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Biology 1107 Exam 3

Mitosis- Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into
two identical sets of chromosomes, each in its own nucleus. In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is
often followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new
cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components.

What is the function of mitosis?

The main functions of mitosis are growth and repair.

Some cells once fully formed do not undergo cell division, such as nerve cells and muscle cells.

Compare bacterial cell division with Eukaryotic cell division- prokaryotes go through
binary fission (budding), while eukaryotes go through mitosis

Be familiar with the cell cycle including the checkpoints- Cell cycle checkpoints are
control mechanisms in eukaryotic cells which ensure proper division of the cell. Each checkpoint serves
as a potential halting point along the cell cycle, during which the conditions of the cell are assessed, with
progression through the various phases of the cell cycle occurring when favorable conditions are met.

Cancer- Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases
involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all
tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and
symptoms include: a new lump, abnormal bleeding, a prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a
change in bowel movements among others. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may also
occur due to other issues. There are over 100 different known cancers that affect humans.

Meiosis- is a specialized type of cell division which reduces the chromosome number by half. This
process occurs in all sexually reproducing single-celled and multi-celled eukaryotes, including animals,
plants, and fungi. Errors in meiosis resulting in aneuploidy are the leading known cause of miscarriage
and the most frequent genetic cause of developmental disabilities.

What is the function of meiosis? The origin and function of meiosis are fundamental to
understanding the evolution of sexual reproduction in Eukaryotes. There is no current consensus among
biologists on the questions of how sex in Eukaryotes arose in evolution, what basic function sexual
reproduction serves, and why it is maintained, given the basic two-fold cost of sex.

Genetics- Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms. It is
generally considered a field of biology, but it intersects frequently with many of the life sciences and is
strongly linked with the study of information systems.

Mendals work- Gregor Johann Mendel was a German-speaking Moravian scientist and Augustinian
friar who gained posthumous fame as the founder of the modern science of genetics. Though farmers had
known for centuries that crossbreeding of animals and plants could favor certain desirable traits, Mendel's
pea plant experiments conducted between 1856 and 1863 established many of the rules of heredity, now
referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance

Monohybrid crosses- A monohybrid cross is a mating between two individuals with different alleles
at one genetic locus of interest. The character(s) being studied in a monohybrid cross are governed by
two or multiple alleles for a single locus.

Testcrosses- In genetics, a test cross, first introduced by Gregor Mendel, involves the breeding of a
phenotypically dominant individual with a phenotypically recessive individual, in order to determine the

zygosity of the former by analyzing proportions of offspring phenotypes. Zygosity can either be
heterozygous or homozygous. Those that are heterozygous have one dominant and one recessive allele

Pleiotropy- the production by a single gene of two or more apparently unrelated effects
Incomplete dominance- Incomplete dominance is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one
allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele. This results in a third phenotype
in which the expressed physical trait is a combination of the phenotypes of both alleles. Unlike in
complete dominance inheritance, one allele does not dominate or mask the other allele. Incomplete
dominance occurs in the polygenic inheritance of traits such as eye color and skin color.

Codominance - Codominance is a situation in which both alleles are equally stong and both alleles are
visible in the hybrid genotype. An example of codominance is found in chickens. When white chickens are
crossed with black chickens, the result is not a grey chicken, but a chicken with both black and white

Environmental impacts of genes- Geneenvironment interaction is when two different

genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways. A norm of reaction is a graph that shows
the relationship between genes and environmental factors when phenotypic differences are continuous.[1]
They can help illustrate GxE interactions. When the norm of reaction is not parallel, as shown in the figure
below, there is a gene by environment interaction. This indicates that each genotype responds to
environmental variation in a different way.

Epistasis- Epistasis is a phenomenon that consists of the effect of one gene being dependent on the
presence of one or more 'modifier genes' (genetic background). Similarly, epistatic mutations have
different effects in combination than individually. It was originally a concept from genetics but is now used
in biochemistry, population genetics, computational biology and evolutionary biology.

Gene disorders (recessive vs dominant) Genetic disorders may or may not be heritable,
i.e., passed down from the parents' genes. In non-heritable genetic disorders, defects may be caused by
new mutations or changes to the DNA. In such cases, the defect will only be heritable if it occurs in the
germ line. The same disease, such as some forms of cancer, may be caused by an inherited genetic
condition in some people, by new mutations in other people, and mainly by environmental causes in still
other people. Whether, when and to what extent a person with the genetic defect or abnormality will
actually suffer from the disease is almost always affected by the environmental factors and events in the
person's development

Sex chromosomes (problems that sometimes arise)- There are many types of chromosome
abnormalities. However, they can be organized into two basic groups: numerical abnormalities and
structural abnormalities.

Numerical Abnormalities: When an individual is missing one of the chromosomes from a pair, the
condition is called monosomy. When an individual has more than two chromosomes instead of a
pair, the condition is called trisomy.

An example of a condition caused by numerical abnormalities is Down syndrome, which is marked by

mental retardation and other problems. An individual with Down syndrome has three copies of
chromosome 21 rather than two; for that reason, the condition is also known as Trisomy 21. An example
of monosomy, in which an individual lacks a chromosome, is Turner syndrome. In Turner syndrome, a
female is born with only one sex chromosome, an X, and is usually shorter than average and unable to
have children, among other difficulties.

Structural Abnormalities: A chromosome's structure can be altered in several ways.

Deletions: A portion of the chromosome is missing or deleted.
Duplications: A portion of the chromosome is duplicated, resulting in extra genetic material.
Translocations: A portion of one chromosome is transferred to another chromosome. There are
two main types of translocation. In a reciprocal translocation, segments from two different
chromosomes have been exchanged. In a Robertsonian translocation, an entire chromosome has
attached to another at the centromere.
Inversions: A portion of the chromosome has broken off, turned upside down, and reattached. As
a result, the genetic material is inverted.
Rings: A portion of a chromosome has broken off and formed a circle or ring. This can happen
with or without loss of genetic material.

Most chromosome abnormalities occur as an accident in the egg or sperm. In these cases, the
abnormality is present in every cell of the body. Some abnormalities, however, happen after conception;
then some cells have the abnormality and some do not.
Chromosome abnormalities can be inherited from a parent (such as a translocation) or be "de novo" (new
to the individual). This is why, when a child is found to have an abnormality, chromosome studies are
often performed on the parents.

Trisomy 21- An individual with Down syndrome has three copies of chromosome 21 rather than two;
for that reason, the condition is also known as Trisomy 21

Genetic counseling - Genetic counseling is the process by which the patients or relatives at risk of
an inherited disorder are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of
developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning. This
complex process can be separated into diagnostic (the actual estimation of risk) and supportive aspects