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48. J.F. GRUBB, PH.D.

THESIS, RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, TROY, NY, MAY 1982


49. W.O. BINDER AND H.R. SPINDELOW, TRANS. ASM, VOL 43, 1951, P 759
50. J.F. GRUBB, STABILIZATION OF HIGH-CHROMIUM, FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS, PROC. INT.
CONF. STAINLESS STEELS (CHIBA, JAPAN), 10-13 JUNE 1991, ISIJ, P 541-548
51. K.E. PINNOW AND J.P. BRESSANELLI, "WELDED FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL ARTICLES,"
U.S. PATENT 4,119,765, 10 OCT 1978
Selection of Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steels
John A. Brooks, Sandia National Laboratories; John C. Lippold, Edison Welding Institute

Introduction
AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS exhibit a single-phase, face-centered cubic (fcc) structure that is maintained over a
wide range of temperatures. This structure results from a balance of alloying additions that stabilize the austenite phase
from elevated to cryogenic temperatures. Because these alloys are predominantly single phase, they can only be
strengthened by solid-solution alloying or by work hardening. The exceptions are the precipitation-strengthened austenitic
stainless steels that are discussed in the article "Selection of Wrought Precipitation-Hardening Stainless Steels" in this
Section of the Volume.
The austenitic stainless steels were developed for use in both mild and severe corrosive conditions. They are also used at
temperatures that range from cryogenic temperatures, where they exhibit high toughness, to elevated temperatures of
nearly 600 C (1110 F), where they exhibit good oxidation resistance. Because the austenitic materials are nonmagnetic,
they are sometimes used in applications where magnetic materials are not acceptable.
The most common types of austenitic stainless steels are the UNS S20000 and S30000 alloys (AISI 200 and 300 series).
Within these two grades, the alloying additions, which are chosen to provide the desired properties at reasonable cost, can
be considerably different. Furthermore, alloying additions and specific alloy composition can have a major effect on
weldability and the as-welded microstructure. The AISI 300 series of alloys typically contain from 8 to 20% Ni and from
16 to 25% Cr. Minor alloying additions are approximately 1% Si (maximum), which is used as a deoxidizer; 0.02 to
0.08% C, which is used as an austenite stabilizer; and approximately 1.5% Mn, which is used both as an austenite
stabilizer and as a sulfur and silicon compound former. A more-complete compositional range of common AISI 200- and
300-series alloys is shown in Table 1. The less common alloys, including some of the superaustenitic stainless steels, are
identified in Table 2.

TABLE 1 COMPOSITIONS OF STANDARD AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS

201

UNS
NO.
S20100

COMPOSITION, %(A)
C
Mn
Si
0.15
5.5-7.5 1.00

202

S20200

0.15

205

S20500

301

TYPE

1.00

S30100

0.120.25
0.15

7.510.0
14.015.5
2.0

1.00

302

S30200

0.15

2.0

1.00

302B

S30215

0.15

2.0

2.03.0

1.00

Cr
16.018.0
17.019.0
16.518.0
16.018.0
17.019.0
17.019.0

Ni
P
3.5-5.5 0.06

S
0.03

Other
0.25 N

4.0-6.0 0.06

0.03

0.25 N

1.00.06 0.03
1.75
6.0-8.0 0.045 0.03

0.32-0.40 N

8.010.0
8.010.0

0.045 0.03

...

0.045 0.03

...

...

303

S30300

0.15

2.0

1.00

303SE

S30323

0.15

2.0

1.00

304

S30400

0.08

2.0

1.00

304H

S30409

2.0

1.00

304L

S30403

0.040.10
0.03

2.0

1.00

304LN S30453

0.03

2.0

1.00

302CU S30430

0.08

2.0

1.00

304N

S30451

0.08

2.0

1.00

305

S30500

0.12

2.0

1.00

308

S30800

0.08

2.0

1.00

309

S30900

0.20

2.0

1.00

309S

S30908

0.08

2.0

1.00

310

S31000

0.25

2.0

1.50

310S

S31008

0.08

2.0

1.50

314

S31400

0.25

2.0

316

S31600

0.08

2.0

1.53.0
1.00

316F

S31620

0.08

2.0

1.00

316H

S31609

2.0

1.00

316L

S31603

0.040.10
0.03

2.0

1.00

316LN S31653

0.03

2.0

1.00

316N

S31651

0.08

2.0

1.00

317

S31700

0.08

2.0

1.00

317L

S31703

0.03

2.0

1.00

321

S32100

0.08

2.0

1.00

321H

S32109

2.0

1.00

330

N08330

0.040.10
0.08

2.0

347

S34700

0.08

2.0

0.751.5
1.00

17.019.0
17.019.0
18.020.0
18.020.0
18.020.0
18.020.0
17.019.0
18.020.0
17.019.0
19.021.0
22.024.0
22.024.0
24.026.0
24.026.0
23.026.0
16.018.0
16.018.0
16.018.0
16.018.0
16.018.0
16.018.0
18.020.0
18.020.0
17.019.0
17.019.0
17.020.0
17.0-

8.010.0
8.010.0
8.010.5
8.010.5
8.012.0
8.012.0
8.010.0
8.010.5
10.513.0
10.012.0
12.015.0
12.015.0
19.022.0
19.022.0
19.022.0
10.014.0
10.014.0
10.014.0
10.014.0
10.014.0
10.014.0
11.015.0
11.015.0
9.012.0
9.012.0
34.037.0
9.0-

0.20
0.20

0.15
MIN
0.06

0.6 MO(B)
0.15 MIN SE

0.045 0.03

...

0.045 0.03

...

0.045 0.03

...

0.045 0.03

0.10-0.16 N

0.045 0.03

3.0-4.0 CU

0.045 0.03

0.10-0.16 N

0.045 0.03

...

0.045 0.03

...

0.045 0.03

...

0.045 0.03

...

0.045 0.03

...

0.045 0.03

...

0.045 0.03

...

0.045 0.03

2.0-3.0 MO

0.20

0.10
MIN
0.045 0.03

1.75-2.5 MO

0.045 0.03

2.0-3.0 MO

0.045 0.03

2.0-3.0 MO; 0.10-0.16 N

0.045 0.03

2.0-3.0 MO; 0.10-0.16 N

0.045 0.03

3.0-4.0 MO

0.045 0.03

3.0-4.0 MO

0.045 0.03

5 %C MIN TI

0.045 0.03

5 %C MIN TI

0.04

...

0.03

0.045 0.03

2.0-3.0 MO

10 %C MIN NB

347H

S34709

348

S34800

348H

S34809

384

S38400

0.040.10
0.08

2.0

1.00

2.0

1.00

0.040.10
0.08

2.0

1.00

2.0

1.00

19.0
17.019.0
17.019.0
17.019.0
15.017.0

13.0
9.013.0
9.013.0
9.013.0
17.019.0

0.045 0.03
0.045 0.03
0.045 0.03
0.045 0.03

8 %C MIN - 1.0 MAX


NB
0.2 CO; 10 %C MIN
NB; 0.10 TA
0.2 CO; 10 %C MIN 1.0 MAX NB; 0.10 TA
...

(A) SINGLE VALUES ARE MAXIMUM VALUES UNLESS OTHERWISE INDICATED.


(B) OPTIONAL
TABLE 2 COMPOSITIONS OF NONSTANDARD AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS

DESIGNATION(A)
GALL-TOUGH

UNS
NO.
S20161

203 EZ (XM-I)

S20300

COMPOSITION, %(B)
C
Mn
Si
0.15
4.003.006.00
4.00
0.08
5.0-6.5 1.00

NITRONIC 50 (XM19)

S20910

0.06

4.0-6.0 1.00

TENELON (XM-31)

S21400

0.12

CRYOGENIC
TENELON (XM-14)
ESSHETE 1250

S21460

0.12

S21500

0.15

14.516.0
14.016.0
5.5-7.0

TYPE 216 (XM-17)

S21600

0.08

7.5-9.0 1.00

TYPE 216 L (XM18)


NITRONIC 60

S21603

0.03

7.5-9.0 1.00

S21800

0.10

NITRONIC 40 (XM10)
21-6-9 LC

S21900

0.08

S21904

0.04

S24000

0.08

7.0-9.0 3.54.5
8.01.00
10.0
8.001.00
10.00
11.50- 1.00
14.50
11.00- 1.00
14.00
17.01.00
19.0

0.31.0
1.00
1.20

NITRONIC 33 (18-3
MN)
NITRONIC 32 (18-2
MN)
18-18 PLUS

S24100

0.15

S28200

0.15

303 PLUS X (XM-5)

S30310

0.15

2.5-4.5 1.00

MVMA(C)

S30415

0.05

0.60

1.30

Cr
15.018.0
16.018.0
20.523.5

Ni
P
S
4.000.040 0.040
6.00
5.0-6.5 0.040 0.180.35
11.50.040 0.030
13.5

17.018.5
17.019.0
14.016.0

0.75

17.522.0
17.522.0
16.018.0
19.021.5
19.0021.50
17.0019.00
16.5019.50
17.519.5

5.0-7.0 0.045 0.030

17.019.0
18.5

0.045 0.030

Other
0.08-0.20 N
0.5 MO;
1.75-2.25 CU
1.5-3.0 MO;
0.2-0.4 N;
0.1-0.3 NB;
0.1-0.3 V
0.35 N

5.0-6.0 0.060 0.030

0.35-0.50 N

9.011.0

8.0-9.0 0.040 0.030

0.003-0.009
B; 0.75-1.25
NB; 0.150.40 V
2.0-3.0 MO;
0.25-0.50 N
2.0-3.0 MO;
0.25-0.50 N
0.08-0.18 N

5.5-7.5 0.060 0.030

0.15-0.40 N

5.507.50
2.503.75
0.502.50
...

0.060 0.030

0.15-0.40 N

0.060 0.030

0.20-0.40 N

0.060 0.030

0.20-0.40 N

0.045 0.030

7.010.0
9.50

0.020 0.25
MIN
...
...

0.5-1.5 MO;
0.5-1.5 CU;
0.4-0.6 N
0.6 MO

0.040 0.030

7.5-9.0 0.045 0.030

0.15 N; 0.04

(D)

304BI

S30424

0.08

2.00

0.75

304 HN (XM-21)

S30452

2.00

1.00

CRONIFER 1815
LCSI
RA 85 H(C)
253 MA

S30600

0.040.10
0.018

2.00

S30615
S30815

0.20
0.050.10

0.80
0.80

3.734.3
3.50
1.42.0

TYPE 309 S CB

S30940

0.08

2.00

TYPE 310 CB

S31040

0.08

254 SMO

S31254

TYPE 316 TI

0.045 0.030

CE
0.10 N; 1.001.25 B
0.16-0.30 N

0.020 0.020

0.2 MO

...
...
0.040 0.030

1.0 AL
0.14-0.20 N;
0.03-0.08 CE;
1.0 AL
10 %C
MIN TO 1.10
MAX NB
10 %C
MIN TO 1.10
MAX NB +
TA
6.00-6.50
MO; 0.501.00 CU;
0.180-0.220
N
5 %(C + N)
MIN TO 0.70
MAX TI; 2.03.0 MO; 0.10
N
10 %C
MIN TO 1.10
MAX NB +
TA; 2.0-3.0
MO; 0.10 N
3.00-4.00
CU; 2.003.00 MO
4.0-5.0 MO;
0.10 N
4.0-5.0 MO;
0.10-0.20 N
0.10-0.22 N

18.0020.00
18.020.0
17.018.5
18.5
20.022.0

12.0015.00
8.010.5
14.015.5
14.50
10.012.0

0.045 0.030

1.00

22.024.0

12.015.0

0.045 0.030

2.00

1.50

24.026.0

19.022.0

0.045 0.030

0.20

1.00

0.80

19.5020.50

17.5018.50

0.030 0.010

S31635

0.08

2.00

1.00

16.018.0

10.014.0

0.045 0.030

TYPE 316 CB

S31640

0.08

2.00

1.00

16.018.0

10.014.0

0.045 0.030

TYPE 316 HQ

...

0.030

2.00

1.00

16.0018.25

10.0014.00

0.030 0.015

TYPE 317 LM

S31725

0.03

2.00

1.00

S31726

0.03

2.00

0.75

TYPE 317 LN

S31753

0.03

2.00

1.00

TYPE 370

S37000

0.030.05

1.652.35

0.51.0

13.517.5
13.517.5
11.015.0
14.516.5

0.045 0.030

17-14-4 LN

18.020.0
17.020.0
18.021.0
12.514.5

18-18-2 (XM-15)

S38100

0.08

2.00

S63198

0.280.35

0.751.50

17.019.0
18.021.0

17.518.5
8.011.0

0.030 0.030

19-9 DL

1.52.5
0.030.8

20CB-3

N08020 0.07

2.00

1.00

19.0-

32.0-

0.045 0.035

0.045 0.030
0.030 0.030
0.040 0.010

0.040 0.030

1.5-2.5 MO;
0.1-0.4 TI;
0.005 N; 0.05
CO
...
1.0-1.75 MO;
0.1-0.35 TI;
1.0-1.75 W;
0.25-0.60 NB
2.0-3.0 MO;

21.0

38.0

20MO-4

N08024 0.03

1.00

0.50

22.525.0

35.040.0

0.035 0.035

20MO-6

N08026 0.03

1.00

0.50

22.0026.00

33.0037.20

0.03

SANICRO 28

N08028 0.02

2.00

1.00

N08366 0.035

2.00

1.00

AL-6XN

N08367 0.030

2.00

1.00

JS-700

N08700 0.04

2.00

1.00

29.532.5
23.525.5
23.5025.50
24.026.0

0.020 0.015

AL-6X

26.028.0
20.022.0
20.022.0
19.023.0

TYPE 332

N08800 0.01

1.50

1.00

N08904 0.02

2.00

1.00

CRONIFER 1925
HMO

N08925 0.02

1.00

0.50

30.035.0
23.028.0
19.021.0

0.045 0.015

904L

19.023.0
19.023.0
24.026.0

CRONIFER 2328

...

0.75

0.75

22.024.0

26.028.0

0.030 0.015

0.04

0.03

0.030 0.030
0.040 0.030
0.040 0.030

0.045 0.035
0.045 0.030

3.0-4.0 CU; 8
%C MIN
TO 1.00
MAX NB
3.50-5.00
MO; 0.501.50 CU;
0.15-0.35 NB
5.00-6.70
MO; 2.004.00 CU
3.0-4.0 MO;
0.6-1.4 CU
6.0-7.0 MO
6.0-7.0 MO;
0.18-0.25 N
4.3-5.0 MO;
8 %C MIN
TO 0.5 MAX
NB; 0.5 CU;
0.005 PB;
0.035 S
0.15-0.60 TI;
0.15-0.60 AL
4.0-5.0 MO;
1.0-2.0 CU
6.0-7.0 MO;
0.8-1.5 CU;
0.10-0.20 N
2.5-3.5 CU;
0.4-0.7 TI;
2.5-3.0 MO

(A) XM DESIGNATIONS IN THIS COLUMN ARE ASTM DESIGNATIONS FOR THE LISTED ALLOY.
(B) SINGLE VALUES ARE MAXIMUM VALUES UNLESS OTHERWISE INDICATED.
(C) NOMINAL COMPOSITIONS.
(D) UNS DESIGNATION HAS NOT BEEN SPECIFIED; THIS DESIGNATION APPEARS IN ASTM A
887 AND MERELY INDICATES THE FORM TO BE USED.
Depending on alloy composition, the austenitic stainless steels may solidify with a microstructure containing some
retained ferrite at room temperature, as a result of welding. Weld cracking, of which the most common form is
solidification cracking, can be another consequence of welding. Cracks can occur in various regions of the weld with
different orientations, such as centerline cracks, transverse cracks, and microcracks in the underlying weld metal or
adjacent heat-affected zone (HAZ). These cracks are due, primarily, to low-melting liquid phases, which allow boundaries
to separate under the thermal and shrinkage stresses resulting from weld solidification and cooling. Other possible
metallurgical consequences of welding are:

THE PRECIPITATION OF INTERGRANULAR, CHROMIUM-RICH M23C6 CHROMIUM


CARBIDES IN THE WELD HAZ, WHICH CAN LEAVE THESE REGIONS SENSITIVE TO
CORROSION
THE TRANSFORMATION OF WELD FERRITE TO SIGMA PHASE DURING ELEVATED-