow.

There are additional benefits which, though difficult to quantify, contribute substantially
to the value of DAM. The process insures that only approved brand elements are used
and are used in the proper context. The process automates the workflow, with the ability
to keep track of version or routing the asset to its next destination. DAM helps to build
relationships by supporting the ability to share assets over an extranet with clients and
suppliers. In addition, with the ability to allow clients or other departments to observe
creative works in progress, DAM fosters communication and collaboration. While the
term DAM implies its use for strictly computer generated image, a growing number of
textile mills and product manufacturers are finding DAM applications an ideal tool for
cataloging the years and years of hand drawn image they have purchased as a part of each
new development season. These companies have begun scanning or photographing these
assets and building a database that not only makes it easy to find and use purchased
assets, but provides a valuable tool for insurance valuation.

Challenges of Implementation

Digital Asset Management (DAM), the management of digital content so that it can be
cataloged, searched and re-purposed, is extremely challenging for organizations that rely
on image handling and expect to gain business value from these assets. Metadata plays a
crucial role in this management

The Spectrum of Digital Asset Management (DAM) Applications

A Digital Asset Management application is simply a tool for organizing digital media
assets for storage and retrieval. When searching for a digital asset management system,
the first thing to identify is the objective. What solutions should it provide to what
problems? Do you simply want to find media content on demand? Create collaborative
creative environments? Systematize efficient workflow? Manage rights and permissions
complete with automated tracking and accounting? Implement full-blown electronic
commerce? The priority of one or more of these goals are the guiding principle in sorting
through the facts and marketing hype. The marketplace offers a broad range of solutions,
ranging from individual workstations to enterprise-wide solutions.

Desktop solutions represent the simplest type of DAM. They serve the needs of
individual users using relatively small collections of content. This model can be to a
handful of stations in a low-security file-sharing network and sometimes even to larger
studios, if one person is managing one type of media asset, such as design files. While
desktop solutions allow for descriptions and keyword searches, they typically only
catalog thumbnails and references to the actual files, as opposed to the files themselves.

A collaborative solution is the likely choice if your objective is sharing work-in-progress

and finished media among a tightly knit group of co-workers. The content itself can be
stored on a central server or across individual workstations -- including offline storage,
such as CD-ROMs and tape cartridges. The more sophisticated offerings include
annotation capabilities and strong communications support for efficiently transferring
files between remote users. Process-oriented solutions focus on workflow, orbiting
around a centralized database of project management information that allows a producer
to assign, prioritize, and track a project's progress across the entire production team.
These systems track the history of what has happened to a file, including edits,
conversions, and sign-offs. Given that workflow varies greatly across different types of
enterprises, process-centric solutions are often tailored to the needs of specific vertical

Industry-centric solutions extend the sharing of an enterprise's media assets to suppliers,

contractors, and other partners. Such systems include high-level security that allows the
primary enterprise to work with multiple parties without commingling proprietary assets.
Merchant-centric solutions for e-commerce enable an enterprise to serve a high volume
of online customers who will browse and purchase media assets. Merchant-centric
systems routinely process secure financial transactions, drive order fulfillment processes,
interface with inventory systems, and report to accounting systems that can manage
things like royalty payments to represented parties. Some businesses find that one vendor
can handle all of their needs, while others implement multiple systems according to the
disparate needs of various departments. In the latter case, the use of open system
architecture can allow these multiple systems to act on one central repository of data.

Media Catalogs v. Asset Repositories

DAM applications are characterized by architectural differences. The playing field can be
subdivided into two basic categories, media catalogs and asset repositories. The primary
characteristic of media catalogs is the utilization of proxies, such as thumbnails, in an
indexed database that can be quickly searched by keyword. The actual source files are left
untouched and under control of the operating system. The benefits of media catalogs
include low cost, ease of installation and administration, and scalability across multiple
divisions of an enterprise. Since media catalogs do not actually manage the content itself,
anyone with system access can typically view, change, move, or delete any content
element. This usually precludes such features as check-in/check-out of content, rights
management, and automatic versioning (the latest version of a print, for example). Media
catalogs can also become sluggish with very large catalogs, especially if distributed
across multiple servers or geographic locations. In asset repositories the content itself is
physically stored inside a secure database. This results in a host of benefits, including
security levels, replication, referential integrity, and centralized data management. Also
included is the comfort of full hierarchical storage management and disaster recovery.

Solutions based on the asset repository model are ideal when systematizing studios with
industrial workflow, managing rights and permissions (such as the intellectual property of
either your company or a third party), and structuring global access by employees,
contractors, suppliers, partners, and customers. This centralization of all assets into a
single or distributed storehouse for safekeeping requires significantly higher performance
hardware such as high-end UNIX servers, formidable online storage, and very high-speed
networks. According to a report in New Media Magazine, it also demands a capital
investment 10 to 50 times that associated with media catalogs, as well as a
commensurately higher level of system administration.

Off-the-shelf or Custom?

Another important question to be answered is how much technical expertise is required in

the installation and maintenance of a DAM solution. Much like CAD systems, the
selection ranges from totally integrated off-the-shelf packages to custom solutions. Since
the best-integrated application suites are built around process knowledge, they are ideal
for business models centered on methodologies well established within a given industry.
Such solutions are often easy enough to install that they can be set up by end users. The
middle ground is populated by higher-level prebuilt components, enabling a business to
utilize their more unique business knowledge in configuring a partially customized
application. While the orchestration of prebuilt components will require modest
knowledge of systems integration, this genre represents an excellent vehicle for creating a
uniquely branded service. On the high end of the spectrum are universal server databases
and search engines that enable systems integrators to assemble the best of breed for their
unique needs. Each consists of a self-contained module automating one business function
or the activities of a single employee. This toolkit approach definitely requires expertise
in complex system integration.

Planning For Electronic Archiving

One of the most important decision points in implementing DAM is also one of the most
frequently overlooked: Who are your users and how do they work? Their technical level,
their comfort with existing platforms and networks, as well as their current workflow will
all be major factors in the success, or failure, of a new system. Champions and
evangelists within the various departments of an enterprise are often critical to the
success of this kind of new technology. Once the personnel and technical issues are
addressed, workflow will define the process. In most cases, applications dictating
workflow should be avoided. Instead, efficiencies should come from the automation of
proven workflow tasks. Of course, emulating poor workflow will only let your staff be
inefficient more quickly. Having already identified the goals of your DAM system, step
number two in the planning stage is to draw a flowchart of your current imaging and
storage processes. Identify what you like or don't like about your current workflow, and
map out the recommended changes. This step should include participation from any and
all employees involved in the process, as they will all be affected by any changes that are

The next step is to create the attributes and keywords that will be supported by the
database (See Sample Descriptive Label exhibit below — courtesy of Dee Dee Davis,
Springs Industries). Attributes include categories such as business unit, type of asset,
design family, ground effect, geometry, design elements, scale, layout, technique or style,
etc. Within each of these categories, your users can identify keywords they might use
when looking for a particular type of image, such as floral, plaid, stripe, directional,
impressionist, etc. Dee Dee Davis, former CAD archivist and digital imaging specialist
for Culp and now a CAD designer for Springs Industries, advises that all departments
needing to use the archived files be included in this developmental stage, as
classifications used by the design department are often different from classifications and
descriptions needed by other departments in the company.

Now you are ready for your system design plan, which will identify how equipment
pieces will need to be connected to one another. How will non-digital image be digitized,
what equipment does it require and who will do it? Who will administer the archiving and
who will have access to it? What file formats need to be saved in order to support various
departments? If you need a variety of formats for the re-purposing of the files, will this be
done at the time of archiving or at a later date as needed? A map of the new workflow
should identify who does what, when they do it and how they do it. The final step in the
planning process is to identify and develop the system standards that will identify
workflow issues such as file names, versions, folders, directories and servers. Failure to
do so will simply undermine the system and make it difficult to locate the "correct"
version of a file.

Digitizing Traditional Image and Fabrics

While archiving digitally generated image is a fairly straightforward process, archiving

the vast libraries of fabric samples and traditional hand drawn image that has been

collected for many years (if not decades) provides for some unique challenges and
opportunities. Not only will digitizing image make it easier to find, use and re-purpose,
but archiving your image can also prove to be very valuable for an insurance claim in the
event of fire or theft. As with the implementation of any DAM system, you must
determine your objectives before digitizing any image. There are four quality standards
that need to be considered for the use of your digital files: 1) Product development and
pre-publishing reference, 2) Intra-company report enhancement, 3) Business to business
for sales and marketing and 4) Direct to consumer e-commerce. Your goals will establish
the quality standards, resolution and file formats for the digital files.

While there are several capture devices to consider for use in digitizing image, including
digital cameras, flat-bed scanners and drum scanners, most experts agree that a high-end
digital camera is the best solution for the broad range of texture, repeat size and color
challenges that textiles present. While it is possible to capture image on a conventional
camera and have the slides or negatives converted to digital data, this method is not
recommended, as there are too many variables in the conversion process that can cause
degradation of the image in both quality and color. In addition, digital photography is
both less expensive and faster than conventional photography, which requires a series of
time consuming and costly steps to get to the digital file format. Another important
advantage to using photography over scanning is the ability to control the lighting with
the use of a camera. Scanners use only one light source that "scan" the entire image, often
missing nuances of special textures, yarns, finishes, and colors. The use of a camera will
allow you to use multiple lighting sources that can be modified to highlight the features
of a variety of fabrics. In controlling the light source, you can also minimize the effect of
the fabric construction while trying to capture just the print. While there are software
applications such as Pointcarré from Monarch that will allow you to remove the fabric
construction from a print, this is a step that can be avoided by obtaining a proper capture
to start.

Digital cameras range in price from $500 to $25,000. The less expensive cameras are not
as color accurate, capture less data and are prone to "digital noise" that will create
unacceptable artifacts and mottled solid colors. The best-of breed for low end digital
cameras according to Richard Lerner , president of RSL Digital in NYC who has over 25
years of photography experience, is the new Nikon Coolpix (list price $995, street price
of $850-$950). This camera includes many attributes of the high-end cameras, including
a flash sync for setting off studio strobes, excellent color contrast and balance controls,
and it works well in a number of automatic modes. While you may be able to obtain a
desired image quality from a low end digital camera, you should review your workflow
and processing time when evaluating cameras. "Using a low end camera is like trying to
pass a lot of data on a floppy disk," states Randy Parker, President of Digital Images in
Research Triangle Park, NC, a firm that specializes in the photography and archiving of
textiles. "You are constantly performing ‘sneaker net’ and are required to run back and
forth between the camera, which has limited storage capacity, and the computer’s hard
drive. High-end digital cameras have a direct SCSI connection to the computer that will
eliminate the need for repetitive data transfers. If you are capturing a lot of images, this
capability alone will more than offset the cost of the more expensive camera. The digital

files will range in size from 2 MB to 25MB or more depending on the physical size and
intended use of the image. Resolution requirements range from 72 dots per inch (dpi) for
images to be viewed only on a computer screen, 150-300 dpi for printing to fabrics
(contingent on the type of fabric and amount of color coverage) and 300 dpi for printing
to press for sales and marketing materials. The rule of thumb is to capture a minimum of
the same number of dots per inch as the line screen of the output device, up to a
maximum of twice the line screen. Again, it is very important to know your intended
output or goals before beginning the archiving process.

Digital Asset Management is not just about having the proper equipment, software and
workflow, but about having qualified talent to produce and manage the archiving process.
Digital photography is an art in the same way that computer aided design is an art.
Buying the requisite tools does not compensate for the skill set needed to produce quality
archives. Experts advise that professional photographers be used to create the digital files.

Budget Considerations

Budget will play an important role in your decision regarding appropriate hardware,
storage, backup, and communications infrastructure. DAM software solutions come in
many different packages, from a "per seat" basis for client licenses, to server solutions
that allow unlimited access via Web browsers. If paying per seat, it's important to
understand the user mix. Licenses that dedicate one installation per seat can be more
costly compared to those allowing a given number of clients to be online at once. More
critical than the price tag alone is a projection of cost savings, ROI and growth catalyst.
While archiving, many companies have discovered they were archiving duplicate images
purchased by different divisions of the company, a practice which could be avoided
through proper asset management. The time saving, as outlined in part one, is an obvious
ROI. In many businesses, especially media-intensive ones, an investment in the optimal
digital asset management solution can even kick profitability into high gear and be
critical to sustaining a competitive advantage. Remember, besides your employees, your
library of product samples and references are one of your company’s most valuable

Digital photo management

Digital photo management (DPM) is an emerging subfield where anything from a few
thousand digital photos to millions of digital photos are managed. As digital cameras
become more commonplace, the number of digital photos increases at a rapid rate.
Initially, for most individuals and organizations, the first practice is to burn the pictures
onto CDs or DVDs. As time goes by the number of CDs or DVDs starts to get out of
control. There is also the problem of CD rot, where a large percentage of the CDs or
DVDs become unreadable within a few years.

The next stage in this evolution is to put all the digital photos onto the hard disk or on a
central server. This too, in time, gets out of control as the number of pictures rises.
Eventually it becomes necessary to use systems with database software such as an SQL

database, with a friendly client software or browser software interface on top to help
manage these photos.

In recent years several systems have emerged, such as VeriPic. This system keeps the
photos inside an SQL database so that they are searchable yet secure from intrusion. The
decision to employ this type of system depends directly on the number of digital photos
being managed. As long as the total number of pictures is still easy to manage in a folder
hierarchy, this type of system is not needed. Once the number of photos gets too large and
finding specific photos becomes a burden, a DPM system becomes necessary.

External links

• Article "Intro to Digital Asset Management: Just what is a DAM?" by Magan

• Article "Rich Media and Business Agility" by Bill Trippe, The Gilbane Report
• The DAM User Community & Home to the DAM Symposium
• Article "Protect your Digital Assets: Selecting a DAM"
• Article "DAM: Agile and Effective"
• Article "Use-Cases for Digital Media Asset Managemenet"


1. ^ provides paid research services, and while this statistic is quoted in
many online articles it's original source could not be located.

Open Source Content Management Systems: An Argumentative Approach


Businesses currently face the daily challenge of managing content efficiently.

These businesses are being flooded with information from web Content Management
Systems (CMS) that present an all-too-simple picture. Instead, content management
systems should solve the problem of turning content into information and information
into knowledge.

Content Management Systems are not just a product or a technology. CMS is

defined as a generic term which refers to a wide range of processes that underpin the
``next-generation'' of medium to large-scale websites. Content management is a process
which deals with the creation, storage, modification, retrieval and display of data or

This report evaluates seven open source CMS products. The comparison is based
on eight categories as seen from a business perspective. These categories are;
applications, data repository, deployment, integration, revision control, user interface,

user management and workflow. Each category is scored from 0 to 10 points and the
overall score is determined based on the average of all categories.

The comparison clearly shows how most CMS products require further development
prior to being used within a commercial environment. The few CMS products which are
ready for commercial deployment contain an inherent design flaw. This flaw refers to the
inefficient management of large-scale user databases.

Businesses are currently seeking alternative methods to improve their services and Open
Source Software (OSS) is one such method. This will require OSS authors to consider the
implications of running their software within commercial environments and
accommodate business requirements. A CMS product which follows these rules will be
commercially sustainable.


Do you need to create a new website, re-brand an old website, or launch an online
marketing campaign?

If you do, you'll need a reliable and “future-proof” Content Management System (CMS)
to base your efforts on. These days, having a successful website means having a content
management system. The best web content management systems offer enterprise
functionality with intuitive usability. Scalability is also essential.

If you take a quick look around the web – you’ll quickly see how many websites are
created and then left to languish in the lower echelons of Google’s ranking because they
haven’t had consistent content upgrades. There are literally thousands of sites floating
around, featuring out-of-date messages or news items, text mistakes, invalid product
pricing and the like. More importantly, thousands of online consumers see those sites,
notice the negligence and move on as a result.

That isn’t always the fault of the site’s owners, sometimes it’s the result of having a poor
content management system or having no CMS at all. You don‘t have to fall into this

An enterprise-class CMS provides an efficient base for developing and maintaining your

Using A CMS. You’ll Be Free To:

• Manage and continually update the structure and content of your website;
• Create configurable access restrictions so content managers can be assigned roles
and permissions for editing and making changes on a website;
• Publish multiple formats on a website such as HTML or PDFs;

• Publish news feeds, streaming video/audio, press releases and site update
• Manage the way advertising shows up on your website;
• Create forums and blogs;
• Track and store a variety of visitor statistics;
• Take full control of your online advertising campaigns and web-based marketing
• Open an online/eCommerce store to sell goods and services;
• Accept check, debit, and credit card payments online;
• Generate mailing lists and automatically send out messages and or newsletters to
site subscribers;
• Publish documents, which can be found by search engines using metadata
creation - appropriate metadata is captured on all web pages, making the site
search engine friendly;
• Workflow management - the CMS provides a range of work flow capabilities for
all content elements on a website. This maintains strict control and coordination
over the quality, accuracy, and consistency of information published onto a
• Much more!

Is A CMS the Right Solution for You?

It minimizes the cost of maintaining your website by offering you a better way to manage
information online. Best of all, you don't need to be web designer or programmer to
service, maintain, and manage the day to day content flow on your website. By using a
CMS, you gain the freedom to take control of your site from any computer ANY where in
the world regardless whether or not you have programming skills.