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n memoria tatlui meu,

Gheorghe Zrnescu

James R. Lewis

HISTORY OF
ASTROLOGY

Editura WOW
2016
1

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei


LEWIS,JAMES R.
History of Astrology/ James R. Lewis. Slatin: Editura
WOW, 2016
Index
ISBN 999-001-001-001-1

Tehnoredactare computerizat: Nicolae Zrnescu


2016, Nicolae Zrnescu. Toate drepturile rezervate.
Editura WOW, 2016, pentru prezenta ediie.
Orice reproducere, total sau parial, a acestei lucrri, fr acordul scris
al editorului, este strict interzis i se pedepsete conform Legii dreptului
de autor.

ro.wikipedia.org (Nicolae Zrnescu)


www.zarnescu.go.ro
Facebook: Nic Zrnescu
niczarnescu@yahoo.com
Tel: 0769 612 435

Cuprins
Introduction 5
Astronomie and astrology 13
Istoria astrologiei occidentale
Definiia astrologiei 12
Scurt istorie a astrologiei 14
Astrologia chaldeean 15
Astrologia egiptean 15
Astrologia greac 16
Astrologia roman 18
Detractori ai astrologiei antice 19
Astrologia arab 20
Astrologia medieval islamic 21
Astrologia medieval european 22
Astrologia tiinific 24
Declinul astrologiei 27
Astrologia occidental modern 28
Contestatari ai astrologiei moderne 31
Astrologia n Romnia 33
Astrologia i religia 34
Astrologia i cultura 34
Previziuni celebre 35
Ramurile astrologiei occidentale
Astrologia formativ
Astrologia natal 38
Astrologia holistic 38
Astrologia karmic 38
Astrologia medical 38
Astrologia psihologic 39
Astrologia relaional 39
Astrologia ezoteric 39
Astrologia kabbalistic 39
Astrologia uranian 39
Astrologia vocaional 39
Astrologia lunar 40
Astrologia mundan 40
Astrologia heliocentric 40

Astrologia predictiv
Astrologia previzional 41
Astrologia mondial 41
Astrologia electiv 41
Astrologia orar 41
Astrologia social 42
Astrologia solar 42
Astrologia cartografic 42
Astrologia meteorologic 42
Astrologia de salon 42
Metode moderne de ntocmire a horoscopului natal
Astrolog32 versiunea 2.02 pentru Windows 44
Aura Astrology Pro versiunea 2.70 pentru Android 45
Exemplu de ntocmire a horoscopului natal 46
Alte genuri de astrologie
Astrologia chinez 48
Astrologia mesoamerican 49
Astrologia tibetan 49
Astrologia rabinic 50
Astrologia maya 50
Astrologia hindus medieval 50
Astrologia hindus modern 51
Astrologia avestan 53
Zodiacul indian 53
Zodiacul celtic 53
Zodiacul thebaic 54
Horoscopul spaniol 54
Simboluri 54
Anexe
Istoria astrologiei n imagini 57
Horoscop natal: Nicolae Zrnescu 84
Astrologia geniului 93
Astrologie holistic 99
Nicolae Zrnescu (Wikipedia) 100

Introduction

Introduction
Astrology literally means the study (or science, depending on
how one translates the Greek word logos) of the stars (astron).
Astrology differs
from astronomy by confining its attention to the study of
correlations between
celestial events and humanly meaningful events. Most people are
familiar
with only a tiny portion of the science of the stars, namely the 12
signs of the
Zodiac as they relate to the personality of individuals and the use
of astrology
for divinatory purposes.
The Zodiac (literally the circle of animals or, in its more
primary
meaning, the circle of life or circle of living beings) is the belt
constituted
by the 12 signs Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra,
Scorpio,
Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. This belt is said to
extend 8 or
9 on either side of the ecliptic (the imaginary line drawn against
the backdrop of the stars by the orbit of the Earth). The orbits of
the various planets in
the solar system all lie within approximately the same geometric
plane, so
that, from a position within the system, all of the heavenly bodies
appear to
move across the face of the same set of constellations. Several
thousand years
ago, these constellations gave their names to the Zodiac.
The notion of the Zodiac is very ancient, with roots in the early
citied
cultures of Mesopotamia. The first 12-sign zodiacs were named
after the gods
of these cultures. The Greeks adopted astrology from the
Babylonians, and the
Romans, in turn, adopted astrology from the Greeks. These

peoples renamed
the signs of the Mesopotamian Zodiac in terms of their own
mythologies,
which is why the familiar Zodiac of the contemporary West bears
names out of
Mediterranean mythology. The notion of a 12-fold division derives
from the
lunar cycle (the orbital cycle of the Moon around the Earth), which
the Moon
completes 12 times per year.
From a broad historical perspective, zodiacal symbolism can be
found
everywhere, and zodiacal expressions are still in use in modern
Englishe.g.,
bull-headed (an allusion to Taurus), crabby (an allusion to
Cancer), etc.
The popularity of Sun-sign astrology (the kind found in the daily
newspaper)
has kept these ancient symbols alive in modern society, so that
even such
prominent artifacts as automobiles have been named after some
of the signs
(e.g., the Taurus and the Scorpio).
The sign of the Zodiac the Sun is in at the time of a persons
birth is his
or her Sun sign (sometimes also called the birth sign). The Sun, as
the most
Introduction
important celestial body for Earth-dwellers, is the most important
influence in
a horoscope (an astrological chart). Consequently, the sign that
the Sun is in
at birth will usually be the single most important influence on an
individuals
personality. Thus when people say that they are a certain sign,
they are almost
always referring to their Sun sign.

Sun-sign astrology, which is the kind of astrology one finds in


newspapers and magazines, has the advantage of simplicity all
one needs to know is
ones birthday to be able to figure out ones sign but this
simplicity is purchased at the price of ignoring all other
astrological influences. The other
important celestial bodies, for example, were all located in signs
at the
moment of birth. Thus, someone with a Scorpio Sun sign might
also have a
Sagittarius Moon sign, a Virgo Venus sign, a Libra Mercury sign,
etc. Each of
these other signs has an influence, which is why everyone with
the same Sun
sign does not have the same personality.
The subsidiary influences of the sign positions of the planets is
further modified by the angles between them (referred to as
aspects), as well as by their house positions (another set of 12
divisions).
These other influences make Sun-sign astrology a hit-or-miss
system
that works sometimes but fails miserably at others. Professional
astrologers
tend to dislike Sun-sign astrology because it creates a
misconception of the
science of the stars (i.e., that astrology is entirely about Sun
signs), and
because its inaccuracy leads non-astrologers to reject astrology as
untrue.
Similar remarks apply to predictions of the future by the 12
signs. Sunsign prediction, in other words, is also a hit-or-miss
system that sometimes
works and sometimes misses the mark entirely. The columns
found in popular
periodicals also tend to create misperceptions about the nature of
astrological
prediction. In particular, readers can come away with the
impression that
astrological prediction is a kind of astrological fortune-telling that
portrays the
stars as if they foretold an irrevocable destiny for the person

having her or his


fortune told. Modern astrologers, however, tend to distance
themselves from
this tradition of predicting specific events. Instead of predicting
events, most
contemporary astrologers describe upcoming planetary
conditions, with the
understanding that clients have the free will to respond to
planetary influences in different ways. Like a meteorologist, an
astrologer can only predict
trends and probabilitiesnot details.

Introduction
Understanding the Appeal of Astrology
Astrology occupies a peculiar position in the modern world.
Derided by
many as medieval superstition, the science of the stars
nevertheless continues
to exercise a fascination over the human mind. Furthermore, polls
indicate
that its popularity is growing rather than waning. The abysmal
failure of critics
to halt the expansion of astrology should be a sign that we have
reached a
juncture whererather than continuing simply to dismiss
astrology as a superstitious retreat from the modern worldit is
appropriate to ask other kinds of questions. Simultaneously, we
need to understand why this practice has
evoked such passionate criticism.
Since at least the historical period known as the Enlightenment,
the
Western world has been home to a vocal minority of selfappointed guardians
of human rationality who have railed against religion and anything
else that
dared to suggest that the human being was anything more than a
physicalchemical organism. Astrology was lumped into the
category of irrational
superstition along with anything else that did not fall within a
rather narrow
definition of science. But just how irrational is astrology?
If you live near a seashore and is attentive to the ebb and flow
of the
waterline, it is easy to observe that the Sun and the Moon rule the
tides. How
big a step from this observation is it to assert that celestial bodies
influence
human beings? We cannot touch, taste, or see astrological forces,
but neither
can we touch, taste, or see gravity. Gravity is perceived only
indirectly, in

terms of its effects. It is in this way, astrologers could reply, that


astrological
forces are perceivedindirectly, in terms of their impact on
human beings
and other events in the world. Furthermore, so astrologers would
assert, astrological claims can be subjected to the methods of
empirical, statistical
research, as has been done most notably in the work of Michel
and Franoise
Gauquelin. Thus, astrology is not, in the strict sense, irrational.
Astrologers,
in other words, do not utilize illogical principles of reasoning.
Rather, astrology is labeled irrational because it has not been
accepted into the mainstream
of academic science.
In earlier historical periods, human beings were not so
insulated from
their environment as we are today. Human life was ordered
according to the
seasonal migration of the Sun from north to south and south to
north. Also,
streetlights and the other lights of a suburban/urban environment
did not
obstruct a view of the night sky, so that the starry heavens were a
nightly
experience.
Introduction
Aware of the relationship between Sun, Moon, and tides, as well
as the correlation between such cycles as menstruation and the
lunar cycle, it
is not difficult to see how the human mind would seek out other
kinds of correlations between celestial and terrestrial phenomena.
To shift forward in an effort to understand the attraction of
astrology
for the typical citizen of an industrialized society, one has to see
that, even for
many people with a modicum of belief in traditional religion,
ordinary, everyday life the world as it is experienced on a dayto-day basis appears to be

10

empty of significance. Most people feel themselves to be at the


mercy of
social, economic, and political forces that they can rarely
understand, much
less predict. Although to the outsider astrology appears to be
unappealing
because of its apparent determinism, it allows people to
comprehend the
events in their lives as part of a meaningful, predictive system
over which they
can gain a certain amount of control. Furthermore, even the most
mundane
life acquires a certain amount of cosmic significance when viewed
through the
lens of astrology, in the sense that the system portrays humans as
beings that
are basically at home in the universe.
Theories of Astrological Influence
Approaches to explaining how astrology works move between
two
poles, one that stresses the study of the stars as a natural science
(and that
consequently attempts to distance it from occultism), and another
that, while
often calling astrology by the name of science, emphasizes the
spiritual or
occult dimension of the study of planetary influences. The former
perspective,
using the natural science model, tends to conceive of astrological
influences in
terms of forces, analogous to the forces of gravity and magnetism,
that are
actually radiated by the planets.
The latter perspective, while often speaking in terms of occult
forces,
usually emphasizes that correlations between celestial and
mundane spheres
result from a kind of prearranged harmony that is built into the
very structure of the cosmos. In other words, the various
correspondences that astrology

11

studies are a result of synchronicity (to use Carl Jungs term)


rather than
cause and effect. It is worth noting that a large number of
astrologers attempt
to adhere simultaneously to both a force and a correspondence
explanation.
The cosmic interconnectedness that the second approach tends
to see
as fundamental to understanding astrological influence implies a
kind of
Introduction
monistic view of the universe that is related to the worldview held
in common
by most strands of Americas metaphysical subculture. This link is
the primary
reason that astrology has come in for such severe criticism from
militant secularists as well as from conservative Christians.
Christianity and Astrology
The Christian church absorbed astrology along with many other
aspects
of Hellenistic civilization. Some Christian thinkers worried about
the tension
between free will and the perceived determinism of astrology, but
by and large,
the science of the stars occupied an honorable position in the
Western tradition.
Although some of the Biblical prophets disparaged stargazing,
the three
wise men were clearly astrologers, and in certain other scriptural
passages it is
evident that God regularly utilized heavenly signs to instruct the
faithful.
Despite certain tensions in the marriage, astrology and
Christianity did
not divorce until the fundamentalist movement emerged in the
early twentieth
century. For various reasons but particularly because of

12

astrologys association
with metaphysical religion fundamentalists, and later most
other conservative
Christians, rejected astrology as a delusion at best and as a tool of
Satan at worst.
The Metaphysical Subculture and Astrology
Despite the antagonism from militant secularists and
conservative
Christians, astrology has been growing steadily the past hundred
years. This
growth may well have something to do with the decreasing power
of astrologys critics. While the number of conservative churches
increase, their influence of traditional religion on society has been
waning for more than a century. As for secular humanists, because
science creates more problems than it
solves, the appeal of a quasi-religious secularism tied to
mainstream science
has also lost its social influence. While both conservative
Christianity and
secular humanism have been losing ground, the Wests
metaphysical subculture which has been friendly to astrology
has been growing in size and
influence. Gallup polls have indicated that over one-third of
Americans
believe in astrology.
The metaphysical community is a loosely knit subculture. Its
most distinctive institutions are the metaphysical bookstores and
organizations. The
largest of these organizations are the many theosophical societies
and spiritualist churches, which were formed in the nineteenth
century. This metaphysical community was relatively small until
the late twentieth century.
Introduction
When the counterculture of the sixties faded away in the early
seventies, many former hippies found themselves embarking
upon spiritual quests, which radically departed from the JudeoChristian mainstream. These new seekers swelled the ranks of the
metaphysical subculture until it became a significant social force.

13

One important manifestation of this subculture is called the


New Age
movement. While segments of the metaphysical community have
been referring to themselves as New Age for a long time, neither
the community nor the
term were familiar to the cultural mainstream until the late
eighties. In North
America, the single most important event prompting general
awareness of this
subculture was the broadcast of Shirley MacLaines Out on a Limb
in January
1987. The success of this television miniseries stimulated the
mass media to
begin investigating and, in time, to begin generating articles and
programs
about the New Age. The medias interest was still high at the time
of the Harmonic Convergence gatherings in 1987, causing the
Convergence to attract
more public attention than any New Age event before or since.
The widespread interest in the New Age, which was intensified
by
curiosity about the Harmonic Convergence, led, in turn, to the
Time magazine
feature, New Age Harmonies, in December 1987. This piece was
the most
significant general article on the movement to appear in a major
news magazine. Like many previous treatments in the mainstream
media, New Age
Harmonies focused on the flashier, less substantive aspects of
the movement.
However, perhaps because of the greater weight of Time, this
article, unlike
earlier, similar pieces, influenced many of the more serious
individuals within
the movement to back away from the label New Age.
Despite its continuities with the older metaphysical community,
the
New Age departed from tradition in certain ways. Of particular
importance for
the practice of astrology, the New Age blended metaphysics with
certain

14

other, distinct movements, such as the human potentials


movement and
humanistic psychology. As a consequence, the significance of such
familiar
occult practices as astrology and tarot were altered. Before
explaining this
alteration, the reader should note that in the same way that the
media seized
upon the expression New Age in the late eighties and
transformed it into a
term of derision, an earlier wave of media interest in the early
seventies seized
upon the word occult and succeeded in connecting it with such
negative
phenomena as black magic.

15

Introduction
Occult comes from a root word meaning hidden, and the
original
connotation of the word was that it referred to a body of esoteric
beliefs and
practices that were in some sense hidden from the person in the
street (e.g.,
practices and knowledge that remain inaccessible until after an
initiation).
Alternately, it is sometimes said that practices were occult if they
dealt with
forces that operated by means that were hidden from ordinary
perception (e.g.,
magic, tarot cards, astrology, etc.).
Modern astrology is not occult in the sense of secret initiations,
but it is occult in the sense that it deals with hidden forces.
Under the impact of the human potentials movement and
humanistic psychology, astrology, tarot, and so forth were no
longer regarded as mere fortune-telling devices, but became tools
for self-transformation. The net result of this on the contemporary
practice of astrology is that at least two kinds of astrologers can
be distinguished: Astrologers who like Joan Quigley, the
astrologer to Ronald and Nancy Reagan primarily predict events
and advise clients on when to perform certain actions in the world,
and astrologers who primarily see themselves as quasi-therapists,
leading their clients to deeper understandings of themselves.
Most contemporary astrologers would, of course, fall
somewhere between these two extremes.
Getting Started in Astrology
In addition to being a comprehensive reference work, this
updated
encyclopedia can be used as a foundational textbook for acquiring
a basic
understanding of astrology. The elements of the science of the
stars are the
signs and the planets. The beginning student should start by
reading and
studying the entries for each of the signs of the Zodiac in their

16

natural order
Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio,
Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. Read the entry on
rulership, and then study the
entries for the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. The planets need
not be studied in any particular order. However, because the
meanings of signs and planets overlap, one should refer each
planet to the sign(s) that it rules.
Next, you should read the entry on the houses, relating each of
the signs to each of the houses. Finish up this course of reading
with the entries on the ascendant, the aspects, the asteroids, and
Chiron. When studying the aspects, one might also read the
entries on the major aspects-conjunctions, sextiles, squares,
trines, and oppositions.
Introduction
To understand the basics of chart casting and chart
interpretation, the
student of astrology must memorize the glyphs (symbols) for the
planets, the
signs, and the aspects (which follow this introduction). Do not
attempt to
learn the symbols for the asteroids until after all of the other
glyphs have been
memorized, and, even at that point, focus on the most commonly
utilized
planetoids Ceres, Pallas, Vesta, Juno, and Chiron. Read the
balance of this
introduction, and then the appendix on understanding your own
natal chart.
After completing this reading, you will have a basic grasp of
natal astrology.
The next course of reading involves the various subdivisions and
branches of the science of the stars. Begin this study with the
entries on transits, electional astrology, solar returns,
progressions, and directions. You can then read the entries on the
branches of astrology, such as mundane astrology, horary
astrology, medical astrology, heliocentric astrology, and so forth.

17

The two final courses of reading focus on history


Mesopotamian astrology, the history of Western astrology, and the
history of astrology in America and the astrology of other
cultures Mesoamerican astrology, Chinese astrology, and Hindu
astrology.
Elements of Astrological Meaning
The basic building blocks of astrological meaning are the signs
of the
Zodiac and the planets. Beginning students of astrology are
usually advised to
study and acquire a good basic sense of the signs before
proceeding to more
complex studies. Because there is a certain similarity of meaning
between particular planets and particular signs (each sign is said
to be ruled by a particular
planet), as well as a link of similar meaning between each
successive sign with
each successive house, a sound knowledge of the 12 signs of the
Zodiac makes
it easier to understand the astrological significance of the planets
and the
houses. A highly popular book is Linda Goodmans Sun Signs.
While some
astrologers have criticized this volume, it is a useful, entertaining
book for
acquiring basic information about the twelve signs of the Zodiac.
There are various ways of classifying the signs, some more
useful than
others. Of particular importance are the traditional elements of
earth, air, fire,
and water. These elements represent certain basic personality
orientations:
Earth represents practicality, water emotional sensitivity, air a
mental orientation, and fire activity. Thus, for people who are
comprised primarily of water signs (Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces),
feelings are what are most real in life;

18

Introduction
for a predominance of air signs (Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius),
ideas are most real;
for earth (Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn), practical concerns; and for
fire
(Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius), activity. The other primary system by
which the signs are classified is the socalled qualities cardinal,
mutable, and fixed. Each of the 12 signs of the Zodiac is a unique
combination of an element and a quality (e.g., Aries is a cardinal
fire sign, Taurus is fixed earth, Gemini is mutable air, and so forth).
The elemental nature of a sign is said to refer to its basic
temperament, while
quality is said to refer to its mode of expression. Cardinal signs are
portrayed as
outgoing signs that initiate new activities; fixed signs, by way of
contrast, persist with their established activities; mutable signs
adapt to changing circumstances.
These two classification systems elements and qualities
are helpful
when one undertakes to memorize sign traits.
The interpretation of a horoscope is built around the influence
of the
planets as modified by three primary factors signs, houses, and
aspects (the
angular relationships between the planets). An oversimplified but
nonetheless
useful rule of thumb is that planetary sign positions indicate
personality tendencies, aspects between planets reflect how
various components of ones personality interact with one
another, and house positions show how the personality manifests
in the world. Aspects are angular relationships between various
points in an astrological chart. The term especially refers to a
series of named angles, such as trines (120) and squares (90).
Visually in an astrological chart, houses are the 12 pie-pieces
that
together form the basic framework of the horoscope. Sign
divisions (where
signs begin and end) are not represented in a conventional chart.
If they were,

19

one would have to draw in another 12 lines, making a total of 24,


which
would result in a cluttered, aesthetically unappealing appearance.
The numbers and symbols that appear around the outside of the
wheel indicate where
houses begin and end with respect to the signs of the 360 circle
of the Zodiac.
Starting at the nine oclock position (which in most systems of
house division
corresponds with the eastern horizon) and moving
counterclockwise, the
houses are numbered from one to twelve. Thus, the first house
begins at the
nine oclock position and ends at the eight oclock position; the
second house
begins at eight oclock and ends at seven oclock; and so forth.
The sign at the
nine oclock position on the chart is the rising sign or ascendant.

20

Introduction
Let us illustrate sign-house-aspect relationships with a concrete
example. The example we will use is an individual with natal Mars
in the sign
Virgo, that is also in a square (90) aspect to Saturn and in the
eleventh
house. In the personality, Mars represents the outgoing, assertive,
aggressive
energies. This is what we might think of as the basic nature of
Mars.
1. Sign: Individuals born when Mars was in Virgo need to
organize to
get anything done. They tend to be very patient with detailed
work.
(Organization and patience with detail are both Virgo traits.)
2. Aspect: In contrast to Mars, Saturn is the cautious, securityseeking
side of the personality. Square aspects often indicate conflicts, so,
in
this case, Mars square Saturn shows, among other things, an
individual
who vacillates between assertiveness and caution, between
excitement-seeking and security-seeking.
3. House: The eleventh house indicates things about friends,
group
associations, and ideals. Mars here shows people who have a lot
of
energy for friendships and ideals. They express their energy best
in the
context of group activities. In overly aggressive individuals, Mars
placed here shows people whose assertiveness brings them into
conflict
with friends, as well as conflicts related to their ideals.
Understanding and Interpreting a Natal Chart
A birth chart (usually called a natal chart by astrologers) is a
symbolic
map of the heavens with respect to the Earth at the moment of
birth. When

21

one examines a chart for the first time, one tends to be


overwhelmed by the
mass of numbers and unfamiliar symbols. The pie-pieces are the
astrological
house, and the numbers along the outer rim of the chart indicate
where the
houses begin and end in the signs of the Zodiac. The symbols
along the rim
are symbols for the zodiacal signs. Most of the symbols inside the
houses are
planet symbols. The meanings of some of these (e.g., the crescent
moon,
which is the symbol for the Moon) are intuitively obvious. The
planet symbols
also have numbers and sign symbols written alongside them.
These indicate
the location of a planet in a sign.
The 12 signs of the Zodiac, in addition to being bands of
astrological
influence, also provide astrologers with a system for locating
planets and other
points in space. A circle contains 360, so that, when divided into
12 equal
regions for the 12 signs, each sign encompasses an arc of 30.
Hence a planet
Introduction
located near the beginning of Aries, for instance, might be at 1
Aries; in the
middle of Aries, at 15 Aries; and near the end of the sign, 29
Aries.
The ascendant, also called the rising sign, is the sign of the
Zodiac that
was on the eastern horizon at the moment for which a horoscope
is cast (calculated and drawn). On a chart wheel, the rising sign is
the sign at the nine
oclock position. In a natal chart, the ascendant indicates a
significant influence
on the personality; only the Sun and Moon exert stronger

22

influences. These
three signsthe rising sign, the Sun sign, and the Moon signare
considered
together when someone with a knowledge of astrology beyond
Sun signs briefly
describes his or her astrological make-up, e.g.: Im an Aquarius
with Moon in
Pisces and Aries rising. The astrologically informed listener then
knows that
the speaker, while primarily an Aquarius, is also sensitive and
moody like a
Pisces. She or he will also come across as an Aries in certain
settings.
The planets represent various facets of ones psychological
makeup.
Thus Mercury represents the mind, particularly that part of the
mind involved
in communication and day-to-day problem solving; Venus
indicates how we
relate to others, especially in romance; and so forth. The sign
positions of the
planets particularly the signs of the inner planets indicate
how we communicate, how we relate, etc. These positions modify
the basic personality indicated by the Sun sign. Thus, for example,
a person born under the sign Scorpio might have been born when
Mercury was in Libra and Venus was in Sagittarius. Having natal
Mercury in gentle, tactful Libra would modify this individuals
communications so that they would be far less critical and
sarcastic
than that of a typical Scorpio, though a certain subdued tendency
toward critical sarcasm would still be part of her or his makeup.
Venus in idealistic Sagittarius would make this individual more
romantic than a typical Scorpio, without eliminating her or his
sexual intensity. As one can see from this example,
the variety of influences at work in a natal chart can sometimes
indicate contrary, if not actually contradictory, traits. The
distinguishing mark of an experienced astrologer is her or his
ability to synthesize these often competing
influences into a coherent interpretation.
The pie piece in which a planet is found in a chart indicates
its house

23

position. Aspects are indicated in one of two ways: Traditionally,


charts contained a grid that was a bit like the mileage grids one
sometimes finds on maps. If two planets had an aspect between
then, the aspect symbol would be drawn on the grid where one
would findto continue the map analogythe
mileage between two locations on a map.
Introduction
The modern tendency is to actually draw a line directly on the
chart that connects the two planets in aspect. The symbol for the
aspect is then drawn on or near the line.
Going Further
If you are fascinated by astrology and want to do more than
just read
about the science of the stars, you do not have to commit yourself
to becoming
a full-time professional before exploring this field further.
Astrology can be a
fascinating hobby. Moreover, astrology can be a vehicle for
learning more
about yourself and others. Additionally, you might find yourself
earning a little
extra money on the side doing readings every once and a while.
Although this point should be obvious, it is important to realize
that no
governmental agency regulates the science of the stars. And
although many of
the larger astrological associations issue certifications testifying to
ones astrological competence, you do not need to possess any
kind of certificate to practice astrology. Consequently, if you know
the basics and can tell someone else what a certain planet means
in a certain house in their natal chart even if
you are doing it as a hobby and not charging money then you
can wear the
title astrologer as legitimately as someone who has practiced
astrology for 30
years and written a dozen books on the subject. Its a bit like
riding a bicycle
once you know the basics, you are automatically a cyclist even

24

if youve been
riding a bike for less than a week.
People love to be told about themselves. If word gets around in
your circle of acquaintances that you are learning astrology and
can read their horoscope, even at a very basic level, everyone
and their brother will be beating
down your door for a reading. This is a good thing, because the
best way to
develop your skills is to do free readings for friends and relatives.
This gives
you a chance to see how the interpretations you find in astrology
books
apply or fail to apply in the lives of flesh-and-blood human
beings. And,
because youre doing it for free, you can ask questions and risk
being wrong
(e.g., Your Saturn conjuncts your Mercury. Do you sometimes
think about
things so seriously that you get depressed?) In this way, you
learn some of the
nuances of astrology while having meaningful, and usually
enjoyable, interactions with other people.
You will definitely want to pick up at least a couple of
astrological
cookbooks books that provide interpretations for the
meanings of the
planets by signs, houses, and aspects.
Introduction
These kinds of books are used when you take your first stabs at
interpreting natal charts. If you browse through the appropriate
section of a large metaphysical bookstore, you should be able to
find several. If you are nowhere near such a store, you might
contact the Astrology Center of America
(http://www.astroamerica.com) bookstore for recommendations.
Another option is your local public library, which might contain
one of the older cookbooks, such as Llewellyn Georges A to Z
Horoscope Maker and Delineator or one of Grant Lewis books.
Another good source is Max Heindels The Message of the Stars,
an online version of which is available at

25

http://www.rosicrucian.com/mos/moseng01.htm.
A particular favorite of mine when I was learning astrology in
the early 1970s was Isabel Hickeys Astrology: A Cosmic Science.
The astrologers craft consists of two very different kinds of
skills: (1)
casting charts, meaning the mathematical construction of an
astrological chart;
and (2) delineation, which refers to chart interpretation. Although
delineation
is the very core of what astrology is all about, an accurate
interpretation obviously depends on initially erecting the
horoscope correctly. It used to be that the math involved with
constructing an astrological chart was tedious and
lengthy, which meant not only that people who hated math
tended to steer
away from becoming astrologers, but also that, even for people
willing to do the
calculations, it was easy for errors to creep in errors that
skewed the meaning
of the entire chart.
The personal computer revolution changed all of that. To get
started in computer chart casting, you do not need a top-end
astrological calculation program (such programs currently run
about $300). There are a variety of good freeware programs that
can be downloaded from the Internet that accurately cast basic
natal charts. At the time of this writing, Halloran Software (the
maker of Astrology for Windows, which can be downloaded from
http://www.halloran.com) and Cosmic Patterns (the maker of
Starlite, which
can be downloaded from http://www.patterns.com/freeware.htm)
were both
offering downloads of basic chart-casting programs for Windows. A
widely available freeware program not associated with any
software company is Astrolog (type astrolog into any search
engine). Other programmers have adapted Astrolog to work with
both Mac and Linux.
Astrolog offers more options, but I find it more awkward to use
than the
others, and the charts produced by the Astrolog program are
unattractive. In

26

Introduction
addition to natal charts, Starlite will generate progressed charts;
Astrology for
Windows will do natal charts plus provide transits for your first
chart (and for
subsequent charts, but only after you send Halloran a modest
registration fee).
None of these programs contain an atlas, meaning you will need
to look up
the longitude and latitude of cities and towns where people were
born. Doing
an Internet search using the name of the birthplace along with the
state or
province plus the words longitude and latitude almost always
provides this
information. You also need to find out if daylight savings time was
in effect on
the individuals birth date (important, but not difficult to find, in
most cases).
Be aware of the common mistake of calculating A.M. births as
P.M. births and
vice versa. Also, do not charge forward with an approximate time
of birth (I
think I was born sometime between midnight and 3:00 in the
morning) if it is
possible for your client to obtain a more precise time a birth
certificate usually includes ones time of birth. Armed with these
three programs, anyone
with access to a personal computer and the Internet has the basic
tools necessary to handle the mathematical component of
astrology.
Nevertheless, if you work with freeware programs for a while
and then
decide you want a more powerful program, most of the major
astrological software companies offer no-frills versions of their topend calculation programs.
Top-of-the-line programs are selling for around $300; in
contrast, entry-level
programs are going for about $100. To encourage consumers to

27

stay with their


product line, most of these companies also offer to put all or most
of the price
of ones entry-level program toward the purchase of a top-end
program in
the event one later decides to seek an upgrade.
As of 2002, all of the major software companies except Esoteric
Technologies (the creators of Solar Fire, which is distributed
outside of Australia by
Astrolabe) and Time Cycles Research (the creators of Io for Macs)
market nofrills programs in the $100 range. Not including Jyotish
(Vedic astrology)
companies, these astrological software companies are Matrix,
Cosmic Patterns, Halloran, and A.I.R. Software.
I have had an opportunity to examine the entry-level programs
of everyone except A.I.R. All of these programs WinStar Express
(Matrix), Pegasus (Cosmic Patterns), and AstrolDeluxe for Windows
(Halloran) are absolutely excellent.
Additionally and very importantly, all three companies provide
excellent support. Although Time Cycles Research does not market
a low-end program, their professional program for Macs is priced
in the mid-range.
Introduction
It is difficult to recommend one program over another, partly
because
the ongoing competition between astrological software companies
will outdate my remarks in a very short time. With this caveat, I
will nevertheless say
that the WinStar Express program is easier to use (the interface is
more userfriendly) than the others, but the current version of the
Pegasus program contains more features. I particularly like the
fact that Pegasus has a complete
atlas for birthplaces in North America and Europe although both
AstrolDeluxe for Windows and WinStar Express contain good basic
atlases. Alternately, if I was seriously considering Hallorans
program, I would skip AstrolDeluxe for Windows and jump
immediately to their high-end program, AstrolDeluxe ReportWriter,
which sells for a good deal less than either Matrixs or Cosmic

28

Patterns corresponding high-end calculation programs, and


comes bundled with a basic report program as well as with an
atlas for 250,000 cities.
To return to the distinction between chart casting and
delineation, one
of the more problematic aspects of the application of computer
methods to
astrology has been the emergence of report programs that
provide delineations
of horoscopes. The building blocks of chart interpretation are the
meanings of
each particular sign position, house position, and aspect.
Computer programs
are perfectly capable of storing such information and generating a
list of interpretations for the various components, tailored to the
positions of any given persons chart. No professional astrologer,
however, would simply list interpretations of each component of a
horoscope. In fact, the very mark of an experienced astrologer is
the ability to meaningfully synthesize such information
into a coherent whole. This is especially important when two or
more elements of a horoscope give contrary indications.
For example, a Capricorn moon in a natal chart usually
indicates someone who is not emotionally sensitive to others. If,
however, this same individuals natal moon is also in the first
house, conjunct both the ascendant and
Neptune, she or he will be extremely sensitive probably overly
sensitive to
other people. Experienced astrologers would immediately
recognize this and
avoid the mistake of telling this particular client that she or he
was emotionally insensitive.
Report programs, no matter how sophisticated, cannot do much
more
than list the meanings of each element of a horoscope. No
existing program
would avoid, for instance, the error of informing Capricorn moon
natives
about their insensitivity.

29

Introduction
Thus, while computer readings may have a certain place as a
preliminary step in astrological science, they will have to become
far more sophisticated before they begin to approximate the skill
of an experienced astrologer.
On the other side of the coin, report programs have developed
to the
point where good programs can generate better readings than
those provided
by inept astrologers. Based on personal experience, I would even
go so far as to
say that some computer reports can be more useful and more
insightful than
readings from even well-known, highly experienced astrologers. A
lot depends
a charts complexity and on the quality of the report program.
Someone with a
natal chart containing a large number of strong aspects that pull
the person in
opposite directions is much less likely to get satisfactory results
from a computer interpretation than someone with a more
straightforward chart. Also,
sophisticated, well-written report programs like Cosmic Patterns
short Major
Life Themes (which is an integral part of both their high-end
Kepler and
their entry-level Pegasus calculation programs) or Matrixs The
Sky Within
and Woman to Woman (which are freestanding programs) are
going to be
far more insightful than certain other report programs.
I have been less impressed by predictive programs
(progressions, transits, returns, etc.), though even the best
astrologer can only rarely do more
than predict general trends. On the other hand, I have been
thoroughly
impressed by the insightfulness of compatibility (synastry)
reports, which I
have found to offer surprisingly accurate insights into the

30

dynamics of relationships between two people. Again, well-written


programs like Cosmic Patterns Compatibility Report and
Matrixs Friends & Lovers will give you a
lot more than certain other synastry reports. And there are yet
other kinds of
programs, such as reports on career possibilities and delineations
of childrens
charts, that I have not worked with enough to comment on.
Report programs offer novice astrologers a number of
possibilities. On
the one hand, even someone with a minimum understanding of
astrology can
sell computer-generated reports. On the other hand, the beginning
astrologer
who owns an array of different report programs can generate one
or more
reports about a client to study beforehand as a way of preparing
for a face-toface reading.
Many professional astrologers particularly astrologers who
are critical of all report programs to begin with will be upset by
this latter bit of advice, but it is nevertheless extremely useful for
the novice.
Astronomy and astrology

Astronomy
Astronomy is the branch of natural science that studies the
celestial bodies. The word is a combination of astron, Greek for
star, and nomos, Greek for law. Astrology was formerly part of
astronomy, with astrological determinations being viewed as a
practical application of astronomical knowledge. Prior to the
modern period, all of the great astronomers were also astrologers,
including such luminaries as Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler.
Several hundred years ago, however, the two fields began to
diverge, and today there are two distinct communities:
astrologers, who are largely ignorant of astronomy, and
astronomers, who know almost nothing about astrology. For the
most part, contemporary astronomers despise astrology as a
medieval superstition. This is not, however, because astrology

31

fails to pass empirical tests of validity, but because astronomers


reject astrology out of hand.
When skeptics have actually subjected astrology to empirical
tests, they have found sometimes to their dismay
correlations between celestial and terrestrial phenomena.
For their part, astrologers are more often than not woefully
ignorant of astronomy. This ignorance is sometimes compounded
by an attitude that condemns all science as narrow-minded and
spiritually dead. There are, however, a handful of contemporary
astrologers who have explored current astronomy for potential
astrological insights, including Michael and Margaret Erlewine,
whose Astrophysical Directions offers a starting point for
astrologers interested in pursuing this line of research, and Philip
Sedgwick, whose Astrology of Deep Space is a creative follow-up
on the Erlewines work.

Astrology
Astrology is the science or study of the stars and originally
encompassed both astronomy and what today is call astrology.
The word is a combination of astron, Greek for star, and logos, a
complex word originally meaning speech (in the sense of
discourse).

Astrological Data
Astrological data are the basis for casting horoscopes and
include name, date, place of birth, and time of birth. Astrologers
base their studies on this data as they examine the patterns and
positions of the planets and the signs as they rise, culminate, and
set.
Astrological data
Whether they are doing a research study or a personal
horoscope, the accuracy of their observations depends on the
accuracy of their data. Whether they are presenting a paper or
delineating a chart, they cannot validate their work unless they
can validate their data.
Speculative charts come from cases where the birth time is
unknown and as
such are pure guesswork, usually backed up with events to
illustrate the supposed accuracy; rectification of a chart begins

32

with an approximate birth time and corrects the chart to a specific


minute. Historically, astrological data have not been presented
with any source of origin. Magazines and journals blithely present
charts and articles, and readers are apparently supposed to
accept on faith that the data are accurate.
Astrologers give lectures or present papers with no source
given for the data. When one begins to examine the charts of
historical figures and public figures, it may come as a shock to find
that there are several times of birth given. There are over a dozen
times of birth given for Ronald Reagan, and as many for Joseph
Stalin, Clark Gable, and Evita Peron.
There is nothing wrong with speculative data if they are
presented as such. However, presenting data as factual when they
are not is a falsehood; deliberate inaccuracy is ethically
unforgivable; and presenting data without a source is amateurish,
unprofessional, and misleading. Many astrological data are timespecific, so any chart that does not state the source is open to
question, and any conclusions drawn from such a chart are not
acceptable as valid conclusions. When data were scarce,
astrologers took what they could get. That time is past if they ever
hope to gain a reputation for conducting legitimate studies.
Astrological journals, schools, and teachers have a
responsibility to the next generation of astrologers to set a
standard in recording information. Astrology is making great
strides in the early twentieth-first century; never before has there
been access to so much data or to computer-generated charts,
and it is imperative that studies be built on a firm basis and
employ empirical data.
The Rodden classification of astrological data is a simple,
effective system. Many astrologers in the United States and
Europe use it or a similar coding system. The first four letters of
the English alphabet are used:
AA Accurate; recorded by the family or the state;
A Accurate probably; data from the person or family;
B Biography or autobiography;
C Caution; no source of origin;
DD Dirty data; two or more quotes with none verified.
Data are the foundation of empirical study. Astrologers should
insist on quality reference works and accurate data that include
the date, place, time, time zone, longitude and latitude, source,
and a designation of accuracy.

33

Astrologia chaldeean, Astrologia egiptean

Astrologia chaldeean*

Era o disciplin mistic i absolut secret, preoii fiind sfetnicii de


fiecare zi ai regilor (tema astral a btliei care urma s aib loc,
ntemeierea unui ora sau construirea unui templu).
Chaldeenii, astronomi, cunoteau ciclurile planetare; au fost primii
care au utilizat zodiacul i bestiarul su simbolic, au calculat
tabele de efemeride i au scris manuale de astrologie. Zodiacul
chaldeean e numit astzi zodiac occidental.
Zigurate: turnuri uriae de observare fcute din scnduri i crmid
(anexe, fig. 3).
Mitologia chaldeean: Mardouk, Ishtar, Ninib, Nergal, Nebo.
Mitologia greco-roman: Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Marte, Mercur.
Venus (luceafrul de diminea = Ishtar, luceafrul de sear =
Ananith).
Nebo: nelept care tia totul, prevedea viitorul i ndemna
oamenii la scris.
Ninib (Saturn): taur aparinnd turmei Soarelui. Planetele: berbeci
zburdalnici, evadai din arcul stelelor, pscnd n spaiile fr
hotare.
Lunile anului chaldeean erau luni lunare (ntre dou Luni pline).
Anul avea 235 zile lunare, iar o dat la 19 ani se mai adugau 7
luni.
Akkullanu, Balasi i Nabua-heriba sunt primele nume de
astrologi cunoscute din sec. al VII-lea .Hr. sub domnia lui
Sarandon din Babilonia (681668 .Hr.) i a succesorului su
Ashurbanipal.
Brose (nscut nainte sau n timpul domniei lui Alexandru cel
Mare, n jur de 330/323 . Hr.), istoric, astrolog competent
A prevzut Potopul Biblic (confirmat de Vechiul Testament);
A predat astrologia n Asia i Grecia;
A fost venerat de atenieni, care i-au ridicat o statuie cu limba
aurit, n semn de omagiu pentru justeea prezicerilor sale.

Astrologia egiptean
34

n 525 .Hr., Egiptul a fost cucerit de peri. Odat cu ocuparea


Egiptului de ctre Alexandru cel Mare n 332 .Hr., acesta a devenit
elenistic.
Istoricul grec Herodot a vizitat Egiptul (450 .Hr.) i a adus mrturii
despre astrologii egipteni, care puteau s prevad viitorul n
funcie de data naterii.
Unii astrologi consider Egiptul ca fiind precursorul astrologiei
moderne.
Egiptenii practicau astrologia individual i au inventat sistemul
decanilor.
Astrologia decanelor a constituit i primul pas spre astrologia
medical.
*Chaldeea (ara Magilor) Mesopotamia

Astrologia greac

Astrologia babilonian (zodiac, planete, semne, eclipse) a fost


amestecat cu astrologia egiptean a decanilor (zodiacul a fost
mprit n treizeci i ase de decani de zece grade fiecare), avnd ca
rezultat astrologia horoscopic (anexe, fig. 4).
Dovezi despre practicarea astrologiei n Egipt au fost descoperite n
mormintele faraonilor Ramses al II-lea (12921225 .Hr.) i Ramses al
V-lea (1150 1145 .Hr.).
Texte din sec. al II .Hr. preziceau poziiile planetelor n semnele
zodiacale, la nceputul fiecrul decan.
Astrologia avea caracter religios, misticism particular, simbolistic
poetic, iar proorocirea astral era privilegiul marilor preoi
(hierofani);
Importat n Egipt, n jurul aceleiai perioade ca i n Grecia,
probabil de ctre Brose, a fost prima astrologie cu adevrat
strlucitoare;
Elementul de noutate era Zodiacul Thebaic (Zodiacul Gradelor
Solare), destinul cel nscui ntr-o anumit zi din luna respectiv;
Zeul egiptean Toth (Hermes Trismegistul la greci i Mercur la
romani), alchimist din Alexandria (anexe, fig. 5), a lsat zeci de
papirusuri cu elemente de astrologie, Tarot, Kabbala i
numerologie; lui i se atribuie patru cri despre astrologie (una de
astrologie medical, a doua despre decani, a treia despre
planetele zodiacale i a patra despre gradele astrologice).

35

Ulterior, n sec. al V-lea, n textul latin Liber Hermetis, tradus din


greac, a aprut omul zodiacal, cu semnele astrologie distribuite
pe prile corpului (anexe, fig. 6).
Astrologul i astronomul Ptolemeu/Claudius Ptolemeu (100 178)
a trit n Alexandria, iar munca sa asupra Tetrabibliei (anexe, fig. 7) a
pus bazele astrologiei occidentale; manualul su de astronomie
Almagest (150) a fost foarte apreciat n timp.
Sistemul de astrologie egiptean a fost redescoperit n urm cu
numai cteva secole de ctre ocultitii europeni. El are multe
aspecte asemntoare cu astrologia occidental, dar i unele
metode diferite de calcul i de interpretare.

Astrologia greac

Cucerirea Asiei de ctre Alexandru cel Mare a favorizat contactul


grecilor cu ideile din Siria, Babilon, Persia i Asia central.
Grecii au adoptat zodiacul n sec. al VI-lea .Hr, iar Democrit (460
357 .Hr.) a fost primul care a dat planetelor i semnelor
zodiacale nume greceti: Afrodita (Venus), Hermes (Mercur), Ares
(Marte) .a.m.d. (anexe, fig. 8)
Horoscop vine din greac (horoscopus = gardianul orelor, adic
Ascendentul).
Platon (427 347 .Hr. ), n Banchetul, a pus sexele sub
influena atrilor.

36

Astrologia greac

Aristarh din Samos (310 230 .Hr. ) a avut ndrzneala s


pretind c planetele nu se nvrtesc n jurul Pmntului, ci n
jurul Soarelui.
n jurul anului 260 .Hr., Brose, preot chaldeean din Bel (Babilon),
s-a mutat pe insula greac Kos, unde a predat astrologie i cultur
babilonian.
Discipolii lui Brose, Antipatrus i Achinapolus, au predat
medicina i au ntocmit hri natale pentru momentul conceperii
ftului (Luna trebuie s fie pe Ascendent); se practicau, de
asemenea previziunile meteorologice i astrologia medical.
Pn n secolul I .Hr., au existat dou tipuri de astrologie, unul
folosind horoscopul pentru a descrie trecutul, prezentul i viitorul;
cellalt, teurgic, subliniind ascensiunea sufletului spre stele.
Hiparh/Hiparc/Hipparchus (c. 190 . Hr. c. 120 . Hr.), nscut n
Nicaea, Bithynia (azi Iznik, Turcia) (anexe, fig. 9)
Cel mai mare astronom al antichitii, fondatorul astronomiei
tiinifice, n opoziie cu cea speculativ; l-a influenat pe
Ptolemeu;
A determinat durata anotimpurilor, a descoperit c micarea
Soarelui n jurul Pmntului nu este uniform i c exist
neregulariti n micarea Lunii;
A calculat cu mare precizie diametrul Lunii i distana de la
Pmnt la Lun;
Anul tropical calculat de el avea o precizie de 6,5min;
A utilizat primul latitudinea i longitudinea;
Cea mai important descoperire a sa a fost precesia
echinociilor (constelaiile nu sunt fixe, ci se deplaseaz n zodiac,
din semn n semn n prezent zodia Berbecului coincide cu
constelaia Petilor);
A calculat strlucirea a peste 1000 de stele;
A efectuat calcule tabelare pentru trigonometrie;
A scris cel puin 14 lucrri, din care doar trei dintre
Comentariile despre Fenomenele lui Eudoxius i ale lui Anatos
au ajuns pn n zilele noastre;
O regiune de pe Lun a fost numit Circul Hipparchus;
Asteroidul 4000 Hipparchus a fost numit n onoarea sa;
Satelitul artificial, lansat n 1989, a fost numit Hipparcos (anexe,
fig. 10).

37

Ptolemeu (87 165 ) a stabilit diferena dintre semnele zodiacale


i constelaiile cu acelai nume, iar Tetrabiblia * s-a bucurat de o
autoritate indiscutabil.
Vettius Valens din Antioh, primul astrolog consultant profesionist
cunoscut , a publicat, n 188 .Hr., cartea Anthologiae, care
cuprindea peste 100 de teme natale i interpretrile acestora.
*Capitole din Tetrabiblie: Despre planetele masculine i feminine, Despre locuri i
grade, Despre Putere i aspectele Soarelui, Despre prezicerea evenimentelor,
Despre vreme, Despre prini, Despre durata de via, Despre cstorie, Despre
cltoriile n strintate.

Astrologia roman

Astrologia roman

Influena greac a jucat un rol crucial n transmiterea teoriei


astrologice la Roma.
Prima referin astrologic la Roma a venit de la oratorul Cato,
care, n 160 .Hr., a condamnat zodiacul caldeean i pe astrologii
babilonieni care-l utilizau.
Att printre greci ct i printre romani, cuvntul Caldeea
(Babylonia ) era asociat cu astrologia, astfel c nelepciunea
caldeean a devenit sinonim cu ghicirea utiliznd planetele i
stelele.
Astrologul Eunus (? 132 .Hr.) a iniiat n 133 .Hr. o revolt a
sclavilor (anexe, fig. 11), iar 30 de ani mai trziu, astrologul
Athenio a condus alt revolt a sclavilor, motivnd c atrii l-au
desemnat pe el drept adevratul rege al Siciliei.
Varro (116 27 .Hr.), unul dintre cei mai nvai cercettori
romani, a comandat un horoscop al Romei i al fondatorului
acesteia, Romulus; este primul exemplu din istoria astrologiei n
care se examineaz retroactiv momenul nfiinrii unui ora
(primul horoscop istoric).
Julius Caesar (100 44 .Hr.) a dispreuit sfaturile faimosului
astrolog Spurinna (Idele lui Marte) i a murit asasinat (anexe, fig.
12).
Senatorul i magistratul Publius Nigidius Figulus (c. 98 45 .Hr.),
supranumit Olarul, care era i astrolog, a susinut idea c Pmntul
se nvrtete n jurul axei sale ca roata olarului; a prezis mreia
viitorului mprat Octaviu, la naterea acestuia.

38

Astrologia a fost bine primit de August (63 .Hr. 4 d.Hr.) i


ocrotit de Tiberiu (42 .Hr. 37 d.Hr.) (anexe, fig. 13 i 14).
August cnd era n exil i prea puin probabil ca vreodat s se
ntoarc la Roma, a fost convins s-l consulte pe astrologul
Teogene despre viitorul su, iar dup ce acesta i-a trasat tema
natal i i-a prezis viitorul, mpratul s-a aruncat la picioarele lui.
Trasyllius, matematician i astrolog, a adus astrologia ermetic la
Roma.
Tiberiu s-a iniiat n astrologie prin intermediul lui Trasyllius
(primul astrolog de curte din lume) i i elimina pretendenii la
tron pe baza studiilor astrologice asupa hrilor natale ale
acestora;
Fiul lui Thrasyllus, Tiberius Balbilus (anexe, fig.15), a aprut n
societatea roman dup moartea lui Caligula. Noul mprat,
Claudiu, i era prieten din copilrie i Balbilus a devenit familiar la
curte, nsoindul pe Claudiu n Anglia, att ca astrolog ct i ca
inginer-ef. La ntoarcerea lor, mpratul i-a druit lui Balbilus o
coroan de onoare din aur. Mai trziu a fost fcut mare preot al
Templului lui Hermes n Alexandria i ef al universitii unde se
afla celebra bibliotec. Balbilus i-a mprit apoi, fericit, timpul
su ntre Alexandria i Roma.
Detractori ai astrologiei antice
Balbilus i-a indicat Agrippinei momentul precis cnd fiul adoptiv al
lui Claudiu, Nero (anexe, fig.16), fratele vitreg al lui Britannicus,
trebuia s plece de acas pentru a deveni mprat (37 68), dar ia prezis c acesta i va ucide pe ea i pe fiul su, ceea ce s-a i
ntmplat.
Pentru rolul su n afirmarea gloriei lui Nero, Balbilus a fost
rspltit prin numirea n funcia de Prefect al Egiptului i a
supravieuit masacrului de temut din timpul domniei mpratului.
Un alt astrolog, dup ce a ntocmit tema natal a lui Nero, a
leinat de groaz cnd a privit-o.
Marcus Manilius (sec I .Hr.), poet i astrolog renumit; a scris un
poem n patru cri, intitulat Astronomica, despre astronomie i
astrologie (anexe, fig. 17).
Julius Firmicus Maternus a scris opt cri despre astrologie i
astronomie, este autor al Zodiacului dup fazele Lunii (ziua de
natere i ciclul lunar de 28 de zile); cartea sa Mathesis (anexe, fig.

39

18) a fost foarte apreciat de-a lungul secolelor de ctre astrologii


cretini i de teologi.
Virgiliu combin n Georgicele sale, ntr-un mod fericit, poezia i
astrologia (anexe, fig. 19).
Astronomiconul poetului Danilius este un cntec nchinat
gloriei cerului, deci i astrologiei.
Seneca (4 . Hr. 65 d. Hr.) nu-i ascundea credina n astrologie i
numeroi filozofi, ptruni de doctrina aristotelic, i-au urmat
exemplul.
mpratul Alexandru Sever (208 235) a ntemeiat catedre de
astrologie; profesorii erau retribuii de stat, iar studenilor li se
acordau burse.
Cei mai violeni detractori ai astrologiei au fost Agripa i Cicero
(cel de-al doilea, n lucrarea sa despre divinaie).
Astrologii au fost, n cele din urm, izgonii din Roma prin msuri
poliieneti (oricine aducea o veste rea i risca viaa).

Detractori ai astrologiei antice

Carneades (214/3129/8 .Hr.) (anexe, fig 20) a susinut c credina


n destin neag voina liber i moral, c persoanele nscute n
momente diferite pot muri n acelai accident sau lupt i, chiar
dac influenele stelelor sunt uniforme, triburile i culturile sunt
total diferite.
Dei, la nceput, oratorul roman Cicero (106 43 .Hr.) (anexe, fig.
21) a fost adeptul astrologiei, mai trziu a obiectat contra
acesteia, justificnd c persoanele cu momente apropiate ale
naterii au destine diferite.
Astrologia arab
Favorinus (80 160) a susinut c este absurd s ne imaginm c
stelele i planetele ar afecta corpurile umane, n acelai mod n care
acestea afecteaz mareele, i, la fel de absurd, ca micri mici n
ceruri s provoace schimbri mari n destinele oamenilor.
Sextus Empiricus (160 210) a susinut c este absurd s se
asocieze atributele umane cu mituri despre semnele zodiacului.
Plotin (205 270) (anexe, fig 22) a susinut c, deoarece stelele fixe
sunt mult mai ndeprtate dect planetele, este ridicol s ne
imaginm c efectul planetelor asupra omenirii ar trebui s depind
de poziia lor n raport cu zodiacul.

40

Tot Plotin susine c interpretarea conjunciei Lunii cu o planet


este n mod clar greit, doarece nu poate fi la fel atunci cnd
Luna este plin, ca atunci cnd Luna este n scdere.
Sf. Augustin/Augustin de Hipona (354 430) (anexe, fig.23) a
susinut c, din moment ce planetele sunt mult mai deprtate de
Pmnt dect Luna, acestea ar putea avea doar o influen foarte
mic n comparaie cu a Lunii.
De asemenea, Sf. Augustin a susinut c, dac astrologia explic
totul despre soarta unei persoane, atunci ignor n mod eronat
efectul vizibil al capacitilor motenite de la prini, schimbrile
n materie de sntate operate de medicin sau efectele vremii
asupra oamenilor.
Sf. Augustin a fost unul din cei mai nverunai opozani ai
astrologiei, mpotriva creia a scris n crile sale Doctrina
Cretin i Oraul Domnului; mai mult, el chiar a ridiculizat
astrologia, afirmnd c, dac un om i o vac se nasc n acelai
timp, destinele lor sunt complet diferite.
ncepnd cu anul 358, persecuia astrologilor este major; mpratul
Constantin a declanat o adevrat ofensiv mpotriva practicilor
superstiioase, inclusiv mpotriva astrologiei.
Clement din Alexandria (c. 150 215) a scris c cei 12 apostoli au
nlocuit definitive cele 12 semne ale zodiacului.

Astrologia arab

A fost preluat de la romani n secolul al VIII-lea.


Arabii au adus astrologiei modificri importante (punctele
arabice);
Al Fazari a inventat sistemul de localizare a obiectelor celeste
(soare, lun, stele i planete).
Astrologia medieval arab a avut un impact foarte mare n
studiul astrologiei occidentale, multe nume de stele avnd astzi
nume arabe.
Astrologia medieval islamic

Punctele arabice nu sunt corpuri cereti, ci puncte sensibile ale


temei natale, calculate dup relaia ce exist ntre dou planete
semnificative pentru un anumit domeniu al existenei, raportat,
cel mai frecvent, la Ascendent.

41

Exist mai mult de 200 de asemenea puncte, discutabile nc n


astrologia modern (anexe, fig. 24, 25 i 26)
Pars Fortunae/Punctul Norocului/PF este cel mai utilizat i
interpretat, fiind un indice al relaiei Soare Lun Ascendent, ce
relev un ideal sau o form de fericire pe care o caut individul:
PF = Ascendent + (Lun Soare).
Au rspndit n Europa astrologia, alchimia, medicina i Kabbala
(sec. V-X);
Cunoaterea textelor arabe a nceput s devin important n
Europa n timpul traducerilor latine ale secolului al XII-lea.

Astrologia medieval islamic

Astrologia a fost preluat de ctre oamenii de tiin islamici, n urma


colapsului Alexandriei provocat de arabi n sec. al VII-lea, i s-a bazat
pe Almagestul lui Ptolemeu (anexe, fig. 32)
Al doilea calif abbasid, Al Mansur (754-775) a fondat oraul Bagdad,
ca punct de nvare, i a inclus n designul su un centru-bibliotec
pentru traduceri (Casa nelepciunii Bayt al-Hikma), constituind un
impuls major pentru traduceri n arab i persan ale textelor
astrologice elenistice.
Printre primii traductori s-au numrat i MashaAllah (762
816), primul astrolog islamic cunoscut, care a contribuit la
alegerea momentului fondrii Bagdadului, i Sahl ibn Bishr/Zael,
ale crui texte i-au influenat n mod direct pe astrologii europeni
de mai trziu, cum ar fi Guido Bonatti, n secolul al XIII-lea, i
William Lilly, n secolul al XVII-lea.
al-Kindi (c. 801 866) a fost printre primii islamici care a explicat
mecanismul astrologiei; autor al crii De Radiis, n care a
susinut influena razelor stelare.
Albumasar/Albumazer/Abu Mashar (787 886) a fost cel mai
vestit astrolog islamic, fiind foarte cunoscut de lumea occidental (a
prezis Revoluia Francez cu aproape o mie de ani nainte); a lucrat
n Bagdad i a exercitat o influen enorm prin cartea sa
Introductorium in astronomiam (anexe, fig. 27) i prin Florile
astrologiei.
Astrologii islamici au inventat astrologia electiv (astrologia
evenimentelor), care permite alegerea celui mai bun moment pentru
o btlie, cstorie sau cltorie.

42

Tot ei au asociat plantele cu semnele zodiacale i cu planetele,


devenind precursorii astrologiei medicale.

43

Astrologia medieval european

Astrologia medieval european

Papa Clement I/Clemens Romanus/Sf. Clement din Roma (?


99) (anexe, fig. 28) afirm c stelele au fost fixate pe cer de
ctre Dumnezeu, pentru a ne da indicaii despre trecut, prezent i
viitor; el vorbea despre cei 12 apostoli ca despre 12 luni
calendaristice, iar despre Iisus ca despre Anul Domnului.
Tertullian/Quintus Septimius Florens (150 220) (anexe, fig.
29) susinea c ngerii czui au fost aceia care i-au nvat pe
oameni astrologia.
Boethius (c. 450 524) afirma c micarea celest a stelelor
creeaz un ir de cauze pentru forele umane, dar a euat n a
demonstra cum se produc acestea.
Prima carte de astrologie publicat n Europa a fost Liber planetis
et mundi climatibus (Cartea planetelor i regiunilor lumii), care a
aprut ntre 1010 i 1027, al crei autor este posibil s fi fost
Gerbert dAurillac (945-1003).
Alfons din Castilia (1065 1109) a fost un astrolog renumit,
ocrotit de regi.
William Cuceritorul a pltit astrologul personal pentru a stabili
momentul ncoronrii sale mijlocul zilei de Crciun din 1066 pe
care astrologii moderni l consider ca fiind momentul naterii
Angliei (anexe, fig 30).
Cel mai renumit om de tiin din Anglia secolului al XI-lea a fost
Abelard din Bath/Adelard/ thelhard/ Adelardus Bathensis
(c. 1080 c. 1152), care a scris cri despre astronomie i alchimie,
a tradus texte arabe referitoare la astrologie i a explicat cum se
traseaz o tem natal; considera c planetele erau animale
superioare i divine, care erau cauzele i principiile naturilor
inferioare, prin studiul crora se pot descifra prezentul i trecutul i
se poate prezice viitorul; a ntmpinat cu entuziasm utilizarea
astrologiei n scopuri medicale.
William de Conches (c. 1090 1154) (anexe, fig. 31) a cltorit
intensiv nainte de a ajunge la curtea lui Geofftrey Plantagenetul,
unde s-a ocupat de educaia viitorului rege Henry al II-lea al Angliei;
a fost printre primii oameni de tiin care au fcut deosebirea
dintre astrologie i astronomie: astrologii tratateaz fenomenele
cereti aa cum acestea par s fie, cu acuratee sau nu, n timp ce

44

astronomii trateaz lucrurile aa cum sunt, chiar dac acestea par


s existe sau nu.
n timpul sec. al XII-lea, un numr important de texte latine despre
astrologie au ajuns n nordul Europei; eruditul Gerard de
Cremona (1114 1187) a tradus singur peste 70 de cri, printre
care i Almagestul lui Ptolemeu (anexe, fig. 32) sau opere
necunoscute ale lui Aristotel.
Platon din Tivoli a tradus, n 1138, Tetrabiblia lui Ptolemeu. A
mai tradus, din arab, alte cinci opere astrologice, printre care i
Quadripartitum.
Astrologia medieval european

Michael Scot (1175 1234), renumit astrolog al mpratului


roman Frederick al II-lea, a lucrat serios asupra efectelor Lunii
asupra menstruaiei i asupra modului n care diferite poziii n
timpul copulaiei (n conformitate cu normele planetare), ar putea
produce efecte diferite la concepie. Dup nunta lui Frederick i
Isabella, sora regelui Henric al III-lea al Angliei, cuplul a ateptat
momentul concepiei pn la data calculat de Scot.
Guido Bonatti (mort ntre 1296 i 1300), astronom, a fost alt
mare astrolog de curte, pe care Dante l descrie n Infernul su;
el afirma c, pentru un astrolog, totul este cunoscut: evenimentele
din trecut i cele din viitor, precum i efectele pe care acestea le
produc; a scris manualul Liber Astronomicus (anexe, fig. 33).
Toma din Aquino (1225 1274), fervent adept i aprtor al
tiinei atrilor. A ncearcat s reconcilieze religia cu astrologia
(corpul imperfect sublunar este condus de atri, pe cnd sufletul
e condus de Dumnezeu).
Matematicianul Campanus Novara a conceput, n sec. al XIIIlea, un sistem de case astrologice egale, de cte 30 fiecare.
n Paradiso, partea final a Divinei Comedii, poetul italian Dante
Alighieri (1265 1321) a menionat planetele astrologice, dei el
a adaptat astrologia tradiional, pentru a se potrivi cu punctul
su de vedere cretin, de exemplu, folosind gndirea astrologic
n profeiile sale despre reforma cretintii.

45

Regi astrologi i mari susintori ai astrologiei: Carol al V-lea


(1337 1380), Carol al VI-lea (1368), Carol al VII-lea (1403) i
Ludovic al II-lea (1423).
Monterregio a realizat faimoasele Tabele Alfonsine (calculul
poziiilor Soarelui, Lunii i planetelor relative la stelele fixe),
sponsor fiind Alfons al X-lea al Castiliei (anexe, fig. 35).
Martius Galeotti (1427 1497), astrolog aflat n slujba lui
Ludovic al XI-lea; ca s-i pstreze capul pe umeri, spunea: Sire,
atrii mi-au prezis c voi muri cu trei zile naintea Majestii
Voastre!
Regiomontanus /Johannes Mller von Knigsberg (1436
1476), matema-tician, astronom, astrologul oficial al regelui
Ungariei, Mathias Corvin I
A observat cometa din 1472, denumit ulterior cometa Halley
(anexe, fig. 36);
A corectat Tabelele Alfonsine;
A ntocmit o tabel de ascensiuni drepte pentru toate punctele
Zodiacului;
A calculat i tiprit Efemeride (tabele de poziii planetare) valabile
pe 30 de ani;
A vestit Revoluia din 1789 cu trei secole nainte ca aceasta s
aib loc, cu o precizie de un an (1788).

46

Astrologia tiinific

Luc Gauric/Lucas Gauricus (1476 1558), episcop de Civit


Tratate de astrologie, ndeosebi medicale;
Susinut de Papii Iuliu al IIlea, Lon al Xlea, Clment al VIIlea i
Paul al IIIlea;
Public, la Veneia, Tratat de astrologie, un monument la
genului, ce conine temele a 200 de persoane (anexe, fig. 37).
Nostradamus (1503 1566), cel mai mare profet al tuturor
timpurilor, protejat de Caterina de Medici, care l-a pltit, n 1566,
pentru a verifica predicia morii soului ei, regele Henric al II-lea
al Franei, fcut Luc Gauric
Centuriile sale prevd viitorul lumii pn n anul 3797 (anexe,
fig. 38);
A menionat n Centurii dou planete, Uranus i Neptun, care
pe atunci nu fuseser nc descoperite;
A pomenit i de planeta Vulcan, care este foarte greu de urmrit
de ctre astronomii actuali.
Cosimo Ruggieri (? 1615), preferatul Caterinei de Medici, s-a
remarcat prin almanahuri i horoscoape, magie neagr, vrjitorie
i alte practici infernale.
coala din Padua (Padova): Gerolamo Cardano, Giovani
Campanella, Pietro dAlbano (medic iscusit i mare astrolog a
scris Horoscopul religiilor), Nifo, Ponponazzi, Cezare
Cremonini.

Astrologia tiinific

John Gower (1330 1408) considera c astrologia se limiteaz, n


mod esenial, la realizarea de predicii. Influena atrilor a fost
mprit n astrologie natural, de exemplu, cu efecte asupra
mareelor i creterea plantelor, i n astrologie judiciar, cu efecte
presupuse previzibile asupra oamenilor.
Scepticul Nicole Oresme (1320/1325 1382) a inclus astronomia
ca parte a astrologiei n cartea sa Livre de divinacions (anexe, fig.
39) i a susinut c abordrile de predicie a evenimentelor (ciuma,
rzboaiele sau vremea) erau nepotrivite. A atacat utilizarea
astrologiei pentru a alege calendarul aciunilor (interogare i
alegere) i a respins determinarea aciunii umane de ctre atri, pe
motivul voinei libere.

47

Clugrul Laurens Pignon (c. 1368 1449) a respins toate


formele de divinaie i determinism astral, n lucrarea sa din 1411,
Contre les Devineurs (anexe, fig. 40). Acest lucru a fost n opoziie
cu tradiia realizat de ctre astronomul arab Albumasar (787
886), care n Introductorium n Astronomiam i n Magnis
Coniunctionibus a susinut c ambele aciuni (individuale, la scar
mic, i istorice, la scar mai mare), sunt determinate de stele.

48

Astrologia tiinific

Nicolai Copernic (1473 1543) i-a dedicat Papei Paul al III-lea,


protectorul astrologilor, lucrarea De revolutionibus orbium
coelestium (anexe, fig. 41), n care a studiat i demonstrat
realitatea sistemului heliocentric (terminat n 1530, dar publicat
abia n 1543 de Rheticus, astrolog, prieten al lui Nicolai
Copernic).
Jerme Cardan/Gerolamo Cardano (1501 1576 ), medic
celebru, matema-tician cu axiome renumite, mare astrolog (anexe,
fig 42)
-A ntocmit horoscopul regelui Eduard al VI-lea al Angliei
-A avut probleme cu Inchiziia i a fost pedepsit cu nchisoarea
pentru neobrzarea de a fi ntocmit tema natal a lui Iisus Christos
-A murit de foame, pentru a se adeveri data la cere-i prezisese
moartea.
John Dee (1527 1608), matematician, navigator i desenator de
hri, a fost astrologul personal al reginei Elisabeta I a Angliei i unul
dintre cei mai renumii din secolul al XVI-lea (anexe, fig. 43)
A calculat momentul cel mai favorabil pentru ncoronarea reginei
Elisabeta I, apoi a devenit sftuitorul acesteia n probleme
personale i politice;
A considerat c universul funcioneaz pe baze matematice;
A pledat pentru msurarea ct mai exact a razelor de
influen magnetic ale planetelor asupra corpului uman;
Dei incomplet, lucrarea sa Propaedeumata este, probabil,
cea mai important din astrologia englez.
Paracelsus/Teofrast (1494 1541), medic, alchimist, filosof,
astrolog (anexe, fig. 44)
Precursorul astrologiei medicale de azi (i ngrijea bolnavii pe
baza simbolis-mului astrologic), printele medicinei ermetice;
Precursorul Tabloului lui Mendeleev (transmutaia metalelor
se dovedete a fi de o intuiie tiinific genial);
Tycho Brahe (1546 1601), medic, astronom i astrolog
particular al regilor Rudolf al II-lea al Ungariei i Frederich al II-lea
A ncercat s fac din astrologie o tiin cu drepturi depline;
A ntocmit Tabelele Rudolfiene;
A combinat sistemul copernican cu cel ptolemeic (cinci planete
se nvrtesc n jurul Soarelui, iar toate se nvrtesc n jurul
Pmntului);

49

A descoperit o nou stea n Casiopeea (supernov) (anexe, fig.


45).
Giordano Bruno (1548 1600) a scris dialogurile De l'infinito,
universo e mondi (Despre infinitatea universului i a lumilor,
1584) i De la causa, principio e uno (Despre cauz, nceput i
unitate, 1584) (anexe, fig 46)
Susine c stelele sunt asemntoare Soarelui, c universul
este infinit i conine un numr infinit de lumi populate de fiine
inteligente;
Astrologia tiinific

n Cena de le Cenere (Cina cenuii, 1585) expune teoriile lui


Copernic, totui ntr-o form confuz.
Refuznd s-i abjure convingerile, a fost condamnat pentru
erezie i ars pe rug la 17 februarie 1600, n piaa Campo dei
Fiori din Roma.
Thomas Hood (1556 1620), matematician i medic
A fcut, n 1597, un set de instrumente de hrtie care au
utilizat suprapuneri de tip revolving pentru a ajuta elevii s
lucreze cu stelele fixe, cu constelaiile, cu Mijlocul cerului i cu
cele dousprezece case astrologice.
A susinut relaiile dintre semnele zodiacului, planete i pri
ale corpului uman, considernd c acestea din urm erau
guvernate de planete i semne.
Johannes Kepler (1571 1630), matematician, cel mai renumit
astronom al tuturor timpurilor (autorul unor legi fundamentale n
mecanica cereasc)
A fost iniiat n astrologie de Tycho Brahe;
A continuat studiile despre Tabelele Rudolfiene;
Observaiile lui Tycho Brah iau permis lui Kepler s enune
cele trei legi astronomice care-i vor purta numele i care-l vor
inspira pe Newton n stabilirea marelui principiu al gravitaiei
universale;
i-a elaborat, an de an, tema revoluiei solare, pn la moarte;
A adoptat, de la nceput, teoriile coperniciene ale
heliocentrismului, care nu dunau astrologiei, ce interpreta
conjuncturile planetare n raport cu Pmntul;

50

Cu trei ani naintea morii, a terminat Sportula genethliaca, ce


permitea calcularea mai uoar a temei natale i a direciilor
planetare (anexe, fig. 47).
Galileo Galilei (1564 1642), fizician i astronom (anexe, fig. 48)
A descoperit principiul cderii corpurilor i a pus bazele principiilor
dinamicii moderne;
A inventat balana hidrostatic i termometrul;
A construit unul din primele microscoape i luneta care-i port
numele;
A pretins c Soarele este centrul lumii planetare, atrgnd
oprobiul scolasticilor;
-A publicat o lucrare n care a adus dovezi ale heliocentrismului,
violnd legile sacrosancte ale Inchiziiei;
A fost constrns s abjure, la 70 de ani, n faa tribunalului
inchizitorial, scpnd astfel de rug, dar credina sa n tiin a rmas
intact (i totui se nvrtete...);
Mare astrolog, a dat lecii de astrologie, a elaborat teme natale
i a fcut prognoze contra cost;
n dosarul su astrologic au fost consemnate horoscopul propriu
i horoscoapele celor dou fiice, ale rudelor i ale prietenilor.
Declinul astrologiei

Jean Baptiste Morin de Villefranche (1582 1656), printele


astrologiei tiinifice de azi, intim sftuitor pentru Cardinalul
Richelieu i Gustav Adolf
A adus astrologiei cea mai important contribuie n domeniul
interpretrii;
Medic i profesor de matematic, el obine funcia de astrolog
regal;
Tratatul de astrologie Astrologia Gallica este utilizat i azi
(anexe, fig. 49).
A prezis moartea prematur a generalului Wallenstein, moartea
violent a lui Ludovic al IIIlea, morile lui Gustav Adolf i lui Cinq
Mars.
Almanahurile astrologice apruser cu mult naintea Bibliei de la
Gutenberg; William Lily (1602 1681), astrolog i ocultist, a
umplut Anglia cu astfel de almanahuri i a scris prima lucrare
publicat n limba englez, intitulat Astrologia cretin (1647),

51

care a exercitat o infuen enorm asupra poporului englez, prin


sfaturile pline de modestie i de nelepciune (anexe, fig. 50).
Astrologia coexista n mod fericit cu tiina, magia i religia.
Susintori ai astrologiei: Papii Leon al II-lea, Silvestru al II-lea i
Urban al V-lea.

Declinul astrologiei

Teologul medieval Isidor din Sevilla (560 636) a criticat partea


predictiv a astrologiei. n lucrarea sa Etymologiae a susinut c
astronomia descrie micrile celeste, pe cnd astrologia are dou
pri: una tiinific, prin care se descriu micrile Soarelui, Lunii i
a planetelor, iar a doua eronat, care se ocup de predicii,
contravenind ideilor teologice.
Dei s-a interesat n tineree de astrologie, Ren Descartes (1596
1650) a condamnat-o n Discurs asupra metodei, n acelai fel
cu alchimia i magia.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619 1683) a nfiinat, n 1666, Academia
de tiine, fapt care marcheaz nceputul declinului astrologiei.
Cel mai mare om de tiin englez, Isaac Newton (1632-1727), se
aga, dei
fr tragere de inim, de astrologie, dar a fost apostrofat de
astronomul Edmund Halley pentru credina sa n astfel de
prostii.
Astronomilor academicieni le era interzis practicarea astrologiei,
sub ameninarea excluderii din ilustra societate.
Astrologia era condamnat n numele tiinei i al progresului (a
crede n ea echivala cu a intra n rndul minilor retrograde sau,
mai ru, al ignoranilor).
Astrologia a intrat ntr-o er de decaden (astronomul Jean
Dominiq Cassini, directorul Observatorului din Paris, o practica pe
ascuns).
Jonathan Swift (1667 1745) ridiculiza activitatea astrologului
John Partridge.
Enciclopeditii au desvrit ruinarea astrologiei (Voltaire i
zeflemea absurditatea, iar Montesquieu vedea n ea o dovad a
aroganei omeneti).
Astrologia occidental modern

52

Sub Ludovic al XVI-lea, Cagliostro (1743 1795) mai degrab a


dezonorat astrologia. arlatanii i vnztorii de filtre i de
talismane au profitat din plin.
Dispreul declarat al savanilor fa de astrologie a continuat pn
n secolul al XIX-lea. Bailly (1736 1793) i Lalande (1732 1807)
spuneau despre astrologie c era boala cea mai lung care a
lovit vreodat raiunea uman.
Franois Arago (1786 1853) a stabilit o paralel ntre astronomie
i astrologie, ridiculiznd slbiciunile minii omeneti, aflate prad
imaginaiei.
Auguste Comte (1798 1857), printele pozitivismului, lua n
derdere himerele ispititoare ale astrologiei.
Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749 1827) s-a pronunat categoric n
defavoarea celor care erau convini c atrii le influenau destinul.

Astrologia occidental modern


Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 1832), poet german,
ilustru gnditor i om de tiin, una dintre cele mai de seam
personaliti ale culturii universale
A susinut astrologia n perioada de declin i a crezut n
aceasta;
i-a publicat tema natal, pe care a elaborato singur i pe care
a comentato cu profesionalism.
Johann Elert Bode (1747 1826), astronom, este autorul legii
pentru calcularea aproximatic a distanelor relative de la planete
la Soare;
A condus Observatorul din Berlin vreme de cincizeci de ani;
A studiat ntreaga oper a lui Ptolemeu, fcnd comentarii
excelente;
La propunerea lui, planeta descoperit n 1781 de ctre William
Herschel, a fost botezat Uranus (anexe, fig. 51); Neptun i Pluton
vor fi descoperite mai trziu, n 1846, respectiv 1930, astrologia
devenind, astfel, mult mai complex;
Julius Pfaf (1765 1825) public cea dinti traducere complet
n german a Tetrabibliei lui Ptolemeu.
Odat cu ptrunderea, n Germania, a micrii teozofice,
astrologia a cunoscut un nou reviriment.

53

n Anglia, micarea astrologic nu a disprut niciodat. Prin anii


1790, n Anglia existau muli astrologi renumii, care au publicat The
Astrologers Magazine.
Raphael/Robert Cross Smith a publicat o revist/almanah de
astrologie, The Prophetic Messenger (1827 1854), cu care s-a
remarcat prin prediciile sale n iubire, cstorie, finane, afaceri i
cltorie (anexe, fig. 52).
Astrologia occidental modern
Zadkiel/Richard James Morrison (1795 1874 ), astrolog, a
editat Almana-hul lui Zadkiel (anexe, fig 53), care a cunoscut un
succes rsuntor (n 1861, a anunat moartea prematur a
prinului consort, soul reginei Victoria).
Relansarea adevratei astrologii n Anglia se datoreaz nfiinrii
Societii teozofice a doamnei Helena Petrovna Blavatsky
(1831 1891).
Alan Leo/W. F. Allan (Leo este semnul su zodiacal) (1860 1917)
(anexe, fig. 54), iniiat n astrologie de Sepharial, discipol al
doamnei Blavatsky
i-a nfiinat propria publicaie: The Modern Astrology;
A scris cursuri de astrologie n 7 volume;
A repus n vigoare astrologia genetliac (natal, genealogic).
n Frana sfritului de secol XIX, micarea astrologic era cvasiinexistent, fiind umbrit de interesul major asupra ocultismului,
care nega astrologia.
Paul Christian/J.-B. Pitois (1811 - 1877), ocultist, a publicat o
lucrare, jumtate roman, jumtate tratat de astrologie, intitulat
Lhomme rouge de Tuilleries.
Eliphas Lvi/abatele Alphonse Louis Constant (1810 1875),
a fost adevratul promotor al micrii ocultiste n Frana.
Papus/dr. Grard Encausse (1865 1916), medic, hipnotizator
i populari-zator al ocultismului
A pus bazele Ordinului Martinist modern;
A declarat c astrologia este una din fostele tiine de divinaie
ale crei date sunt pierdute azi cu desvrire.
A publicat, totui, n 1891, Trait mthodique de science
occulte (anexe, fig. 55), care marcheaz renaterea interesului
pentru astrologie n Frana, cel puin ca parte integrant a
tiinelor oculte.

54

Anumii ocultiti s-au interesat de o astrologie impregnat de


tiina Kabbalei, n care gseau, la fel ca n alchimie, legtura
dintre om i cosmos.
Ely Star/Eugne Jacob (1847 1942 ), ocultist, s-a inspirat
direct din operele lui Paul Christian i Eliphas Lvi
A publicat Les Mystres de lHoroscope (anexe, fig. 56),
prefaat de astronomul Camille Flamarion, n care s-a ocupat
preponderent de Tarot i nu de astrologie;
Nu a adus o contribuie important la astrologia propriu-zis,
fiind interesat mai mult de spiritualism i magie (vindea talismane
i elixire),
Prin astrologie atrgea doar clientela credul, iar soia era
ghicitoare n cri.
F. C. Barlet/Albert Faucheur (1838 1921), ocultist
Poate fi considerat printele renaterii astrologiei n Frana;
Era familiarizat cu astrologia tradiional i se baza pe tiin
pentru a demonstra influena magnetic emis de planete: Este
deci firesc s credem c
Astrologia occidental modern
situarea atrilor pe un orizont, adic starea forelor astrale aflate n
aciune, ntr-un loc i un timp dat, produc un anumit temperament
psihic, intelectual i moral, care poate fi cunoscut;
A definit rolul astrologiei, care ne avertizeaz asupra abaterilor
nregistrate de tot ceea ce facem n mod liber, dar ne spune
totodat i ce ncercri sau ce corecii ne hrzete providena
pentru a ne favoriza evoluia;
A condus dou publicaii: Revue cosmique (anexe, fig. 57) i
Revue astrale;
A inut conferine i a organizat discuii pe teme astrologice;
A fost membru al ordinului kabbalistic al Roza-Crucii.
Henri Selva (1861 1944/1952 ), astrolog, principalul discipol al
lui Barlet
A tradus cartea XXIe livre a lui Morin de Villefranche;
A restituit aportul personal al lui Morin la domeniul complex al
interpretrii.
Eudes Picard i Andr Barbault, discipoli ai lui Barlet, au redat
astrologiei titlul nobiliar.
Paul Choisnard/Paul Flambart (1867 1930), maior, politehnist

55

S-a obligat s dovedeasc realitatea astrologiei, aducnd drept


dovad statistici;
Caracterul serios i tiinific pe care l-a dat lucrrilor sale
constituie o contribuie major la dezvoltarea astrologiei (anexe,
fig. 58).
Astrologia a progresat pe toate fronturile, chiar dac publicul larg
o cunoate doar din horoscoapele aprute n ziare i, mai nou, de
la televiziune.
Chiar i anumii raionaliti au nceput s-i acorde o oarecare stim,
iar oamenii de tiin au fcut cercetri asupra legilor cosmosului
legate de natura uman.
Carl Gustav Jung (18751961) (anexe, fig. 59) a fost de acord c
semnele zodiacale influeneaz personalitatea omului, genernd
arhetipuri comportamentale; a studiat, din punct de vedere
astrologic, peste 32.220 de cupluri.
Albert Einstein (1879 1955): Refuz s cred c Dumnezeu joac
zaruri cu Cosmosul. Cunotinele geofizice scot n eviden
puterea pe care stelele i planetele o au asupra destinului
pmntesc.
n 1969, un jurnalist a estimat c n jur de 10.000 de americani triau
din practicarea astrologiei. Interesul crescut pentru astrologie se
explic prin tranzitul lui Saturn, planet ce simbolizeaz astrologia, n
Scorpion, semn al ocultului i al misterului.
Avnd rdcini n astrologia sumerian i babilonian, ulterior
dezvoltat de greci i arabi, astrologia modern (occidental) este
astzi cea mai cunoscut n rile Europei, Americii i n Australia.
Lucrri de astrologie modern: Dane Rudhyar The Astrology of
Personality (anexe, fig. 60), Julia & Derek Parker Astrology
(anexe, fig. 61), Joanna Martine Woolfolk The Only Astrologer
Book Youll Ever Need (anexe, fig. 62), James R. Lewis The
Astrology Book (anexe, fig 63).
Contestatari ai astrologiei moderne

Contestari ai astrologiei moderne


Comunitatea tiinific respinge faptul c astrologia are o putere
explicativ de a descrie universul i consider c este o pseudotiin.
A fost efectuat testarea tiinific a astrologiei i nu au fost gsite
dovezi pentru a susine oricare dintre premisele sau efectele pretinse,
prezentate n tradiiile astrologice. Nu exist niciun mecanism de
aciune prin care poziiile i micrile stelelor sau planetelor ar putea

56

afecta oamenii i evenimentele de pe Pmnt, care s nu contrazic


aspectele de baz ale biologiei i fizicii. Cei care continu s cread n
astrologie au fost caracterizai c fac acest lucru ... n ciuda faptului
c nu exist nicio baz tiinific verificat pentru convingerile lor i,
ntr-adevr, c exist dovezi puternice care susin contrariul.
Filozoful american Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1922 1996) credea c,
dei astrologii, de-a lungul istoriei, a fcut predicii care nu s-au
adeverit, nu acest lucru face ca astrologia s fie netiintific. Mai
degrab, astrologia nu este o tiin, deoarece ea a fost
ntotdeauna mai apropiat de medicina medieval. n timp ce un
astronom i-ar putea corecta greeala, un astrolog nu poate.
Astrologul ar putea doar explica greeala, dar nu poate revizui
ipoteza astrologic ntr-un mod semnificativ. Ca atare, chiar dac
stelele ar putea influena traiectoria oamenilor prin via, astrologia
tot nu ar fi tiinific.
Filozoful canadian Paul Thagard (n. 1950 ) afirm c astrologia are
deja un succesor. n cazul prezicerii comportamentului, o
alternativ a astrologiei este psihologia. Un alt criteriu de
demarcare a tiinei de pseudotiin este c astrologia ar fi trebuit
s progreseze, adic s explice, s rezolve problemele existente i
s nu se mai bazeze doar pe confirmri ale evenimentelor, pe cnd
aceasta s-a schimbat foarte puin n ultimii 2000 de ani. Din aceste
motive Thagard consider astrologia ca fiind o pseudotiin.
Pentru filozoful Edward W. James (1907 1985), astrologia este
iraional, nu din cauza numeroaselor probleme cu mecanismele i
cu falsificarea experimentelor, ci pentru c o analiz a literaturii
astrologice arat c este infuzat cu lips de logic i cu false
raionamente.
Astrologia nu i-a demonstrat eficacitatea n studiile controlate i
nu are nici o valabilitate tiinific. Un experiment celebru a inclus
28 de astrologi, care au fost rugai s confrunte interpretrile a
peste o sut de hri natale cu profilurile psihologice generate prin
chestionarul Inventarul Psihologic California (California
Psychological Inventory CPI). Studiul, publicat n revista Nature,
n 1985, a constatat c previziunile bazate pe astrologia natal au
fost doar chestiune de ans i c testul respinge n mod clar
ipotezele astrologice.
Contestatari ai astrologiei moderne

57

n 1955, astrologul i psihologul Michel Gauquelin a declarat c a


gsit corelaii pozitive ntre poziiile diurne ale unor planete i
succesul n profesiile pe care astrologia, n mod tradiional, le
asociaz cu acele planete. Cea mai cunoscut din descoperirile lui
Gauquelin se bazeaz pe poziiile lui Marte n hrile natale ale
sportivilor de succes i a devenit cunoscut sub numele de efectul
Marte. Un studiu efectuat de apte oameni de tiin francezi a
ncercat s confirme afirmaia, dar nu au gsit nicio dovad
statistic.
Geoffrey Dean, om de tiin i fost astrolog, a sugerat c unii
prini aleg datele i orele de natere ale copiilor pentru a se potrivi
cu convingerile lor. Gauquelin nu a reuit s gseasc efectul Marte
n cazul n care o asistent sau un medic a nregistrat informaiile
despre natere.
Dean i psihologul Ivan Kelly au efectuat un test tiinific la scar
larg, n care au fost luate n considerare mai mult de o sut de
variabile cognitive, comportamentale, fizice, precum i alte variabile,
dar nu au gsit niciun suport pentru astrologie. Mai mult dect att,
o meta-analiz cumulat de 40 de studii, n care au fost implicai 700
de astrologi i peste 1.000 de teme natale, a condus la rezultate
nesatisfctoare.
Unii astrologi susin c astrologia este tiinific, n timp ce alii au
propus ageni convenionali de cauzalitate, cum ar fi
electromagnetismul i gravitaia. Oamenii de tiin resping aceste
mecanisme neverosimile, deoarece, de exemplu, cmpul magnetic
al unei planete mari, cum ar fi Jupiter, msurat de pe Pmnt, este
mult mai mic dect cel produs de aparatele de uz casnic obinuite.
Astrologia occidental a luat n considerare precesia axial a
Pmntului (denumit i Precesia Echinociilor), nc de la
Almagest-ul lui Ptolemeu. Astfel, primul punct de Berbec, la
nceputul anului astrologic, se mic n mod continuu pe fondul
stelelor. Zodiacul tropical nu are nici o legtur cu stelele i, atta
timp ct nu se introduc afirmaii c constelaiile sunt ele nsele, n
semnul asociat, astrologii evita conceptul c precesia mut
constelaiile n mod aparent.
Astrologii au, de obicei, vagi cunotine de astronomie i, de multe
ori, nu iau n considerare principiile de baz, cum ar fi precesia
echinociilor, care schimb poziia Soarelui n timp. Ei au comentat
exemplul lui Elizabeth Teissier, care a susinut c Soarele apune n
acelai loc de pe cer, la aceeai dat, n fiecare an ca baz pentru

58

a pretinde c dou persoane, cu aceeai zi de natere, dar nscute


n ani diferii, ar trebui s se afle sub aceeai influen planetar.
Charpak i Broch au remarcat faptul c exist o diferen de
aproximativ douzeci i dou mii de mile ntre amplasarea
Pmntului la o dat specific, n doi ani consecutivi" i c, prin
urmare, cele dou persoane nu ar trebui s fie sub aceeai
influen, aa cum susine astrologia. De-a lungul unei perioade de
40 de ani, ar trebui s fie o diferen mai mare de 780.000 de mile.
Astrologia n Romnia

Astrologia n Romnia

Ion Popa a scris zodiacul Rujdenia Popii Ion din Snpetrul


Ardealului (1620), parte din Codex Neagoeanus, care coninea
preluri dintr-o carte srbeas, printre care i un gromovnic, cu
prognoze meteo pn n 2045 (anexe, fig. 64).
Stolnicul Constantin Cantacuzino, fost elev al colii din Padua,
adevratul ctitor al astrologiei n Muntenia, a avut legturi strnse
cu Hrizan (patriarhul Ierusalimului) i cu o seam de astrologi
turci.
Ion Frncul (Ion Romnul), zodierul curii domneti a stolnicului
Constantin Cantacuzino, a scris cartea de astrologie Foletul
Novei (1693 i 1704).
Constantin Brncoveanu (1654 1714 ) avea un gust deosebit
pentru prezicerile astrologice i pentru terminologia lor
simbolistic.
Constantin Eratostene a publicat, n 1926, lucrarea Astre i
glande, n care expune infuluena astrologic asupra sistemului
endocrin (anexe, fig. 65).
n 1944, a fost publicat la Craiova, n colecia Hran
duhovniceasc (?!), un Calendar cu planete, zodii i pascalie,
care descrie cele 12 zodii i primele 7
planete; acestea din
urm sunt asociate unor anumii ani, care se aleg din tabele (de
exemplu 2016 este anul lui Marte , iar 2017 va fi anul
Soareluigromovnicul cuprins n carte face o prognoz meteo pe
perioada 1944 - 2082.
Armand Constantinescu (1894 1966 ), autorul crilor Cer i
Destin i Tratat de Astrologie (anexe, fig. 66), este ntemeietorul
astrologiei tiinifice n Romnia.
Adrian Cotrobescu este autorul monumentalei cri Astrologia
practic (anexe, fig. 67), ce trateaz astrologia natal, astrologia
previzional i conexiunile astrologiei cu literatura ezoteric.

59

Alexandru Nicolici, autorul crilor Astrologia natal (anexe,


fig. 68), Astrologia karmic, Astrologia tiin ezoteric,
Astrologia previzional, Astrologia cuplului, Astrologia
Medical, Astrologia financiar .a. este un deschiztor de
drumuri n astrologia modern.
Dan Ciuperc este autorul crii Astrologia n noua er (anexe,
fig. 69), ce cuprinde toate ramurile astrologiei (natal, holistic,
previzional, karmic, medical, relaional, mondial, orar i
iniiatic).
Firicel Ciarnu, profesor din Simeria, a publicat cartea Bazele
astrologiei, n care amintete i de zodiacele chinezesc sau
druidic, precum i de kabbala.
Dr. Sorin Bratoveanu a publicat cartea Astrologia iniiatic
(anexe, fig. 70)
Asociaia Astrologilor Romni (AAR) reunete mai mult pasionaii
de astrologie n sine i nu neaprat profesioniti (preedinte
Mihaela Dicu).
Exist astrologi al cror renume se datoreaz mai mult mediatizrii
online/TV i mai puin valorii acestora: Urania, Minerva, Neti
Sandu, Mihnea Firan, Valeriu Pnoiu, Veres Zolta, Andreea
Tamazan, Mariana Cojocaru .a.

60

Astrologia i religia, Astrologia i cultura

Astrologia i religia

Biserica Cretin consider c orice fel de divinaie, inclusiv


astrologia, este incompatibil cu credina cretin modern, care
susine liberul arbitru.
Astrologia, chiromania, clarviziunea i mediumnitatea nu reflect
dect dorina de a obine puterea i intr n contradicie cu
onoarea, respectul, iubirea i teama de Dumnezeu.
Pentru Biserica Cretin-Ortodox cititul n stele este un pcat.
Dogma Cretin se opune principiului rencarnrii utilizat de
astrologie (fr a recunoate c au fost scoase din Biblie, n mod
abuziv, multe pasaje care vorbeau despre acest fenomen) i
neag posibilitatea altor existene terestre ale spiritului, susinnd
necesitatea mntuirii lui n decursul acestei viei.
Astrologia este, totui, singura tiin care ine seama de religie,
de existena Divinitii i a Maleficului n abordarea analizei vieii
omului pe Pmnt i are rolul de a orienta omul spre iluminare
spiritual i spre mntuire (astrologia i religia au acelai scop
final).

Astrologia i cultura

Poeii John Gower (1330 1408) i Geoffrey Chaucer (1343 1400)


au fcut referire la astrologie n Confessio Amantis, respectiv
Povetile din Canterbury.
John Lyly (1553 1606) a scris, n 1597, piesa Femeia din Lun,
bazat pe astrologie.
Sir Philip Sidney (1554 1586) s-a referit de cel puin patru ori la
astrologie n romanul de dragoste Arcadia (c. 1580)
Christopher Marlowe (1564 1593) a fcut referiri astrologice n
piesele sale Doctor Faust i Tamerlan (ambele c. 1590).
Edmund Spenser (1552 1599) a folosit astrologia n poeziiile
sale, att decorativ, ct i cauzal.
George Chapman (1559 1634) a utilizat astrologia ca mecanism
cauzal al dramei Conspiraia lui Byron.
William Shakespeare (1564 1616) era familiarizat cu astrologia i
a fcut referiri la aceasta n aproape toate piesele sale.

61

n afara teatrului, medicul i misticul Robert Fludd (1574 1637) a


practicat astrologia, aa cum a fcut-o i doctorul arlatan Simon
Forman, un fel de Casanova astrolog, care seducea femeile
ntocmindu-le temele natale.
Lope de Vega (1562 1635), care avea cunotine detaliate de
astronomie, a scris piese care ridiculizau astrologia, ajungnd la
concluzia c stelele au fost fcute pentru om, nu omul pentru
stele.
Previziuni celebre
Caldern de la Barca (1600 1681) a scris n 1641 piesa Falsul
astrolog, titlu mprumutat i de Thomas Corneille (1625 1709)
pentru comedia sa din 1651.
Compozitorul britanic Gustav Holst (1874 1934) a scris cea mai
faimoas pies muzical inspirat de astrologie, intitulat
Planetele (1918).
Alt compozitor britanic, Constant Lambert (1905 1951), a scris,
n 1937, un balet pe teme astrologice, intitulat Horoscop.
Compozitorul neozeelandez Edwin Carr (1926 2003) a scris, n
1974, Cele 12 Semne: Divertisment astrologic pentru orchestr
fr coarde.
Camille Paglia (1947 ) i-a utilizat cunotinele de astrologie
pentru a scrie lucrarea critic Sexual Personae (1990).
Compozitorul Colin Matthews (1946 ) a scris piesa Pluton
renscut (2000).
Eleanor Catton (1985 ) a ctigat n 2013 Premiul Man Booker
cu cartea Atrii, n care influena astrologic este covritoare.

Previziuni celebre

Cea dinti prezicere astrologic (2300 . Hr.) era bazat pe o


eclips de Lun i o observare a planetei Venus, vestind moartea
regelui din Akkad.
Astrologul Brose (cca 330/323 . Hr.), a prevzut Potopul Biblic
(confirmat de Vechiul Testament);
Julius Caesar (100 44 .Hr.) a dispreuit previziunile faimosului
astrolog Spurinna (Idele lui Marte) i a murit asasinat (anexe, fig.
12).

62

Balbillus a prezis c noul mprat Nero (37 68) i va ucide pe


Britannicus , fratele su vitreg, i pe Agrippina, mama sa, ceea ce
s-a i ntmplat.
Domiian (51-96), fiul lui Vespasian (9-79), a devenit foarte nervos
atunci cnd mai muli astrologi i-au prezis moartea. Deoarece
timpul morii sale se apropia, l-a chemat pe astrologul Ascletarius
Asclation i l-a ntrebat dac ar putea s-i prevesteasc propria
sa moarte. Astrologul i-a rspuns c va fi rupt n buci de cini.
Domiian l-a executat imediat, pentru nega predicia. Corpul
astrologului urma s fie incinerat, dar o furtun, care s-a iscat din
senin, a stins focul i o hait de cini vagabonzi a devorat cadavrul.
Speriat de moarte, Dominiian a devenit din ce n ce mai nervos,
dar, n cele din urm, curtenii l-au linitit, asigurndu-l c ora fatal
a fost trecut. Mult mai uurat, el a decis s fac o baie. n timp ce
se bucura de acest lucru, un asasin s-a aruncat asupra lui i l-a
njunghiat mortal.
Almumasur/Albumazer, cel mai vestit astrolog arab, a prezis
Revoluia Francez cu aproape o mie de ani nainte.

63

Previziuni celebre

Martius Galeotti (1427 1497), astrolog aflat n slujba lui


Ludovic al XI-lea; ca s-i pstreze capul pe umeri, spunea: Sire,
atrii mi-au prezis c voi muri cu trei zile naintea Majestii
Voastre!
Astronomul Regiomontanus /Johannes Mller von
Knigsberg (1436 1476) a vestit Revoluia din 1789 cu trei
secole nainte ca aceasta s aib loc, cu o precizie de un an
(1788).
Centuriile lui Nostradamus (1503 1566), cel mai mare profet
al tuturor timpurilor, prevd viitorul lumii pn n anul 3797
(sfritul Lumii).
Marele astrolog Jerme Cardan/Gerolamo Cardano (1501
1576) s-a lsat s moar de foame, pentru a se adeveri data la
cere-i prezisese moartea.
Jean Baptiste Morin de Villefranche (1582 1656), printele
astrologiei tiinifice de azi, a prezis moartea prematur a
generalului Wallenstein, moartea violent a lui Ludovic al IIIlea i
morile lui Gustav Adolf sau CinqMars.
Zadkiel/Richard James Morrison (1795 1874 ), astrolog, a
anunat n Almanahul lui Zadkiel, n 1861, moartea prematur a
prinului consort, soul reginei Victoria.
Luc Gauric/Lucus Gauricus (1476 1558) ), episcop de Civit, a
prevzut c Henri al II-lea va fi ucis n duel, c ducele de Guise va
fi asasinat i c domnului Escars i va sparge capul, cu copita, un
cal.
Diveri astrologi au prevzut urmtoarele evenimente: ororile
Revoluiei Franceze, apariia lui Napoleon Bonaparte i reuitele
sale, apoi abdicarea i exilarea acestuia, intrarea aliailor n Paris,
restauraia Casei de Frana, cderea Bourbonilor i a lui Louise
Phillipe, revoluia de la 1848, domnia lui Napoleon al III-lea, rzboiul
din Crimeea .a.
n calitate de astrolog, omul de cultur i ezoteristul Nicolae
Zrnescu a avut urmtoarele realizri importante:
A prevzut moartea prematur (53 de ani) a actorului Adrian
Pintea, ntocmind astrograma bioenergoterapeutei Lavinia Tatomir
(19 ani), viitoarea soie a acestuia;
A prevzut moartea prematur (63 de ani) a generalului

64

Nicolae Buzatu, din cauza unei boli de inim i moartea prematur


a altor persoane;
A prevzut divoruri iminente, care s-au adeverit n timp;
A ntocmit astrograme pentru Iisus Hristos (exemplu de
astrologie holistic), Mihai Eminescu (despre care a scris un studiu
amnunit), Franz Kafka, Meryl Streep, Lionel Messi .a.

Ramurile astrologiei
occidentale
Astrologia formativ

Astrologia holistic
Astrologia karmic Astrologia medical
Astrologia psihologic Astrologia relaional
Astrologia ezoteric Astrologia kabbalistic
Astrologia uranian Astrologia vocaional
Astrologia lunar Astrologia mundan
Astrologia natal

Astrologia heliocentric

Astrologia predictiv

Astrologia mondial
Astrologia electiv Astrologia orar
Astrologia predicional Astrologia social

Astrologia previzional

65

Astrologia solar

Astrologia cartografic

66

Astrologia formativ

Astrologia formativ1
Astrologia natal (genealogic)
Se utilizeaz informaii foarte exacte: data, ora i locul naterii
unei persoane, pentru a i se alctui o hart a cerului, denumit
tem natal sau astrogram, care reprezint Zodiacul cu cele 12
Zodii, Ascendentul, Descendentul, Mijlocul Cerului, Fundul Cerului,
poziiile celor 10 Planete n Zodii i n cele 12 Case, precum i
aspectele dintre Planete.
Prin interpretarea acesteia se pot determina caracteristicile
nnscute i latente ale persoanei pentru aceasta via,
posibilitile de mplinire i evoluie. Astro-grama, mpreun cu
interpretarea acesteia, constituie horoscopul persoanei.

Astrologia holistic
Tema natal este privit ca un ntreg, iar interpretarea se
bazeaz pe ansamblul elementelor din tem, nu doar pe analiza
elementelor disparate. Se introduc o serie de concepte noi in
astrologie, innd cont i de gruparea de ansamblu a planetelor n
tem (modele planetare).

Astrologia karmic
Lundu-se n consideraie teoria rencarnarii i legea karmei, se
determin, din tema natal, relaiile vieii actuale cu ncarnrile
precedente i modul n care trebuie s acioneze persoana n
actuala ncarnare, pentru a-i continua evoluia (misiunea n
aceast via).
n astrologia karmic apar elemente noi fa de astrologia
natal, cum ar fi planetele retrograde, Nodurile Lunare (Axa
Dragonului) i Lilith (Luna Neagr).

Astrologia medical

Se ocup cu evidenierea influenelor planetare asupra corpului


uman i a cauzelor bolilor, pentru a se ncerca diminuarea unor
suferine. Pe baza temei natale se determin predispoziiile
nnscute ale persoanei pentru anumite afeciuni, precum i

67

oportunitatea sau posibilitatea anumitor tratamente i remedii la


probleme de sntate.
1

Procent de credibilitate = 75% sau mai mare (clasificarea n astrologie formativ i


astrologie predictiv, precum i procentele de credibilitate reprezint opiuni strict
personale)

68

Astrologia formativ

Astrologia psihologic

Folosete astrologia n combinaie cu psihologia, pentru studiul


evoluiei psihice i sociale a individului uman, n diverse stadii ale
vieii sale.

Astrologia relaional

Se compar temele natale pentru dou persoane,


identificndu-se natura relaiilor dintre ele i posibilitile de
evoluie ale acestor relaii.
Zodiile dau compatibilitatea emoional, iar ascendentele pe
cea de interese. O analiz complex se poate realiza descifrnd
modul n care planetele unei persoane influeneaz planetele
celeilalte persoane.
Vizeaz, n principal, relaia de cuplu, dar se poate extinde la
orice alt relaie interuman sau la o colaborare ntre dou
instituii sau societi comerciale.

Astrologia ezoteric
Folosindu-se de o simbolistic diferit, la un nivel mai profund
de nelegere, astrologia ezoteric determin coordonatele
vibraionale i spirituale pe care evolueaz o entitate, fiind o
astrologie a sufletului. S-a dezvoltat pornind de la scrierile
semnate de Alice Bailey i Helena Blavatsky, multe concepte i
interpretri fiind modificate fa de astrologia occidental clasic.

Astrologia kabalistic
Arborele Sefirotic kabbalistic modern asociaz cei zece Sefiroi
cu cele zece planete: 1. Kether Pluton; 2 . Chochmah
Neptun; 3. Binah Saturn; 4. Chesed Jupiter; 5. Geburah Marte;
6. Tiphareth Soare; 7. Nezach Venus; 8. Hod Mercur; 9. Yesod
Luna; 10. Malkuth - Pmnt (vezi coperta I). Al 11-Sefirot (Daath)
are asociat planeta Uranus.
Cunoscnd semnificaiile planetelor se poate nelege mai uor
Kabbala.

Astrologia uranian
69

Sistem bazat pe nvturile lui Alfred Witte din Hamburg


(Germania), care a nfiinat o coal de astrologie. Acesta consider
c tiparele planetare se bazeaz pe punctele medii, punctele
cardinale, Antiscia i pe anumite planete ipotetice.
Acest tip de astrologie nu ia n considerare ngerii dificili
conjunciile, semi-ptratele, cuadraturile, opoziiile. Punctele
personale sunt: 0 grade n Berbec, Rac, Balan i Capricorn,
Ascendentul, Mijlocul Cerului, Soarele i Luna.

70

Astrologia formativ

Astrologia vocaional (profesional)


Pe baza temei natale se determin predispoziiile nnscute ale
persoanei pentru anumite activiti, aptitudinile sale pentru
anumite domenii i profesiuni, n vederea orientrii sale
profesionale.

Astrologia lunar
Este o astrologie bazat pe ciclul lunar i pe poziia Lunii n
zodiac. Horoscopul lunar conine trecutul nostru ancestral
(talentele nnscute), relevnd cu precizie latura interioar i
invizibil a omului (incontientul).
n multe culturi se regsesc influene ale astrologiei lunare, dar
cel mai reprezentativ este sistemul ebraic, bazat pe Kabbala.

Astrologia mundan
Abordeaz nivelul social, problemele istoriei lumii, destinele
unei naiuni, ale grupurilor de indivizi, ale trendurilor globale,
evoluia personalitilor i a diverselor manifestri publice.

Astrologia heliocentric
Interpretrile astrologice sunt bazate pe o hart astral n care
planetele sistemului solar sunt localizate n conformitate cu
longitudinile lor heliocentrice. Este ns o astrologie puin utilizat.
Observaie: Astrologia formativ se bazeaz pe codificarea
divin a celor zece planete i mai puin pe influenele
electromagnetice ale acestora. Rolul astrologiei formative este de
a descifra nelesurile ascunse n astrograme i de a ajuta
persoana n evoluia sa, dezvluindu-i att calitile, ct i
defectele, precizndu-i care este misiunea sa n aceast via i
ce poate face pentru a-i nvinge destinul.
Fiecare persoan se nate la data, ora, locul i religia n care
trebuie s se nasc, pentru a relua experiena unei viei
anterioare. Dac persoana nu ntreprinde nimic pentru a-i
schimba destinul, aceasta se va comporta conform astrogramei.
Dac persoana i contientizeaz astrograma, atunci, prin liber

71

arbitru, se poate sustrage ciclului rencarnrilor i poate obine


eliberarea / iluminarea / mntuirea chiar n aceast via.

72

Astrologia predictiv

Astrologia predictiv2
Astrologia previzional
Se interpreteaz direciile primare, direciile
secundare/progresiile, direciile simbolice, revoluiile solare sau
tranzitele atrilor, pentru determinarea posibilitilor de evoluie n
viitor ale unui subiect (o situaie, o persoan, o organizaie, o ar
etc.)
Direciile se bazeaz pe corespondena analogic dintre
micarea de rotaie a Pmntului (o rotaie pe zi) i micarea
Soarelui n zodiac (un tur pe an). Studierea poziiilor zilnice
succesive ale planetelor i a efectelor acestora devine echivalent
cu imaginea influenelor anuale ale acestora.
Pentru revoluiilor solare se ntocmete o hart anual pornind
de la longitudinea Soarelui la natere.
n cazul tranzitelor, se utilizeaz suprapunerea peste tema
natal a poziiilor planetelor n momentul/intervalul pentru care se
face previziunea.

Astrologia mondial
Se utilizeaz prognoze ale Lunii Noi n combinaie cu alte
elemente, pentru analizarea situaiilor internaionale, prevederea
eventualelor conflicte i reflectarea principalelor tendine ale
marilor puteri.
n practic se disting subramuri ale sale: astrologia politic,
astrologia financiar i astrologia natural (a fenomenelor fizice).

Astrologia electiv
Nativul poate alege momentul propice pentru nceputul unei
anumite activiti: proiecte, decizii, contracte, logodn, cstorie,
ncoronare etc.

Astrologia orar
Se ocup cu arta interpretrii relaiilor ntre fenomenele
cosmice, bazate pe micrile atrilor. Se numete orar datorit
faptului c se analizeaz momente exacte din viaa unui nativ. Se
folosete data, ora i locul pentru care se pune o ntrebare, la care

73

trebuie gsit rspunsul, i se construiete astrograma cu aceste


date. n funcie de natura ntrebrii, astrograma ofer un rspuns
sau cel puin permite gsirea unor repere care s conduc spre
rspuns.
2

Procent de credibilitate = 25% sau mai mic.

Astrologia predictiv

Astrologia social

Se bazeaz pe prognoze fcute, de obicei, lunar, analiznd


temele alctuite pentru momentele de Lun Nou sau Lun Plin i
evideniind direciile majore, la nivel social-economic sau politic, ale
unui ora sau ale unei naiuni.

Astrologia solar

Se presupune c Horoscopul solar este important doar cnd nu


este cunoscut ora exact a naterii unui nativ. Acest horoscop nu
este unul orar, ci zilnic.

Astrologia local/cartografic

Pentru o anumit persoan se pot determina locurile favorabile


de pe glob, dintr-o ar, dintr-un ora sau chiar din propria
locuin.

Astrologia meteorologic

Acest tip de astrologie i-a pierdut credibilitatea, deoarece, n


prezent, clima de pe Terra s-a schimbat foarte mult, iar
fenomenele climatice pot fi provocate n mod artificial prin
tehnologia Haarp.
Iniial, fiecrui an i se asocia una din primele 7 planete
(Soarele, Luna, Mercur, Venus, Marte, Jupiter i Saturn), care
dicta clima anului respectiv. Prognoza se fcea, pentru fiecare
an, pe luni i zile.
De exemplu, februarie 2017 (an aflat sub semnul Soarelui) era
prognozat astfel: 1-11 ger; 12-15 vreme de mijloc; 10-25 bine i
vreme moale; 26 nor; 27 zpad i vnt; 28 frig.

Astrologia de salon

Principala promotoare a acestui tip de astrologie a fost i este


lizabeth Teissier/lizabeth Hanselmann (n. 1938), care ntocmit
horoscoape zilnice, lunare i anuale, ce nu au niciun temei
tiinific. Exemplul ei a fost urmat de o mulime de astrologi de

74

mna a doua, care umplu paginile ziarelor i revistelor sau se


erijeaz n postur de mari ezoteriti la posturile de radio i
televiziune.
Observaie: Astrologia predictiv este o extrapolare a astrologiei
natale i a nceput s-i piard credibilitatea. Dup cum am artat n
capitolul Contestatari ai astrologiei moderne, cmpul magnetic al
unei planete mari, cum ar fi Jupiter, msurat de pe Pmnt, este
mult mai mic dect cel produs de aparatele de uz casnic
obinuite, deci este absurd s credem c aciunile noastre sunt
guvernate de atri.
Evenimentele majore (moarte prematur, divor, boli grave etc.) pot
fi prevzute prin astrologia natal, dar nu se poate preciza momentul
exact cnd acestea se vor ntmpla.
Un astrolog serios evit astrologia predictiv, deoarece i poate
pierde credibilitatea. Eu nu practic astrologia predictiv.

Metode moderne
de ntocmire
a horoscopului natal
Astrolog 3.2 versiunea 2.02 pentru Windows
Aura Astrology Pro versiunea 2.70 pentru
Android
Exemplu de ntocmire a horoscopului natal
75

76

Astrolog32 versiunea 2.02 pentru Windows

Astrolog32 versiunea 2.02 pentru


Windows

Aceast aplicaie de calcul astrologic a fost scris iniial de


Walter D. Pullen, care a fcut public codul surs, pentru dezvoltri
ulterioare. De la versiunea 2.0, aplicaia a fost rescris de Thomas
Kubec, versiunea 2.02 fiind lansat pe 24 aprilie 2007. Walter D.
Pullen a continuat dezvoltarea proprie a aplicaiei, lansnd
versiunea 6.10 n martie 2016. Dei, aparent, ntre cele dou
aplicaii nu exist diferene majore, varianta lui Thomas Kubec are
mai multe faciliti:
Lucrul cu patru astrograme simultan (doar 2 n varianta Pullen);
Alegerea localitii dintr-un atlas geografic mondial (la varianta
Pullen latitudinea i longitudinea sunt introduse manual);
Alegerea orei de natere, dintr-o list derulant, cu intervale orare
de 15 minute (La Pullen ora e introdus manual); ora de var
trebuie precizat (da/nu);
Zilele i anii se aleg din liste derulante: 1 31, respectiv 1920
2020 (la Pullen sunt introduse manual);
Exportul astrogramei n diverse formate: text, bitmap, WMF,
PostScript sau wallpaper (la Pullen e posibil doar salvarea ca
wallpaper);
Posibilitatea lucrului n modul simplificat (inexistent la Pullen).
Facilitile comune sunt urmtoarele:
Setarea tipului de zodiac (tropical sau sideral);
Setarea elementelor care alctuiesc astrograma (planete, stele,
puncte arabice, puncte calculate etc. ) i a culorii aspectelor;
Setarea mrimii caracterelor (mici, medii, mari i foarte mari);
Afiarea astrogramei n mod grafic i n mod text;
Afiarea astrogramei pe fundal negru sau pe fundal alb;
Afiarea grilei de aspecte n modul color;
Afiare astrocartografic;
Afiare comparativ pentru dou, trei sau patru astrograme;
Afiarea sinastriei i a astrogramei compuse;
Afiarea progresiilor i a tranzitelor;
Afiarea bioritmurilor (fizic, intelectual i emoional);

77

Lista tranzitelor, aspectelor, punctelor arabice i a interpretrii


astrogramei;
Afiarea hrii constelaiilor, a globului pmntesc i a hrii
acestuia;
Afiarea calendarului pentru luna sau anul din astrogram;
Rularea de comenzi macro;
Animarea astrogramei pe diverse intervale (secunde, minute, ore,
zile, luni, ani, secole sau milenii).
Aura Astrology Pro versiunea 2.70 pentru Android

Aura Astrology Pro versiunea 2.70 pentru


Android

Dac vi se solicit s ntocmii astrograme n situaii speciale (n


tren, n autobuz sau n autoturism), atunci aplicaia Aura
Astrology Pro 2.70, scris de ruii de la Sisin Studio pentru
smartphone-urile cu Android, v poate fi de mare ajutor.
Iat care sunt principalele faciliti oferite:
Alegerea localitii dintr-o baz de date mondial (zona de timp
este stabilit n mod automat);
Dac localitatea nu este gsit n baza de date sau datele gsite
nu sunt cele ateptate, acestea se pot introduce manual (nume
localitate, ar, latitudine, longitudine, zon de timp);
Ora de var este generat n mod automat;
Astrogramele pot fi salvate pe categorii (familie, rude, prieteni,
colegi, clieni, personaliti, cercetare, alii);
Exportul i importul astrogramei n / din formatul TXT;
Afiarea trazitelor curente pentru localitatea n care v aflai
(aceasta este stabilit n mod automat, dar poate fi i introdus
manual);
Alegerea tipului caselor (Placidus, Koch, egale de la Asc, egale de
la MC, Morinus, Meridian);
Captura ecranului sau astrogramei n format JPG sauPNG;
Afiarea celor 10 planete, a Nodurilor Nord i Sud, a Punctului
Norocului, a lui Lilith i a lui Chiron, precum i a aspectelor acestora
(cele nedorite pot fi invalidate);
Stabilirea orbilor i a greutii aspectelor;
Afiarea gradelor zodiacale pentru planete, case i simboluri
speciale;

78

Afiarea grilei de aspecte;


Interpretarea ascendentului, a planetelor n semne i case sau a
caselor n semne;
Animarea astrogramei natale, tranzitelor, progresiilor i revoluiilor
solare pe perioade de timp (minute, ore, zile i luni);
Setri speciale de afiare (tip interfa, teme etc.) i formatul
fiierelor imagine n care se fac capturile de ecran (JPG sau PNG);
Aplicaia poate oferi o mulime de informaii online, precum i
detalii despre variantele pentru sistemele de operare Windows i
Mac.

79

Exemplu de ntocmire a horoscopului natal

Exemplu de ntocmire a horoscopului natal


Dei un astrolog profesionist cunoate semnificaiile generale ale
elementelor astrologice (planete, case, semne, simboluri etc),
relaiile (planete n case i n semne, zodiile n case, aspectele etc)
sunt foarte dificil de memorat.
Pentru a uura accesul la aceste relaii, se poate organiza un
fiier Word care are, n partea de nceput a acestuia, linkuri spre
relaiile dorite, dup cum se poate vedea n imaginea de mai jos.

Dac dorii s lucrai cu fiiere PDF, care pot fi accesate i pe


smartphone-uri, atunci creai bookmark-uri pentru fiecare grup de
relaii i astfel putei ajunge foarte uor la relaia dorit.
Acest tip de organizare a datelor v poate fi de mare ajutor
atunci cnd interpretai o astrogram n direct, la un post de
televiziune, sau dac trebuie s interpretai astrograma n tren, n
autobuz sau n autoturism.
Dac vi se cere ntocmirea unui horoscop scris, care s conin
astrograma i toate relaiile existente, atunci putei crea un
document Word sub form de brour A5 i relaiile le luai cu Copy
Paste, apoi facei interpretarea personal final. Din experiena
mea de astrolog, 12 pagini A5 sunt suficiente pentru prezentarea
ntregului horoscop.
Dup definitivarea documentului Word, l convertii n format PDF
i l listai sub form de brour, pe care o prezentai clientului. O
discuie de cel puin dou ore, n care s explicai clientului
coninutul horoscopului, este obligatorie.

80

Alte genuri de astrologie


Astrologia mesoamerican
Astrologia tibetan Astrologia rabinic
Astrologia maya Astrologia hindus
Astrologia vedic Astrologia avestan
Zodacul indian Zodacul celtic
Zodiacul thebaic Horoscopul spaniol

Astrologia chinez

Simboluri

81

Astrologia chinez

Astrologia chinez (zodiacul chinezesc)


Legenda atribuie acest zodiac lui Buddha (la moartea lui ar fi venit
doar cele 12 animale din zodiac), dar originea lui real este mult
mai veche.
Cele 12 animale: 1. obolan 2. Bivol 3. Tigru 4. Iepure 5. Dragon 6.
arpe 7. Cal 8. Capr 9. Maimu 10. Coco 11. Cine 12.
Mistre.
Cele 5 elemente: 1. Apa, 2. Lemnul, 3. Focul, 4. Pmntul, 5.
Metalul.
Cele dou principii: 1. Yin (feminin), 2. Yang (masculin);
Cele 12 animale, combinate cu cele 5 elemente, dau natere unui
ciclu de 60 de ani, care grupeaz nou-nscuii asociind un animal
cu un element (de exemplu, eu sunt nscut n 1960, anul
obolanului de Metal Yang).
Calendarul chinezesc este lunisolar i este bazat pe observaii
astronomice exacte privind longitudinea soarelui i fazele lunii.
Adesea coincide cu anul tropic, mprind unele similariti cu
calendarul evreiesc.
Un an obinuit are 12 luni, iar un an bisect are 13 luni; un an obinuit
are 353-355 de zile, n timp ce un an bisect are 383-385 de zile.
Calendarul chinezesc nu numr anii ntr-o secven infinit, ci
fiecrui an i este atribuit un nume format din dou componente n
cadrul unui ciclu repetitiv de 60 de ani. Prima component este o
tulpin cereasc: Jia (asociat cu lemnul n cretere), Yi
(asociat cu cheresteaua), Bing (asociat cu focul natural), Ding
(asociat cu focul artificial), Wu (asociat cu pmntul), Ji
(asociat cu lutul), Geng (asociat cu metalul), Xin (asociat cu
metalul forjat), Ren (asociat cu apa curgatoare) i Gui (asociat
cu apa stttoare).
Cea de-a doua component este numit ramur terestr i
implic numele celor 12 animale din ciclul zodiacal: Zi (obolan),
Chou (bivol), Yin (tigru), Mao (iepure), Chen (dragon), Si (sarpe),
Wu (cal), Wei (capr), Shen (maimu), You (coco), Xu (cine),
Hai (mistre) (anexe, fig. 71).

82

Exist dou coli importante de astrologie chinez: Cei patru stlpi ai


destinului (Ziping Bazi) i Metoda Constelaiei Purpurii (Ziwei
Doushu).
Metoda celor Patru Stlpi ai Destinului (cea mai utilizat) a aprut
n timpul dinastiei Han (206 .Hr. 220 d.Hr.) i este, n continuare,
folosit n astrologia Feng Shui. Sistemul a fost perfecionat de
astrologul Li Xuzhong n timpul dinastiei Tang (618 917). Aanumiii stlpi sunt respectiv coloanele n care este ordonat
scrierea chinez. Fiecare coloan conine o tulpin i o ramur
cu referire la an, lun, zi i or a naterii.
Astrologia mesoamerican, Astrologia tibetan
Stlpul pentru an reprezint familia i relaia cu societatea;
Stlpul lunii reprezint copilria i relaia cu prinii;
Stlpul zilei vizeaz raportul persoanei cu sine nsui i raportul
cu partenerul;
Stlpul orei se ocup de relaia cu copiii i de perioada
btrneii.
Conform metodei celor patru stlpi, ora ofer informaii n legtur
cu copiii unei persoane i contribuia sa n via (23:00 00:59 =
obolan, 01:00 02:59 = Bivol, 03:00 04:59 = Tigru, 05:00 06:59
= Iepure, 07:00 08:59 = Dragon, 09:00 10:59 = arpe, 11:00
12:59 = Cal, 13:00 14:59 = Capr, 15:00 16:59 = Maimu,
17:00 18:59 = Coco, 19:00 20:59 = Cine, 21:00 22:59
Mistre).
Metoda Constelaiei Purpurii se bazeaz pe cinci categorii de
influen:
MIng (destinul, stabilit la natere, nu poate fi schimbat, dar
poate fi cunoscut);
Yun (norocul, predictibil, dar fluctueaz n timp);
Feng Shui (locuina, poate fi aranjat n cel mai favorabil
mod);
Dao de (virtutea i caracterul, pot mbunti karma);
Dou Shu (educaia i efortul, lucrarea vieii).
Este o metod complex, care ia n calcul ntre 36 i 157 de stele.

Astrologia mesoamerican
83

Calendarele civilizaiilor precolumbiene au la baz un sistem ce


dateaz din secolul VI .Hr. sau chiar de mai devreme. Folosit de
civilizaii mai vechi precum olmecii, calendarul (anexe, fig. 72) a
fost perfecionat de mayai, care au pus la punct i un zodiac
sofisticat.
Pentru aceast civilizaie, zodiacul era extrem de important: spre
exemplu, n a cincea zi dup naterea unui biat, preoii-astrologi
i fceau horoscopul pentru a-i afla destinul.

Astrologia tibetan

Astrologia tibetan s-a aflat n dialog permanent cu astrologiile


chinez i indian, fiind considerat una din cele zece tiine
tibetane.
Zodiile sunt reprezentate de aceleai animale din zodiacul
chinezesc: 1. obolan, 2. Bivol, 3. Tigru, 4. Iepure, 5. Dragon, 6.
arpe, 7. Cal, 8. Capr, 9. Maimu, 10. Coco, 11. Cine, 12.
Mistre.
Anul tibetan este cu 127 mai mare dect anul occidental (de
exemplu 2000 occidental este 2127 tibetan, iar 2016 este 2143).
Lunile ncep n funcie de fazele Lunii;
Pentru detalii accesai linkul:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibetan_astrology
Astrologia rabinic, Astrologia maya, Astrologia hindus

Astrologia rabinic

Talmudul asociaz cele12 constelaii ale Zodiacului cu cele 12 luni


ale calendarului ebraic: Berbec aleh Nisan, Taur Shor Iyar,
Gemeni Teomim Sivan, Rac Saron Tammuz, Leu Ari Av,
Fecioar Betulah Elul, Balan Moznayim Tishrei, Scorpion
'Arab Cheshvan, Sgettor asshat Kislev, Capricorn Gedi
Tevet, Vrstor D'li Shevat, Peti Dagim Adar.
Pentru detalii accesai urmtorul link:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_views_on_astrology

Astrologia maya

Se bazeaz pe calendarul maya, care cuprinde dou cicluri: unul


de 360 de zile (anul solar) i unul de 260 de zile (calendarul
Tzolkin).

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Au fost gsite urme ale calendarului maya datnd din mileniul al


5-lea .Hr.
n calendarul Tzolkin Luna are 20 de zile i fiecare zi are semnul
su specific (ap, cas, cine, crocodil, cerb, craniu, cutremur,
cuit, floare, iarb, iepure, jaguar, maimu, ploaie, arpe, oprl,
trestie, uliu, vnt i vultur), descriind sau analiznd o personalitate
specific sau trsturile generale ale acesteia (anexe, fig. 73).
Zilele din caledarul maya se succed n grupe de 20 de zile (Kin)
i, n paralel, n grupe de 13 zile. Pentru a afla ziua Kin i numrul
(1-13) asociat acesteia, se efectueaz calcule complicate,
utilizndu-se nite cifre nscrise n tabele. De exemplu, n cazul
meu (2 mai 1960), cifra asociat anului este 112, iar cea asociat
lunii mai este 120. Calculul se efectueaz astfel: 260 (112 + 120
+ 2) = 26. Semnul asociat este Cimi, iar numrul asociat este 13.
Se citesc semnificaiile lui 13 Cimi.

Astrologia hindus medieval (indian)

Principalele texte pe care se bazeaz astrologia indian clasic sunt


compilaii medievale timpurii, n special Bhat Parara Horstra i
Saravali de Kalyavarma.
Horshastra este o lucrare compus din 71 de capitole, din care
prima parte (capitolele 1-51) dateaz din secolele VII-VIII, iar cea
de-a doua parte (capitolele 52-71), de la sfritul secolului al VIIIlea.
Saravali dateaz aproximativ din jurul anului 800.
Traducerile n englez ale acestor texte au fost publicate de N. N.
Krishna Rau i V. B. Choudhari n 1963, respectiv n 1961.
Ideea celor 84 de siddha legendari din mistica yoghin pare a fi de
origine astrologic, numrul 84 reprezentnd totalitatea
combinaiilor posibile dintre cele 7 planete i cele 12 semne
zodiacale sau ntre cele 7 planete i cele 12 case ale cerului.
Astrologia hindus a asimilat, de asemenea, legea karmic, a cauzei
i efectului.
Astrologia vedic

Astrologia hindus modern (vedic)

coala hindus de astrologie este fundamentat pe nvturile


vedice i pe filosofia Indiei, fiind foarte profund i apreciat,
totodat, n rile de la poalele Himalayei. Dei exist unele

85

asemnri cu astrologia occidental, reprezentrile grafice,


simbolistica, precum i interpretrile, difer sensibil.
Zodiile rmn fixe i sunt poziionate n ordinea cunoscut,
ncepnd cu zodia Peti n colul din stnga sus al astrogramei (n
astrograma din anexe, fig. 74, ascendentul este n Gemeni, casa 2
este n Rac etc.).
Cele 12 case astrologice au semnificaie diferit fa de astrologia
chaldeean:
Casa 1 (Ascendentul): ncarnarea fizic a individului i
atitudinea lui fa de lumea exterioar;
Casa 2: familia, bunurile materiale, memoria, vorbirea i
bogia;
Casa 3: fraii i surorile mai mici, curajul, ncrederea, iniiativa,
creativitatea;
Casa 4: mama, inima, cunoaterea, educaia;
Casa 5: intelectul, copii, romantismul;
Casa 6: predispoziia la boli i accidente, dumanii, disputele,
serviciul;
Casa 7: cstoria, relaiile de parteneriat;
Casa 8: longevitatea, suferina, misticismul, motenirile;
Casa 9: filozofia si spiritualitatea, tatl, educaia superioar;
Casa 10: profesia i ceea ce poate face individul n aceast lume,
succesul, cariera;
Casa 11: fraii i surorile mai mari, prosperitatea, prietenii,
dorinele;
Casa 12: cheltuielile, renunrile, spitalizrile, locurile
ndeprtate, mntuirea.
Astrologia vedic lucreaz pe principiul caselor egale, adic
fiecrei case i corespunde o zodie:
Zodia Berbec (Mesha): semn de foc, dinamic, mobil, schimbri
i cltorii;
Zodia Taur (Vrishabha): semn de pmnt, fix, temperament
practic i productiv;
Zodia Gemeni (Mithuna): semn masculin, dual, natur
inteligent, dar schimbtoare;
Zodia Rac (Kartaka): semn de ap, feminin, dinamic, natur
sensibil;
Zodia Leu (Simha): semn de foc, masculin, fix, conductor,
autoriti, putere;
Zodia Fecioar (Kanya): semn de pmnt, feminin, dual,
natur sensibil i uor naiv;

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Zodia Balan (Tula): semn de aer, masculin, dinamic, dorin


spre micare i cltorii;
Zodia Scorpion (Vrishchika): semn de ap; feminin, fix,
profund creativ, mistic i spiritual;
Zodia Sgettor (Dhanus): semn de foc, masculin, dual,
lupttor spiritual i cuttor al naltelor adevruri;
Astrologia vedic

Zodia Capricorn (Makara): semn de pmnt, feminin, mobil,


munc i carier;
Zodia Vrstor (Kumbha): semn de aer, masculin, fix, principii
nalte, filozofie, spiritualitate;
Zodia Petilor (Meena): semn de ap, feminin, dual, cel mai
spiritual i emoional semn.
Planetele din astrologia clasic vedic difer, ntr-o oarecare
msur, de cele din astrologia chaldeean:
Soarele (Surya): voin, ambiie, faim, vitalitate, sntate,
guvern, conductor;
Luna (Chandra): minte, emoii, intuiie, contiina maselor,
cas, mam;
Mercur (Budha): intelect, logic, comunicare, afaceri,
adaptabilitate, vorbire, sistem nervos;
Venus (Shukra): iubire, frumusee, arte, plcere, vehicul,
sociabilitate, prieteniei, senzualitate, lux;
Marte (Mangala): aciune, curaj, protectori, agresivitate,
accidente, dumani, vtmri, rzboi;
Jupiter (Brihaspati): prosperitate, generozitate, nelepciune,
noroc, optimism, profesori, justiie, preoi, maetri spirituali;
Saturn (Shani): dificulti, restricii, timp, longevitate,
separare, singurtate, fidelitate, credin, sobrietate;
Rahu: dorine, obsesii, decepii, strini, persoane
neconvenionale, succes / insucces, astrologi, inventatori;
Ketu: spiritualitate, misticism, legturi cu trecutul i cu vieile
anterioare, pierderi, insatisfaii, idealism, fiine spirituale.
Astrologii vedici moderni mai adaug trei planete, utilizate de
astrologia occidental: Uranus: schimbri brute, independen,
revoluii; Neptun: imaginaie, idealism, vise, iluzie, confuzie;
Pluton: transformri, extreme, distrugeri, evoluie, inevitabil.
nainte de a fi mprit zodiacul n 12 semne zodiacale, astronomii
antici ai Indiei au folosit 27 diviziuni (constelaii) ale zodiacului
(eclipticii) numite Nakshatras. Folosirea Nakshatrelor fcea
diferena fundamental dintre astrologia vedic i astrologia
chaldeean.

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Luna parcurge zodiacul n aproximativ 27,3 zile, deci, n fiecare zi,


parcurge aproximativ o Nakshatra. Fiecare Nakshatra era
reprezentat de ctre un simbol i era guvernat de ctre o
zeitate din cultura hindus.
Cele 27 Nakshatra erau urmtoarele: 1) Ashwini, 2) Bharani, 3)
Krittika, 4) Rohini, 5) Mrigashira, 6) Ardra, 7) Punarvasu, 8)
Pushya, 9) Ashlesha, 10) Magha, 11) Purva Phalguni, 12) Uttara
Phalguni, 13) Hasta, 14) Chitra, 15) Swati, 16) Vishakha, 17) Anuradha,
18) Jyeshtha, 19) Mula, 20) PurvaAshadha, 21) UttaraAshadha,
22) Sharavana, 23) Dhanishtha, 24) Shatabhisha, 25)
PurvaBhadrapada, 26) UttaraBhadrapada, 27) Revati (anexe, fig.
75).

88

Astrologia avestan, Zodiacul indian, Zodiacul celtic

Astrologia avestan

Are multe similitudini cu astrologia vedic. Este bazat pe vechile


nvturi ale zoroastrismului i este promovat, n prezent, la
Perm, de ctre Pavel Globa.

Zodiacul indian / hindus

Anul calendaristic are 36 de semne (decane), fiecare semn durnd


aproximativ 10 zile: toporic, cal, birjar (Berbec), foc, capr,
elefant (Taur), fir, pheonix, diamant (Gemeni), vier, arpe,
estoas (Rac), cine, vntor, urs (Leu), fecioar, pan,
rndunic (Fecioar), balan, uliu, maimu (Balan), delfin,
turn, leu (Scorpion), pustnic, scoic, metal (Sgettor), funie,
lotus, arca (Capricorn), vultur, caleac, ap (Vrstor), perl,
corabie i yoghin (Peti) (anexe, fig 76).

Are dou variante: un zodiac druidic (zodiac arboricol) i unul


care pornete de la ideea c omul se nate sub protecia unui
animal-simbol.
Zodiacul arboricol este urmtorul: Stejar (21 martie
echinociul de primvar); Alun (22 31 martie, 24 septembrie 3
octombrie); Scoru (1 -10 aprilie, 4 13 octombrie); Arar (11 20
aprilie, 14 23 octombrie); Nuc (21 30 aprilie, 24 octombrie 12
noiembrie); Plop (4 8 februarie, 1 14 mai, 5 13 august);
Curmal (9 18 februarie, 14 23 august); Pin (19 28 februarie,
24 august 2 septembrie); Salcia (1 10 martie, 3 12
septembrie); Tei (11 20 martie, 13 22 septembrie); Mslin (23
septembrie echinociul de toamn); Castan (15 24 mai, 12 21
noiembrie); Frasin (25 mai 3 iunie, 22 noiembrie 1 decembrie);
Carpen (4 13 iunie, 2 -11 decembrie); Smochin (14 23 iunie, 12
21 decembrie); Mesteacn (24 iunie solstiiul de var); Fag (22
decembrie solstiiul de iarn); Mr (25 iunie 4 iulie, 23
decembrie 1 ianuarie); Brad (5 14 iulie, 2 11 ianuarie); Ulm
(15 25 iulie, 12 24 ianuarie); Chiparos (26 iulie 4 august, 25
ianuarie 3 februarie).
Zodiacul animal-simbol este urmtorul: Omul-Cerb (24
decembrie 20 ianuarie), Omul -Cocor (21 ianuarie 17 februarie),

Zodiacul celtic

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Omul-Foc (18 februarie 17 martie), Omul-Urs (18 martie 14


aprilie), Omul-Viper (15 aprilie 12 mai), Omul-Albin (13 mai 9
iunie), Omul-Vidr (10 iunie 7 iulie), Omul-Pisic (8 iulie 4
august), Omul-Somon (5 august 1 septembrie), Omul-Lebad (2
septembrie 29 septembrie), Omul-Gsc (30 septembrie 27
octombrie), Omul-Bufni (28 octombrie 24 noiembrie), OmulCorb (25 noiembrie 23 decembrie).

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Zodiacul thebaic, Horoscopul spaniol, Simboluri

Zodiacul thebaic

Calendarul thebaic, considerat de origine egiptean, mparte


zodiacul chaldeean n 360 de grade zodiacale, asociindu-i fiecrul
grad o scurt interpretare (de exemplu, gradul al 2-lea n Taur
nseamn: Profund, studios, abilitate magic).
Menionm c este vorba de poziia Soarelui n gradul respectiv i
nu de ziua din lun. Acestea pot diferi ntre ele, de aceea este
indicat s se ia n considerare i semnificaiile gradelor adiacente
(gradul 1 Taur i gradul al 3-lea Taur).

Horoscopul spaniol (mediteranean)

Zodiile sunt definite de anumite zile din lun: Toreador (1, 10, 19,
28); Flamenco (2, 11, 20, 29); Maur (3, 12, 21, 30); Moar de vnt
(4, 13, 22, 31); Cid (5, 14, 23); Garoaf roie (6, 15, 24); Taur (7,
16, 25); Mina lobata (8, 17, 26); Sangria (9, 18, 27).

Simbolurile Chandra (studiaz poziia Lunii i a aspectelor celorlalte


planete cu Luna); au fost publicate pentru prima oar n 1984, de
ctre ocultistul John Sandbach, i apoi au fost reluate, cu interpretri
suplimentare, de ctre Ellias Lonsdale;
Simbolurile Charubel au fost publicate de Charubel/John Thomas
(1826 1908) n revista Astrologer's Magazine (1893) al lui Alan
Leo; simbolurile asociate gradelor sunt urmarea propriilor viziuni
ale lui Charubel.
Simbolurile Sepharial (sau Volasfera) au fost publicate n 1898 de
ctre astrologul britanic Sepharial/ Walter Richard Old (18641929); este posibl ca simbolurile s fie rezultatul propriei inspiraii
i clarviziuni;
Simbolurile Kozminsky au fost publicate n Australia, n 1917, de
ctre ocultistul Isidore Kozminsky, tot ca rezultat al propriei
inspiraii i clarviziuni;
Simbolurile Sabiene (sau Jones) au fost introduse de astrologul
american Marc Edmund Jones (1888-1980), care a colaborat cu
clarvztoarea Elsie Wheeler; mpreun au gsit un nou set de
simboluri asociate celor 360 de grade zodiacale; acestea au fost
populariate de renumitul metafizician Dane Rudhyar, care le-a
inclus n cartea sa Astrologia personalitii i de soii Lynda i
Richard Hill n cartea lor Oracolul Simbolurilor Sabiene.

Simboluri

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ngerii Gradelor Zodiacale; o list cu numele ngerilor celor 360 de


grade zodiacale, fiecare grad fiind asociat unui anumit grup de
ngeri, cu funcii specifice, a fost lsat de Franz Bardon (19091958); anumii clarvztori sau practicani de channeling
contemporani pretind c au adus mesaje de la aceste grupuri de
ngeri, descriind pe larg activitatea lor (este vorba de 360 de
mesaje publicate de Cynthia Rose, iniial la Global Psychics, apoi
preluate i de alte situri, cum este cel al colii Melchizedek).

92

Astrologers (dictionary)
Ab Mashar
The famous Persian astrologer Abu Mashar (787886), whose
full name was Ab Mashar Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Umar alBalkhi, is perhaps the major representative of Arabic astrology
from the medieval Western world. His works were widely
translated in the twelfth century, were widely circulated in
manuscript, and exerted a very powerful influence on the
development of Western astrology. His writings were used as
prototypes for astrological practice. For instance, they provided
the thirteenthcentury astrologer Guido Bonatti with a frequently
cited source in his summa of medieval astrology, the Liber
Astronomia (c. 1282).
Episcopal clergyman Theodore Otto Wedel tells us that English
poets Geoffrey Chaucer and John Gower were familiar with Abu
Mashars works. One can almost say that Abu Mashar
established the standard practice for medieval astrology in
general with major additional input from Messahala, Ptolemy, and
Dorotheus.
Abu Mashars influence upon the philosophical foundations of
Arabic and Latin astrology is far greater than has been recognized
and to a large degree constitutes the difference between medieval
astrological theory and modern astrological theory, especially with
regard to fate and free will.
Ab Mashars astrological writings are also an example of
Hermetic influence
on Arabic astrology. His works (written in Arabic) represent a
fusion of Sabian Hermeticism, Persian chronology, Islam, Greek
Science (especially Aristotelian), and Mesopotamian astrology.
He, and his teacher Al-Kindi, were instrumental in fostering the
identification of the antediluvian prophet Idris with Enoch and
Hermes, thereby creating a religious syncretism that had
important ramifications for the dissemination of pagan science,
including astrology. Abu Mashar was an extremely successful
practitioner of the art and traveled throughout the Middle East in
service to numerous Indian, Persian, Arab, and Egyptian chiefs of
state.

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His reputation was established in the Christian west by Peter of


Abano in the thirteenth century in his Conciliator Differentiarum
Philosophorum et Precipue Medicorum (Diff. 156), wherein Peter
quotes the Al Mudsakaret or (Memorabilia) of Ab Said Schadsan,
a student of Ab Mashars who recorded his teachers answers
and astrological deeds.
A
The Memorabilia, which have come to be known among
scholars as Albumasar in Sadan due to traditional corruptions of
both mens names, is analyzed by Lynn Thorndike in a 1954 ISIS
article.
The astrological works of Abu Mashar we have are: The
Greater Introduction to Astrology, The Flores Astrologicae, On the
Great Conjunctions and on the Revolutions of the World (Kitab alQiranat), On the Revolutions of Nativities, The Thousands (Kitab
al-Uluf).
Ab Mashar was a religious Muslim. He was also an astrologer
and a noted
philosopher. His impact upon subsequent Arabic and Latin
astrology is best understood through a consideration of his
attitude toward the idea of freedom of the will as it relates to
astrology.
In his Greater Introduction, he sets forth his theory of
astrological determinism in the context of a defense of astrology
against its detractors.
Ab Mashar repeatedly mentions the divine will as the
originator or director
of nature. All motions, including celestial motions, are derived
from one unique and unmoved source. Abu Mashar equated this
with God. His source, Aristotle, placed it in a universal attraction
at the periphery of the supreme sphere the sphere of the fixed
stars.
According to Ab Mashar, God is the source of all motions in the
universe. Gods intervention in terrestrial affairs, however, never
disrupts the regular operation of the system of causes and effects
leading to generation in nature. This causal relationship is dependent
upon the stars. This means that although Ab Mashar asserts
frequently that Allah is omnipotent, Ab Mashars universe is

94

conceived primarily in terms of physical science and merely draped


in Koranic theology.
We may be excused for questioning whether Abu Mashar
believes that divine providence is the actual cause of natural
manifestations. Where is human free will in this? Is his cosmoconception deterministic, or can God intervene in terrestrial
affairs? Is the individual human free to choose a course of action?
Apart from his many assertions of orthodoxy, Ab Mashar
leaves little room for providence because he asserts that the
planets and stars intervene in the chain of causes flowing
between God and nature as a kind of buffer or series of filters
through which the will of God must act.
The substance of Ab Mashars argument is that both the
necessary and the
impossible, being unchangeable, leave no room for the
contingent. But accidental (i.e. possible, contingent) things
happen in the world of generation. Thus a third category, the
possible, is necessary to cover these things.

95

A
The greatest source of contingency in mans affairs is his ability
to reason. His capacity for deliberation and the exercise of choice
constitutes a principle of indetermination for future occurrences;
but mans choice does not extend to things he knows to be
necessary or impossible.
Ab Mashar asserts that contingency actually exists and gives
examples taken from concrete reality. A piece of cloth may be cut
up or, equally possible, it may remain whole until worn out
through use. Iron or lead is at one point in time solid and at
another point in time liquid. Air may receive more or less heat or
cold. All such Ab Mashar possibilities of mutations may
materialize or not, but they are clear proof of the existence of
contingency in some beings.
On the other hand, the necessary and the impossible either are
or are not absolute.
Ab Mashar recognizes three categories of the possible or the
contingent. The first category is contingens naturalis sive facilis;
an example is that of rain most often following the gathering of
clouds. The second category is per optacionem et difficilis; an
example is that of the non-noble man seeking to become king.
The third category is et contingens equalis; an example is that of
the pregnant woman hoping to give birth to a boy, but who has a
50-50 chance of delivering either a girl or a boy.
Possibility originates in the physical world from the capacity of
matter to
receive first one quality and then its opposite. Water may be cold at
one time and hot in another, with varying intensity in each state. In
man, possibility springs from his capacity for deliberation and
choice, but also from his capacity to receive the qualities of matter
in his body. Hence, though man is endowed with free choice that
constitutes a first principle of contingency in him, his freedom of
choice is limited, circumscribed by the matter from which his body
is made.
According to Ab Mashar, something remarkable happens
when a thing
moves from potentiality to actuality. He concludes that
contingency is ultimately

96

absorbed into either the necessary or the impossible! Once a


thing has come into being, its potentiality in which its contingency
resided no longer subsists, and therefore it must be classified in
the camp of the necessary. On the other hand, if it does not
materialize, Abu Mashar thinks that it must be because of some
sort of impossibility.
Thus, Ab Mashar shares the fatalistic leanings of Arabic
Aristotelianism.
Ab Mashar holds that planetary influence does not destroy
contingency or
freedom. He asserts that planetary influence signifies the
necessary, the possible, and the impossible.
A
With respect to contingency in matter, Ab Mashar holds that
universal matter, formed of the four elements, is entirely
dependent in all its transformations upon the stellar influences.
Thus, the totality of contingency is outlined in advance in the
regular motions of the stars. With respect to contingency in
animated beings, Ab Mashar says it depends upon planetary
motion, although a living thing needs more than just a natural
motion to pass into action because its soul is a principle of
indetermination to it as regards its future action.
Indetermination in man is no insurmountable obstacle to
astrology, we are
told, because there is a harmony between mans soul and the
souls in the planets. The rational soul, even under the influence of
the stars, has a power of deliberation and choice as a result of a
similar power in the stars. Mans body, on the other hand, has the
capacity to receive new qualities from the sky.
Through the parallelism between the animated planets and
living things in this lower world, Ab Mashar found it possible to
ascribe an unlimited scope to the planets influences upon the
voluntary contingency in mans twofold body and soul. Within this
cosmological framework, mans free will appears drastically
curtailed from what it was held to be by Aristotle, the Christians,
Jews, and Muslims, notwithstanding Ab Mashars frequently
uttered statements to the contrary inspired by his religiosity.
Having set forth his planetary theory, Ab Mashar reviews the
various influences exerted by the planets upon man, intending to
show how freedom or contingency is not destroyed. As an

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animated being, man possesses life, which is a necessary


attribute of his nature. The animated and intelligent planets
signify this for him, and in doing so they signify a modality of
being that may be called of the type necessary.
On the other hand, there are things incompatible with mans
nature, such as the ability to fly. By excluding this eventuality from
the nature of man as he comes to be, the planets signify another
modality of mans beingthe impossible. Finally, as man has the
power of choice and reason, and the capacity to receive the
impression of different physical qualities in his body by virtue of
the four elements of which it is composed, human nature is open
to a wide range of contingency that is nevertheless signified by
the planets. Thus, the planets signify the three modes: the
necessary, the impossible, and the possible.
The astrologer is only concerned with the possible. He does not
inquire whether fire burns or not, but rather will fire burn
tomorrow a matter that has a disposition to be burned? Will this
individual talk to that one tomorrow? What the astrologer does in
these cases is to make sure that the focus of the enquiry belongs
to the possible.
A
The planets can indicate that something cannot occur
(impossible), that
something may occur (possible), or that something must occur
(necessary). If the signification holds only in the future, it will
remain uncertain until the time of occurrence, when the actual
event will fall into the category of the necessary. If, for instance,
no impediment deprives a man from the use of his tongue, the
man enjoys potentially the faculty of speaking or not. But only
until he speaks. When he has spoken, his speech falls into the
category of the necessary. Ab Mashar holds that the modes of
activity of concrete beings exist potentially in them before they
are translated into action. Once they have reached the stage of a
completed action they fall into the category of the necessary.
Ab Mashar concludes that since the planets signify the
contingent in
nature as well as in deliberation and choice proper to man, they
indicate that man will choose only what is implied in planetary
motion. If there is a providential intervention in this scheme of

98

natural motion, it must come from outside the regular activity of


nature and, presumably, against it.
Ab Mashar holds that the choice exercised by mans rational
soul is circumscribed by its connection to the physical body,
whose potentials are already limited.
Mans rational soul acts in connection with his vital soul, but
the latter is influenced by the animated planets. For instance,
among the motions within his possibilities through the physical
properties of his body, he may select walking, sitting, or standing
(but not flying).
Once he chooses, the possibilities of his material nature are
forthwith
determined to this particular motion. Moreover, mans choice is
itself limited to the actual determination caused by the planetary
motions.
In conclusion, what we see here is a doctrine of astrological
determination
that is, from one point of view, an exercise in double-talk. The
planets give possibilities because they are ensouled, and, as such,
they are in harmony with mans soul. So they judge and deliberate
and so does man. Yet man, it turns out, judges and deliber Ab
Mashar ates what the planets have already deliberated, and,
thus, mans reason and choice merely reflect the celestial reason
and choice. In fact there is little, if any, freedom.
Again, mans body may receive influences from the heavens or
it may not. But the body exists because of heaven ordering the
elements. Therefore, the body is determined already by the stars.
The rational soul is free to reason. Yet the rational soul acts in
concert with the vital soul, which reflects the celestial decrees.
A
Thus, the rational souls rational choices are adulterated by the
appetitive, emotional, and instinctive inclinations of the vital soul.
Ab Mashars description of the constitution of man agrees
well with the esoteric teachings coming down to us from the
Middle Ages, which attribute to man a rational soul, an astral soul
(the soul of the middle nature, or Tree of Life), and a physical
body. A fifth factor, the highest, is alluded to elliptically by the
reference to the sphere of the Moon, which was associated with
the intellect.

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There is much implied in the statement If there is a


providential intervention in this scheme of natural motion, it must
come from outside the regular activity of nature and presumably
against it.
Ab Mashars theory of astrological influence is actually
deterministic in spite
of his pious posturing. As such, it is contrary not only to religious
tendencies in
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, but also to the contemporary
New Age idealism to which most modern (nineteenth to twentyfirst century) astrologers consciously or unconsciously ascribe. It is
this difference that must be appreciated if one is to properly
understand the difference between modern and medieval
astrological practice.

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