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# What is the concept of complex number in the form of a +bi?

## What is the geometrical meaning of imaginary unit?

What is the mathematical and geometrical meaning of multiplying two complex number (where
one is not conjugate of the other)
When two complex numbers are multiplied what happen to their angle?
What is the mathematical and geometrical meaning of adding two complex numbers
Are there any relationship between the angles of two vectors and angle of the sum of two
complex numbers?
Kindly explain the idea of principal argument in complex number and how to use the range
involved on it?
Is the argument of complex number can have many values?
Why we remove square roots in the denominator
Is vector related to complex number? if yes, by how
What is the meaning of vector does not count position?

You cant draw vectors in Cartesian coordinate plane but in Argand plane can be
What does cartesian coordinate plane give,
Is scalar has an angle like vector
Why we remove square roots in the denominator

Doc, can you please explain further the relationship and difference of complex number and
vector?
Can I define imaginary unit as rotation?

## What is the practical meaning of modulus of complex number?

What is the practical meaning of argument of complex number?

Doc,what is the reason why we add vectors? is it because these vectors acting on same
collecting surface
Doc, is translation of vector is the reason why the representation of the resulting vector (A+B)
became like this

Vector A+B
------------------------------------ ?

Doc what will be the representation of resulting vector if two vectors are parallel on the same
direction?

Figure 1

-------------- (vector A)
------------------- (vector B)

(rectangular object)
For example I have condition that two vectors(refer to the figure 1 shown above ) they are both
acting on same direction towards to the collecting surface (like in this case the rectangular
object).Assumed there are no other hindrances that will interfere for these vectors not to hit the
rectangular object. Since these two vectors act on same collecting surface I can add them,
right?
Is the resulting vector will be like this ?
Figure 2
(resulting vector)

Vector A

Vector B

.
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------.

= Vector A+B
=

## Or it will be like this ?

(resulting vector)

Vector A

Vector B

.
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------.

= Vector A+B
=

..

My representation of the resulting vector became like (the two figures above which is shown in
figure 2) is because of the idea that vectors can be translated, meaning either vector A can be
move along the line of action of vector B or vector B can be moved along the line of action of
vector A.

Doc, using the example below,can you please explain what is the reason why rotation is the
effect of multiplying (cos 45 degrees + i sin 45 degrees) to [(square root of 2 x square root 5)] ?
I read some article about multiplying complex number and it says that to prove that angles are
added (theta 1 + theta 2) and the modulus are multiplied when multiplying two complex
numbers (r1 x r2), you need to convert one of the two complex number to its polar form before
multiplying to the modulus of the other complex number. This is what I did if I have for example
two complex numbers (2 + i) and (1 + i), I choose (1 +i ) to be converted to its polar form. The
resulting solution will be like this
Rectangular form
(1+i)

polar form

---------

## Modulus of (2 +i ) is equal to square root of 5

Multiplying the modulus of (2 + i) and polar form of (1 + i) , the solution is divided into two part
the first part is the multiplication of two modulus
(first part)
Square root of 5 x
modulus of
(r1)

square root of 2
x

(r2)

## = square root of 10 (represent the total length of

the two complex numbers)

For the second part is just a continuation of solution of multiplying modulus of (2 + i) and polar
form of (1 + i)

Square root of 10 x ((cos 45 degrees + i sin 45 degrees) = square root of 5 + i square root of 5
Using arc tangent to get the argument of resulting complex number ( square root of 5 + i square
root of 5 )
Tan^-1= square root of 5/ square root of 5= 45 degrees
Resulting modulus is equal to square root

Doc can you please explain why any complex number multiplied in this format ( cos theta + i sin
theta),cause rotational effect to the said any complex number?
Doc, if imaginary unit is not exactly mean rotation and not limited only to square root of -1
definition , what is imaginary unit?
Doc Im confused on how you define the complex number, you said from your previous reply on
someone you said complex number are ordered pair of real numbers. Complex numbers are
written in a + bi format,right? where a part is plot on real axis if b=0 and b part is plot on
imaginary axis if a =0,meaning b is an imaginary number and not considered real number

(number 3 question)
Doc if complex number is a combination of real part and imaginary part, then why do you define
complex number as an ordered pair of real numbers? I think it should be a pair of real and
imaginary number.
For example I have a complex number (1+ 2i)
Based from your definition the ordered pair are real numbers which in this case will be
(1,2),right?
Then if someone is going to plot it in complex plane he or she will use the real axis and
imaginary axis not two real axis to plot the point of my given complex number, meaning
coordinate 2 is considered an imaginary number not a real number

Doc, last time I asked you to help me to visually proved in xy plane that the angles are added
and modulus are multiplied when multiplying two complex number, right? And I follow what you
had been advised. Since geogebra is a bit complicated for me, I make some examples of it on
graphing paper. I also searched an article about this. In the article I found ,it says that to prove
that angles are added and modulus are multiplied when multiplying two complex number you
need to convert one of the two complex number to its polar form before multiplying it to the
modulus of the other complex number. Based from the article, this is what I did if I have for
example two complex numbers (2 + i) and (1 + i),
I choose (1 +i ) to be converted to its
polar form. The resulting form will be like this
Rectangular form
(1+i)

-------

polar form
square root of 2 (cos 45 degrees + i sin 45 degrees)

## Next I solve for modulus of (2 + i)

modulus of (2 +i ) is equal to square root of 5

Then I multiplied this square root of 5 to square root 2 first but actually (this square root of 5 is
not only multiplied to square root 2 but to the whole polar form of (1 +i) but to emphasize that I
multiplied the two modulus of two complex number I divided my solution two parts (Im referring
to multiplying first, square root of 5 to square root of 2 then multiplied to (cos 45 degrees + i sin
45 degrees) .
(solution of first part)
square root of 5 x square root of 2 = square root of 10
(If youre going to interpret this geometrically, the length of vector (2 +i) has been stretched by a
factor of square root 2,right?.Then the length of the resulting vector of this two complex number
is this square root of 10,right? Based from the rule that they are multiplied)

## For the second part

I multiply (cos 45 degrees + i sin 45 degrees) from the obtained product of multiplication of
square root of 5 to square root 2 (which in this case is equal to square root of 10)
(solution of second part)
square root of 10 x (cos 45 degrees + i sin 45 degrees) = square root of 5 + i square root of 5

Using this complex number (square root of 5 + i square root of 5),I obtained the following:
Argument = tan^-1(square root of 5/square root of 5) = 45 degrees
Modulus = {square root of [(square root of 5)^2 + (square root of 5)^2]}=square root of 10
(Interpreting this geometrically, you will see that the vector representing complex number (2 +i)
is rotated only by 45 degrees counterclockwise after multiplying to (cos 45 degrees + i sin 45
degrees),
The proof is shown above,the obtained modulus is still the same (square root of 10)
Since I started from complex number 2+i which has an argument of 26.56505118 degrees
measured from positive real axis and from this 26.56505118 degrees the vector representing
2+i on complex plane was rotated by 45 degrees. The resulting argument of two complex
number will be the combination of 26.56505118 degrees and 45 degrees
To summarize the result , the argument of product of two complex number (2+i) and (1 + i) is
71.56505118 degrees and the modulus is square root of 10

To check if the article solution is right .I solved this using two complex number (2+i) and (1 + i)
using foil method.
Here is the solution
(2+i) and (1 + i)
= 2 + 2i + i + i^2
= 1 + 3i
Using this product ( 1 + 3i) we can solve for its modulus and argument. Same result with the
latter will be obtained.
Since the answer in the article solution conforms to the answer obtained using foil method,I can
say that the article proved it that the angles are added and modulus are multiplied when
multiplying two complex number
Doc,I dont get it how (cos 45 degrees + i sin 45 degrees) resulted only to change of rotation
after multiplying it from square root of 10?
Doc,kindly explain what this expression (cos theta degrees + i sin theta degrees) mean ?Where
this expression derived from ?Is this expression has something to do with the unit circle topic?
Why this expression gives only a rotational change after multiplying it from any complex
number?
(Physics)
Doc this is what I mean of translation of 2 dimensional vector (vectors can be move anywhere in
cartesian coordinate plane as long as preserving their magnitude and direction),since forces
are represented by vectors is this property (Im referring to vectors can be translated ) can also
be applied when solving forces in 2 dimensions?
Doc , how will I know if I will add 2 dimensional vectors?Why we add 2 dimensional vectors?
Doc, how will I know if I will add forces in 2 dimensions?Why we add forces in 2 dimensions?

## Doc, what is the concept I need to know to understand mathematical induction?

Doc ,how to use mathematical induction? Can you give me an example on how to use it?

Base case
Limits of athematical induction ,where can I apply this
Proposition

Doc, from one of the article you sent, it says that the second part of mathematical induction is we assume
that P(n) is true -- for some *particular* value of n. On this assumption, we prove that a *different*
proposition is
true -- namely, P(n + 1).Doc, *the particular values of n* that was mentioned from the latter are referring to
what specific values?
Doc,can I use any natural numbers aside from 1 as my n-value to my base case in mathematical
induction?
Doc,is mathematical induction can be used only to prove propositions for
*natural numbers*?if no, what are the other types of number wherein mathematical induction are
applicable or what are other applications of mathematical induction? if yes,How can I be sure of that
mathematical induction really works on it? Im interested to know more of the applications of mathematical
induction because I want to maximize its used.
Doc,what is the reason why they called the second part of mathematical induction as the inductive step?
Doc,is there any limitation of using mathematical induction ? if yes,kindly tell me what is it and how does it
happen?
Thanks in advance for any information you are able to provide.
Doc,here are my replies to what you have asked for.

Doc, I found some useful definitions of (inductive) from an online dictionary. Here are the
following definitions:
Definition 1

## Definition 2 serving to persuade, cause, or influence someone to take a course of action.

I am not sure about my ideas below, but those are the ideas running in my head.
If I relate definition 1 to my question (reason why they called the second part of mathematical induction as

the inductive step),since induction reasoning is somewhat making conclusion based on observation on
particular things, which
In case happen when I assumed my conjecture is true for every particular n values I chose,and make my
conclusion after proving that my conjecture is also true for n=k+1.

Then relating the next definition I have found, the inductive step is telling the verifier or the one whose
using mathematical induction if the truth of his or her conjecture will be established.
And for my second question (limitation of using mathematical induction ),sorry Doc I do not have any idea.