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COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING

COMPONENTS OF THE SYSTEM UNIT


*TIP: Reverse procedure of
Hardware - the physical, touchable,
disassemble*
electronic and mechanical parts of a
Step 1. Put back the Motherboard
computer
Step 2. Install the CPU Fan
System Unit - sometimes called the
Step 3. Connect the RAM and Peripheral
chassis, it contains the components of a
cards
computer
Step 4. Put back the Drives
Motherboard - the main circuit board of a
Step 5. Connect the data cables
computer. It contains all the circuits and
Step 6. Final Inspection, screw the side
components that run the computer
cover
CPU(Central Processing Unit) - the
Step 7. Assemble the computer back and
processor is the main brain or heart of
power up
a computer system. It performs all of the
instruction and calculations that are
SYSTEM UNIT DISASSEMBLY
needed and manages the flow of
*READ YOUR NOTEBOOK FOR
information through a computer
DETAILS*
ROM - (Read Only Memory) non-volatile,
Step 1. Unplugging
meaning it holds data even when the
Type of Port Function
Illustration
power in ON or OFF
RAM - (Random Access Memory) is
For serial type
volatile, meaning it holds data only when
Serial Port mouse and
the power is ON. When the power is off,
older camera
RAMs contents are lost
Also called
Parallel
printer port for
Expansion Bus - a bus is a data pathway
old model
Port
between several hardware components
printer
inside or outside a computer.
VGA
(Video
Used to
Adapters - Printed circuit board(interface
connect
Graphic
cards) that enable the computer to use
Monitors
Array)
Port
peripheral device for which it does not
High speed
have the necessary connections or circuit
USB
serial interface
boards. They are often used to permit
(Universal
used to almost
upgrading to a new different hardware.
Serial Bus) all device
Power Supply Unit -It converts 120vac
Low speed
into DC voltages that are used by other
serial
components
connections
PS/2 Port
Hard Disk Drive - a magnetic storage
used for
device used as permanent storage for
keyboard and
data. Usually configured as the C: drive
mouse
and contains the operating system and
Intended for
applications
Power Port
power port
Optical Drive - optical drive that uses
lasers to read data on the optical media
Offer high
which are the Compact Disc, Digital
S-Video Port level of video
performance
Versatile Disc, and Blu-ray Disc
SYSTEM UNIT ASSEMBLY
*READ YOUR NOTEBOOK FOR
DETAILS*

Audio Port

For plugging in
the speaker or
headset

LAN (Local
Area
Network)
Port

Physical interface
used for twisted
pair type cables
especially RJ45 to
connect to a
network

COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING


Step 2. Open the Outer Shell/Case
Step 3. Remove the System Fan
Step 4. Remove the Power Supply
Step 5. Remove the Optical Drive
Step 6. Remove the Hard Drive
Step 7. Remove the RAM and other
peripheral cards
Step 8. Remove the CPU Fan
Step 9. Remove the Motherboard
PORTS AND THEIR FUNCTION
Ports - external connecting sockets on
the outside of the computer. This is a
pathway into and out of the computer. A
port lets users plug in outside peripherals,
such as monitors, scanners etc
COMPUTER NETWORKING
Computer Network - is a group of
computer systems and other computing
hardware devices that are linked together
through communication channels to
facilitate communication and resourcesharing among a wide range of users
Benefits of Computer Networking
Software Sharing
Files Sharing
Information Sharing
Hardware Sharing
Communication
Information Reservation
Increase work Efficiency
Types of Network - the size of a network
can be expressed by the geographic area
they occupy and the number of computer
that are part of the network
Personal Area Network (PAN) - Around a
person
Local Area Network (LAN) - Room,
Building, Campus
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) City
Wide Area Network (WAN) - Country,
Continent
Network Topology
Refers to the lay-out of a network.how
different nodes in a network are connected
to each other and how they communicate

is determined by the networks topology


Devices are
connected to a
Bus
single cable or
Topology
line.
Computers form
a single
Ring
continuous
Topology
pathway for
signals.
each device is
attached to a
Star
central
Topology
hub/switch
Connection is
redundant, each
Mesh
device relays
Topology
data for the
network
Tree
Topology

Hybrid of two
network
topology
combined

COMPUTER NETWORKING HARDWARE


Includes all computers, peripherals,
interface cards and other equipment
needed to perform data processing and
communication within the network
File/Network Server - Very fast
computers with a large amount of RAM
and storage space along with a one or
more fast network interface card. the
network operating system
Workstation - Computers that humans
use are broadly categorized as
workstations. Workstations do not
necessarily need large storage hard
drives, because files can be saved on the
file sever. Almost any computer can serve
as network workstation.
Laptops/Mobile Devices - these devices
typically have modest internal, but enough
power to serve as a workstation for users
on the go. These machines nearly always
have a wireless adapter to allow quick
network coverage without cumbersome
cabling
Network Interface Cards - provides the

COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING


physical connection between the network
and workstation. Most NICs are internal,
and they are included in the purchase of
most computers. The most common
network interface connections are
Ethernet cards and wireless adapters.
Firewalls - Hardware/Software used to
protect the network from Hackers and
viruses.
Network Distributor
HUB - A common connection point
for devices in a network. Hubs are
commonly used to connect segments of a
LAN. A hub contains multiple ports.
Creates Network traffic
Switch - A common connection point
for devices in a networks. It can
electrically amplify the signal as it moves
from one device to another. Reduce
Network Traffic
Repeaters - Since a signal loses strength
as it passes along a cable, The repeater
electrically amplifies the signal it receives
and rebroadcasts it. Repeaters can be
separate devices or they can be
incorporated into a concentrator. They are
used when the total length of your
network cable exceeds the standards set
for the type of cable being used.
Bridges - is a device that allows you to
segment a large network into two smaller,
more efficient networks. And can connect
two LAN together to become a bigger
network
COMMON NETWORK CABLES
Cables are the only medium used to
connect devices on networks. A wide
variety of networking cables are available.
Cables differ in bandwidth, size and cost
Twisted pair - a type of copper cabling
this is used for telephone communication
and most Ethernet networks. A pair of
wires forms a circuit that transmits data.
The pair is twisted to provide protection
against crosstalk.
*Crosstalk -noise generated by adjacent
pairs of wire
*cancellation effect - when electricity

flows through a copper wire, a magnetic


field is created around the wire. A circuit
has two wires, and have oppositely
charged magnetic fields so it cancel out
each other. The effect will slow the
network because of the interference of the
magnetic field.
Coaxial Cable - is a copper cored cable
surrounded by a heavy shielding, use to
connect the computers to the rest of the
network
Fiber-Optic Cable - an optical fiber is a
glass or plastic conductor that transmits
information using light. All signals are
converted to light pulses to enter the
cable and are converted back into
electrical signals when they leave. This
means that it can deliver signals that are
clear and can go farther.
Fabricating an Ethernet Crossover/Straight-through
Straight-through - standard cable use
for almost all purposes
Cross-over - use to connect two network
device directly without the need of a hub
or router
Cable Fabrication Procedures
*READ YOUR NOTEBOOK FOR
DETAILS*
1. Cut into the plastic sheath 1 inch from
the end
2. Unwind and pair the similar colors
3. Pinch the wires between your fingers
and straighten them out
4. Use wire cutter to make a straight cut
across the wires 1/2 inch from the cut
sleeve to end of wire
5. Push wires in the connector. Each wire
fits into the slot in the RJ45
6. Take view from the top. Make sure all
wires are all the way in. There should be
no short wire
7. Crimp the cable
8. Repeat all step and follow the color
order of making Cross-over or Straightthrough
9. Make sure to test the cable before
installing

COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING


INTERNET PROTOCOLS
A protocol is a set of rules. Internet
protocols are sets of rules governing
communication within and between
computers on a network. Protocol
specifications define the format of the
messages to be exchanged
Main functions of protocols
Identifying errors
Compressing the data
Deciding how the data should be sent
Addressing the data
Deciding how to announce sent and
received data
Common Used Protocols
TCP/IP - Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet
IPX/SPX - Internetwork Packet
Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
NetBEUI - NetBIOS Extended User
Interface
AppleTalk
HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol
FTP - File Transfer Protocol
SSH - Secure Shell
Telnet
POP3 - Post Office Protocol
IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
IP ADDRESSING
IP address is a number that is used to
identify a device on the network. Each
device must have a unique IP address to
communicate with other network devices.
Address is assigned to the host Network
Interface Card and is known as the
physical address. The physical address
remains the same regardless where the
host is placed.
An IP address consist to a series of 32
binary bit (1s and 0s) which is very
difficult to read. For this reason the 32 bit
is grouped into four 8-bit byte called octet
Subnet Mask - indicates the network
portion of an IP address. Usually all hosts
within a LAN use the same subnet mask
IpConfig - is a command used to find out
the IP address of a certain network you are

connected
How to use the ipconfig command
1. Click on start button, then type
cmd(command prompt) on the search box
2. A black screen will appear
3. Type Ipconfig and press enter